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  • 451.
    Walter, Ute
    et al.
    School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science, Örebro University,.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Öström, Åsa
    School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science, Örebro University,.
    Drivers of Customers' Service Experiences: A Study in the Restaurant Industry2010In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 236-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to identify, portray and analyse the frequent drivers of customer service experiences as described by customers in their own words – the voice of the customer.Design/methodology/approach– A critical incident technique study was conducted, based on 122 interviews, including 195 favourable and unfavourable narratives, about customer experiences. The data were analysed in an inductive manner and the results are presented by means of extracts from the narratives.Findings– The findings describe the dimensions of drivers of customers' favourable and unfavourable experiences and the frequent drivers, the social interaction, the core service and the physical context.Research limitations/implications– Customer experiences are processes and include dynamic interactions and the customer as a co‐producer. The study context is limited to the restaurant setting and Swedish customers.Practical implications– For managers the results suggest that great effort needs to be put into understanding the process of customer experiences and the various interactions involved, especially social interactions and the crucial roles of contact employees and customers involved in these interactions.Originality/value– The paper provides a detailed description and analysis of the frequent and less frequent drivers of favourable, and unfavourable customer experiences – the constellation of drivers. The findings are illustrated by extracts from customer narratives and show how experiences occur and that experiences are processes occurring in a social and physical environment when people do things together. Furthermore, the paper introduces customer experience to service dominant logic by describing the dynamics of resource interactions in customer experience formation.

  • 452.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Sangiorgi, Daniela
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Holmlid, S
    Grönroos, C
    Mattelmäki, T
    Design for Service comes to Service Logic2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 453.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Sangiorgi, Daniela
    Univ Lancaster, ImaginationLancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YW, England..
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Comp & Informat Sci, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Gronroos, Christian
    Hanken Sch Econ, Dept Mkt, Helsinki 00101, Finland..
    Mattelmaki, Tuuli
    Aalto Univ, Sch Arts Design & Architecture, Dept Design, Helsinki 00076, Finland..
    Design for Value Co-Creation: Exploring Synergies Between Design for Service and Service Logic2014In: Service Science, ISSN 2164-3962, E-ISSN 2164-3970, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 106-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to bridge recent work on Service Logic with practice and research in the Design for Service to explore whether and how human-centered collaborative design approaches could provide a source for interpreting existing service systems and proposing new ones and thus realize a Service Logic in organizations. A comparison is made of existing theoretical backgrounds and frameworks from Service Logic and Design for Service studies that conceptualize core concepts for value co-creation: actors, resources, resource integration, service systems, participation, context, and experience. We find that Service Logic provides a framework for understanding service systems in action by focusing on how actors integrate resources to co-create value for themselves and others, whereas Design for Service provides an approach and tools to explore current service systems as a context to imagine future service systems and how innovation may develop as a result of reconfigurations of resources and actors. Design for Service also provides approaches, competences, and tools that enable involved actors to participate in and be a part of the service system redesign. Design for value co-creation is presented using this model. The paper builds on and extends the Service Logic research first by repositioning service design from a phase of development to Design for Service as an approach to service innovation, centered on understanding and engaging with customers' own value-creating practices. Second, it builds on and extends through discussing the meaning of value co-creation and identifying and distinguishing collaborative approaches for the generation of new resource constellations. In doing so, the collaborative approaches allow for achieving value co-creation in designing.

  • 454. Wiklund, H.
    et al.
    Klefsjö, B.
    Wiklund, P.S.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Innovation and TQM in Swedish higher education development: possibilities and pitfalls2003In: The TQM Magazine, ISSN 1754-2731, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 455.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, Dept Business Adm, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Anderson, Laurel
    Arizona State Univ, WP Carey Sch Business, Tempe, AZ USA.;Arizona State Univ, Ctr Serv Leadership, Tempe, AZ USA..
    Brodie, Roderick J.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Business, Mkt, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Colurcio, Maria
    Magna Graecia Univ Catanzaro, Dept Law Hist Econ & Social Sci, Catanzaro, Italy.;Univ Caxias do Sul, Innovat Management, Caxias Do Sul, Brazil..
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Lervik-Olsen, Line
    Norwegian Business Sch, Dept Mkt, Oslo, Norway..
    Sebastiani, Roberta
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Dept Management, I-20123 Milan, Italy..
    Andreassen, Tor Wallin
    NHH Norwegian Sch Econ, Ctr Serv Innovat, Bergen, Norway..
    Exploring dualities of service innovation: Implications for service research2015In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6-7, p. 436-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore three paradoxes of service innovation and provide a way forward for fresh thinking on the topic. Design/methodology/approach - Through a conceptual model of service innovation research, the authors challenge the "pro-change" bias and explore what can be learnt from the duality of service innovation. Findings - This paper suggests that research moves beyond a firm perspective to study service innovation on multiple levels of abstraction. A conceptual model based on two dimensions, level (individual, organization and society) and outcome (success, failure), is used to pinpoint and explore three dualities of service innovation: adopt-reject, change-static and good-bad. Originality/value - By challenging the traditional perspective on service innovation, the authors present new avenues for fresh thinking in research on service innovation. In this paper, the authors encourage researchers and managers to learn from failures and to acknowledge the negative effects of service innovation.

  • 456.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    The Role of satisfiers and Dissatisfiers int the Service Encounter2004In: Proceedings of the 7th Quality Management and Organisational Development Conference, Monterrey, Mexico., 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 457.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ganz, W
    Meiren, T
    Schäfer, A
    A Typology-based Analysis of New Service Development2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 458.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Value Creation through Services in Different States of Business Relationships2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 459.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Value Creation through Services in Different States of Business Relationships2006In: Paper presented at the 4th Nordic Workshop on Relationship Dynamics (NoRD2006), October 6-8 2006, Yli-Ii, Finland, Yli-Ii, Finland, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 460.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Beckman, Helen
    Value Creation Through Services in Different States of Business Relationships2007In: International Markets and Processes, Merlin Beach Resort , Phuket, Thailand, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 461.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Beckman, H.
    Value Creation Through Services in Different States of Business Relationships2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 462.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Meiren, T
    Schäfer, A
    New Service Development and Innovation2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Edvardsson, B., Meiren, T., Schäfer, A. and L. Witell (2010) New Service Development and Innovation, 19th Annual Frontiers in Service Conference, Karlstad, Sweden

  • 463.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Meiren, T
    Schäfer, A
    New Service Development in Europe Results from an empirical study2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Edvardsson, B., Meiren, T., Schäfer, A. and L. Witell (2010) New Service Development in Europe Results from an empirical study, AMA SERVSIG International Service Research Conference, June 17-19, Porto, Portugal

  • 464.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Meiren, T
    Schäfer, A
    The truth of service innovation in manufacturing firms: Same, same, but different2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 465.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Meiren, Thomas
    Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering IAO.
    Schäfer, Adrienne
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts.
    New Service Development in Manufacturing Firms: Similarities and Differences with New Service Development and New Product Development2014In: Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1077-1158, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 35-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms develop and introduce service innovations to achieve a competitive advantage and differentiate their market offerings. The installed base of products becomes a platform for selling services hence improve their corporate revenues. Previous research has supported a number of hypotheses about how new product development (NPD) and new service development (NSD) should be performed – but do these findings for NPD and NSD hold for NSD in manufacturing firms? The hypotheses about NSD in manufacturing firms that were tested in this study concern the role of the NSD strategy, how to use resources, how to organize, and the development process to use. A survey was performed on 785 NSD projects, including both manufacturing and service firms. The paper provides five propositions about NSD in manufacturing firms concerning how to succeed with service innovation.

  • 466.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer Integration in New Service Development: Experiences from Sweden2010In: Taking the pulse of economic development Service trends / [ed] Dieter Spath and Walter Ganz, München: Carl Hanser Verlag , 2010, p. 25-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 467.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. uality Technology and Management, Linköpi ng University, SE-581 33 Linköping, Sweden .
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Division of Quality Sciences, Chalmers Univ ersity of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden .
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, SE- 631 05 Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Exploring Modes of Innovation in Services2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies differentiating their offerings with new services need to combine both product and service innovation. We study how service development is influenced by (a) the choice of separation or integration of service development and (b) the modes of innovation. Our results show that service development often is more structured if services are developed separately. Furthermore, service innovations often follow a sequence of innovation modes different from those of product innovations. Since different innovation modes benefit from varying degree of structure in the development process, many companies find it hard to develop products and services within the same development project.

  • 468.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Beckman, Helen
    Value creation in service-based states of business relationships2019In: Service Innovation for Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing and Capturing the value from Service Innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter R. Magnusson, Lars Witell, World Scientific, 2019, p. 281-305Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The following sections are included: Introduction Value and Value Drivers in a Relationship Context Methodology Results Conclusions Appendix: An Overview of the Conceptualization of Value Drivers References

  • 469.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Myhrén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Servitization of Capital Equipment Providers in the Pulp and Paper Industry2014In: Servitization in Industry / [ed] Gunter Lay, Berlin: Springer, 2014, p. 151-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 470.
    Wägar, Karolina
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics, Vaasa, Finland.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Ravald, Annika
    Hanken School of Economics, Vaasa, Finland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    My Customers Are in My Blind Spot: Are They Changing and I cannot See It?2012In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 150-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is clearly recognized that service providers often have an incomplete and fragmentary understanding of their customers' relationship behaviors. Although it is clear that this incomplete understanding has serious implications for customer relationship management, and might even constitute a strategic risk, there have been no explicit attempts to analyze the phenomenon. The authors therefore introduce and develop the concept of the blind spot as a metaphor referring to situations where a service provider's visual field is obscured. The authors examine the phenomenon of blind spots in a temporal and a relational context, determine their consequences, and outline the implications for customer relationship management. A number of blind spot scenarios are presented in order to illustrate how blind spots obstruct the service provider's ability to make correct interpretations of customer relationships, and thereby also correct estimations of relationship stability. The conceptualization of blind spots as outlined in this article sheds light on the underlying mechanisms that drive customer behavior in terms of relationship stability and hence offers a deeper understanding of the dynamic nature of customer relationships. From a managerial point of view, proper monitoring systems and routines for analyzing relevant customer information play essential roles in understanding and managing blind spots.

  • 471. Wäger, K
    et al.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Ravald, A
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Introducing the concepts of asymmetry and blind spots into service research to better understand relaionship behaviors.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 472.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, BoKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.Gustafsson, AndersKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.Bitner, BitnerArizona State University.Verma, RohitCornell University.
    Proceedings of the 13th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management (QUIS 13), June 2013, CTF Center for Service Systems, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    QUIS13
  • 473.
    Xu, Yingzi
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    Marshall, Roger
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Show you care: initiating co-creation in service recovery2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 369-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying mechanism of customer co-creation in service recovery (co-recovery), and investigates the impact of initiation on customer post-recovery evaluations and behavioural intentions.

    Design/methodology/approach – Researchers used a 3 (no co-recovery vs employee-initiated co-recovery vs customer-initiated co-recovery)×2 (male vs female)×2 (western vs eastern customers) between-subject experiential study in a hotel setting.

    Findings – When a service employee initiates a co-recovery, customers perceive higher justice, greater satisfaction and a higher tendency to repurchase in the future. But if the customer initiates such a co-recovery, little improvement on these outcomes is found compared to a recovery entirely managed by the company. The effect was moderated by culture: western customers were more sensitive to initiation in the co-recovery process than eastern customers.

    Research limitations/implications – Written scenarios using a hotel setting and a technical error were used, and may reduce the applicability of the findings to real life or other service categories or types of error. Subjects used may not be representative of other population groups. Further studies using real life situations, human error and a more diverse population group are recommended.

    Practical implications – A positive co-recovery can be achieved by service employees taking initiatives when a problem occurs.

    Originality/value – This study extends previous research on co-recovery by investigating the effect of initiation by service employees on customers’ perception of co-creation. Service companies can improve customers’ post-recovery evaluations by inviting them to co-create a feasible solution, and potentially reduce the company's compensation costs.

  • 474.
    Xu, Yingzi
    et al.
    Auckland university, New Zealand.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Hedmark university college.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Recovering service failure through resource integration2014In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 34, no 16, p. 1259-1271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customers and employees can co-create a resolution following a service failure through integrating their resources. Their activities and interactions during resource-integration shape the customers' service recovery experiences. Prior research overlooks resource integration between all involved actors in a co-created service recovery process. This research details the process with two empirical studies. Study 1 is a qualitative analysis of narratives of service recovery experiences; Study 2 is a quantitative assessment of scenario-based survey data. The results show that a favourable service recovery experience is resulted from integrating all involved actors' resources in a mutually beneficial manner. Three key resources are financial compensation, service skills including communication and timing. Our findings indicate that co-created service recovery fails in the absence of just one resource or mismatches in their integration. The combined studies reveal that customers use their justice perceptions to assess activities and interactions for resource integration in service recovery.

  • 475.
    Yoho, K. D.
    et al.
    Roy E. Crummer Graduate School of Business, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida, USA.
    Ford, R.
    Department of Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida,.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Dahlinger, F.
    The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Florida State University, Sarasota, Florida, USA.
    Moving “The Greatest Show on Earth”: W.C. Coup as an innovation champion2018In: Journal of Management History, ISSN 1751-1348, E-ISSN 1758-7751, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 76-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This research aims to provide a historical example of how an innovation champion radically changed the operations of the circus industry by incorporating both the rational and actuation models in his scaling-up innovations. The innovations to the logistics and operations of the P. T. Barnum Circus, “The Greatest Show on Earth”, created by William C. Coup in response to the massive technological development of integrated railroad systems offer new insights into how management effectuation operates through the capabilities and experiences of an innovation champion. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use a theoretically anchored longitudinal study that captures the mechanisms and processes of innovation by adopting an explorative, inductive research design in the form of a single in-depth case analysis. Findings: Coup’s contributions show how the management innovation process works and adds detail with regard to how a champion of change may succeed in an effectuation process. Coup’s management innovation was in scaling-up others’ innovations. In an effectuation process similar to what entrepreneurs must do when their new ideas find a growing market acceptance, Coup repeatedly scaled-up others’ ideas in ways that changed how his industry operated. Originality/value: Although there is some agreement on how management influences innovation in their organizations, research identifying the characteristics of managers that cause them to be innovation champions is still evolving and this current work adds to this endeavor. This work provides a rich illustration of an innovation champion’s use of effectuation as a process of experimentation to discover pragmatic and effective solutions to problems arising from the use of new technology or scaling business models to levels never before imagined.

  • 476.
    Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Customer roles from a self-service system perspective2018In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 196-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework of archetypical customer roles in a self-service-based system by applying role theory to understand customers’ resource integration and value co-creation efforts in practice. Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a three-phase explorative case study of customers’ experiences of using self-service technologies at a furniture retailer. A total of 90 interviews were conducted. Findings: Four archetypical enacted customer roles during value co-creation in a self-service-based system are identified: passive non-bothered, passive hesitant, active realist and active independent. Furthermore, it is shown that these roles shape how resources become. Research limitations/implications: The challenges facing our retail practice bear similarities with those in other contexts, e.g. financial and travel industries, government or public sector service settings, in which self-service technologies are becoming more common. Therefore, this study setting enables some tentative generalizations. The case study approach, however, limits the statistical generalizability of the findings. Practical implications: The importance of understanding is that not all customers are well-equipped for co-creating value through self-service. By engaging customers and offering them guidance when they encounter difficulties in managing the value co-creation process, as well as viewing them as resource integrators and value co-creators, firms can help them enact more active roles. Originality/value: The archetypical customer roles contribute theoretically to detailing how resource integration and value co-creation can be shaped by enacted roles, an influence that has not been explicitly proposed in empirical service research.

  • 477.
    Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Effects of e-government on service design as perceived by employees2008In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 457-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the effects of e-government on service design as perceived by employees.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study uses semi-structured interviews with middle managers and front-line employees, complemented by documentary analysis, to investigate how the introduction of e-government has affected service design in two Swedish public-sector organisations.

    Findings – The analysis reveals five dimensions of change in the design of services as a result of the introduction of e-government: service encounter and service process; customers as co-creators and sole producers of services; efficiency; increased complexity; and integration. The study discusses the significance of these findings with particular examples from transcriptions of the interviews.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is rather limited and exploratory in nature; however, it does provide useful information on the categories of change in the redesign of services for e-government and it does point the way to important avenues of future research in this field.

    Practical implications – Four practical implications flow from the present research: managers should involve both employees and customers in projects and processes during the introduction of e-government services; the services must be redesigned to ensure that the benefits of the information and communication technologies systems are fully realised; the introduction of e-government might require more time being made available to assist certain customers who are in need of extra time and support from employees; and the time that is saved as a result of the introduction of e-government must be profitably utilized by careful advance planning.

    Originality/value – The study makes an original contribution by identifying five categories of change in the design of services in the context of the introduction of e-government.

  • 478.
    Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Role constellations in self-service based systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 479.
    Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Customer experience from a self-service system perspective2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 677-698Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 480.
    Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    What drives customer experiences?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 481.
    Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    What drives customer experiences: the influence of norms2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 482.
    Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    E-government and service orientation: gaps between theory and practice2008In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 74-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review selected literature on e-government service orientation and highlight differences between academic theory and empirical findings. To date, there has been little support for predictions made in the e-government conceptual literature.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is a conceptual framework for a literature review of e-government and service orientation is presented. A systematic database search is then undertaken to identify the literature related to e-government and service orientation. Suitable papers are selected, carefully read, and systematically analysed according to the conceptual framework. A discussion and relevant conclusions are then presented.

    Findings – The paper finds that a gap appears to exist between conceptual literature and empirical findings. For example, conceptual research claims that e-government will result in a reduction of staff, yet no empirical findings have proven this. The present study applies institutional theory for understanding the fundamental reasons to this gap.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper is based on a literature review of 27 articles, three monographs and one edited volume focusing on service orientation and e-government. It does not attempt to examine the full range of the literature available within the field of e-government.

    Originality/value – This review paper uniquely considers the gaps between the theory and practice of e-government service orientation, and identifies where they exist. Some possible explanations for the gaps are explored which can be of interest to both academics and practitioners working in the field.

  • 483.
    Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Stålhammar, Anna
    Value proposition test-driving for service innovation: How frontline employees innovate value propositions2016In: Journal of service theory and practice, ISSN 2055-6225, E-ISSN 2055-6233, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 338-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of frontline employees in service innovation from a service-dominant logic (SDL) perspective. Frontline employees lack a formal innovation obligation. Service innovation is a resource integration process resulting in the creation of new value propositions.

    Design/methodology/approach – A case study of service innovation projects that includes three different businesses in the IT sector and personal interviews with 25 frontline employees.

    Findings – The findings suggest that frontline employees contribute to service innovation by test-driving potential value propositions. Three types of value proposition test-driving have been identified: cognitive, practical, and discursive. The findings suggest interdependencies between the different modes of value proposition test-driving, as well as specific phases of the service innovation process dominated by one form or another.

    Research limitations/implications – Value proposition test-driving offers a fruitful context for managers to involve frontline employees and use their creativity and expertise. The case study approach, however, limits the statistical generalizability of the findings.

    Originality/value – The study is novel in that it introduces the notion of value proposition test-drivingfor service innovation; provides a systematic empirical analysis of how frontline employees contribute toservice innovation by test-driving value propositions; offers a service innovation model informed by the SDL; and contributes to the SDL by detailing how service innovation occurs in practice.

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