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  • 301.
    Berglund, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Forsberg, Viktor
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Bjelvert, Christoffer
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Relationsfrämjande åtgärder mellan Karlstadbuss och Swebus: - en studie om hur tidsbegränsade kontrakt påverkar relationen2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Offentlig upphandling är idag ett hett debatterat ämne där det finns avvikande åsikter om dess lämplighet. Vissa är av åsikten att offentlig upphandling är det enda sättet för att en rättvis konkurrens ska ske mellan företagen i anbudsgivningen till statliga-, landstings- och kommunala upphandlingar. Andra är av åsikten att som lagen om offentligupphandling är utformad idag medför det att vissa kriterier inte kan värderas i upphandlingsprocessen, exempelvis får kvalité en undanskymd roll. Vidare ses lagen om offentlig upphandling som en begränsande faktor för en effektiv utveckling mellan organisationer, avtalen hindrar dem från att ta till sig innovationer.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka om det används några relationsfrämjande åtgärder mellan organisationerna Karlstadbuss och Swebus. Eftersom Karlstadbuss är en kommunal organisation måste de tillämpa lagen om offentlig upphandling vid val av leverantör. Eftersom avtalet med Swebus har uppkommit ur en offentlig upphandling vill vi även undersöka hur det påverkar relationen mellan organisationerna.

    För att nå vårt syfte har vi gjort en kvalitativ undersökning av de två organisationerna. Intervjuer har skett med respondenter på Karlstadbuss och Swebus. Totalt har fyra intervjuer genomförts, tre på Karlstadbuss och en på Swebus. Det medför att det kan vara svårt att skilja mellan respondenternas personliga åsikter och vad som är representativt för organisationen.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan vi konstatera att det används en rad relationsfrämjande åtgärder mellan organisationerna. Det verkar som Karlstadbuss och Swebus är på våg åt rätt håll och att de relationsfrämjande ätgärderna som gjorts har stärk relationen. Angående huruvida den offentliga upphandlingen har påverkat relationen kan inga klara slutsatser dras, dock kan vi konstatera att den begränsar utvecklingen av relationen till viss del. Resultaten vi har kommit fram till presenteras mer djupgående i kapitel sju.

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  • 302.
    Berglund, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Nilsson, Olivia
    Karlstad University.
    Integrated Solutions and the Needed Capabilities: A Supplier and Customer Perspective: A Case Study of a Public-Private Business Relationship within the Defence and Security Sector2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry has experienced a change in the business environment during the last decade and has started to explore the possibilities of integrating products and services into new bundled offerings. A great deal has been published about this new phenomenon and it is often referred to as integrated solutions. When implementing an integrated solution it requires changes in the organizational structure, resulting in a need to develop further capabilities. Capabilities are explained as complex bundles of skills and accumulated knowledge possessed by organizations that enables them to coordinate their activities and make use of their assets. Previous literature has focused on the capabilities needed for suppliers that develop integrated solutions, leaving uncertainties regarding the needed capabilities for the customer. This research intends to investigate the capabilities needed from both the supplier’s and customer’s perspective and how they affect the development of integrated solutions. To investigate this, a thorough literature review was conducted to create a foundation of knowledge regarding the research area and resulted in a theoretical framework. The research follows a qualitative case study approach where empirical data was collected primarily through interviews but also by analyzing documents that resulted in needed capabilities for both actors. Furthermore, economic models were developed to provide a holistic view of the integrated solution and enable comparison with the current trading situation. The research resulted in five dimensions including capabilities needed for the supplier and four dimensions including capabilities needed for the customer when developing the integrated solution. The dimensions are: Control capability, Economic capability, Organizational capability, Production capability, and Relational capability. In this specific case study, the production capability dimension was considered unique for the supplier and did not iterate from the perspective of the customer. Apart from this, the dimensions were considered important for both actors. The findings indicate that the capabilities possessed by both the supplier and the customer affect the integrated solution and that it is important to investigate the needed capabilities form the perspective of both actors before developing the integrated solution. However, there were differences since some capabilities were required by only one actor and some were considered more or less essential depending on the actor. Furthermore, the findings imply that the uniqueness of the business relationship and the industry may affect the needed capabilities.

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  • 303.
    Berglund, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Subjective well-being and job satisfaction among self-employed and regular employees: does personality matter differently?2016In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 55-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the importance of personality traits for subjective well-being

    (SWB) and job satisfaction among self-employed. The aim of this article is to

    investigate if the Big-Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness,

    conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience) have different

    relationships with SWB and job satisfaction among self-employed compared with

    regular employees. Data come from a Swedish survey comprising representative

    samples of self-employed (n D 2483) and regular employees (n D 2642). Personality

    traits are measured using a 10-item personality measure. Our findings show that there

    are only small differences, between self-employed and regular employees, in the

    associations between personality traits and SWB. For job satisfaction, on the other

    hand, we find much stronger relationships for self-employed than the regularly

    employed. For self-employed, every personality trait except ‘openness to experience’

    have a significant positive relationship with job satisfaction. In comparison, only

    ‘extraversion’ and ‘emotional stability’ are significantly correlated to job satisfaction

    among regular employees. The relationship between ‘extraversion’ and job

    satisfaction was furthermore substantially weaker among regular employees.

    Therefore, being self-employed seems to be particularly beneficial for individuals

    scoring high on ‘extraversion,’ ‘agreeableness,’ and ‘conscientiousness.’

  • 304.
    Berglund, Wilma
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Stolpe, Olivia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Distanseringens påverkan på revisorns arbete: En kvalitativ studie om revisorns arbete vid begränsad fysisk interaktion2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In March 2020, Covid-19 was classified as a pandemic and can be likened to a crisis, which meant that several companies have changed their working methods to be able to relate to the restrictions. The auditing profession, like many other businesses, has been affected by distancing where physical contact with colleagues and customers has been limited. This has meant that the auditor had to find alternative ways of carrying out the work. The new circumstances mean that more research is needed in the subject to see how it affects the auditor's work as previous crises have been shown to have an impact on the audit quality. The changed way of working, which is partly expected to continue in the future, makes this study relevant.

    The purpose of the study is to increase the understanding of how the auditor's work has been affected during the distancing and how it has affected the audit quality. The study is based on a qualitative research strategy and a total of ten respondents participated through semi-structured interviews. All respondents have been active in the auditing profession for at least two years since covid-19 was classified as a pandemic, which meant that the auditors had experience of both working from home and at the workplace. 

    The results of the study indicate that the distancing has affected the auditor's work, which has affected the auditor's state of comfort, which in turn has an impact on the audit quality. The auditor has had to use alternative methods when collecting audit evidence, which has been particularly noticeable during the inventory. The distancing has affected communication with colleagues and customers, which has made it difficult to exchange knowledge and understand the audited company. The distancing has at the same time streamlined the work and made it more flexible where new opportunities have been created. To enable the work during the distancing, digital solutions have been used to a greater extent by both the auditors and the customers. The auditors will continue to combine homeworking, office work and out at the client's because the study indicates that physical meetings are important. 

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  • 305. Bergman, B.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Role of Quality Function Deployment in the Quality Movement1997In: the Third Annual International QFD Symposium, Vol. 1 (Eds, Gustafsson, A., Bergman, B. and Ekdahl, F.) IKP/Quality Technology and Management, LinköpingArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding Customer or Consumer wants and needs and converting these into products was early identified by Shewhart as a key issue for the manufacturing of products. A systematic technique supporting this process is Quality Function Deployment (QFD). In this paper we shall study the relations between QFD and the Quality Movement as initiated by Shewhart in the twenties, continued via the teachings of Deming and others and now widespread in industry and in society at large. We will also discuss in this paper the current use of QFD, especially the environments in which it has been used so far. Some comments concerning its future will also be given

  • 306. Bergman, B.
    et al.
    Quist, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Making Sense of Self-Assessment to Reach Business Excellence2001Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 307.
    Bergmann, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Strömberg, Per-Martin
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Värdering av tillväxtföretag: Jämförelser av resultatet mellan olika värderingsmodeller och det noterade börsvärdet2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to investigate , analyse, discuss and draw conclusions in order to find out the reasons why differences arise between the values of the companies which we have worked out and the listed stock-exchange quotations.

    The companies which we have chosen to scrutinize are Boss Media, Cherryföretagen and Unibet. These companies deal with similar sort of business, focusing on gambling over the Internet. This growing line of business has expanded enormously the latest years, due to an increase in demand from the gamblers.

    As valuation models we have used the discounted cashflow model, price-earning multiple (P/E) and the substance valuation. The first two mentioned models, known as yield models, focus on future values, while the substance valuation model indicates the economic efficiency of the companies in a historical perspective.

    The empirical facts of this essay have been taken from the 2005 annual financial reports of the companies referred to. The information from these reports has then been applied to the models concerned in order to establish the values of the companies in question.

    Why differences arise between the values of the companies and the listed stock-exchange quotations, and to what extent the aim of this essay has been fulfilled, is presented in the chapter titled Diskussion och slutsats.

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  • 308.
    Bergqvist, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Bolin, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Emanuelsson, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Kundinvolvering i Tjänsteutveckling: En studie av uppfattningar och metoder inom SL2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today in Sweden the service sector consists of more than 70% of GDP, hence services have become an important part of the Swedish economy. However, when new services are introduced they are often accompanied with a high degree of failure. One cause to this may be that the company does not find the latent need the customer have. There are

    ideas in the research community that these could be found by involving the customer in the service development (see e.g. Sandén 2007). Today the research in customer involvement in service development is limited.

    This thesis concerns costumer involvement in service development. The purpose of the thesis consists of two separate parts; the first describes how AB Storstockholms lokaltrafik (SL) view, applies and define costumer involvement in service development, the second, is to investigate if SL has used any other method than the ones represented in theory concerning customer involvement in service development.

    We have in this thesis chosen to perform a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews.

    We conclude that SL´s overall view on customer involvement in service development is positive, however they have not clearly defined what customer involvement means. The methods they have used to involve their customer in a project called Vagn 2000 can combined together be viewed as a costumer involvement method, even though not a new one. We can also see that the customer mainly have been involved in the late phases of the service development process, whereas in theory the costumers is recommended to be involved in all phases. Our opinion is that the customer should be involved in as many phases as possible. If the companies could adapt their objectives to the customer need,

    they could probably direct their resources from projects that are not supported by the customer into projects supported by them.

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  • 309.
    Bergqvist, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Palm, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Kvinnors väg till VD: En kvalitativ studie om det som utmanar och främjar karriärutvecklingen för kvinnor2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women are underrepresented in leading positions, something that often is explained by the metaphor of the glass ceiling which is an invisible barrier against women’s career development. Previous studies have focused on the challenges that may inhibit women’s career development in male-dominated environments. Few studies have focused on women who, despite challenges, hold leading positions and challenges they have experienced and still are experiencing as well as the factors that women believe have contributed for them to break the glass ceiling. The purpose of this study is thus to learn which challenges and promoting factors that organizations need to work with to facilitate female career development in traditionally male-dominated industries. The theoretical framework in this study presents the possible challenges that women may experience as well as the factors that may promote career development for women. The purpose of this study has been addressed through 14 qualitative interviews with women that hold CEO-positions in five traditionally male-dominated industries. The results show that the respondents have experienced and are experiencing similar challenges such as prejudices due to stereotypical gender roles, self-doubt, structures, culture and the combination between work and family. The results also show that some individual factors and personality traits are common and that the majority of the respondents have had access to networks, mentors, role models and support from family and partner. The study indicates that there has been a change for the better regarding the challenges women face, however, the challenges still exist. Organizations may need to work on prejudices, structures and culture that may affect women’s career development negatively in traditionally male-dominated industries. Another conclusion is that some individual factors and personality traits, access to networks, mentors, role models and support from family and partner are important factors for female career development. The conclusion regarding promoting factors is that organizations may need to create conditions for as well as provide opportunities for participation in networks and mentoring programs to promote career development for women in traditionally male-dominated industries.

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  • 310.
    Bergqvist, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Lannö, Jonathan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Managing Sustainability Transformations: Barriers for Implementing Recycled Plastics in the Automotive Industry2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last three decades, the increased use of plastics is rapidly becoming a global environmental issue, resulting in growing landfills and pollution of air and water. The automotive industry, as a major demander of plastic materials, is starting to take responsibility with promised sustainability actions. One action relates to the concept of circular economy and closed loop thinking through the implementation of recycled plastics. However, the barriers of such implementations are still undiscovered, with research missing out on the challenges of strategic and business perspectives. The aim of this thesis is to asses and understand the challenges connected to implementing recycled plastics in the automotive industry, and to provide strategic recommendations. In order to identify the challenges, an empirical case study was carried out collecting data through 10 interviews with suppliers throughout the plastics refining chain. A cost calculation was also included, to highlight the economic potentials of recycled plastics. The findings address 6 themes as barriers for implementing recycled plastics in the automotive industry: economic, organizational, infrastructural, interactional, design and technical barriers. The barriers shed light on the challenges connected to the implementation of recycled plastics and concludes that the rate of recycled plastics in a car can be increased, which also increases sustainability and circular thinking. However, the rates could be further improved if managers were to consider the existing barriers when implementing higher rates of recycled plastics in their components.

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  • 311.
    Bergsten, Evelina
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Puljic, Ivana
    Karlstad University.
    Kravet på byrårotation: En studie om hur revisorer upplever förändringar efter rotationskravet.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with the study is to get a deeper understanding regarding whether the new requirement of audit firm rotation has affected the auditors work and the relationship between the auditors and their clients. The study uses a qualitative approach in order to reach the purpose and answer the questions at issue in the best way possible. Furthermore, semi-structured interviews have been conducted with authorized auditors that are employed at one of The Big Four companies.

    The auditor has an important role as the society’s certifier. Therefore, it is relevant to constantly strive to maintain the auditors’ independence. Relations and relationship marketing tend to constitute an even bigger part of the audit profession than before, mainly in order to attract and maintain clients. Therefore, there is an existing risk that the relationship jeopardizes the auditor’s independence and the role that the auditor represents. These trust issues that the audit profession is characterized by can be a basis behind the development of 2016 auditing package. The requirement of auditing firm rotation has been introduced in order to strengthen the auditors’ independence and increase the quality of the audit. This new regulation also aims to cease the economic relationship between the audit company and its clients.

    Conclusions that the study has generated is that the auditors’ work seems to have changed. Thus, the major changes could be found on the agency level rather than on the individual level. The requirement of audit firm rotation has limited the relations, which has resulted in a more active workstyle in order to maintain the current relationships. Though the relationships always have been prioritized by the auditors, it does not seem to be any major difference for the individual auditor. The regulators therefore seem to have contribute to maintaining the auditor’s role as an independent certifier by implementing the requirement of audit firm rotation. A conclusion is that it is healthy to cease the relationship between the auditors and their clients in order to generate new perspectives and auditors that are more watchful.

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  • 312.
    Bergström, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Svensson, Simon
    Karlstad University.
    Osäkerhet vid utlåning till kommersiella fastigheter: Hur hanterar och minimerar bankerna riskerna och osäkerheterna vid utlåning till kommersiella fastigheter?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Student thesis in Business Administration, Karlstad Business School, Real Estate Management

    Bachelor thesis, Spring 2019 Supervisor: Peter Samuelsson Authors: Anders Bergström and Simon Svensson

    Title: Uncertainty in lending to commercial properties – How do the banks handle and minimize the risks and uncertainties when lending to commercial properties?

    Introduction and problem statement: Valuation and lending to commercial properties are associated with risks and uncertainties. Since the banks base their lending on the basis of valuation, incorrect values are risky for the banks as well as for macroeconomics at large.

    Research question: How do banks view risk/uncertainty when valuing and lending to commercial properties? How do banks manage and minimize the risks/uncertainties of lending to commercial properties?

    Objectives: The purpose is to investigate and describe the risks and uncertainties that banks encounter and how they handle them when lending to commercial properties.

    Limitations: Our study focuses on four banks in Karlstad who work with lending to commercial properties.

    Methodology: We have applied a qualitative method where we interviewed four people operating in the banking sector, working on lending to commercial properties. The main purpose of the interviews is to investigate how the banks work with risk minimization and management of uncertainties in lending to commercial properties.

    Conclusions: The banks follow the regulations and the various tools they have to minimize risks and uncertainties when lending. The valuation data is only verified by internal checks carried out by bankers who are not authorized valuers. The bank thus relies on the valuers data and does not review the valuation data as thoroughly as the valuers. In practice, this means that the bankers cannot always detect if a valuation basis is incorrect, but risk to grant the loan anyway.

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  • 313.
    Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Krüger, Niclas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Modeling Passenger Train Delay Distributions: Evidence and Implications for Valuation2012In: Programme and Abstract Compendium of the 5th International Symposium on Transportation Network Reliability / [ed] William H.K. Lam, Hong K. Lo & S.C. Wong, Hong Kong, China, 2012, p. 61-61Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 314.
    Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Krüger, Niclas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Vierth, Inge
    Spatial, Temporal and Size Distribution of Passenger Train Delays: Evidence and Implications2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 315.
    Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Ljungh, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Rättvist pris på kaffe?: En efterfrågestudie på Rättvisemärkt kaffe2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay aims to examine the demand for Fairtrade coffee and the factors influencing it. It also discusses how fair Fairtrade really is and whether producers in developing countries are positively or negatively affected by consumption of Fairtrade products in the west.    

    In order to investigate the demand, a willingness-to-pay study was implemented on students at Karlstad University. The results from the study indicate that the demand for Fairtrade coffee is relatively high among the students, which is consistent with previous reports which have shown that the demand for Fairtrade coffee is increasing. Regarding factors affecting the willingness to pay, sex and income have proved themselves important. Age, however, does not seem to be an essential factor. 

    In order to examine how fair Fairtrade really is, a literature based study concerning Fairtrade’s benefits and disadvantages was conducted. Some researches argue that Fairtrade is affecting farmers and workers in developing countries positively while others argue that Fairtrade does not fulfill its purpose and in many cases has a negative impact.   

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  • 316.
    Bergström, Jessica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Svensson, Erika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Vill bankerna ha reviderade årsredovisningar?: En kvalitativ studie om hur en slopad revisionsplikt kan påverka kreditbedömningsprocessen2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett förslag om att befria de allra minsta aktiebolagen från det lagstadgade kravet på revision ligger under utredning. Vilka företag som kommer att beröras är ännu inte fastställt men professorerna Thorell & Norberg har givet ett förslag att det är de företag med en omsättning på högst tre miljoner som kommer påverkas.

    Ett aktiebolag omges av flera intressenter och vi har i vår kvalitativa studie valt att intressera oss för en intressent: banken och hur deras kreditbedömningsprocess kommer att beröras om de minsta aktiebolagen undantas från revisionsplikten. Vi har även försökt skapa en uppfattning av hur en kreditbedömning går till idag samt reda ut i vilken omfattning reviderade räkenskaper används. Vår uppsats utgår ifrån en deduktiv ansats med en teoretisk utgångspunkt för att fånga upp studiens syfte.

    Studien visar att banktjänstemännen i stor utsträckning använder reviderat material men att den kompletteras med mjuk information. Det framkom även av undersökningen att kreditbedömning i hög grad bygger på personen bakom företaget, vilket påvisar att reviderat material och mjuk information likställs vid en kreditbedömning. Enligt vår empiri kommer inte informationsbehovet vid en kreditförfrågan förändras nämnvärt, utan våra respondenter tror att de kommer att fortsätta kräva årsredovisningar även om de inte är reviderade. De antar också att substitut till den oberoende granskningen kommer att uppkomma, och var och en har sin idé över vad som är en lämplig ersättning till reviderade räkenskaper.

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  • 317. Berhan, Samy
    et al.
    Ciutic, Samir
    Alsaffar, Safa
    Untersuchung über das Verhalten von Studenten gegenüber Lidl und die Möglichkeiten diese Gruppen zu erreichen2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tyska dagligvaruhandelskedjan Lidl har skapat uppståndelse med sin etablering på den svenska marknaden. Media har bevakat etableringen noggrant ända sedan de första uppgifterna om att Lidl skulle satsa på den Svenska marknaden läckt ut. Vår problemformulering behandlar hur marknadsföring kan hjälpa Lidl att förbättra sin image och få studenter att handla i deras butiker. Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att genom kvalitativa undersökningar och ett hermeneutiskt förhållningssätt ta reda på studenternas attityd gentemot Lidl. Utifrån undersökningarna ska vi med hjälp av marknadskommunikationsåtgärder ge Lidl rekommendationer som kan tillämpas för att locka fler studenter att handla i deras butiker. Kvalitativ data samlades in för att besvara uppsatsens syfte. Vi valde denna metod för att få en djupare förståelse till respondenternas uppfattning om Lidl. Eftersom den kvalitativa metoden lägger stor vikt på detaljer, nyanser och det unika hos varje uppgiftslämnare passade den vår problemformulering bättre än den kvantitativa metoden. Vi utförde 12 personliga intervjuer med studenter i åldrarna 20 – 33 år. Svaren har vi tolkat utifrån valda teorier inom ämnesområdena; konsumentbeteende och marknadskommunikation. Det fanns många olika åsikter om Lidl, men det är de framträdande åsikterna som bildar attityden. Enligt vår undersökning visade sig att dessa åsikter var lågprisföretag, tyskt och dålig kvalité på varorna. En stor majoritet av de tillfrågade ansåg att Lidls marknadsföring var dålig och vissa hade inte nåtts av någon typ av marknadsföring. Respondenterna hade många åsikter om vilka marknadsföringsåtgärder som de skulle påverkas av. De åtgärder som enligt respondenterna gav störst genomslagskraft var annonsering i studenttidningar som Citrus, Newz och Tryck. Respondenterna tyckte att säljfrämjandeåtgärder i form av rabatter och gratisprover skulle väcka eller stärka deras intresse för företaget.

  • 318. Berndtsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    Hållbarhetsrevision: En studie om hur revisorer hanterar osäkerheten vid en extern granskning av hållbarhetsredovisningar vilka inte följer G32011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    bilaga
  • 319.
    Bernell, Frida
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Hjort, Emilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Finansiering av bostäder efter bolånetakets införande: Ett kreditgivar- och fastighetsmäklarperspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund: Finansinspektionen införde i oktober 2010 det såkallade bolånetaket. Den nya regleringen innebar att bostaden inte får belånas till mer än 85 procent av marknadsvärdet, vilket bidrar till en kontantinsats om 15 procent i samband med bostadsköpet. Detta ställer högre krav på konsumenterna och vissa kundsegment fick stora problem och uteslöts från marknaden i samband med införandet. Kort därefter började alternativa finansieringssätt uppstå och det skapades diskussioner kring om bolånetakets införande verkligen haft den önskade effekten.

    Syftet: Studiens syfte är att analysera vilka effekter bolånetaket tillgivit bostads- och finansieringsmarknaden, samt vilken syn på den framtida bostads- och finansieringsmarknaden som föreligger. Vidare syftar studien till att förklara de alternativa finansieringssätt som uppkommit samt vilka kundsegment som påverkats i störst mån och på vilket sätt.

    Metod: Den empiriska undersökningen bygger på en kvalitativ metod, i form av intervjuer, som kopplats till relevant statistik, vilket utgör den kvantitativa metoden. Studien tillämpar därav metodtriangulering.

    Slutsats: Efter en sammankoppling av teori och empiri anser vi att finansieringsmarknaden utvecklats från en primär marknad, med rena bostadslån, till en sekundär marknad med alternativa finansieringsåtaganden. En mer komplicerad marknad har uppstått och fler konsumenter tvingas vidta en tredje part vid bostadsfinansiering. Främst har de yngre förstagångsköparna påverkats. Vi framhäver även att ett amorteringskrav skulle bidra till en mer självständig finansieringsmarknad, vilket även framgår av den empiriska undersökningen.

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  • 320.
    Bernhard, Sarah
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Jansson, Susanna
    Karlstad University.
    Mot en hållbar framtid: En studie om hållbarhet i marknadsföring2016Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, sustainability is a central aspect in Sweden. This could also be seen in businesses marketing. A change of attitudes could also be seen, where an increasing number of companies and consumers are focused on sustainability.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how companies can implement sustainability in their marketing and the consumers’ responses to this. With regard to the twofold purpose, research questions are split into ”The Business Perspective” and ”The Consumers Perspective”. The definition of the thesis is chosen to the product category coffee. This is because coffee is a relevant product in regards to sustainability. In the thesis, a comprehensive literature review has been done. In the method, a combined quantitative and qualitative study is used. This combined method gives different insights and angles to the study. A qualitative interview is used to ”The Business Perspective” and a quantitative questionnaire to ”The Consumer Perspective”. Moreover, the results and the theory are analyzed to give answer to the research questions and purpose.

    Sustainability is a diffuse term for consumers. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the concept of sustainability, sustainability ads and sustainabilitylabels. Therefor, a ”gap” could be identified between the sustainability marketing and the consumers responding attitudes. To educate and inform the consumers concerning sustainability aspects could result in higher levels of engagement and motivation and moreover an increased priority of choosing products with sustainabilitylabels in the buying situation. It is important that the company can make their sustainability marketing effective, so that the communication reach the consumers in a way that is wanted. A central aspect in this is to, with creativity and newthinking, attract the ”right” segment of consumers by modern communication tools and modern platforms. 

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    Mot en hållbar framtid
  • 321.
    Berntson, Annie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Jarnemo, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Philipson, Minna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Branding and Gender: - How adidas communicate gender values2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis discusses how adidas differentiate their communication to reach women and make the adidas brand more appealing to females. The adidas brand has always had their main focus on sportswear for men. This has led to the brand being perceived as masculine and it makes it hard for the female consumer to identify with adidas. We have analysed six adidas adverts from the last five years to see what adidas have communicated to women. The main purpose of this thesis is to understand why adidas have not succeeded in communicating with women in the last five years.

    The theoretical chapter is divided into three parts; Brands, Communication and Consumer Behaviour. The first part describes what a brand is, how it is built and continues with how a brand can be gendered. A brand is not very likely to keep a strong position if the values connected with the brand are not reinforced through communication. When forming a communication strategy, companies have to understand how consumers behave. When selling a gendered product, companies have to understand the distinction between men and women and how they differ in consumption.

    Our discussion is based on the qualitative method of collecting data. The qualitative method was carried out through two panel interviews and one personal interview, and we also performed picture analysis on adidas’ advertisements. Ten open-individual interviews with ten different women were conducted; to get their opinions on the six adverts.

    Adidas have presented five different identities over five years, each with diverse focus and with different brand associations. This has led to a lack of consistency and therein lies a part of the reason why adidas have not been successful in appealing to women.

    Since 2005 adidas have a collaboration with Stella McCartney. This is an attempt to add design to adidas functional clothes and to make their brand more appealing to women. This collaboration will continue until 2010 and this could provide adidas with the uniformity they need.

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  • 322.
    Bernunger, Henric
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Mattsson, Gabriella
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Die Bedeutung des Internetmarketing in der Baumarktbranche2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Vår uppsats handlar om marknadsföring på Internet. Vi har undersökt fyra företag inom samma bransch, byggvarubranschen. Företagen säljer byggvaror till både hem och företag. Vi har bestämt oss för att studera fyra företag på den svenska marknaden med liknande produkturval och målgrupper, för att ta reda på hur de använder sig av Internet för att informera om sin verksamhet, samt de produkter och tjänster som de erbjuder.

    Internet har snabbt blivit ett verktyg som används av många människor och verksamheter för att kunna kommunicera med varandra. Internet växer i snabb takt, och fler och fler människor ser betydelsen av att använda sig av Internet. Eftersom så många dagligen använder sig av Internet har företag insett vikten av att marknadsföra sig på nätet.

    Vi har undersökt ett svenskt företag och tre utländska företag aktiva på den svenska marknaden. De tre utländska företagen är väl etablerade på den svenska marknaden och i många andra länder i Europa.

    Vi har valt att fokusera på följande fyra frågor i vår uppsats.

    - Hur viktigt är Internet för företagen inom byggvarubranschen?

    - Varför, varför inte, väljer de att marknadsföra sig själva på Internet?

    - Vilka metoder/strategier använder de sig av?

    - Hur ser framtiden ut för företagen när det gäller marknadsföring på Internet?

    För att komma till en slutsats och ta reda på vikten av Internet och marknadsföring på Internet för företagen, har vi varit i kontakt med marknadscheferna på de utvalda företagen. Vi har intervjuat dem per e-mail och telefon. I början av vår studie kände vi inte till hur företag i denna bransch använde sig av Internet som ett marknadsföringsverktyg. Genom att studera de fyra företagen och deras hemsidor hjälpte det oss att få en uppfattning om Internet är ett viktigt kommunikationsverktyg som de använder sig av för att skapa och bevara en relation med sina konsumenter.

    Vi har studerat många olika teorier kring marknadsföring på Internet för att senare koppla ihop dessa med de teorier som företagen använder sig av. Vi kom till slutsatsen att Internet har en betydande roll för företagen i denna bransch. Internet är ett viktigt verktyg som företagen använder för att marknadsföra sig själva och sina produkter och tjänster till konsumenterna.

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  • 323.
    Bertils, Julia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Eurons påverkan på den ekonomiska tillväxten i Sverige2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to examine how Sweden’s choice not to adopt the euro has affected the economic growth of the country. To answer the purpose of the study, the synthetic control method has been used. The method is based on a comparison between Sweden and a synthetic control group that corresponds to Swedish economic growth if the country had chosen to be part of the eurozone. The synthetic control group is constructed from a weighted average of the first 12 countries in the euro area.

    Previous research on the effects on economic activity largely agrees that Sweden has had a stronger economic growth and increased economic activity due to the decision, and that entry into the euro area would mean an economic disadvantage for the country. However, the results from this study do not support previous studies, but instead show that Sweden’s economic growth for most of the period has been weaker than for its synthetic counterpart.

  • 324.
    Bevring, Martina
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Pisach Klasson, Sebastian
    Karlstad University.
    Påverkar alkoholberusning människors riskpreferenser?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 325.
    Bhuian, Dider
    Karlstad University.
    The Impact of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Hotel Business Development: Correlation Between Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research aimed to study the correlation between customer satisfaction and service quality in the hotel business. It also outlines the significance of understanding customer satisfaction and how customers distinguish service delivery. Customers have changed prospects based on their consideration of service or product quality. This factor is an indication that a customer determines the quality of service in the hotel industry. Also, the five-dimensional aspects of service quality (empathy, reliability, tangibles, responsiveness, and service assurance) impact service quality and customer satisfaction. This research empirically studied the connection between service quality and customer satisfaction in Best Western Princess Hotel in Norrköping, Sweden. Out of the 100 questionnaires sent to respondents, a total of 80 questionnaires were returned. This data, therefore, formed the basis for our analysis. The study entailed the use of qualitative descriptive research. Open-ended questionnaires were used for data collection. The statistics were coded and analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software. The study also contains appropriate recommendations similar to conclusions regarding the research problem. Evaluation of the outcomes shows that responsiveness, empathy, assurance, and reliability significantly influence customer satisfaction hence determining the nature of services provided. This research indicates a close correlation between service quality, the five-dimensional aspects, and customer satisfaction.    

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  • 326.
    Bilgili, Oğuzhan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Egesoy, Dilara Fulya
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Building Brand Equity in B2B Service Industry: Examination of the Servbrand Framework in Logistics Industry2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates a debatable subject of branding; building brand equity in industrial service markets, particularly within the logistics service industry. The extant literature provided many brand equity models, the brand resonance pyramid being the most predominant one. However, the literature suggests the model should be amended for the B2B service markets as the industry has numerous different characteristics to consider. Servbrand Framework is one of the undergoing efforts to provide a brand equity framework applicable within the B2B service industry as an amended version of the brand resonance pyramid. Nevertheless, the model is based on a single empirical context. This research assesses the transferability of the model to the logistics service industry and therefore provides a guideline to build a strong brand in the logistics service industry.

    The research took an interpretivist approach with an exploratory qualitative research design to apply the Servbrand Framework within the logistics industry. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with the decision-makers in purchasing logistics services within the automotive industry in Germany, who were subject to the non-probability sampling process.

    The results indicated that the Servbrand Framework is transferable to the logistics service industry with minor changes. Two new subdimensions are proposed as ‘service experience’ and ‘consideration’ to be part of the client-brand opinions block within the framework. Also, the ‘servicescape’ and ‘personableness’ subdimensions were not relevant for the context of the study.

    Logistics service providers can build strong brands by initially creating salience among the customers by using corporate naming strategies attached to core competencies. Service providers also need to develop good performance and people attributes connected to their brand, which will create positive brand opinions and, therefore, long-term relationships and partnerships. The people aspect was a key element to build strong brands and facilitate the brand's meaning to the customers.

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  • 327.
    Bilius, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ekonomiska styrmedel för förpackningsavfall: En studie om vad som påverkar återvinningen i EU2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1994 the EU directive of packaging waste was adopted. The result was that all EU member states developed different systems to manage packaging waste and recycling. This paper examines the various systems and the factors that affect the level of recycling. This is done by a cross-sectional study between countries. The results of my study suggest that take-back system generates less recycling than other systems, the mandatory deposit system can affect the recycling in a positive way. The recycling might be higher in a full cost system where the producers account for 100 percent of the funding. High national targets may provide higher recycling. Other factors such as high GDP per capita, older systems and high population density seems to have a positive effect on the recycling of glass, but no significant effect on the recycling of plastics. A positive correlation between fees and recycling were found, but the results are not completely reliable because of the data used for fees is very uncertain. I suspect that there are other variables not investigated that influence recycling. Because of that it is difficult to establish a general model that explains the level of recycling in a country. This makes it difficult for an authority to decide what instruments to use to increase recycling. 

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    Ekonomiska styrmedel för förpackningsavfall
  • 328.
    Bing, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Lokal valuta för Norrköping?: En uppsats om pengar, lokala valutor och förutsättningarna för en parallell valuta i Norrköpings kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the phenomenon of local currencies is examined, with the starting point of seeking to answer the question of whether Norrköping would benefit from introducing their own local currency. This is on the basis of a motion to City Council of Norrköping with the proposal that the municipality should investigate the feasibility of introducing its own currency. Why do local currencies exist, and under which conditions are there economic reasons for introducing such a currency? Can a local currency have positive effects on employment or protect and strengthen the local economy?

    This paper tried to answer this on the basis of the existing research on local currencies, currency areas and monetary policy. Various theories and historical and contemporary cases of local currencies are discussed. This gives a picture of the economic motives behind local currencies and the prospects for introducing such in Norrköping , although based on what we know today it is not possible to draw any definitive conclusions.

  • 329.
    Birdal, Can
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Future Vision2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 330.
    Birnstingl Jönsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Grindensjö, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Revisorns oberoende i en mindre stad2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Auditor independence is a well-discussed topic. Previous research shows that it is difficult to know where to draw the line of independence and highlights several factors that affect the auditor's independence in a negative direction. However, there is a lack of studies on how auditors' independence is affected by being active in a smaller city. The purpose of this study was therefore to increase the understanding of how auditors' independence is affected by operating in smaller cities. To achieve the aim, a qualitative method has been used, in the form of semi-structured interviews with accountants operating in smaller cities.

    The results of the study show that there are certain problems with being an active accountant in a small town. It can be stated that the familiarity threat is more tangible, which is natural as relationships and contact networks become more intertwined. However, this does not mean that the auditors compromise their independence, but it requires higher demands on the individual auditor's morals and integrity in his professional role in order to withstand threats and pressure. Threats of self-interest and threats of self-review were also threats that increased in the smaller city. However, these threats could be counteracted through implemented procedures, which resulted in these threats not being considered to affect the auditors' independence. Something that was considered to strengthen independence was the awareness of the importance of maintaining a good reputation and trust in the smaller city.

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  • 331.
    Biörklund, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Persson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Att arbeta och kommunicera på distans: Splittrad verksamhet, motivationsproblem och minskad informell kommunikation2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work from home is not a new concept but during covid-19 pandemic has remote work widely been increased in a relatively short period of time and been normalized as a common way of working. There are benefits with remote work, for example for most a quiet place to work and less work travels, but there are also some challenges. However, communication at a distance has been experienced as a challenge for many managers and organizations. But how does remote work affect management control regarding the challenges with communication? It has been suggested that remote work give less room for informal communication to occur in organizations and that it can be argued that it may lead to management control consequences. The purpose of the study is to understand how informal communication at remote work and what the consequences of this will be for the management control. The study, with 15 semi-structured qualitative interviewers with managers or individuals with similar responsibilities, indicates that a decrease of informal communication decreases information, relations, distraction, and motivation within organizations. The study highlights three factors that contribute to the decrease of the informal communication. There is a risk that the bond of relations that hold the organization together loosens when social interaction through informal communication decreases. These conclusions may be argued to affect the prerequisites for managers within an organization to manage the personnel towards common goals and strategies when informal communication decreases during remote work.  

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  • 332. Bjelvert, Christoffer
    et al.
    Forsberg, Viktor
    Shams, Poja
    Kundlojalitet inom bilindustrin - en studie av Lecab och dess kunder2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to examine the loyalty phenomenon and the contributing factors that create loyalty at the purchase and service of a high-involvement product. Furthermore, we examine Lecab’s efforts in creating customer loyalty can be connected to the theoretical aspects of the phenomenon. In our research, we’ve purposely chosen to interview the service customers because we discovered that service department is the main contributor of customer loyalty. To answer the main questions of the thesis, we conducted qualitative interviews with 15 of Lecab’s service customers. We also interviewed the Co., the sales manager and the service manager. We answered the main questions of the thesis through the results from the interviews. Through the research we have concluded that Lecab employs most of the theories regarding the phenomenon. The management at Lecab has proven to be well aware of their strength’s and weaknesses. Furthermore, we have come to the conclusion that the customer loyalty towards Lecab is quite low.

  • 333. Bjerke, Emelie
    et al.
    Holm, Kristin
    Återbetalning av studielån: Hur ska studier finansieras?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Om man väljer att läsa vidare efter gymnasiet behöver studenten ofta finansiera sina studier genom att ta ett studielån. Efter studietiden måste studenten återbetala sitt studielån. Detta kan göras på olika sätt.

    Vi har gjort en jämförelse mellan tre olika långivare. Dessa långivare är Centrala studiestödsnämnden, Handelsbanken och JAK Medlemsbank. Genom att göra investeringskalkyler och känslighetsanalyser har vi kommit fram till vilken långivare som är den mest fördelaktiga vid återbetalning av studielån. Vi har även kommit fram till vad kostnaden av att studera är.

    Efter att vi gjort beräkningarna har vi granskat resultaten av NPV, internränta, kostnaden av att studera, payback och känslighetsanalyserna. Med hjälp av resultaten av beräkningarna, som alla pekade på samma långivare, kunde vi avgöra vilken långivare som är den mest fördelaktiga. Vår studie visar att Centrala studiestödsnämnden är den mest fördelaktiga långivaren vid återbetalning av studielån. Det näst bästa alternativet vore Handelsbanken och därefter kommer den räntefria banken JAK Medlemsbank. Med hänsyn till detta rekommenderar vi en framtida ekonomstudent att återbetala sitt studielån hos Centrala studiestödsnämnden. Denna slutsats kan endast generaliseras för en ekonomstudent med kandidatexamen. Anledningen till detta är att studien endast beaktar en ekonomstudents framtida inkomst.

  • 334.
    Bjerknes Börestam, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Förändrar låga räntor livbolagens solvenskvot och riskfördelning?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During a longer period of time the interests has been low, and is expected to remain low for some time. Life-insurance companies offer different types of life-insurances for households, insurances that helps the households to even its lifeconsumption. The insurancepremiums that the life-insurance companies receives is placed in different financial assets, and is therefore exposed to financial risks. A big part of the life-insurance companies investment is placed in bonds, and a lower interest means that the return on bonds decrease. Lower returns on bonds could cause the the life-insurance companies financial strength to worsen. The lower return on bonds could also increase the life-insurance companies will to allocate their investments to more risks in search for higher returns. The aim of this essay is to investigate whether the solvency of life-insurance companies is affected by the interest, and if the interest corresponds to how life-insurance companies allocate their investments regarding risk.

    To fulfill the aim of the essay, regressionanalysis has been performed. The result from the regressionanalysis with solvency as dependent variable and interest as independent variable shows that the solvency of life-insurance companies is not affected during the observed period of time. Results from regressionanalysis with percentage of investments placed in bonds as dependent variable and interest as independent variable shows that the percentage of bonds generally shrinks when the rent decreases, and life-insurance companies allocate therefore probably favouring assets of higher risk. However results concerning risk exposure for different life-insurance companies varies, some life-insurance companies increase exposure against risk, while some decrease.

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  • 335.
    Bjurbäck, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Bergman, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    En komparativ studie av marknadsstrategier på: Karlstad- Örebro- och Linköpings Universitet2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det rådande samhällsklimatet, landets ekonomi i stort samt den ökande arbetslösheten, i landet har lett till att fler människor än någonsin tidigare söker sig till eftergymnasiala utbildningar. Regeringen har de senaste åren skjutit till pengar för att skapa fler studieplatser. Även om antalet studieplatser har ökat, så är rekryteringen till de olika universiteten något skev. Resultatet blir att det uppstår ett enormt söktryck på vissa skolor, medan en del får svårt att fylla platserna. Ett annat dilemma är att antalet utbildningsalternativ har ökat markant vilket också bidrar till denna effekt. I denna utveckling så har flera universitet lyckats bättre än Karlstads Universitet när det gäller rekryteringen av nya studenter. Linköping och Örebro Universitet är två exempel. Dessa två universitet ligger också till grund för vår undersökning. Vi vill komma till insikt vilken strategi Karlstad Universitet skall använda för att kunna vara konkurrenskraftiga gentemot andra universitet och därigenom öka antalet förstahandssökande studenter. Vilka faktorer är det som har bidragit till att Linköpings och Örebro universitet är så pass framgångsrika i deras rekrytering? Vi vill försöka hämta positiva influenser från Linköpings och Örebro universitet för att hjälpa Karlstads universitet att hitta de faktorer som bidrar till en lyckad rekryteringsstrategi.

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  • 336. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    Assessing Methods to Estimate Delivery Flows and the ERG Model1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate methods and models which are empirically applicable in order to estimate flows of interaction between sectors and between nodes. This interaction manifests itself in the form of flows of com-modities and services between the different sectors of the economy, and between spatially dis-persed nodes of supply and demand. After an introductory overview of vari-ous regio-nal and interregional interaction models, the main ideas of the ERG (Estimation of Intraregional and Interregional Goods Flows) approach are de-scribed. A specific purpose of the ERG project was to investigate to what extent it is possible to "feed" the models by using statistics published periodically. Depending on different kinds of commodity characteristics, mod-els of generation and distri-bu-tion of freight flows are presented for six different esti-mation groups. Experiences collected from the ERG approach applied to three different project areas in Sweden are presented. The three pro-jects comprise (1) the original ERG project in the county of Värmland, (2) an input-output study from the county of Blekinge, and (3) an investigation of the goods flow pattern of the Mälardalen region.

    The results are evaluated by several measures. Sixteen measures of dis-tance and simi-larity are defined, and the properties of the measures are dis-cussed and compa-red. By utilizing these measures, the deviation between one observed reference distribution of flows and one corresponding estimated distribution are calculated. However, different methods of measure-ment or meas-ures might give very different results and, hence, diverging conclusions about pre-cision and accuracy. The reason for this is mainly due to three factors: (i) the func-tional form of the deviation measure, (ii) the character of the distributions com-pared, and (iii) the unit of meas-urement. This is demonstrated mainly through analyses based on empirical data which comprise comparisons bet-ween differentially established regio-nal input-output coefficients as well as between the internodal commodity flows estimates.

    One important conclusion of the study is that generally available statistics are in most cases too highly aggregated to give an accurate picture of regional flow pat-terns and are thus not applicable to the estimation process. It is therefore necessary to add disaggregated, plant level information. From the measurement study one can, for example, conclude that the regression technique is very useful in this con-text. It gives several measures of deviation, and its plotting facility serves as a good illustra-tion and disclosure tool.



    Keywords: Input-output models, interregional models, gravity models, entropy models, minimum information models, trade flows, freight flows, commodity flows, spatial, measures of similarity, measures of deviation

  • 337. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    ERG-modeller. Inom- och mellanregionala godsflöden1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att beskriva och utvärdera metoder och modeller som empiriskt kan användas vid estimation av inom- och mellanregionala godsflöden. Särskilt har användbarheten hos periodiskt publicerad statistik undersökts.

    Beroende på olika varutypskarakteristika redovisas modeller för generering och fördelning avgodsflöden för sex olika estimationsgrupper: I. Industrivaror. II. Areella varor (rundvirke), III. Grus och sand, IV. Oljeprodukter, V. Dagligvaror samt VI. Transitvaror.

    De viktigaste modelltyperna som kommit till användning är input-outputmodeller, entropimodeller och linjärprogrammeringsmodeller.

    En viktig slutsats är att allmänt tillgänglig statistik oftast är alltför gemomsnittsbetonad för att estimationerna skall kunna ge en verklighetstrogen bild av godsflödesmönstren. Det är därför nödvändigt att via enkäter eller på annat sätt tillföra disaggregerad, anläggningsspecifik information.



    Nyckelord: Godsflödesmodeller, entropimodeller, gravitationsmodeller, fyrstegsmodellen, ERG-modeller.

  • 338. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    Gods - Transporter - Logistik. Analys av kvalitetsaspekter på transport- och logistiksystem i Jönköpings län2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Godstransporter och logistik -Jönköpings län som exempel kan ses som ett led i en regional kunskapsuppbyggnad till gagn för beslut som gäller underhåll och investeringar i transport- och distributionsnät. Den enkätundersökning som ligger till grund för utredningen belyser: 1. Företagens syn på länets transportsystem. 2. Leverans- och produktionsförhållanden. 3. Miljöhänsyn vid val av transportmedel.

    Företagen syn på transportsystemet är huvudsakligen positiv då det gäller vägnät och lastbilstransporter men mycket negativ vad gäller järnvägstransporter. Företagen har vidare uppfattningen att genomsnittlig leveranstid är mycket längre och variation i leveranstid är lägre för vägtransporter än för järnvägstransporter. Risken för förlust eller skador upplevs vara lägre för lastbils- än för järnvägstransporterat gods. Lyhördheten inför kundkrav upplevs som mycket lägre då det gäller järnvägstransporter. Resultaten redovisas också branschvis, efter företagens storleksklass samt efter kommun. Den mest positiva synen på lastbilstransporter återfinns t.ex. hos företag belägna inom Värnamo, Vaggeryds, Sävsjö och Jönköpings kommuner.

    Vad gäller leverans- och produktionsförhållanden - karakteriserade i form av variablerna sändningsstorlek, sändningsfrekvens, leveranstid, lagerhållning samt bearbetningstid - kan bl.a. följande slutsatser redovisas: (i)Några systematiska skillnader mellan de olika branschgrupperna finns ej. (ii) En stor andel av de större företagen säger sig ha fått minskade leveranstider, minskad lagerhållningen samt minskad bearbetningstid. (iii) Ca två tredjedelar av alla leveranser utgörs av direktleveranser. (iv) Störst inköp av speditionstjänster har skogsindustrin, maskin-industrin och möbelindustrin. (v) Upp till en viss gräns råder ett starkt samband mellan arbetsställets storleksklass och omfattningen av inköpta speditionstjänster. (vi) De geografiska skillnaderna i omfattning av speditionsinköp är betydande. Aneby, Vetlanda, Tranås och Sävsjö kommuner ligger över länsgenomsnittet medan Gnosjö, Eksjö och Vaggeryds kommuner ligger under.

    En mycket stor andel av företagen tror att miljöhänsyn kommer att vara viktiga i framtiden då man väljer transportmedel. Det är främst kundens krav på miljövänliga transporter, transportörens förmåga till miljöanpassning samt fraktpriserna som kommer att vara avgörande för detta val.



    Nyckelord: Lastbilstransporter, järnvägstransporter, leveranstid, godsskador, lagerhållning, bearbetningstid.

  • 339. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    Gods-Transporter - Logistik. Analys av kvalitetsaspekter på transport- och logistiksystem i Jönköpings län1998Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 340. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    Godstransporter i Värmland1987Report (Other academic)
  • 341. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    Godstransportmönsters stabilitet över tiden: En jämförelse mellan 1985 års och 2000 års godstransportutredningar i Värmland2004Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Basen för modellutläggning av godsflöden på infrastrukturnäten är alltid s.k. OD-matriser. OD-matrisernas stabilitet över tiden är avgörande för hur dessa skall estimeras. Projektets syfte är att genom en jämförelse mellan 1985 års och 1999 års godsflödesdata för Värmland undersöka i vilken utsträckning godsflödesmönster förändras över tiden.

    Under den undersökta tiden har stora förändringar skett i det värmländska näringslivet. Antalet förvärvsarbetande i de åtta undersökta sektorerna har minskat med 27%. Produktionsvärdet i har samtidigt ökat med 19% medan producerad vikt är oförändrad. Lastbilens andel av transporterad godsmängd har ökat från 70% till 86%. Detta kan ha haft betydelse för jämförelsen av de två årens godstransportmönstrens, då enbart det lastbilstransporterade godset som ingår i undersökningen.

    De slutsatser av jämförelsen som kan dras är att de två godstransportmönstren i stor utsträckning avviker från varandra. Korrelationen mellan dem är mycket svagt positiv och för en sektor t.o.m. negativ. I de fall korrelationen är högre för någon sektor, domineras beräkningen i hög utsträckning av endast en OD-relation. Skall godstransportundersökningar uppdateras med hjälp av modeller som utnyttjar tidigare transportmönster bör detta förmodligen ske efter halva den tid som gått mellan de två värmländska godstransport-utredningarna, dvs. efter 5-8 år. I annat fall måste en omfattande enkätundersökning genomföras på nytt.

  • 342. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    IMREG. Inom- och mellanregionala godsflöden. En GIS-T applikation1996Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 343. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    Infrastruktur och regional utveckling i Värmland: En tillgänglighetsanalys av fyra vägutbyggnadsplaner samt två kollektivtrafikprojekt2004Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En attraktiv ekonomisk miljö är en förutsättning för regional tillväxt. Till en sådan miljö hör bl.a. väl utbyggd infrastruktur och goda kommunikationer. Detta skapar låga geografiska transaktionskostnader vilket i sin tur stärker en regions konkurrens gentemot andra regioner med sämre förutsättningar.



    I föreliggande utredning undersöks hur förkortade restider leder till ökad tillgänglighet - till befolkning, arbetstillfällen och arbetskraft och därmed till ökad ekonomisk aktivitet i Värmlands län. Hypotesen, som de använda modellerna bygger på, är att ökad tillgänglighet på sikt leder till ökad sysselsättning och ökat antal näringsgrenar i den berörda regionen. Även in- och utpendling sätts i relation till tillgänglighetsmått av olika slag. Genom att dessa samband formulerats matematiskt är det möjligt att beräkna effekterna, på sysselsättning, antal näringsgrenar och pendling, av åtgärder som påverkar restiderna. I utredningen har effekterna av fyra olika vägprojekt samt två kollektivtrafikprojekt undersökts. Vägprojekten omfattar två riksvägar, länstrafikplanen för vägar samt en framtidsplan med sikte på år 2025. Kollektivtrafikprojekten omfattar dels två expressbussförbindelser, dels utbyggnad av en järnvägsförbindelse (Vålbergsrakan).



    För att kunna studera effekterna av de utvalda projekten har först den historiska utvecklingen av folkmängd, sysselsättning, pendling etc. beskrivits. Därefter har de relevanta tillgänglighetsmåtten beräknats dels för utgångsåret, dvs. före resp. projekts genomförande, dels efter genomförandet. Differensen mellan de av modellerna predicerade, dvs. förutsagda, före- och efter-värdena för sysselsättning, antal näringsgrenar och pendling - baserade på dessa tillgänglighetstal - utgör effekten av resp. projekt.



    I utredningen dras bl.a. följande slutsatser: (i) De i verkligheten planerade väginvesteringarna ger mycket små restidsvinster. (ii) Berörda kommuner är i de flest fall små vilket medför att deras tillgänglighet påverkas mycket lite, vilket i sin tur leder till små förändringar av sysselsättning, antal branscher och pendling. (iii) Någon nämnvärd regionförstoring kommer därför inte till stånd, vilket kan motverka en tillgänglighetsbaserad ekonomisk tillväxt. (iv) Först vid större vägsatsningar, typ motorvägsbyggen, som berör befolkningsmässigt sett stora kommuner och som ger avsevärt större tidsvinster, skulle effekterna kunna vara betydande. För Värmlands del erhålls därför störst effekt om dessa satsningar förläggs till Karlstadsregionen. Förbättrad kollektivtrafik, som t.ex. projektet Vålbergsrakan, kan i många fall ge stora restidsvinster och därmed effekter som vida överstiger effekterna av väginvesteringar. (v) Infrastrukturens betydelse för godstransporterna kommer i skymundan i de använda tillgänglighetsmodellerna. Detta får särskilt stor betydelse för ett skogslän som Värmland med en stor andel tunga transporter. (vi) En väl fungerande transportinfrastruktur är ett nödvändigt men inte tillräckligt villkor för regional utveckling.

  • 344. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    Input-outputsamband och godsflöden i Mälardalsregionen1993Report (Other academic)
  • 345. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    Nutida och framtida varuflöden av oljebränslen. Sveriges tillgång och förbrukning av energi 1983-1993 samt prognos för 2005 och 20101996Report (Other academic)
  • 346. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    Regional input-outputmodell för Jönköpings län2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Regionerna kommer enligt många iakttagare att få en allt större betydelse i ett framtida integrerat Europa. Projektet Regional input-outputmodell för Jönköpings syftar till att med hjälp av input-outputteknik ge kunskap om de sektoriella flödena inom den regional ekonomi i Jönköpings län. Med hjälp av den framtagna analysmodellen skall de regionalekonomiska effekterna av en förändrad struktur och aktivitetsnivå i näringslivet kunna beskrivas.

    I rapporten beskrivs de allmänna principerna för input-outputmodellering. Bl.a. noteras att i en regional input-outputmodell visar varje koefficient endast leveranserna från den egna regionen. Detta kräver att de regionala självförsörjningsgraderna för de olika branscherna kan bestämmas på ett tillförlitligt sätt. I rapporten redovisas två sätt. Det ena bygger på lokaliseringskvoter baserade på sekundärdata, det andra på insamlade enkätdata. I utredningen testas också två nya metoder att bestämma självförsörjningskvoter.

    En initial efterfrågeförändring förmeras när den fortplantar sig genom ekonomin till ett slutligen betydligt högre värde. Hur mycket högre beror på storleken av branschens multiplikator. Multiplikatorn, som finns i två olika former - typ I ocu typ II - är således ett viktigt begrepp här. För Jönköpings län har sysselsättnings och produktionsmultiplikatorer beräknats för 28 sektorer. För typ I varierar produktionsmultiplikatorns storlek mellan 1,10 (Järn- och stålindustri )och 1,79 (Skyddad livsmedelsindustri). Järn- och stålindustrin har också lägst multiplikator av typ II medan Grafisk industri har det högsta värdet, 2,25. En förändrad efterfrågan riktad mot Järn- och stålindustrin får således betydligt mindre effekt på länets ekonomi än en lika stor efterfrågeförändring riktad mot Grafisk industri.



    Nyckelord: Input-output, regional input- outputmodell, multiplikator.

  • 347. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    Självförsörjning och regionala multiplikatorer i Värmland2004Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nedläggning och nyetablering av företag medför både kort och långsiktiga förändringar i den regionala ekonomin. De långsiktiga effekterna kan estimeras med hjälp av regionala multiplikatorer.

    Projektets syfte är att dels utveckla en regional input-outputmodell för Värmlands län, dels med hjälp av den framtagna modellen beräkna regionala multiplikatorer för länet.

    Med hjälp av data från en tidigare genomförd godstransportutredning och de nationella input-outputtabellerna har en regional input-outputmatris framställts. Denna har sedan använts för att beräkna regionala output(produktions)- och sysselsättningsmultiplikatorer för länet.

    Outputmultiplikatorns storlek varierar mellan 1,08 (Skogsbruk) och 1,73 (Grafisk industri). Skogsbruket har också lägst sysselsättningsmultiplikator (1,14) medan Bostadsförvaltning har den högsta (3,45). Av utredningen framgår att den för Värmland viktiga Massa- och pappersindustrin har bland de högsta värdena för båda multiplikatorerna (1,65 resp. 2,28). Utvecklingen av länets produktion och sysselsättning inom denna sektor får således förhållandevis stora effekter för den regionala ekonomin.

  • 348. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    Skattning av godsflöden i Jönköpings län2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Planering av drift och underhåll av samt investering i transportinfrastruktur kräver information om godflödenas storlek och sammansättning. Utredningen är ett led i denna informationsuppbyggnad och syftar till att (i) för olika varugrupper skatta varuflöden till och från noder i Jönköpings län, (ii) fördela dessa flöden på det fysiska vägnätet samt (iii) använda metoder som underlättar prognos- och scenarioframställning.

    Tillvägagångssättet vid dessa skattningar följer författarens tidigare modellarbete som i analogi med fyrstegsmodellen skattar varugruppsspecifika OD-matriser vilka i sin tur utgör underlag för skattning av fysiska länkflöden.

    Sex olika skattningskategorier har identifierats: I. Industrivaror. II. Areella varor. III. Grus och sand. IV. Oljeprodukter. V. Dagligvaror. VI. Transitvaror.

    Totalt omfattar skattningarna för de varor som producerats eller förbrukats inom länet under 1995 ca 12 milj. ton till ett värde av drygt 65 miljarder kr. Det utförda transportarbetet inom länet för dessa varor har beräknats till 464 milj. tonkm eller ca 4 miljarder kronkm. Inkluderas transitvarorna blir de angivna siffrorna betydligt större: 47 milj. Ton resp. 4,9 miljarder tonkm (värdeuppgifter saknas för transit).

    Transittransporterna svarar för 75% av transporterad kvantitet och 90% av transportarbetet mätt i tonkm. Om vi endast ser till de varor som producerats eller förbrukats inom länet svarar Industrivaror för 36%, Grus och sand för 30% och Skog för 26% av transporterad kvantitet. Motsvarande siffror för transportarbetet är 61%, 14% och 15%. Mätt i kronkm ökar gruppen Industrivarors andel från 61% till hela 87%.

    Värdet av de externa effekterna, dvs. utsläpp, vägslitage, buller, trängsel/fördröjning och olyckor, har också beräknat. Totalt uppgår värdet till 355 milj. kr. Deformation svarar för den största andelen, 37%, följt av utsläpp, 27%, och buller, 11%.



    Nyckelord: Godstransporter, godsflöden, godsflödesmodeller, entropimodeller.

  • 349. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    The Impact of New Logistic Trends in a Regional Context1999In: Kobayashi, K., Matsuo, Y., Tsutsumi, K., (eds.) Local Knowledge and innovation: Enhancing the Substance of Non-Metropolitan Regions, Kyoto University , 1999Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport demand demonstrates continuing shifts towards decreasing shipment size, increasing delivery frequency and speed and high quality services. In order to fulfil these demands, the transport service suppliers must have access to a good physical infrastructure, efficient distribution terminals, efficient load vehicles as well as qualified information (IT) systems.

    Especially small sized firms experience difficulties in incorporating modern information technique in their production and logistic systems. Large companies take advantage of having company owned forwarding agencies using modern EDI and GPS techniques etc. Due to economic as well as educational factors smaller firms are often reduced to using the know-how and facilities offered by a separate forwarder.

    The paper presents an analysis of the importance of firm size and adoption of new ideas of logistics. The investigation is carried out in a small Swedish region -the County of Jönköping. In a questionnaire survey the respondent firms, grouped according to the number of people employed, have answered questions about their experienced changes in the logistic variables shipment size, shipment frequency, delivery time, stock-keeping of intermediary goods, stock-keeping of finished products, and processing time. The paper reports on significant relationships between many of these variables and the size of firms. It is also shown that small affiliated firms to a larger extent are influenced by new logistic ideas than small, independent firms.; that small firms buy less forwarding services than larger ones, except for the largest companies; and that local presence of forwarding agencies seems to influence the small firms to in a larger extent adopt modern logistic ideas.

    The paper concludes by suggesting three measures to surmount some of the disadvantages of being a small enterprise: (i) By co-operating the firms can take advantage of their close localisation, i.e. their external economies of scale. (ii) Freight brokers and logistics village can help the firms to find efficient transport operation concepts. (iii) Local authorities can organise low and medium level courses in logistics and information technology. In the long run these efforts will raise the level of knowledge of the small and medium sized firms and strengthen their ability to take advantage of new logistic innovations.



    Keywords: regional development, logistics, small sized firms, new logistic trends.

  • 350. Bjurklo, Lars-Gustaf
    et al.
    Fournier, S.
    Assessing the Precision of Estimation in the MEPLAN Model: An Introduction to Purposeful Measurement1994In: the Conference on Network Infrastructure and the Urban Environment, Stockholm, August 1994Article in journal (Refereed)
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