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  • 101.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Badh, Elsa
    Karlstad University.
    Småföretagarens affärsmodell: Ett individualistiskt perspektiv på affärsmodeller2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Business models are based on that the company will maximize its profits, which may make the business models fit bad with companies who do not focus on profit maximization. The profit in these companies is seen as something secondary that needs to exist to make the company survive. This view on profit is connected to small business owners’ way to run a business. Small business owners often have a close connection to their company and it can almost be described as their identity. It is important for them that the business exists even if they need to pay a high price because they work hard and only get a small economic profit in return. The most important thing for these individuals is not money, but the life as a small business owner that they want to have. They value a life where they are free and independent to decide how they want to live their life. This is also a reason to why they do not want their business to develop or grow in size. They want to keep the business small because they want to keep their control and at the same time stay in the local area because of their personal connection to that place.

    The business model therefore could be reformulated or widened in its focus to describe more businesses than they who maximizes its profits. In the model it could be taken into account to how an individual, in this case the business owner, lives his/her life and that is why different life shapes are used in this study. The connection between the individual and the company is often strong when it comes to small businesses and that is why the focus could be moved away from the business itself to the individual itself in the business model. When the focus has been changed, or at least are more nuanced, a business model could be used to describe a small business owners business in a meaningful way.

    The biggest contribution with this study is that a perspective that originates from the individual instead of the business is used to try to understand that a business model could be developed to include more areas than profit maximization. The individual and its way to live life affect how the company is being run, and by that the business models could be adjusted to describe the business in a more useful and correct way.

    Keywords: small businesses, business model, lifestyle, individualistic.

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  • 102.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Martinsson, Madeléne
    Karlstad University.
    Empowerment: En kvalitativ studie av dess roll för innovativt beteende bland medarbetare i en bransch med olika lönesystem2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 103.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Arndt, Viktoria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Konsten att skapa den lilla innovativa världen: Hur företag driver fram hållbara innovationer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increasing concern for our planet’s well-being has induced an increased focus on sustainable development. It is of importance for companies to engage in sustainable development, partly since they are the reason for many sustainability-related issues, and partly because they have the resources required to solve the issues. In order to affect sustainable development, companies need to develop sustainable innovations to change their products, processes and business models. However, the research field concerning sustainable innovations is still in its infancy stage and therefore requires more research. In particular, the research field is in need of more qualitative research which refers to how sustainable innovations are developed on a company level.

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to increase the understanding of how sustainability can be incorporated into the innovation process.

    Method: A qualitative study with eight respondents distributed across seven semi-structured interviews.

    Findings: The study points out three factors that are essential when creating an organizational culture which encourage learning. The three factors are sustainable framework, trust in the employees’ abilities and lastly freedom for employees to form their work processes. Together the factors create a learning culture that drives the incorporation of sustainability into the innovation process. The study also pinpoints the need of creating cross-functional groups in the initial phases of the innovation process. The cross-functional teams should be encouraged to use an exploratory search method. An exploratory search for innovation can be conducted within the corporation or through external collaborations.

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  • 104.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Lundkvist, Angelica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Institutionella investerares syn på hållbarhetsredovisningar: Hållbarhetsredovisningens betydelse i en analys.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unethical procedures, social irresponsibility and climate change all contribute to unsustainable development. Changing our behavior to contribute to sustainable development has therefore become increasingly important. This increased awareness of corporate social and environmental impact has meant that sustainable development has become an important issue for both companies and individuals. An important factor in contributing to a sustainable society is to direct capital flows into sustainable investments and the interest in investing sustainable has increased in recent years. Thus, the pressure on companies has increased in terms of working more with sustainability and communicating that work externally by drawing up a sustainability report.An important stakeholder group for companies is institutional investors. Our purpose was to find out how they use companies' sustainability reports to analyze a company's work with sustainability and what they consider about the credibility of sustainability reports. Given the purpose, the study aims at contributing to an increased understanding of sustainability reports and their usefulness for institutional investors. We have also intended to contribute to a greater understanding of what opinions institutional investors have about the credibility of sustainability reports. To achieve the purpose of the study, a qualitative method has been used. Qualitative interviews have been conducted with seven respondents with good knowledge in the areas of sustainable investments and sustainability reports.The result of the study shows that institutional investors believe sustainability reports are useful for analyzing a company's sustainability efforts. Corporate sustainability reports are used by all respondents, but to varying degrees. All respondents consider that other sources are also needed to obtain the information required to get a comprehensive picture of the companies' work with sustainability, so the information in the sustainability report is not sufficient. Respondents also argue that sustainability reports are credible reports, but in the case of external review, the views differ somewhat. The majority believe that it is positive if a sustainability report is externally reviewed, while a few respondents consider that an external review is of no importance.

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    Examensarbete
  • 105.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Pererasson, Niroshani
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Blir det en sämre soppa av för många kockar?: En kvalitativ undersökning om hur konflikterande styrsignaler påverkar socialsekreterares välmående på arbetsplatsen2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector is largely tax-financed, which requires resources to be used in the most efficient way possible. This has led to public activities today being governed from different directions and in different ways. Previous research on complex control systems shows that there is a risk of conflicts between different control signals. How this affects professional employees is unexplored. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate how conflicting control signals affect the well-being of professional employees in their workplace. To answer the purpose of the essay, a qualitative interview study was conducted on social workers in family and individual care. The choice of social workers was based on the fact that they are a professional group that is exposed to various control signals that also show a deterioration in well-being in the workplace over time. It is a professional role whose work is governed by law and can be cost driving, which can affect the outcome of the budget. The focus of the study was to investigate whether the social secretaries experienced conflicting governance and whether in such cases it affected their well-being in the workplace. A total of nine social secretaries were interviewed.The study shows that social workers experience conflicts in control signals that affect their well-being in the workplace. It also turns out that the attitudes and actions of senior managers are important factors that can reduce the effect on well-being due to the conflicting control signals. How the conflicts in control signals affected the well-being of the social workers varied. Some argued that well-being was affected by conflicting control signals, while others showed the opposite. 

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  • 106.
    Andersson, Erika
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Mellqvist, Stina
    Karlstad University.
    Kvinnor i revisionsbranschen: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnors karriärsmöjligheter2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The audit industry is characterized by a hierarchical organization with clear career steps for employees to follow. In order to reach the highest position, partner, it is important that the employee has a certain number of clients and thereby can generate revenues for the agency. Traditionally, the audit profession has been dominated by men, but in recent decades an increasing number of women have started to work in the industry, which has resulted in a balanced gender distribution. Although, in the higher positions, such as partner, men still dominate. Gender equality is a debated issue and changes occur continuously. The aim of this study is therefore to gain a deeper understanding of the causes of women’s underrepresentation at the partner level in the audit industry. Furthermore, it will be examined if there are any differences between small city offices and large city offices that affect women's career opportunities in the audit industry.

    The theoretical framework consists partly of a basic description about the audit profession and its organization, and partly by gender theories that can explain why women are not seen at the top positions of the organizations in the same extent as men. Through interviews with female authorized public accountants from small city offices as well as large city offices, it is found that there are good opportunities, regardless of gender, to advance in the career. Our study indicates that several of the theories that explain women's underrepresentation in higher positions, such as glass ceiling and homosociality, are not perceived as something that occurs to a significant extent in practice, instead it is largely a matter of time before the top positions in the audit industry are gender balanced as well. Still, the main reason for women ending up beneath men in their careers seems to be that they are on parental leave longer and that their ambitions for career advancement changes when they have children. The most obvious difference between small city offices and large city offices is that women in small town offices have limited access to female role models and female mentors, which may adversely affect their careers.

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  • 107. Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Carlsson, Martin
    En alternativ årsredovisning för bostadsrättsföreningar: Framtagen för att underlätta bostadsrättsköparens förståelse av finansiell information2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract A housing society’s annual report is referred as the main document in which buyers can obtain information about the housing society’s financial position. However, previous research shows that households find it difficult to understand the financial information in an annual report.  In addition, the investigation on strengthened consumer protection in the cooperative flat market (SOU 2017:31) shows that buyer’s in Sweden have insufficient ability to understand the risks combined with a tenant-owner acquisition, which could have far-reaching consequences. One reason why households do not understand the annual report can be that the report does not contain sufficient descriptive information, which can demonstrate a prevailing information gap between the producer of information and its receivers.

    The purpose of this study is to create an adjusted annual report based on information from interviews with interest organizations for housing societies, and then examine whether a buyer’s financial understanding can be increased based on the expanded information in the adjusted management report. 

    In this study, qualitative interviews with individuals at different interest organizations to housing societies have been conducted, which has resulted in relevant information being added in a housing society’s management report, hoping to make the annual report more understandable. The adjusted annual report has then been tested in a quasi-experiment. In the experiment, participants in an experimental group received the adjusted annual report while participants in a control group received the original un-adjusted annual report. The participants in respective group then responded to questions about which extent they considered to understand the information in specific annual report. The results for each group have then been analyzed to measure and compare the understanding between both groups to see if there is a connection between extended information and increased understanding in an annual report.

    The result of the completed experiment showed that the average understanding of the annual report’s content was 81 percent higher in the experimental group compared to the control group. The conclusion is, therefore, that there is a connection between expanded information and increased understanding of the information in the adjusted annual report for the participants in the experiment.

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    Alternativ Årsredovisning
  • 108.
    Andersson, Gustav
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Borges Månsson, Ludvig
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Mortgage Information and Consumer Understanding: A Study of Swedish Banks2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to examine and see how communication betweenbank and customer in the Swedish mortgage market is processed. Several theoriesthat have been used in this study highlight how consumers think when they makefinancial decisions. Cognitive learning and individual differences in financial settingsare some of the many factors that are taken into consideration when the theoreticalframework was conducted. Consumption and communication theories have alsobeen used to get a better understanding of customer’s behaviors. Furthermore,financial literacy and sustainability theories have been used to get a better overallunderstanding of the issue at hand.A qualitative method was used, where semi-structured interviews with bankpersonnel were conducted to get their view on the subject. Surveys were used as acomplement to the interviews to get the consumers’ perspective on the subject aswell. The empirical results do however reveal a major gap in communication,especially regarding potential risks that are involved with taking a mortgage. Sincebanks generally have more information than customers in this process, adverseselection occurs, which in the long run contributes to market failure.Despite high levels of customer satisfaction at the time of purchase, the studyidentifies areas for improvement in effectively communicating risks and changes inthe housing market. The discussion section emphasizes the evolving landscape offinancial sustainability and CSR, urging Swedish banks to enhance transparency andcommunication in mortgage practices. The study suggests potential solutions,including third-party interventions such as regulatory guidelines, to address marketfailure and foster a sustainable mortgage market

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  • 109. Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Cognitive Ability and Scale Bias in the Contingent Valuation Method2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Transport Economics, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Svensson, Mikael
    Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet, Örebro universitet.
    Cognitive ability and scale bias in the contingent valuation method: An analysis of willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk2008In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 481-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether or not the scale bias found in contingent valuation (CVM) studies on mortality risk reductions is a result of cognitive constraints among respondents. Scale bias refers to insensitivity and non-near-proportionality of the respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) to the size of the risk reduction. Two hundred Swedish students participated in an experiment in which their cognitive ability was tested before they took part in a CVM-study asking them about their WTP to reduce bus-mortality risk. The results imply that WTP answers from respondents with a higher cognitive ability are less flawed by scale bias.

  • 111. Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Cognitive Ability and Scale Bias in the Contingent Valuation Method: An Analysis of Willingness to Pay to Reduce Mortality Risks2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Scale sensitivity and question order in the contingent valuation method2014In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1746-1761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect on respondents' willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk by the order of the questions in a stated preference study. Using answers from an experiment conducted on a Swedish sample where respondents' cognitive ability was measured and where they participated in a contingent valuation survey, it was found that scale sensitivity is strongest when respondents are asked about a smaller risk reduction first ('bottom-up' approach). This contradicts some previous evidence in the literature. It was also found that the respondents' cognitive ability is more important for showing scale sensitivity when respondents are asked about a larger risk reduction first ('top-down' approach), also reinforcing the result that a 'bottom-up' approach is more consistent with answers in line with theoretical predictions for a larger proportion of respondents.

  • 113.
    Andersson, Jennie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gustafsson, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Redovisning av utsläppsrätter2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel: Redovisning av utsläppsrätter

    Författare: Andersson, Jennie

    Gustafsson, Emma

    Problemformulering:

    Vad anser företagen om handelssystemet med utsläppsrätter?

    Hur redovisar företagen sina utsläppsrätter?

    Hur anser revisorerna att utsläppsrätter skall redovisas?

    Hur ser nuvarande regler ut jämfört med IFRIC 3? (Vad

    innebar tillbakadragandet av IFRIC 3 för företagen?)

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur några svenska

    företag har valt att redovisa sina utsläppsrätter, syftet är även

    att utifrån ett revisorsperspektiv undersöka redovisning av

    utsläppsrätter.

    Metod: Vår undersökning är genomförd utifrån en kvalitativ metod

    då vi ej är intresserade av att generalisera utan vi vill få en

    djupare förståelse av de intervjuade respondenternas syn på

    redovisning av utsläppsrätter. Vi har med anledning av detta

    valt att genomföra åtta djupgående intervjuer.

    Undersökningsresultat: Undersökningsresultatet visar att samtliga

    företagsrespondenter anser att handelssystemet med

    utsläppsrätter bidrar till en snedvriden konkurrens eftersom

    det ej är globalt. Vidare visar undersökningen att

    respondenterna ej är eniga om hur redovisning av

    utsläppsrätter skall ske för att det skall ge en så rättvis bild

    som möjligt av företagets balansräkning. Detta kan bero på

    att företag inom olika branscher har olika syn på

    utsläppsrätter. Samtliga respondenter ansåg att indragandet

    av IFRIC 3 var nödvändigt med tanke på de missmatcher

    som uppstod vid redovisning enligt detta uttalande.

    Slutsats: Det har i vår uppsats visat sig att samtliga respondenter

    anser det vara nödvändigt med nya klara redovisningsregler

    när det gäller redovisning av utsläppsrätter. Dock kunde

    ingen respondent ge ett konkret förslag på hur dessa framtida

    redovisningsregler skulle kunna se ut. Ett förslag var att det

    kanske skulle vara bra med olika redovisningsmetoder

    beroende på vilken bransch företag verkar inom, detta kan

    vara praktiskt svårt att genomföra.

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  • 114.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Hellsing, Oskar
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Jonasson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Att marknadsföra en plats: En studie hur mindre kommuner kan arbeta med marknadsföring2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kranskommunerna till Karlstad använder sig av en begränsad marknadsföring. Arbetet de genomför finner en inskränkt förankring i de teorier som är skrivna kring ämnet. Deras arbete baseras på olika stor budget samt olika förutsättningar. En genomgående röd tråd i undersökningen är att imagen av en kommun speglas av åskådarens erfarenheter. Beroende på vilka upplevelser och andra minnen betraktaren bär med sig förändras bilden sändaren kommuniceras ut. Det gör att deras arbete formas på olika sätt. Syften med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur kranskommunerna arbetar med marknadsföring mot barnfamiljer och om kranskommunernas identitet stämmer överrens med barnfamiljernas image.

    Den teoretiska referensramen är indelad i två delar. Den första behandlar kranskommunerna och de olika verktyg som finns att tillgå vid marknadsförandet av en kommun. Den andra delen behandlar åskådaren, barnfamiljerna i Karlstads syn och flyttbenägenhet till de tre kranskommunerna, där identitet och image är två centrala begrepp.

    Både en kvalitativ och kvantitativ undersökning har gjorts. Den kvalitativa tog sin form utifrån kranskommunerna och de ansvariga för marknadsföringen hos dem. Det gjordes två öppna intervjuer på respektive kranskommun. Den kvalitativa grundade sig i 186 barnfamiljer som alla fick besvara en enkätundersökning. De två ansatsernas uppbyggnad arbetade vi fram utifrån vår problematisering och operationalisering

    Undersökningsresultaten har sedan analyserats tillsammans utifrån de valda teorierna och knutits samman i en slutsats. Resultaten från den visar att kranskommunerna arbetar för lite och på ett felaktigt sätt när de kommunicerar till sin målgrupp. De största fel de gör är att de inte segmenterar marknaden. De fokuserar helt enkelt inte på en målgrupp utan riktar sitt budskap till alla. Ett annat fel två av kranskommunerna gör är att de inte inser att de är på en konkurrerande marknad. I den andra delen kom vi fram till att Forshaga är den kommun som lyckats bäst med arbetet och har den bästa imagen hos barnfamiljerna. Grums är den kranskommun med den mest negativa imagen. Attribut som påverkar personens image gentemot kommunen beror mycket på vilken relation den har till platsen. En person som besöker kommunen ofta eller bott där förut har en mycket bättre bild än en som aldrig besökt kommunen.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 115.
    Andersson, Joakim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Private Equity: Långsiktigt eller kortsiktigt investeringsbeteende för de svenska Private equity-bolagen?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine large Swedish Private Equity firm’s investment behavior towards their target companies. Do Private Equity companies make long-term investments in their target companies or do they intend to save cost at the expense of staff to generate quick profits. The study examines the majority stakes of the transactions made by Swedish Private Equity companies in the period of 1996-2016. By examining variables such as the years before the exit, type of exit, the percentage of Quick flip transactions and if the Private Equity companies in general transfer majority shares in purchases and sales. The study is supplemented with two samples that investigate how the Private Equity companies acted as owners in target companies. This is done by examining the change of different key ratios over time, which is put in perspective by examining public companies. The study shows that, on average private equity companies tend to have a stronger development than the public companies. On the other hand, the study has problems with limited sampling, which makes it difficult to generalize the results from the study. However, the essay show tendencies that the results complementing the key ratios with a confidence interval test. The Private Equity companies show a more stable change over time than the public companies which also could been generated through the small sample size. Even though the conclusion of the paper is that Private Equity companies act as intermediaries that generate benefits to the market by increasing productivity in general. However, discussions about the definition of a short-term behavior are also included. The conclusion is, instead of focusing on time, the focus should be the value creation of the target companies when making assumptions on short-term behavior of Private equity companie

  • 116.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Larsson, Jonathan
    Karlstad University.
    Konsumenters preferenser vid valet av köpkanal2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet is a part of everyday life and most people are now used to shopping online. This in turn has led to the fact that companies with traditional stores lack knowledge of what their customers wants and their preferences about buying. Creating an understanding of what customers wants has always been the focus of business to maintain and create loyalty towards consumers. The purpose of the study is therefore to investigate which preferences determine loyalty within traditional stores and online stores.  The factors studied are pricequality, price awareness, service, time efficiency, trust and choice. These variables are the independent variables of the study which will be tested against the dependent variables which is loyalty in traditional stores and loyalty online. The study is limited to consumers who bought clothes last year. The design of the study is based on quantitative methodology were surveys have been the source of data collection. 187 people responded to the survey which has then been analyzed in SPSS using multivariate regression. The result of the study shows that the preferences regarding loyalty within traditional stores were service and pricequality. The results also show that the preferences regarding loyalty within online stores are service, time efficiency and trust.

    The study contributes to research by measuring which preferences affect loyalty when shopping in traditional stores and in online stores. By providing an understanding of which preferences determine loyalty within traditional stores and online stores, companies can understand why consumers are loyal and use the information to support strategical decisions within companies.

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  • 117.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Karlsson-Alalahti, Elina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Ekonomisk information ur ett internt perspektiv: En kvalitativ studie ur både företags och anställdas perspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Economic information is useful for all companies and its stakeholders for decision-making and to provide information about the company’s financial position. The company has to consider the different needs of information and interests of the various stakeholders with the economic information in order to provide relevant information to all stakeholders. Employees’ are an internal primary stakeholder that plays an important role within a company. However, previous research has mostly focused on the company's communication of economic information to external stakeholders. Thus, it is interesting to study how communication of economic information to employees looks like and if employees have sufficient knowledge about the economic information. The purpose of this paper is to create an understanding of how communication of economic information looks within companies. The purpose is achieved through qualitative interviews with both the sender of the economic information perspective and the employees', the receivers. The result of the study shows that there is a gap of knowledge due to the deficient internal communication of economic information. This is due to the fact that employees have limited knowledge about the economic information and the senders of the economic information do not always take into account the employees' knowledge. This is because there is generally insufficient understanding of what economic information means and therefore an information gap arises because employees do not understand which economic information that is needed to satisfy their interests.

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  • 118.
    Andersson, Johannes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Arbitrage Pricing Theory: ett empiriskt test av Arbitrage Pricing Theory på den svenska aktiemarknaden2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 119.
    Andersson, John
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University.
    Svenska fastighetsmäklarkontors syn på sociala medier som marknadsföringskanal2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel: Svenska fastighetsmäklarkontors syn på sociala medier som marknadsföringskanal.

    Författare: John Andersson och Niklas Nilsson

    Handledare: Johan Netz

    Ämne: Kandidatuppsats i företagsekonomi

    Problemformulering: Då fastighetsmäklarkontor arbetar i en konservativ bransch men vill vara nytänkande, är användningen av sociala medier ett steg i den riktningen. Eftersom fastighetsmäklarkontoren är nya vid denna användning är det intressant att se deras användarkunskap samt riskhantering kring denna nya marknadsföringskanal.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att förstå hur olika fastighetsmäklarkontor använder sociala medier som marknadsföringskanal, samt hur de hanterar de utmaningar som uppkommer i användandet av sociala medier.

    Metod: Studien har genomförts genom en kvalitativ intervjustudie. Primärdatan utgår från sex semistrukturerade intervjuer med representanter från sex olika fastighetsmäklarkontor i Karlstad och sekundärdatan baseras på vetenskapliga artiklar samt böcker.

    Teori: Här beskrivs övergripande tidigare forskning om marknadsföring och sedan om sociala medier som marknadsföringskanal.Resultat: Resultatet från de sex intervjuade representanterna av fastighetsmäklarkontoren genererade i tre kategorier, modernisering, kännedom och hantering av sociala medier. Modernisering och kännedom hänsyftar till hur och varför fastighetsmäklarkontor använder sig av sociala medier medan hantering av sociala medier tar hänsyn till hur fastighetsmäklarkontoren ser på de utmaningar som sociala medier innefattar och hur de hanterar dessa.

    Diskussion: Här jämförs den tidigare forskningen om sociala medier med fastighetsmäklarkontorens åsikter.

    Slutsats: Sociala medier är en del av fastighetsmäklarkontorens moderniseringsarbete och fastighetsmäklarkontor bör använda sig av sociala medier som marknadsföringskanal. Sociala medier är en utmaning och tidskrävande för fastighetsmäklarkontoren men samtliga anser att sociala medier kan förbättra deras ställning på marknaden om det hanteras korrekt.

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  • 120.
    Andersson, Jonny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Nordenberg, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Energieffektiv nyproduktion?: "It´s an ecenomic thing"2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Författare: Jonny Andersson och Anders Nordenberg

    Handledare: Tommy Bergquist Titel: It´s an ecenomic thing – Energieffektivt byggande

    Inledning och problem:Idag produceras det fler bostadsrätter än hyresrätter. Följaktligen kommer de nyproducerade bostadsrätterna i allt högre grad avgöra hur energieffektivt det svenska nyproducerade fastighetsbeståndet byggs. En än mer energieffektiv nyproduktion kan vara förenad med en högre initial kostnad för grundinvesteringen. Ett fastighetsbolag som är långsiktig i sitt ägande kan med fördel välja en mer energieffektiv byggnad eftersom det ger lägre driftskostnader över fastighetens livscykel. En byggentreprenör som producerar bostadsrätter i egen regi saknar det långsiktiga ägarperspektivet då förvaltningen när byggnaden är färdigställd övergår till bostadsrättsföreningen. Det gör det följaktligen svårt för byggentreprenörerna att motivera en mer kostsam grundinvestering i syfte att uppnå en mer energieffektiv byggnad.

    Syfte:Syftet med denna kandidatuppsats är att undersöka om det finns någon skillnad i hur energieffektivt hyres- och bostadsrätter produceras. Vidare ämnar uppsatsen att undersöka de ekonomiska incitament som kan möjliggöra en mer energieffektiv nyproduktion av hyres- och bostadsrätter.

    Metod:Uppsatsen bygger på både en kvalitativ och en kvantitativ metod. Den kvalitativa delen gjordes genom fem intervjuer där tre respondenter var byggentreprenörer och två var fastighetsbolag. Den kvantitativa delen genomfördes genom att studera statistik som inhämtats från Boverket angående energiförbrukning för nyproducerade fastigheter under åren 2006-2008. Slutligen analyserades och diskuterades denna empiri utifrån uppsatsens referensram.

    Slutsats:Utifrån uppsatsen kan vi fastslå att hyresrätter inte produceras mer energieffektivt än bostadsrätter. Det råder ett omvänt förhållande. Vi kan vidare dra slutsatsen att flerbostadshus med bostads- och hyresrätter överlaginte produceras så energieffektivt som idag är rimligt. Samtidigt som det kan konstateras att en mer energieffektiv nyproduktion inte nödvändigtvis är förenad med en väsentligt högre initial grundinvestering. Vi kan avslutningsvis dra slutsatsen att ett det finns ekonomiska incitament för aktörer i den svenska bygg- och fastighetssektorn att vara miljöprofilerade.

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  • 121.
    Andersson, Julia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Sjöö, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Hållbarhetskommunikation i hållbarhetsrapportering: Företags användning av visuella element2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability issues are becoming more important in today’s society, which also includes companies’ actions. On the other hand, previous research regarding sustainability communication has mainly a consumer perspective. At the same time, sustainability reporting is a way to communicate sustainability activities to more stakeholders. Communication through sustainability reporting can be performed via both textual information and visuals, such as diagrams, graphs and tables, icons, photographs, infographics, and layout. Previous research has mainly been carried out regarding textual information in sustainability reporting, and separately about each visual. However, a common perception is that each visual combined with textual information is preferable. Due to inadequate research of the visuals in sustainability reporting, and its importance, the study will therefore examine how and why these are used separately and combined. The purpose of the study is thereby to examine companies use of visuals to communicate sustainability activities through sustainability reporting.

    The study presents sustainability communication, sustainability reporting and the five identified visuals. To answer the purpose of the study, a case study was conducted with five case companies from different industries and directed to consumers and other companies. Data were collected through a document study of the case companies’ sustainability reporting created during the year 2020 or 2020/2021, where the visuals were reviewed. The documents were a complement to the study’s five qualitative interviews with six respondents employed at the case companies, with knowledge about sustainability reporting. 

    The results of the study indicate some common reasons for the use of visuals in sustainability reporting, such as simplifying for the reader and well thought out design. The combination of visuals and textual information is indicated to be important, but according to the results of the study, visuals should be seen as a complement in communication through sustainability reporting. On the other hand, there are mainly different reasons for the use of each visual and itscomposition, which may be due to different industries, and aimed at consumers and other companies.

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  • 122.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    The effect of frontline employees' personal self-disclosure on consumers' encounter experience2016In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 30, no May, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how frontline employee self-disclosure influences consumers’ reciprocal behavior. To investigate the effects of frontline employee self-disclosure, two experiments were conducted with a total sample of 475 participants. The results show that when frontline employees disclose personal information in one-time encounters, they are perceived as less competent and more superficial. The results also show that self-disclosure negatively affects reciprocal behavior, but that this is mediated through liking, competence, superficiality, and satisfaction. These findings suggest that it is not always beneficial for employees to use self-disclosure as a strategy for garnering a consumer's trust or satisfaction, which counters previous research that suggest that disclosure of personal information is a good way to positively influence consumers in the retail environment.

  • 123.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Nöjd, Sture
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Westman, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    The How, What, and Why of Digitalizing Physical Retail Spaces2019In: The 16th International Research Symposium on Advancing Service Research and Practice, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This aim of this study is to enhance the understanding of customer behavior and customer experience in the context of city centers and peripheral shopping centers and how the use of digitalized services affects this experience. In this paper we adopt a qualitative approach to explore consumers´ activities when visiting a city and/or a shopping center and the experiences connected to the visit. The study is based on data from 832 (55% female) with a M age = 48 years (range 17-91 years) consumers.

    When visiting a city center and/or a shopping center, customers engage with a variety of different touchpoints (Socchi, Hart and Haji, 2016). From a customer perspective these touchpoints create experiences that generates many types of values. In recent years, the mass media has warned for the demise of city and shopping centers commerce. This purported demise is mainly due to the strong growth of e-commerce. To meet this competition, the retail and hospitality industry has developed strategies to create new customer experiences and thus attract customers back to the city center’s physical places. As a consequence of the technical development, companies frequently try to influence customers’ experiences through various digitalized services, where these digitalized service have the potential to improve customer experience by providing superior and personalized services (Roy et al. 2016). The question is what impact such services have on customers’ experiences and how this, in turn, affects the profitability of the retail and hospitality industry as a whole.

    In order to shed light on the activities and experiences of visitors to city and shopping centers regular consumers were approach during a regular visit to such an area and asked to answer a few open ended questions.  The data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis aims to identify and report on thematic patterns across the sample, which allows researchers to make interpretations of the data that reflect the reported reality of participants (Braun and Clarke, 2006; Hayes, 2000; Ruane and Wallace, 2013).

    The preliminary analysis of the data shows a variety of activities and touchpoints when visiting the city and shopping center. Seven themes emerged in our analysis of the participants´ responses: Relationship, Goal fulfillment, Experiences, Physical venue, Milieu, Practical usability and Non-intrusive.

    In order to make more sense of the seven themes a model were developed. In this model three of the themes were connected to the customer, two connected to the service provider and the last two connected to digital technology. These three clusters interact in different ways.

    The customer cluster contains the themes relationships, goal fulfilment and experiences. The themes in this cluster describe and vivifies the customer. The customer is not just a “shopping robot” jumping from touchpoint to touchpoint along a customer journey. The customer instead is a person with goals to fulfil but at the same time someone who has a great need of relationships on different levels and a person who will and want to experience things.

    The service provider cluster contains two themes. One were named physical venue and this is where the service provider, be it a storeowner or a restaurant owner for example, has the most direct control. It is also where the customer will go to fulfil his or her goals. Here the direct contact between customer and service provider can and will take place. The second theme in this cluster were named “milieu”. The milieu can be the space the customer needs to pass in order to get to the physical venue or other factors that the service provider do not have control over (e.g. public spaces and weather)

    The third and most interesting cluster concerns the digital technology, named practical usability and non-intrusive. Digitalization is highly interesting when it comes to the relationship between the customer and the service provider. The first theme described the importance of the usefulness of digital technology, and  in regards to digitalization the results indicates that digitalized services mostly fulfill utilitarian needs and works best in functional touchpoints. The theme called non-intrusive describes the relation between the customer and the digital technology. It may be somewhat drastic to talk about a two edged sword but on the one hand digital technology makes life easier and sometimes more joyful and at the same time the technology may disturb goal activities which leads to negative experiences.

    These findings is important because it offers help to those managing city and shopping centers in identify touchpoints that need to be digitalized and those who need to be reinforced through social activities This knowledge could also help managers develop strategies to create new customer experience, i.e. create good valuescapes, and thus tease customer back to the city and shopping center´s physical places.

    REFERENCES

    Braun, V. and Clarke, V., (2006), 'Using thematic analysis in psychology’, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2) 77-101

    Hayes, N. (2000), Doing Psychological Research, Open University Press, Buckinghamshire.

    Ruane, L. and Wallace, E., (2013), 'Generation Y females online: insight from brand narratives', Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 16 (3) 315-335

    Roy, S. K., Balaji, M. S., Sadeque, S., Nguyen, B., and Mlewar, T. C., (2016), 'Constituents and consequences of smart customer experience in retailing', Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 124 257-270

    Stocchi, L., Hart, C., and Haji, I., (2016), 'Understanding the town centre customer experience (TCCE) ', Journal of Marketing Management, 32 (17-18) 1562-1587

  • 124.
    Andersson, Karl-Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Jarnemo, Christina
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Zetterström, Johan
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    En studie om användandet av årsredovisningen i samband med marknadsföring2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our essay treats the use of the annual report when it comes to marketing. Today there are many different ways for companies to reach out with their different messages; the thing that caught our interest was if the annual report is such a way.

    The annual report is an external accounting report which task is to give information to interested parties of companies. The annual report can be used to examine if the company has followed and achieved their goals. In other words it’s an important source of information that can be found about a company, which different interested parties can take part of for analyze. In the annual reports of today the reader can get a clear picture about the enterprise of a company. Though a large part of the information in the annual report is voluntary and each company makes their own decision about how much they want to account, it is of great importance for the credibility of the information. Something that has contributed to this development is, among other things, the demand from interested parties of the companies.

    The purpose of this essay is to examine how important the use of the annual report is when it comes to marketing. To make this subject more interesting for the reader we have chosen to compare companies on the stock market with non stock market companies. We hope that the comparison can demonstrate if the companies market themselves to the interested parties through annual reports and in that case how much the two types of companies differ.

    Our research was of a qualitative nature, besides using information from literature we made nine telephone interviews and took part in one interview by e-mail. By using the results from the interviews and the information from the literature we answered the questions we approached and therefore accounted for the purpose of the essay.

    In our theory we have chosen to bring up the aspects that we think are important to considerate if you use the annual report as a marketing channel. One of these aspects is the layout of the annual report, which makes a big difference in making the report comprehensible for the reader.

    From our analysis we came to the conclusion that the non stock market companies will not account voluntary information in the same extension as the companies on the stock market. From our interviews we interpreted it as if the companies on the stock market had started to observe usage of the annual report as a marketing channel. But it is a long way to go before the companies see marketing as a natural part of the annual report.

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  • 125.
    Andersson, Linn
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Mattsson, Louise
    Frivillig redovisning enligt GRI:s riktlinjer G4: Hur den sociala aspekten redovisas inom textil- och klädesbranschen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag vill uppfattas som legitima och redovisar därför information om sitt sociala arbete, men beroende på vilken typ av information som presenteras kan företagen uppfattas på olika sätt av en intressent. Upprättandet av hållbarhetsrapporter enligt GRI:s ramverk skapar en grad av legitimitet, men inom den sociala aspekten finns utrymme för tolkning och informationen blir ofta subjektiv. Syftet med uppsatsen är att granska hur företag redovisar den sociala aspekten i hållbarhetsrapporter och ur ett intressentperspektiv identifiera möjliga problem som kan uppstå vid tolkning av informationen, som företagen väljer att offentliggöra. I den teoretiska referensramen beskrivs CSR-konceptet, organisationen Global Reporting Initiative och dess ramverk G4 samt ett antala redovisningsteorier. För studien har en kvalitativ metod används och insamlingen av data har genomförts med dokumentundersökningar. Fyra hållbarhetsrapporter från företag inom kläd- och textilbrnschen har granskats med utgångspunkt i den sociala aspekten. I det empiriska materialet presenteras hurvida företagen uppfyller ramverkets rekomendationer om vilken information som ska redovisas enligt de valda indikatorerna i rapporterna. Vidare analyseras rapporternas innehåll med hjälp av tidigare forskning. Studien visar att företag tenderar att endast delvis redovisa den information som de utger sig ha med enligt ramverket. Vid granskning av rapporterna ansågs heller inte mängden information ha ett direkt samband med rapportens trovärdighet. Den största anledningen till att företagen inte uppfyller det som GRI avser med sitt ramverk G4 är att kvantitativ data i form av siffror saknas. Studiens slutsats är således att en intressent inte har möjlighet att validera företagens arbete inom den sociala aspekten genom att endast läsa deras hållbarhetsrapport och bör granska dessa kritiskt.

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  • 126. Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT (discontinued), Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Discrimination in the Norwegian Housing Market: Class, Sex and Ethnicity2012In: Land Economics, ISSN 0023-7639, E-ISSN 1543-8325, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 233-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We test for gender, class, and ethnic discrimination in the Norwegian rental housing market by using fake application letters. Females, individuals with high job status, and ethnic Norwegians are more likely to receive positive responses. For example, being an Arabic man and working in a warehouse is associated with a 25 percentage point lower probability of receiving a positive response when showing interest in an apartment, as compared to an ethnically Norwegian female economist. We conclude that gender, class, and ethnic discrimination do exist in the Norwegian housing market, and ethnic discrimination seems to be the most prevalent form of discrimination.

  • 127.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Meningsskapande verk: En studie av redovisning, kommunikation och kultur2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har utförts i två organisationer, järnverket Uddeholm Tooling AB samt Statens Räddningsverk. På Uddeholm Tooling AB har undersökningen koncentrerats till avdelningen Terminalen och på Statens Räddningsverk har två enheter studerats, ekonomienheten i Karlstad samt Revinge skola. På såväl Terminalen som Statens Räddningsverk finns problem gällande kommunikationen mellan olika aktörer. Studien har genomförts med en kvalitativ metod bestående av observationer och intervjuer. Syftet med studien är att undersöka och skapa förståelse för kommunikationens betydelse vid förmedling av ekonomisk information.

    Under studiens gång har meningsskapande blivit det övergripande ämnesområdet. I båda organisationerna bottnar många problem i att medarbetarna inte skapar mening med händelser i organisationen. Då kommunikationen inte fungerar aktörer emellan, minskar möjligheterna för gemensamt meningsutbyte gällande bland annat den ekonomiska informationen. Inom såväl Terminalen som Statens Räddningsverk önskar medarbetare fler möten där utbyte av åsikter och synpunkter kan ske. Detta skulle kunna öka medarbetarnas möjlighet till att uppnå en gemensam förståelse kring ekonomisk information och redovisningsfrågor.

    Även kulturen har visat sig påverka meningsskapandet, då det inom båda organisationerna finns olika normer och värderingar. För att få till stånd ett meningsutbyte och gemensam förståelse finns det därför behov av en kulturförändring inom såväl Terminalen som Statens Räddningsverk, där olika kulturer möter varandra.

    Undersökningen har visat att förståelsen för ekonomisk information kan ökas genom användandet av händelseberättelser. Berättelserna är en form av händelseredovisning, och kan fungera som kommunikationsmedel. Medarbetarna på Terminalen fick under en utvecklingsresa, våren 2006, ta del av två lokalt anpassade händelseberättelser gällande olika situationer på avdelningen. Undersökningen visade att dessa berättelser fungerade som diskussionsunderlag, vilket ledde till ett ökat meningsskapande och till gemensamma beslut om åtgärder för att lösa problem på avdelningen.

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  • 128.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Terminalen - en teamorganisation?: En undersökning på Uddeholm Tooling AB2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det huvudsakliga ämnesområdet i denna uppsats är teamorganisation. En kvalitativ studie har utförts i form av tre dagars observationer och tre gruppintervjuer på plats i Terminalen, en avdelning på järnverket, Uddeholm Tooling AB, i Hagfors. Syftet med studien är att undersöka om Terminalen fungerar som en teamorganisation eller inte.

    Teamorganisationer är en organisationsform som är uppbyggd av flera team och har en ledare som fungerar som samordnare. Teamen i en teamorganisation har i jämförelse med traditionella organisationer ett större ansvar för sina arbetsuppgifter.

    Det finns ett uttalat problem kring materialhanteringen på Terminalen och medarbetarna får ofta söka efter material som kommit på villovägar. Problemet i sig har blivit en viktig del i studien då frågor kring varför problemet existerar, är relaterat till Terminalen som en teamorganisation. Uppsatsen är baserad på fem nyckelord med syfte att undersöka Terminalen som en teamorganisation. Nyckelorden är team, kommunikation, ansvar, tillit och kultur. De fyra första är baserade på teori medan det sista är empiriskt baserat. Nyckelorden har visat sig samspela med varandra och åskådliggör både positiva och negativa aspekter. Såväl medarbetarnas egna uttalanden som uppfattningar från observationerna, har uppenbarat vissa brister i agerande förknippade till nyckelorden.

    Under studiens gång har det framkommit att medarbetarna ser Terminalen som uppdelad i olika team, vilket en teamorganisation skall vara. Dock visar undersökningen att den gemensamma teamkänslan och det gemensamma ansvarstagandet för hela avdelningen som en helhet, kan bli bättre. Förutom detta skulle även en fördjupning av tilliten kunna ske.

    I relation till problemet med materialhanteringen har kommunikation blivit en uppmärksammad faktor. Såväl observationer som intervjuer har visat på att kommunikationen kan förbättras.

    Kulturen på Terminalen lever kvar sedan många år tillbaka. I Hagfors finns en bruksmentalitet, vilken återspeglas på Terminalen. Kulturen har i studien inte diskuterats öppet, då intresset var att se hur den framträder i medarbetarnas handlande.

    Vår slutats är att Terminalen idag inte fungerar som en teamorganisation. Förutsättningar finns dock för att de belysta problemen skall kunna lösas, så att Terminalen i framtiden skall fungera som en teamorganisation.

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  • 129.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gunnarsson, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fastighetsmäklarens sidotjänster: Sidotjänsternas påverkan på kundernas val av fastighetsmäklare2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En ny fastighetsmäklarlag trädde i kraft juli 2011 (SFS 2011:666). I och med detta blev det lagligt för fastighetsmäklare att förmedla sidotjänster. Detta innebär att de vid sidan av själva förmedlingsuppdraget får erbjuda andra tjänster till kunderna. De får för sidotjänsterna ta ut en mindre summa i ersättning. Tidigare har sidotjänster ansetts som förtroenderubbande och därmed har det varit olagligt. Syftet med denna uppsats var att klargöra vilka sidotjänster som finns och hur det påverkar kundernas val av fastighetsmäklare utifrån ett förtroendeperspektiv. Vi har också studerat hur marknadsföringen påverkas. De vanligaste sidotjänsterna är förmedling av bolån, säljarförsäkring, försäkring av dubbel boendekostnad, flyttstädning, visningsstädning, flytthjälp, homestyling och yrkesfotograf. Eftersom fastighetsmäklaren kan erbjuda sidotjänster kan kunden få en helhetslösning som gör det komfortabelt. Fastighetsmäklarna tycker det är viktigt med bra samarbete, då det påverkar deras eget rykte. Det gör att kunderna kan lita på att samarbetet som fastighetsmäklaren har är bra. Samarbete som uppstår genom sidotjänster medför en bättre och mer kostnadseffektiv marknadsföring för fastighetsmäklare. Fastighetsmäklaren rekommenderas till andra eventuella kunder och därmed ökar chansen till fler förmedlingsuppdrag. En enkätundersökning har genomförts där 200 fastighetsmäklare och kunder från olika mäklarbyråer som Svensk Fastighetsförmedling, Fastighetsbyrån, Skandiamäklarna, Husmanhagberg, Mäklarringen, Mäklarhuset och Länsförsäkringar har blivit kontaktade. Vi har avgränsat oss till medelstora städer i Sverige; Karlstad, Örebro, Falun, Uppsala, Växjö och Lund. Svarsfrekvensen var låg och enbart 31 fastighetsmäklare och 17 kunder besvarade enkäten. Enkäterna analyserades och sammanfattades. Med hjälp av de teorier som vi funnit och de svar som erhållits från enkäterna har olika intressanta slutsatser kunnat dras. En av dessa är att sidotjänster anses vara positivt för både fastighetsmäklare och kunder.

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  • 130.
    Andersson, Marcus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Tysklind, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Marknadsanalys av ETS: den listiga funktionen2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 131.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Schill, Alexandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Vad har den vinnande budgivaren för strategi i budgivningen i en fastighetsaffär?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 132.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Sellin, Madeleine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Frikoppling eller samordning?: En studie om avskaffandet av sambandet mellan redovisning och beskattning för K2 företag.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to gain a deeper insight into a decoupling between accounting and taxation. By a study on the audit firms’ attitude concerning SamRoBs proposal on decoupling and what affects K2 companies may be facing are we intending to create a deeper understanding in the discussion of a total decoupling of the material relationship for K2 companies.

    The study is based on a qualitative research and has an analytical approach. The data consists of primary and secondary data that is critically reviewed to assess the validity and reliability of the study.

    In order to create understanding of the relationship between accounting and taxation relevant concepts and theories are presented. The contents of SOU 2008:80 will also be described.

    The empirical data presents the respondents´ views and comments on the proposal, SOU 2008:80, for a decoupling between accounting and taxation. Respondents interviewed were three employees from three of the largest audit firms in Sweden.

    The true meaning of decoupling for K2 companies in practice is coordination. If SamRoBs proposal is adapted to the K2 regulation a new framework will appear and in the long run involve a simplification for K2 companies. Broadly, the work of the auditing firms will not mean considerable changes even though current auditors may think the workload will increase.

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  • 133.
    Andersson, Matilda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Projektledares syn på samverkan: En studie om samverkan med offentliga aktörer i evenemnagsprojekt2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 134.
    Andersson, Micaela
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Karlsson, Lisa
    Upprustning av miljonprogram: En undersökning om kommunala bostadsbolag2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Upprustning av miljonprogram
  • 135. Andersson, Mikaela
    et al.
    Hermansson, Kristin
    Har stram budgetstyrning någon påverkan på finansiella budgetavvikelser?: En studie inom Sveriges landsting2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Har stram budgetstyrning någon påverkan på finansiella budgetavvikelser?
  • 136. Andersson, Mikaela
    et al.
    Hermansson, Kristin
    Har stram budgetstyrning någon påverkan på finansiella budgetavvikelser?: En studie inom Sveriges landsting2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 137. Andersson, N.
    et al.
    Arnerup-Cooper, B.
    Carlsson, Carin
    Haglund, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Studenter om studier och arbete2000Report (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Andersson, Nathalie
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Vålvik, Daniel
    Karlstad University.
    Fastighetsförvaltningens förändring under en kris: Covid-192021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The change in property management during a crisis - Covid19.

    Crisis management and commercial property management are two phenomena that are well documented in each field, but there is a lack of research regarding what crisis management looks like in the real estate industry. This essay intends to combine these and describe how the management of commercial properties handles crises and how they need to change their management work. The purpose of this thesis is thus to describe how the property management of commercial properties has changed during a crisis with Covid-19 as a starting point. The study intends to account for the basics of how commercial property management has been affected and what measures the property managers have had to take. Based on the problems underlying the study, a qualitative research method was applied. During the collection of data, a number of interviews were conducted with respondents who worked with management of commercial properties. A total of seven interviews were conducted which were transcribed, coded and interpreted.

    The essay also contains a method chapter where we describe in detail how the study was conducted and how we took into account the respondents participating in the study. After the method chapter, we have a chapter where we set the conditions that are specific to the Covid-19 pandemic. The results of the survey show that managers who work in commercial management have needed to take measures to ensure the safety of both themselves, employees and their tenants. How prepared they have been for a similar crisis has varied and so have the measures implemented. The results also show how customer contact has changed and how the finances have been affected by the measures they have had to implement. After the results were presented, an analysis was performed where the results are linked to previous literature. Then a conclusion is presented where we summarize the main points of the results and it also describes the study's contribution to the field of research. Finally, opportunities for future research are presented.

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  • 139.
    Andersson, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    How friendship might create reciprocal effects in terms of purchases2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Andersson, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Background music as part of the servicescape: A study of the effect of music on the shopping experience2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Andersson, Rönning, Simon
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Rönning, Jacob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    ESG-betyg och företagsvärdering: En studie om ESGs påverkan av en akties värdering2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability has become a more and more recognized concept, today all the major corporations communicate that they are trying to contribute to a better and more sustainable world. An important term when it comes to sustainability is ESG which stands for Environmental, Social and Governance. ESG originates from CSR which stands for Corporate Social responsibility.This study aims to determine if ESG-rating have a significant impact on the valuation of a company, this study also aims to determine if the impact is positive or negative. The ESG-rating will be used as compounded variable and as variables divided into Environmental, Social and governance. This study consists of 44 companies listed on OMX Stockholm Large Cap between 2004-2019. In order to measure valuation, different key-ratios will be used, the key-ratios measure the market cap relative to different measures of assets and earnings.The result from this study shows that the impact ESG has on valuation varies depending on which key-ratios that are used in order to measure valuation. ESG does not have a significant impact on all the key-ratios. This study concluded that a high ESG-rating tend to increase valuation, that was also the case for Social and Governance. While high rating for environmental tend to decrease the valuation where the regression shows that ESG has a significant effect on the valuation.

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    ESG-betyg och företagsvärdering
  • 142.
    Andersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Vassberg, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Vad påverkar flyktingmottagandet?: en studie av Sveriges kommuner2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 1970: s more refugees began to apply for citizenship in Sweden and a demand for a new system to handle and integrate the refugees appeared. Since 1985 the Swedish refugee reception are based on agreements and cooperation between Migrationsverket and individual municipalities. The state has the overall economic responsibility for the refugee reception, while the municipalities organize the reception and public service for the refugees. However according to a list from Migrationsverket the refugee reception in Sweden is irregularly distributed over the country - some municipalities do not accept any refugees at all.

    The aim of this essay is to examine which factors that influence the municipalities’ willingness to accept refugees. The question the essay intends to answer is:

    • How does the variables average income, unemployment, age distribution, housing shortage, political majority, the number of seats the political party Sverigedemokraterna holds in the municipal council and the proportion of former foreign citizens, influences the different municipalities' willingness to accept refugees?

    With help of statistic analysis following results emerged:

    • The proportion of foreign citizens that already live in a municipality have a considerable impact on the proportion of received refugees. Videlicet if the proportion of former foreign citizens is large already, also the refugee reception is large.

    • The average income interacts negatively with the proportion refugees that are accepted in a municipality.

    • Non-Socialist majority in a municipality have a negative effect on the refugee reception. However, one can not say that a socialist majority or how many seats the political party Sverigedemokraterna holds in the municipal council have any impact on the refugee reception.

    • Increased unemployment in a municipality decreases the refugee reception.

    • A shortage of housing has a small negative impact on the reception.

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  • 143.
    Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gustavsson, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Varumärkesprofilering: En fallstudie gjord på varumärket Westra Wermlands Sparbank2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Westra Wermlands Sparbank är en fristående Sparbank som är verksam i västra Värmland med huvudkontor i Arvika. Bankens affärsidé bygger på att vara lokala, finnas nära till hands för sina kunder och verka för bygden.

    För att kunna bedriva denna typ av enskild bankverksamhet behövs ändå en omfattande infrastruktur och produktsortiment. Att utveckla egna IT-system och exempelvis fonder är inte tänkbart då detta skulle bli alldeles för dyrt. Genom ett samarbete med storbanken Swedbank löses tidigare nämnda problem, men samarbetet genererar i ett annat problem, nämligen att Swedbank inverkar på Westra Wermlands Sparbanks varumärke och identitet.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är därför att få en djupare förståelse för varumärkeshanteringen hos Westra Wermlands Sparbank och att undersöka de effekter som uppkommer internt och externt vid ett företagssamarbete, som exempelvis det med Swedbank.

     

    För att få förståelse och kunskap inom ämnet har vi fördjupat oss i teorier kring varumärkets funktioner, brand equity, brand identity – brand image samt kommunikation. Denna teori användes växelvis med metoden då ett abduktivt angreppssätt valdes. Studien är uppbyggd på kvalitativ data utifrån en personlig intervju och tre stycken fokusgrupper.

    Kontentan i uppsatsen är att Westra Wermlands Sparbank huvudsakligen jobbar teoretiskt rätt internt med uppgiften att hantera sitt varumärke. Vi ifrågasätter dock den något knapphändiga hanteringen av feedback från kampanjer och kundrespons. Den uppfattning som konsumenterna har av varumärket skiljer sig markant från person till person, samtidigt finns det en synbar okunskap hos merparten av respondenterna om banken och dess verksamhet. Externa faktorer såsom samarbetet med Swedbank, referensgrupper m.m. har en betydande roll för den generella uppfattningen, men vi kan likväl inte utesluta att banken själv alltid agerar helt korrekt utåt i sin marknadsföring.

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  • 144.
    Andersson, Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Sandberg, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Facility Management: en studie av sex organisationer och företag2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med att intresset ökat för produktivitetsförbättringar, med början under tidigt 1980-tal, har FM blivit mer och mer intressant för företag. Detta då de insett vikten av att stödjande funktioner måste hinna med i utvecklingen av kärnverksamheten för att ökad effektivitet skall kunna erhållas. FM beskrivs som ett sätt för företag och organisationer att samordna, organisera och sköta de stödfunktioner som krävs för att kärnverksamheten skall kunna bedrivas och bli så effektiv och produktiv som möjligt. Stödfunktionerna kan antingen utföras i intern eller extern regi. Med kärnverksamhet menas det som privat och offentlig sektor ser som sin huvuduppgift.

    Den här uppsatsen är skriven i syfte att förtydliga begreppet FM, som kan uppfattas som relativt svårgreppbart. Vi vill även undersöka hur privata företag och offentliga organisationer har valt att använda sig av FM-begreppet och om det finns någon skillnad mellan privat och offentlig sektor gällande FM-strukturen och synsättet. För att uppnå syftet med uppsatsen har vi undersökt vad FM är enligt branschen, företagen och organisationerna, hur FM-strukturen ser ut i undersökningens företag och organisationer och vad som har integrerats i FM hos dessa. Vi har även undersökt varför FM har införts i undersökningens företag och organisationer och vilka mål som finns med FM efter införandet, samt hur dessa mål mäts. Vidare har vi tagit reda på hur studiens företag och organisationer själva upplever att FM har mottagits av respektive aktörs kärnverksamhets personal (aktörens egen kund), kundernas kund samt vilka för- och nackdelar det finns med FM.

    Metoden som använts för att belysa dessa frågor, är kvalitativ med en blandning av induktiv och deduktiv datainsamling. Detta då delar av teoribildningen inom vårt ämnesområde inte är särskilt utvecklad. Vår insamling av empiri skedde genom sex semistrukturerade intervjuer, tre med privata företag samt tre med offentliga organisationer. Den insamlade empirin samt den teori som fanns strukturerades sedan och analyserades.

    Av undersökningen framgår att FM sträcker sig över ett mycket stort område med många olika sorters tjänster. Huvudsakligen är teori och empiri överens om vad FM är. Våra respondenters åsikter om FM går dock isär gällande frågan om fastigheten skall vara det viktigaste eller enbart en del i FM. Hos de företag/organisationer som intervjuats har ett företag varit en extern FM-enhet, de övriga fem har varit interna enheter. Vi har i vår empiri fått en bild av att effektivitet oftast är den grundläggande orsaken till varför företag/organisationer inför FM, men även andra faktorer såsom t.ex. förtydligande för företaget har spelat roll. Ökad effektivitet är även ett av målen med FM för företagen/organisationerna. Exempel på andra mål med FM är att kunskapen om stödfunktionerna ska öka. Gällande mål syns en stor skillnad mellan de interna FM-enheterna och den externa FM-enheten, då de interna enheterna inte har något vinstsyfte. Företagen/organisationerna valde att mäta sina mål på olika sätt.

    Det finns främst positiva attityder angående FM-begreppet. Enligt våra respondenter har FM övervägande varit positivt för de som är anställda i kärnverksamheterna. Två av våra respondenter har dock uttalat sig om att en viss negativ inställning finns hos personalen.

    Hur kundernas kund, alltså kärnverksamhetens kunder upplever FM har vi inte vid vår undersökning fått reda på, eftersom ingen av våra respondenter egentligen kunde svara på vår fråga. Enligt oss borde det ligga i FM-enhetens intresse att mäta kundernas kunds uppfattning.

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  • 145.
    Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Mets, Alexandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Cross-Cultural Business Negotiations: The Impact of Business Cultures from a Swedish Perspective2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With our increasingly competitive globalized economy, we are experiencing an emerging trend of firms competing on new international business markets (Bell et al. 2001; Huang 2010). In order to successfully negotiate in an international context, cultural sensitivity needs to be taken into consideration (Manrai & Manrai 2010). This study aims to examine how and to what extent professionalnegotiators’ international negotiation process is influenced by different businesscultures. The study was made by in-depth interviews of five Swedish based professional negotiators and their experiences from negotiating in France, Brazil and Singapore. The mentioned negotiation process was based on Ghuari’s(2003) international business negotiation model which consists of a pre- negotiation stage, a face-to-face negotiation stage and a post-negotiation stage. These stages have been analyzed and interconnected with several cultural variables such as cultural intelligence, adaptation, communication, hierarchy and the Hofstede (2011) parameter of collectivistic versus individualistic cultures to substantiate our two research questions: 1) How does culture intervene in the different stages of the negotiation process? And 2) How are the negotiators adjusting their negotiation strategy to better accommodate the specific culture?

    The empirical findings showed that there are several differences in both theFrench, Brazilian and Singaporean business culture as well as the negotiators’experiences of their need of adapting to the culture they are negotiating with. The data highlighted the importance of cultural understanding and obtaining the knowledge in a pre-negotiation stage in order to prevent unnecessary misunderstandings which could obstruct the negotiation. The major differenceswhich required the negotiators’ understanding and adaptation was the crucialfactor of building a relationship with the Singaporean delegation, the French’stough negotiation approach and the hierarchical setting in Brazil. The conclusions demonstrated the benefits of cultural adaption as well as the potential pitfall of over-adapting and the imperative preparatory work needed in the pre-negotiation stage of the negotiation.

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    Cross-Cultural Business Negotiations
  • 146.
    Andersson Zarins, Pontus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Agnemyr, Gustav
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Hållbarhetsredovisning som beslutsunderlag för investmentbolag2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been an increased awareness of the impact companies and individuals have on the journey towards a sustainable development, this has led us as individuals and companies to understand that we must take our responsibility to create a sustainable future for future generations. As the increased focus on sustainability in society, sustainability reports have emerged. Today, it is important that companies act sustainable on an economic, social and environmental level. Acting sustainably has become an important part for both individuals and companies. This has led to an increase in sustainable investments in recent years and put pressure on companies to be transparent and communicate their sustainability impact to their stakeholders.

    One of the most important stakeholder groups that companies work with is investors. The purpose of the study is to increase the understanding of investment companies', as a part of the stakeholder group investors, use of sustainability reports when they make investment decisions and if they feel that the information they request is included in the companies' sustainability reports. To achieve the purpose of the study, we have used a qualitative research approach, where we used semi-structured interviews with selected respondents who have good knowledge in the area of sustainability reports and sustainable investments.

    The results of the study show that the sustainability reports help our investors to make sustainable investments, but that an investment is never based solely on what is stated in a sustainability report. The respondents believe that sustainability reporting is a starting point in the sustainability analysis that is carried out before an investment decision is made. This means that the sustainability report today functions as a complement to other sources of information that the investment companies use. The fact that no respondent uses the sustainability report as the sole source of information indicates that the content of a sustainability report does not meet the information requirements that investors have for sustainability information.

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    fulltext
  • 147.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Gunnarsson, Josefin
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Karlstads universitet: studenten som en del av universitetets marknadsföring2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 148.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Gunnarsson, Josefin
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Rask, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Användardriven tjänsteutveckling: FöreningsSparbankens projekt Ständiga förbättringar2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 149.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande.
    Andersén, Annelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Deconstructing resistance to organizational change: A social representation theory approach2014In: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 342-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Social representation theory (SRT) is a growing theory in social psychology research. SRT is about how individuals co-construct representations of various objects in different social settings. These social representations govern the attitudes and actions of individuals and groups. In spite of the growing interest in SRT in various fields, no studies have used SRT to understand resistance to organizational change. Thus, the purpose of this work is to illustrate how SRT can be used to understand the concept of resistance to change.

    Design/methodology/approach - Review of the relevant literature on resistance to change and SRT in order to develop a conceptual framework for understanding resistance from the standpoint of SRT.

    Findings - We develop a model that illustrates how three interrelated objects, i.e. the organizational process and the pre- and post-change situation, are co-constructed in social contexts. Also, we discuss how representations of these objects can co-exist (cognitive polyphasia). Our study illustrates the complexity of resistance to change by deconstructing the concept.

    Originality/value - Application of SRT in order to analyze resistance to organizational change is a novel approach that provides several new insights. For example, whereas most publications regard advocates of change as sense-givers in the change recipient’s sense-making process, we argue for a more constructionist approach. Thus, all actors involved in the change process will affect each other and together co-construct the social representations. These social representations govern attitudes to change.

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  • 150.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Andersén, Annelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    The relationship between employee well-being and firm performance: A resource-based analysis2012In: Proceedings of the 12th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Business, Hawaii International Conference on Business , 2012, p. 719-724Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancing the wellbeing of employees is a key feature of human resource management (HRM) and numerous HRM-practices to strengthen the wellbeing of co-workers have been developed. Although the benefits for the employees of such practices are obvious, the relationship between employee wellbeing and firm performance is unclear. In order to strengthen this relationship some studies have extended the concept of firm performance by including additional "soft" dimensions of performance. However, investing in wellbeing is, of course, associated with costs and several scholars argue that investments in the wellbeing of employees can be regarded as any other investment and from an owner's perspective it is essential to get a return on the investment. In the field of strategic HRM (SHRM), some attempts have been made to analyze the relationship between wellbeing, firm resources and firm performance. Most studies have, however, focused on the relationship between specific HRM-activities and firm performance or certain aspects of resource features. For example, how the wellbeing of employees can enhance the retention of human resources or how wellbeing can stimulate intrapreneurship and thereby generate short-term increases in profits. Thus, few studies have analysed the relationship between wellbeing, competetive advantages and performance from a holistic approach. Consequently, in this paper we present a resource-based analysis of the relationship between the wellbeing of employees and firm performance. We present three propositions regarding the relationship between wellbeing, resources and firm performance. These propositions illustrate the complexity of the relationship by discussing why wellbeing can enhance as well as reduce firm performance.

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