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Prototyping with purpose: Increasing participatory design with malleable interactive prototypes
Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1455-240X
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)Alternative title
Design av IT-system tillsammans med användare : Ökat deltagande genom prototyper formbara under interaktion (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

This work emphasises the long-standing focus on democratisation in the participatory design field by analysing how participation can be achieved (the pragmatics of participation) and how participation can be increased (the politics of participation) through malleable interactive prototyping. 

Malleable interactive prototyping refers to the design of digital prototypes of IT systems that are open enough for a designer and a user to collaboratively design and re-design. The interactiveness allows the user to experience the interaction with the system and its design and also allows for redesign during the interaction.

This type of prototyping is explored in the collaborative design of an IT system between a designer and citizens at a hospital, and in a short series of co-design workshops with young learners as designers within a component of their digital competence education in upper secondary school. Through a qualitative analysis, this work demonstrates that malleable interactive prototyping increases participation and participatory design. Four conclusions are proposed for the participatory design field: malleable interactive prototyping gives users an informed voice in the design process, allows users to collaboratively design an IT system with a designer, facilitates mutual learning between designer and user, and increases the ecological validity of the collaborative design. Furthermore, the explorations contribute to the education field by showing that malleable interactive prototyping can explicate future use and the user as well as the role of the user and the IT system for young learners, thus enabling young learners to experience democratic IT systems design processes. These conclusions suggest that school policy writers should consider including a socio-technical perspective in the computational-focused curriculum and that educators should contemplate the delivery of this education across all programmes.

Abstract [en]

This study explores the role of prototyping in the democratisation of IT systems design processes. It introduces malleable interactive prototyping, which involves the utilisation of prototypes that allow users to perform valuable tasks and experience the design but are still open enough to enable unexpected interaction patterns and to be collaboratively designed during the interaction. 

This approach is investigated through two studies: in a hospital, where citizens collaboratively designed an IT system with a designer, and in an upper secondary school, where pupils collaboratively designed IT systems with peers, revealing the prototyping’s potential to boost participation and learning. 

A qualitative analysis concluded that malleable interactive prototyping enhances participation by giving users an informed voice in the design process, facilitating collaborative design, fostering mutual learning between designer and user, and improving design validity. This approach has the potential to enhance learning for young learners—whether or not programming is in their curricula—by clarifying the future use of IT systems and the users’ role and providing experiences of democratic design processes. This suggests integrating socio-technical perspectives into the curriculum.

Abstract [sv]

Demokratisering av IT-systemdesignprocesser har länge varit en brännpunkt inom fältet deltagande design. Den här studien undersöker användares deltagande i systemdesign ur ett pragmatiskt (hur deltagande kan möjliggöras) och ett politiskt perspektiv (hur inriktningen av deltagande kan omfatta fler).

Med formbar interaktiv prototyping åsyftas i den här studien utarbetandet av digitala prototyper som är öppna nog för att en designer och en användare tillsammans ska kunna designa prototypen samtidigt som prototyperna är interaktiva vilket låter användaren uppleva både interaktion med systemet och dess design. Interaktiviteten och öppenheten möjliggör omformning medan interaktionen pågår.

Formbar interaktiv prototyping används i studien för att undersöka möjligheter att öka användares medverkan och för att öka omfattningen av deltagande design. Två studier har genomförts: samskapande av en applikation på ett sjukhus med medborgare som meddesigners, respektive deltagande design drivet av grupper av gymnasieelever som en del av deras digitala kompetensundervisning.

Utifrån en kvalitativ analys förs fyra slutsatser riktade till fältet deltagande design fram: formbar interaktiv prototyping ger användare ett informerat inflytande i designprocessen, möjliggör för samskapande av IT-system mellan designer och användare, medför ett ömsesidigt lärande mellan designer och användare, och ökar samskapandets ekologiska validitet.

Tre slutsatser relevanta för skolväsendet förs också fram: de formbara interaktiva prototyperna tydliggör den framtida användningen och användaren för elever; liksom vilka roller användaren och IT-systemet har under en interaktion, samt möjliggör för elever att uppleva demokratiskt utformade IT-systemdesignprocesser. De här slutsatserna utgör ett starkt argument för skolpolitiker att föra in ett vidare perspektiv på digital kompetens i läroplaner, och för skolledare och lärare att överväga hur undervisningen kan utformas för de olika utbildningsprogrammen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2024. , p. 209
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2024:17
Keywords [en]
Co-design, IT-systems design, digital competence, education, interaction, Wizard of Oz, socio-technical perspective
Keywords [sv]
Digital kompetens, utbildning, IT-systemdesign, socio-tekniskt perspektiv, Wizard of Oz, co-design, deltagande design, ungas lärande
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-99485DOI: 10.59217/xwlv2713ISBN: 978-91-7867-465-7 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7867-466-4 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-99485DiVA, id: diva2:1855134
Public defence
2024-06-14, 11D257, Agardhsalen, 13:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2024-05-24 Created: 2024-04-29 Last updated: 2024-05-24Bibliographically approved

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