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  • 301.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Tjänstekvalitet2012In: Den svenska tjänstesektorn / [ed] Henrik Jordahl, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, p. 345-360Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 302. Ekdahl, F.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer Focused Product Development in Practise - A Case Study at Scandinavian Airlines System1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The airline industry will be going through dramatic changes in the years to come. This is due foremost to altered customer demands and expectations but also to deregulation of the airline business. Many airline companies have lost track of the true needs of their passengers and are trapped in outdated views of what airline services is all about. The paper illustrates how Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) has tried to set a new standard for customer focused services. Part of this effort was a thorough investigation into the concerns of the customers throughout the entire travel experience. Based on the results, SAS has tried to build an understanding for their passengers and today they develop services founded on what SAS believes are the customers' true needs and expectations

  • 303. Ekdahl, F
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer-oriented service development at SAS1999In: Managing Service Quality, Vol 9, No 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 304. Ekdahl, F
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer-oriented service development at SAS1999In: Managing Service Quality, vol 10, No 2, pp 82-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 305.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Corporate Social Responsibility and Brand Cultivaton2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 306.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, A.
    Brown, W. S.
    Johnston, R.
    Corporate Social Responsibility and Brand Cultivation2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 307.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Petros Sebhatu, Samuel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Corporate Social Responsibility2008In: The Asian Journal of Quality, ISSN 1598-2688, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 55-67Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Roos, L-U.
    Values Based Service Innovations: A Study in the Truck Industry2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Sebhatu, Samuel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    The important role of shared values in a sustainable service business2013In: Serving Customers: Global Services Marketing Perspectives / [ed] Raymond P. Fisk, Rebekah Russell-Bennett, Lloyd C. Harris, Prahran, Australia: Tilde University Press , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 310.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Corporate Governance & Corporate Social Responsibility as Resources in S-D Logic for Values Based Service Business: An explorative study of IKEA, Starbucks and H&M2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 311.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Corporate Social Responsibility for Charity or for Service Business?2008In: The Asian Journal on Quality, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 55-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following this introduction, this paper presents two conceptual and theoretical analyses – (i) CSR and its relation to profit and charity (ii) CSR as part of a service business model. The paper then illustrates these concepts using a comparative study of four service firms, with particular emphasis on their different CSR activities and how these affect the mission of each company. All four of the service companies are global actors with strong Service Brands (Edvardsson, Enquist and Hay, 2006) and a leading position in using CSR as a driving force for doing business: IKEA, Starbucks, H&M and the Body Shop. The paper then draws together the conceptual analysis and the case studies in a discussion of how CSR can be a proactive driver in the service business. Because of the limit space for a QMOD paper the focus is on the conceptual and theoretical analysis part and the empirical part and discussion/conclusion has to be further developed.

  • 312.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Corporate Social Responsibility for Charity or for Service Business?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 313.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    The dialogue of Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility in Service - Dominant Logic : An explorative study of IKEA, H&M and Starbucks2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 314.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Values Resonance as a Basis for Values Based Service Business2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 315.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics, Service Research Center.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics, Service Research Center.
    Values-based service quality for sustainable business2007In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 385-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to present a model for values-based sustainable servicebusiness grounded in the concept of values-based service quality.

    Design/methodology/approach – Based on a literature review and interpretations of fivenarratives from a values-driven company, IKEA, the paper proposes a model of values-based servicequality for sustainable service business.

    Findings – The study distinguishes four dimensions of values-based service quality and fivedimensions of sustainability. These are all incorporated in the proposed model.

    Originality/value – This is a fundamental study of the role of values-based service quality increating sustainable service business based on value-in-use for customers and the desirable values ofcorporate culture with which products and services are associated.

  • 316.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Values-based Service Quality: Narratives from IKEA2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 317.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Sebhatu, Samuel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    The role of Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility in Service - Dominant Logic: An explorative study of IKEA, H&M and Starbucks2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 318.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Circular Economy and Beyond: How Sustainable Business Practice Enables Transformation2021In: 22nd CINET (Continuous Innovation Network) Conference, Gothenburg, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this conceptual article is to explain how sustainable business practices enable transformation from a circular economy to a circular society. A sustainability business practice, which has a broader mission than just being firm-centric, implies a regenerative, but also a more societal meaning in interaction with transformation and innovation. The article uses multidisciplinary theory to suggest a conceptual model. The explanatory power is shown in an empirical investigation, through a qualitative approach, of three values-based enterprises: IKEA, Löfbergs, and Eataly. These three enterprises use circular thinking and innovation as proactive tools for identifying challenges and developing a transformation agenda in implementing the SDGs.  This article contributes to the ongoing discussions on sustainability and service research by focusing on sustainability, innovation, and transformation by explicitly linking the adoption of sustainability to a circular economy using sustainable business-societal practices transformation to give an impact to the society to become more circular.  As a conceptual study, the article has also identified previously unexplored connections between sustainability and service research and introduced new constructs on linking the adoption of sustainability to a circular economy.

     

    Keywords: circular economy; circular society; sustainability; transformation; service.  

  • 319.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, NOR; EGADE Business School, Monterrey Tech, MEX; University of Maryland, USA.
    Implications from business transformation for a sustainable future2021In: Business Transformation for a Sustainable Future / [ed] Samuel Petros Sebhatu, Bo Enquist & Bo Edvardsson, Routledge, 2021, p. 213-225Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 320.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    New Organisations and their Effects for Employees and Customers2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 321.
    Fellesson, Markus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Service Design and Quality: the Case of Housing Services1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Ferrell, O. C.
    et al.
    Auburn University, USA.
    Conduit, Jodie
    The University of Adelaide, AUS.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Vargo, Stephen. L.
    University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA.
    The past and future of marketing theory and practice: a tribute to the 50th anniversary of the Academy of Marketing Science2021In: AMS Review, ISSN 1869-814X, Vol. 11, no 3-4, p. 390-394Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 323.
    Findsrud, Rolf Gunnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Hedmark University Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway..
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    CONCEPTUALIZING RESOURCE INTEGRATION IN VALUE CO-CREATION USING THEORIES OF MOTIVATION2016In: WHAT'S AHEAD IN SERVICE RESEARCH?: NEW PERSPECTIVES FOR BUSINESS AND SOCIETY / [ed] RussoSpena, T & Mele, C, UNIV NAPLES FEDERICO II, DEPT ECON MGMT & INST , 2016, p. 165-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although resource integration plays a vital role in value co-creation not much attention has been on defining, conceptualizing and theorizing this phenomenon within Service dominant logic. The focus has so far been on actors' knowledge and skills, but not on how motivation drives actors in their resource integration. By bringing theories of motivation to resource integration process, this paper extends the conceptualization of resource integration within service dominant logic to encompass drivers of actors' activities including factors affecting the prioritizing and intensity of effort, and sustainability of the service ecosystem. This paper offers eight premises that conceptualize resource integration in value co-creation processes.

  • 324.
    Findsrud, Rolf Gunnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Motivation: The missing driver for theorizing about resource integration2018In: Marketing Theory, ISSN 1470-5931, E-ISSN 1741-301X, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 493-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource integration is vital to value co-creation. However, most research focuses on competencies as enablers of resource integration and the social aspects that guide them. Based on a literature review of resource integration and motivation theories, this article proposes including motivation as a driver of resource integration and integrating concepts from motivation theories into the resource integration process. This approach extends the understanding and conceptualization of actors’ resource integration processes, such that motivation determines the direction, intensity, and persistence of effort. When they engage in behavioral and cognitive activities, actors interact with resources, which informs the actors and influences their competences and motivation. Accordingly, motivation is central for a clear understanding of the psychological mechanisms of resource integration processes, as motivation expands the explanatory power of sociological factors by including intensity and persistence.

  • 325. Finsterwalder, Joerg
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    The Actors' Personalities and Value Co-Creation in Service Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 326. Finsterwalder, Joerg
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    The influence of personality systems on value co-creation in service systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 327.
    Ford, Robert C
    et al.
    University of Central Florida .
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Dickson, Duncan
    University of Central Florida .
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Managing the innovation co-creation challenge: Lessons from service exemplars Disney and IKEA2012In: Organizational Dynamics, ISSN 0090-2616, E-ISSN 1873-3530, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 281-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A content analysis of complaints and compliments2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 329.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A content analysis of complaints and compliments2003In: Managing Service Quality, 13, 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research question focused on in this study is whether complaint and compliment contain different service quality attributes. A sample of 236 complaints and 69 compliments collected by a public transport company were analyzed by means of the critical incident technique. The results of previous research were confirmed and showed that perceived service quality attributes in public transport involve employee behavior, reliability, simplicity, and design. It was further concluded that reliability of service causes frequently more complaints than compliments. How customers are treated by the employees was found to be more frequent in compliments.

  • 330.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Att identifiera kvalitetsbrister och missnöje1999In: L. Haglund & A. Stålhammar (Red.), Marknads- och serviceorienterad kollektivtrafik. (s. 19-36), Karlstads universitet , 1999Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 331.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Regeringen hotar att rasera kollektivtrafiken2009In: Svenska DagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 332.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    How overall satisfaction relate to quality attributes and frequency of negative critical incidents in public transport services1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 333.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Perceived quality of public transport service: A study of negative critical incidents1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Perceived service quality attributes in public transport: Inferences from complaints and negative critical incidents1998In: Journal of Public Transport, 2 (1), 69-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of 200 complaints filed to a public transport company and 210 negative critical incidents (NCIs) obtained from on-board interviews were analyzed with the purpose of inferring perceived service quality (PSQ) attributes of public transport. Most frequent complaints and NCIs concerned employee behavior and punctuality, followed by missing or inaccurate information and inadequate planning. In a follow-up mail survey, a representative sample of 997 respondents reported if they remembered having experienced prototypical NCIs constructed on the basis of the complaints. Confirming the validity of the inferred PSQ attributes, all NCIs were reported to have been experienced by at least some respondents. NCIs related to employee behavior were however less frequently remembered, whereas those related to vehicle design and space, punctuality, and traffic planning were more frequently remembered. Taken together the results suggest that PSQ attributes in public transport refer to employee behavior, reliability, and simplicity. Finally, inferences made from customer complaints and negative critical incidents are shown to extend our knowledge of perceived service quality attributes in public transport.

  • 335.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Frequency of Negative Critical Incidents and Satisfaction with Public Transport Services. I2001In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 95-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mail survey was conducted to investigate factors affecting public transport users´ satisfaction with the service. The respondents were residents of a metropolitan area of Sweden. A model was proposed and estimated using the maximum-likelihood method available in LISREL VIII. In the model, overall cumulative satisfaction is positively related to attribute-specific cumulative satisfaction which in turn is negatively related to the remembered frequency of negative critical incidents. In addition, measurement models indicated that both attribute-specific satisfaction and the frequency of negative critical incidents are related to treatment by employee, reliability of service, simplicity of information, and design.

  • 336. Gabauer, H.
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Bjurklo, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Cultural Change in the Context of re-stucturing manufacturing firms towards service orientation2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 337.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). ITEM-HSG, University of St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Bjurklo, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Impact of Service Orientation in Corporate Culture on Business Performance in Manufacturing Companies2010In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 237-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Match or Mismatch: Strategy-Structure Configuration in the Service Business of Manufacturing Companies2010In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 198-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new trend seems to be emerging for multinational manufacturing companies to make a strategic reorientation into becoming service providers. For some companies, such as Kone and IBM, the revenues from services are 50% or more of their total sales. Despite the increasing interest in exploring various aspects of the service part of the business in manufacturing companies, existing research has not focused on the interdependencies between different service strategies and organizational designs. This article studies different service strategies in manufacturing companies and highlights the organizational design necessary for implementing each service strategy. The service strategies explored are aftersales service providers, customer support service providers, outsourcing partners, and development partners. Each service strategy is supported by organizational design factors related to the service orientation of corporate culture, the service orientation of human resource management, and the service orientation of organizational structures. This research concludes that a specific strategy-structure configuration is needed in order to succeed with a chosen service strategy

  • 339.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Paiola, M
    University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    A capability perspective on service business development in small and medium-sized suppliers2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 321-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research suggests three theoretical pathways for service business development. The first pathway involves incremental enhancement of relational value for existing supplier–buyer relationships (Alpha). The second pathway captures financial value-seeking behavior in existing and new supplier–buyer relationships (Beta). The third pathway is a radical leap toward a new value constellation downstream in the value chain (Gamma). Our main research question aims at the exploration of these three pathways with respect to small and medium-sized suppliers. The research design is based on an exploratory study and an in-depth study. The exploratory study was able to replicate these three pathways in the empirical context of small and medium-sized suppliers. The in-depth study explores and describes co-evolvement of the dynamic and operational capabilities of each pathway. The results provide testable propositions that can be used to guide future research. The paper offers a comprehensive framework that will assist researchers in the conceptualization of paths for service business development and in the operationalization of capabilities. For managers, its value lies in a description of the capabilities needed to achieve an incremental enhancement of relational value in existing supplier–buyer relationships (Alpha), financial value-seeking behavior in existing and new supplier–buyer relationships (Beta), and radical leaps into new value constellations downstream in the value chain (Gamma).

  • 340. Gemmel, P
    et al.
    Meijboomb, B
    Akkermansc, J
    De Bergha, T
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Coordination Routines Healthcare to create Value in Handover moments2017In: Proceedings of the QUIS15 International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, June 12-15 2017, Porto, Portugal / [ed] Patricio, L., 2017, p. 133-142Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Gremyr, Ida
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Fundin, Anders
    Volvo Construction Equipment and Mälardalen University.
    Understanding new service development and service innovation through innovation modes2014In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of innovation modes in understanding challenges of integrated NSD and NPD, and the use of structured NSD processes in manufacturing firms.

    The research is based on a two-stage multiple case study. The first stage is an interview study of 17 key informants representing manufacturing firms in the machine industry. The second stage is an in-depth study of three service innovations at three manufacturing firms based on 16 interviews with key informants.

    The results of the study show that NSD processes are often more structured if the service is developed separately from the product. The fact that different innovation modes benefit from varying degrees of structure in the development process means that integrated service development can be challenging. Furthermore, service innovations often follow a trajectory of innovation modes before succeeding in the market. Some innovation modes occur within the NSD process, while others occur outside the process. One success factor for NSD is the fit between the innovation modes and the NSD process, rather than the NSD process per se.

    This research uses innovation modes to explain why NSD in manufacturing firms is often performed on an ad hoc basis, and how service innovations go through a trajectory of innovation modes. In this way, the study contributes to theory development of service innovation, and specifically service innovations in manufacturing firms.

  • 342.
    Gustafsson, Anders .
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer Clubs in a Relationship Perspective: A Telecom Case2004In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 14, no 2-3, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Sandén, Bodil
    Mapping Customer Behavior: A Key to Successful New Service Development and Innovation2002In: Sundbo, J. and L. Fuglsang eds. Innovation as Strategic Reflexivity, pp. 140-163, London: Routledge , 2002Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 344.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Ekdahl, F.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer Focused Product Development in Practise - A Case Study at Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS)1999In: International Journal of Service Industry Management, ISSN 0956-4233, E-ISSN 1758-6704, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The airline industry will be going through dramatic changes in the years tocome. This is due foremost to altered customer demands and expectations butalso to deregulation of the airline business. Many airline companies havelost track of the true needs of their passengers and are trapped in outdatedviews of what airline services are all about. The paper illustrates howScandinavian Airlines System (SAS) has carried out thorough investigationsinto the concerns of the customers throughout the entire travel experience.Based on the results, SAS has developed new services and re-designed oldservices. One of the key issues in the paper is the way SAS has chosen todevelop the new services, namely to allow the passengers to define theprocess as opposed to defining it from the company perspective

  • 345.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Ekdahl, F.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer Focused Service Development in Pratice-A case study at Scandinavian Airline System (SAS)1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 346.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Ekdahl, F.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer focused service development-a case study at Scandinavia Airlines System1999In: international Journal of Service Industry Management, vol 10, No 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 347.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer Clubs in Telecommunications - A Relationship Marketing Perspective2004In: Managing Service Quality 14(2/39), pp 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Similar to most industries telecommunications has introduced customer or loyalty clubs to their customers during a number of years. Customer clubs occurred as negations of the consequences the deregulated market initiated. Customer clubs are a recognizable part of most CRM strategies, their effect on customer loyalty are, however, not obvious. This study presents result on the fact that the majority of the customers included in clubs do not consider their participation to engage them more than before regarding the telecom service provider. In comparison, excluded customers reflect, however, differently on their telecom relationship. This article evaluates two qualitatively conducted studies, in which customer experiences are contrasted against customer switching processes. Based on the qualitative studies some evidence has been quantified regarding responses to customer clubs. The roles of customer experiences as reasons for switching telecom providers are hence revealed and confronted with the customer-club maintenance function on relationships.

    Customers connect loyalty more and more to customer-club programs in their minds because of the offer frequency to them of varying memberships in order to receive benefits of all kinds for being a company-regular customer. Literature suggests different definition of loyalty and retention (Johnson and Gustafsson 2000) specifying that loyalty embeds an extended behavioral loyalty including also attitudinal aspects (Oliver 1997), while retention more is a customer maintenance measure as differing actions for keeping customers (Stauss et al. 2001). McGoldrick and Andre (1997) point out that loyalty should be a long-term strategic goal, and not the subject of a series of short-term tactical schemes . The reason of their statement is that customer preferences change over time and that it is important to be able to include the changes in the definition on loyalty. Oliver (1997) indicates following the same line that loyalty is a deeply held commitment to rebuy or repatronize a preferred product or service consistently in the future, despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behaviour (Oliver 1997, p. 392). Such definition disagrees, however, with the relationship perspective. Relationships have been considered dynamic with changing character and the interaction with customers is therefore suggested to be close in order to know the customer Gummesson 1995; Grönroos 1996). Recently, relationships are deliberately suggested to need new forms of reflecting tools in order to capture the dynamism (Roos 2002; Edvardsson et. al 2002). The influence of the context is assigned a considerable significance (Bolton et al. 2000), the competitors, for example, are by the authors established to have a complex impact on customer-relationship dynamism and even cause switching.

    Customer clubs can be argued to be a part of or a way to perform relationship marketing. Relationship marketing was in its early shape a tool for keeping customers instead of continuously focusing on new customers (Berry 1983; Grönroos 1983). In this article we use that original statement and nature of relationship marketing as our basis. However, we do know that tools were lacking for introducing relationship-marketing procedures into companies strategies as the procedures were introduced in the literature. Personnel were considered key factors (Gummesson 1993) and moment-of-truth the marketplace of the mission for learning to know the customer. At the moment, it seems to be more a question of devising schemes. All customers are regular customers of several companies. The main problem is that customers not always are always aware of the difference being a regular customer included in the customer club or just being a customer.

    The purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to deliberately study how customers in a Swedish telecommunication company perceive and identify the customer-club membership in terms of effect on loyalty and retention.

    The role of satisfaction in customer clubs

    An important question regarding satisfaction and customers included in customer clubs is: do these kinds of programs increase customer satisfaction? Bolton et al. (2000) emphasize the importance of understanding the role of satisfaction regarding customer clubs. According to literature (Jones and Sasser 1995; Bolton and Lemon 1999; Bolton 1998) customer clubs have a longitudinal effect on customer relationships if customers perceive the experiences satisfactory. In other words, the usage level become crucial in customer clubs, otherwise customers are not able to build there perceived satisfaction particularly on experiences.

    Bolton (1998) carried out in the cellular communication industry. She argues that constant failures, even if recovery is perceived by customers as satisfactory, decrease the duration of the relationship. In other words, customers update their relationships according to an anchoring and adjustment process. The adjustment process is motivated by the impact of new information, and customers with a long relationship consequently have higher cumulative satisfaction and fewer perceived losses. Those with many perceived losses normally do not have long relationships, according to this study. Therefore, she suggests that service providers should understand early indicators of switching.

    Loyalty

    Concepts such as retention and re-purchasing are frequently used as indicators of loyalty (Dufer and Moulins 1989; Reichheld and Sasser 1990; Bolton and Drew 1991; Cronin and Taylor 1992; Denison and Knox 1993; Reichheld 1996).

    The link between usage, satisfaction and loyalty is in this article highlighted by introducing the influence of comparability of attributes on switching (Keaveney 1995; Bolton 1998; Roos 1999). When alternatives decreases, the likelihood for perceiving the evaluated attributes more satisfactory increases, which in turn has effect on re-purchase (choice) intention. In telecommunication it seems to be crucial to understand the process behind satisfactory perceived experiences. Srinivasan (1987) argues, for example, that customers do not evaluate the technology itself, because it is too complicated for most of them. They only process the technology-change perception, and are not able to evaluate it. Simonson and Tversky (1992) put it in the following way: performance defines the goal of a purchase. Price, for example, which is central in telecommunication-customer perceptions, is merely considered to be a tool with which to achieve the goal. As a consequence, whereas the experience may be perceived of as more important than price, and thus may affect choice probability, the price may affect the extent of choice. Performance uncertainty, which may appear as uncertainty related to possible wrong choices, needs to be reduced in order to facilitate choice. Customers need to feel safe in their purchasing. Nowlis and Simonson (1996) discuss the topic in terms of how different kinds of attributes compete intrinsically based on the ease of comparison. In sum, in order to build strong customer relationships in a business where the products as in telecommunications is rather similar among competitors and additionally difficult to evaluate in terms of rare contacts to the company, satisfactory experiences become important. Therefore it seems necessary and useful to stress the usage of the products both in terms of frequency and up sell. Then the possibility for partly switching (Roos 1999) to a competitor may be reduced and the prerequisite for satisfactory experiences increased.

    The procedure of the qualitative study

    The qualitative part of our study was designed to include both interviews as well as focus groups. The reason for including two different kinds of tools for collecting qualitative data was to achieve appropriate richness regarding understanding the variables behind customers evaluation of the telecommunication companys customer club.

    The basis for the strategic sample was that the included customers had to reach a set volume of telecommunication traffic. Among the 800 customers that met the established conditions we randomly chose 12 customers with customer-club membership and 12 customers representing not members. We interviewed altogether 30 customers of the telecommunication company.

    Additionally to 24 interviews among member and not members of the customer club, ordinary customers were collected for focus groups interviews. The logic behind the two-part qualitative study was partly the maturity regarding richness of variables communicating important issues regarding customer clubs and partly the opportunity it served being able to include customers belonging to differing interest groups. The customers of the focus groups were chosen with the special request of being capable to both describe their membership properly, but also to compare their membership of the telecommunication customer club with other clubs and membership. Therefore, the age became important and customers between 30-55 years were applied for. They had to have a membership of at least 6 months to telecommunication club and additionally one or more other memberships of customer clubs.

    Results

    The overall impression is that customers do not perceive the customer-club membership to add relevant value to their relationship with the telecommunication company. It appears, however, obviously that on the whole, customers in the club differ regarding their evaluation of the telecommunication company. However, there is no clear distinction between perception of customers included in the customer club and customers that have not signed up for a membership. Accordingly, the customer club seems to indirectly add value to the relationship rather than influence retention.

    Verification

    A survey telephone was carried out in order to verify that the variables captured in the previous qualitative studies were relevant. In all the survey covered 898 respondents and the used sample was a representative sample with regards to age and geographical spread of all of The Companys customers. The respondents were asked to rate a number of issues on a 10-grade scale.

    In the sample (Table 1) there were 135 (15%) respondents that stated they were members and 566 (63%) that stated that they were non-members. It was interesting to find that in our sample 197 stated that they did not know whether or not they were members.

    There are 600 000 members for 4 200 000 customers (14 %).

    Table 1. Members and not members of the customer club

    n Percentage

    Member 135 15%

    Non-member 566 63%

    Do not know 197 22%



    If the loyalty club were to have the effects that it was originally intended to have, we would expect that the customers that are members would have higher ratings for the intended loyalty compared to non-members. The measures for intended loyalty that we use in this study can be found in Table 2.

    Given the art of the service, i.e. that the customers do not chose the service provider every time. In the telecom business a customer has the same service provider until he chooses another. The first two measures in Table 2 of intended loyalty is appropriate in this service context. The measures are whether or not the customer would stay on as a customer and that the customers have no reason to switch from the service provider. Generally the members score higher for these questions on intended loyalty. But the differences are only significant for the first measure and not the second one.



    One question measures the intention to switch, and two questions can be considered as measures of intended loyalty. That is if they were choosing today would they chose Telia again. Finally one question measures how faithful they are towards Telia, meaning if they could be a customer to more than one supplier simultaneously.

    If we study Table 2 we find that this is generally the case but the differences between members and non-members are not large enough in order to be significant which in turn makes us question how well the loyalty program actually works. One of the really interesting questions in the quantitative study is whether the respondent or not the respondents could consider having more than one operator at the same time, which is a clear indicator concerning how loyal the respondents really are. The differences between members and non-members are really small for this question.

    Table 2. Satisfaction and differences between members and non-members

    Member Non-member Sig

    Loyalty Continue as a customer to the company 8.14 7.59 0.032

    No reason for switching 7.14 6.69 0.144

    Can consider having more than one operator 6.82 6.88 0.854

    Likelihood of speaking favorably about the company to others 6.46 6.19 0.336

    Likelihood of choosing The company again 6.98 6.69 0.288

    Customer Satisfaction Overall satisfaction 7.37 6.75 0.003

    Performance versus the customers ideal service provider in the category 7.23 6.84 0.055

    Expectancy disconfirmation 6.62 6.50 0.541



    Apart from loyalty we also included attitude questions in the form of customer satisfaction measures in the quantitative study. Since we are working from a relationship perspective we think of customer satisfaction an overall evaluation of the consumption experience. Cumulative customer satisfaction as such is usually measured through three survey measures: overall satisfaction, expectancy-disconfirmation, and performance versus an ideal product or service in the category (Johnson et. al., 2001).

    As can be seen from Table 2 we actually do find significant differences between members and non-members for the customer satisfaction measures, which in turn implies that the loyalty program actually has some effect. Members are overall more satisfied with Telia as a service provider and they are closer to an ideal service provider. There are, however, no difference between the to groups when Telias performance is compared to the respondents expectations.

    The results from this exploratory study both confirm and disconfirm the effects of loyalty programs. The proofs against the loyalty program is that a large share of the population is uncertain whether or not they actually are members in the program, which makes it questionable how attractive a membership really is. Members of the loyalty program does not seem particularly loyal to Telia, although some of the ratings for the loyalty questions are higher it is not significantly higher. The proof in favor of the loyalty program is that the members actually seem to have higher satisfaction ratings which implies that the loyalty program actually has some effect on the members attitude toward Telia.

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  • 348. Gustavsson, Bengt Ove
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Quality in Services - Multinational and Multidiciplinary Perspectives, Main Conclusions from the QUIS-symposium1988Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 349. Gustavsson, Bengt-Ove
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Bergslagsdelegationen - mål och inriktning, Delrapport 1 från ett projekt för uppföljning av Bergslagsdelegationens verksamhet1989Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 350. Gustavsson, Bengt-Ove
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Bergslagsdelegationens informationsinsatser, Delrapport 5 från ett projekt för uppföljning av Bergslagsdelegationens verksamhet1989Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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