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Otterbring, T., Arsenovic, J., Samuelsson, P., Suresh, M. & Amandeep, D. (2023). Going the Extra Mile, Now or After a While: The Impact of Employee Proactivity in Retail Service Encounters on Customers’ Shopping Responses. British Journal of Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Going the Extra Mile, Now or After a While: The Impact of Employee Proactivity in Retail Service Encounters on Customers’ Shopping Responses
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2023 (English)In: British Journal of Management, ISSN 1045-3172, E-ISSN 1467-8551Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Employee proactivity has been discussed as a key predictor of firm success and organi-zational performance. However, previous proactivity research has rarely focused on cus-tomers, and the few available proactivity studies from retail settings are either cross-sectional, solely based on subjective outcomes (e.g. customer satisfaction) or restricted toaggregateddata of objective outcomes (e.g. profits per store). We investigate the causaleffect of employee proactivity in retail service encounters on customers’ actual purchasebehaviour and satisfaction ratings at the fine-grained level ofindividualcustomers. Byintegrating theories on social perception with prior proactivity findings, we find that em-ployee proactivity positively predicts customers’ shopping responses. This finding extendsfrom correlational to experimental designs across sample types and paradigms, is repli-cated in actual retail settings, and is mediated by customers’ perceptions of employeewarmth and competence. Furthermore, the effect generalizes across several focal out-comes, including behavioural variables (spending and purchase likelihood), and is moder-ated by the time to employee-initiated contact in a way that goes against customers’ ownbeliefs. In sum, the present research quantifies the financial consequences of employeeproactivity and indicates that in ordinary retail service encounters, high proactivity cancompensate for delays, thus counteracting the aversive aspects of waiting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-85981 (URN)10.1111/1467-8551.12765 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173544406 (Scopus ID)
Note

This paper was included as a manuscript entitled "Going the Extra Mile, Now or After a While: The Impact of Employee Proactivity on Customers’ Responses and the Moderating Role of Time to Contact" in the doctoral thesis "Proactivity in Service Failure and Service Recovery" KUS 2021:25.

Available from: 2021-09-19 Created: 2021-09-19 Last updated: 2023-12-11Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T., Samuelsson, P., Arsenovic, J., Elbaek, C. T. & Folwarczny, M. (2023). Shortsighted sales or long-lasting loyalty?: The impact of salesperson-customer proximity on consumer responses and the beauty of bodily boundaries. European Journal of Marketing, 57(7), 1854-1885
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shortsighted sales or long-lasting loyalty?: The impact of salesperson-customer proximity on consumer responses and the beauty of bodily boundaries
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2023 (English)In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 57, no 7, p. 1854-1885Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose Previous research on salesperson-customer proximity has yielded mixed results, with some studies documenting positive proximity effects on shopping responses and others demonstrating the reverse. To reconcile such mixed findings, this paper aims to test whether and how salesperson proximity influences a series of key customer outcomes in actual retail settings using sample sizes that are considerably larger than most former investigations. Design/methodology/approach We conducted two high-powered field studies (N = 1,312) to test whether salesperson-customer proximity influences consumers' purchase behavior and store loyalty. Moreover, we investigated whether the short-term effects on purchase behavior were moderated by the extent to which the consumption context had a clear connection to consumers' own bodies. Findings Salesperson proximity increased purchase incidence and spending in consumption contexts with a bodily basis (e.g. clothes, beauty, health), suggesting that consumers "buy their way out" in these contexts when a salesperson is violating their personal space. If anything, such proximity had a negative impact on consumers' purchase behavior in contexts that lacked a clear bodily connection (e.g. building materials, furniture, books). Moreover, the link between proximity and consumer responses was mediated by discomfort, such that a salesperson standing close-by (vs farther away) increased discomfort, with negative downstream effects on shopping responses. Importantly, the authors found opposite proximity effects on short-term metrics (purchase incidence and spending) and long-term outcomes (store loyalty). Research limitations/implications Drawing on the nonverbal communication literature and theories on processing fluency, the current work introduces a theoretically relevant boundary condition for the effects of salesperson-customer proximity on consumers' purchase behavior. Specifically, the bodily basis of the consumption context is discussed as a novel moderator, which may help to explain the mixed findings in this stream of research. Practical implications Salesperson-customer proximity may serve as a strategic sales tactic to improve short-term revenue in settings that are closely tied to consumers' own bodies and characterized by one-time purchases. However, as salesperson proximity was found to be associated with lower store loyalty, irrespective of whether the shopping setting had a bodily basis, the risk of violating consumers' personal space may have costly consequences from a long-term perspective. Originality/value The present field studies make three central contributions. First, we introduce a novel moderator for proximity effects in various sales and service settings. Second, we test the focal hypotheses with much higher statistical power than most existing proximity studies. Finally, we document that salesperson-customer proximity ironically yields opposite results on short-term metrics and long-term outcomes, thus underscoring the importance of not solely focusing on sales effectiveness when training frontline employees.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2023
Keywords
Consumer behavior, Service encounter, Field study, Bodily basis, Physical proximity
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-92315 (URN)10.1108/EJM-04-2022-0250 (DOI)000867886100001 ()
Available from: 2022-10-28 Created: 2022-10-28 Last updated: 2023-06-12Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, P. (2023). The effects of innovation types and customer participation on organizational performance in complex services. European Journal of Marketing, 57(13), 27-55
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of innovation types and customer participation on organizational performance in complex services
2023 (English)In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 57, no 13, p. 27-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PurposeThis study aims to explain the effects of different types of innovations on organizational performance in terms of firms' external effectiveness and internal efficiency. The study examines the interrelationship of technical and nontechnical innovations in complex services and the mediating effect of customer participation on the relationship between innovation type and organizational performance. Design/methodology/approachThe study draws on a neo-Schumpeterian model for innovation to examine the complex service setting of healthcare provision. Data from Statistics Sweden, containing 38 hospitals and 242 primary care units in Sweden, provided the study's results. FindingsThe findings show the importance of combining different types of innovations in complex services, demonstrating a mediating effect of nontechnical innovation on both the relationship between technical innovations and external effectiveness and internal efficiency. Moreover, the results show that customer participation has a positive mediating effect for technical innovation and nontechnical innovation on external effectiveness. However, there is no such significant effect on internal efficiency. Research limitations/implicationsThe findings are based on self-assessment data, which has inherent limitations. The innovation data used were cross-sectional, which may lack reliability (although self-assessed data counter this risk to some extent). Practical implicationsManagers should pursue both technical and nontechnical innovations for gains in external effectiveness and internal efficiency. However, complex services call for technical innovations to be accompanied by nontechnical innovations to support positive effects. The results cause a dilemma for managing customer participation in complex services. As the results show customer participation resulting in external effectiveness, they also fail to establish an effect on internal efficiency. Originality/valueThe primary contribution is to add to the knowledge of different types of innovation in complex services by demonstrating their interdependent effects on both external effectiveness and internal efficiency. Furthermore, the study tests and advances the mediating effect of customer participation in complex services on organizational performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2023
Keywords
Innovation, Healthcare, Complex services, Organizational performance, Customer participation
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-94988 (URN)10.1108/EJM-11-2020-0810 (DOI)000990697700001 ()2-s2.0-85159579456 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-06-01 Created: 2023-06-01 Last updated: 2023-06-05Bibliographically approved
Larson, M., Samuelsson, P. & Davoudi, S. (2022). Digital Wellness Business Models: A Consumer Data Privacy Perspective. In: : . Paper presented at The 17th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management (QUIS17) 12-15 January at Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV), Valencia, Spain..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital Wellness Business Models: A Consumer Data Privacy Perspective
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-89236 (URN)
Conference
The 17th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management (QUIS17) 12-15 January at Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV), Valencia, Spain.
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2022-03-27 Created: 2022-03-27 Last updated: 2022-11-25Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, P. & Witell, L. (2022). Social Entrepreneurs in Service: Motivations and Types. Journal of Services Marketing, 36(9), 27-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Entrepreneurs in Service: Motivations and Types
2022 (English)In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose This study aims to describe social entrepreneurs' motivation during the social entrepreneurship process and identify different social entrepreneurs in terms of their social characteristics. Design/methodology/approach The descriptive research design uses a directed qualitative interpretative approach based on 17 cases of social entrepreneurs active in healthcare innovation hubs. Findings The study describes the social entrepreneurs in a service context. Based on their key motivational characteristics, the study identifies three types of social entrepreneur: discoverers, seekers, and rangers. The study finds that not all of the three types regulate high levels of motivation during the social entrepreneurship process. Research limitations/implications Depending on the type of social entrepreneur, the social entrepreneurship process requires different forms of support. In practice, the traditional R&D process deployed by innovation hubs is suitable for rangers; discoverers and seekers commonly regulate low levels of motivation when developing and introducing their social innovations to the market. Originality/value Most service research on social entrepreneurship focuses on the outcome; in contrast, this empirical study focuses on the individual entrepreneurs, their motivation and process. While previous research has treated motivation as an antecedent for engagement in the social mission of entrepreneurship, the present study investigates social entrepreneurs' motivation in relation to the social entrepreneurship process, providing insights in the behavior of social entrepreneurs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2022
Keywords
Health care, Entrepreneurship, Social marketing, Self-Determination theory
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-82833 (URN)10.1108/JSM-08-2017-0274 (DOI)000784664400001 ()2-s2.0-85129530590 (Scopus ID)
Note

Article part of Samuelsson's doctoral thesis (2021) Framing service innovation in healthcare as manuscript.

Available from: 2021-02-16 Created: 2021-02-16 Last updated: 2022-11-25Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, P. (2021). Framing service innovation in healthcare. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlstad: Karlstads universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framing service innovation in healthcare
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Healthcare faces multiple challenges. Besides a raging pandemic have the number of people struggling with mental illness and chronic illnesses increased. Service innovation is a possible way of meeting these problems. However, service innovation is a scattered concept, with many different conceptualizations and schools of thought, all providing vital research aspects. Research has unraveled three elements that form different approaches for service innovation research. Healthcare also offers a complex context for conducting change and service innovation, containing prerequisites challenging previous understanding and conceptualizations of service innovation.

To study service innovation in healthcare and to clarify research, this thesis aims to develop a framework for service innovation that relates and differentiates three approaches and their key characteristics and to determine how the prerequisites for healthcare relate to this framework, and finally to study, test, and illustrate the framework in the empirical context. 

The thesis builds upon three studies and four individual papers. The studies consist of one literature review, providing the conceptual groundwork for constructing the framework, and two empirical studies assessing and further developing the framework. The individual papers uses the empirical studies and depart from the different approaches to service innovation and healthcare prerequisites, providing key insights and clarifying the different approaches' strengths and weaknesses. The proposed framework recognizes the need for multiple service innovation research approaches since no single approach is enough to study the multifaceted service innovation phenomena in healthcare. The individual papers also contribute to the growing literature stream addressing service innovation in healthcare by describing social entrepreneurs' motivation during the service innovation process and explaining some of the effects of different service innovation types.

Abstract [en]

There is an urgent need for service innovation in healthcare, and further research and knowledge supporting healthcare organizations' efforts for service innovation are essential. Simultaneously, service innovation is a fuzzy concept and is growing in diverse directions. This thesis aims to create a framework for service innovation encompassing healthcare's prerequisites and, by empirical studies, provide valuable insights for service innovation research and healthcare practice. In doing so, the thesis offers conceptual clarity to the concept of service innovation, where different service innovation approaches unravel previous preconceptions of research, together forming a framework for service innovation. The empirical findings show that service innovation is highly beneficial for healthcare organizations, leading to organizational performance and customer satisfaction. Furthermore, the findings illustrate that there is much to gain for healthcare organizations not to undertake service innovation alone, as healthcare customers and other actors' participation play a crucial role in reaching these desirable effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2021. p. 95
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2021:5
Keywords
Service innovation, healthcare
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-82474 (URN)978-91-7867-188-5 (ISBN)978-91-7867-189-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-03-09, 11D 227 Erlandersalen, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Article 1 part of thesis as manuscript, now published.

Available from: 2021-02-16 Created: 2021-01-19 Last updated: 2022-05-18Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T., Bhatnagar, R., Samuelsson, P. & Borau, S. (2021). Positive gender congruency effects on shopper responses: Field evidence from a gender egalitarian culture. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 63, Article ID 102738.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Positive gender congruency effects on shopper responses: Field evidence from a gender egalitarian culture
2021 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 63, article id 102738Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This field study examined how customer-employee interactions are affected by the congruency between an employee's gender and the perceived gender image of the consumption context in one of the most gender equal cultures in the world (Scandinavia). Mystery shoppers had a service encounter with an employee across a set of physical commercial settings that were classified according to their gender image. The mystery shoppers noted the gender of the employee, provided employee evaluations, and indicated word-of-mouth (WOM) ratings. Shoppers who had a gender congruent service encounter (e.g., a female employee in a “feminine” consumption context) reported more favorable employee evaluations and WOM ratings than shoppers who had a gender incongruent service encounter (e.g., a female employee in a “masculine” consumption context), with the impact of gender congruency on WOM ratings mediated by employee evaluations, particularly with respect to competence inferences. These findings highlight the ethical dilemma of a positive gender congruency effect, as it can generate superior consumer responses but also risks resulting in gender occupational segregation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Congruency, Employee evaluations, Femininity, Gender, Gender equality, Gendered marketing, Masculinity, Processing fluency, Stereotypes, Word-of-mouth, cultural identity, cultural influence, feminism, gender relations, masculinization, womens employment, womens status
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-86182 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2021.102738 (DOI)000696953300013 ()2-s2.0-85113298491 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-10-11 Created: 2021-10-11 Last updated: 2022-11-25Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, P., Witell, L., Gottfridsson, P. & Elg, M. (2019). Incremental and Radical Service Innovation in Healthcare. In: Paul P. Maglio; Cheryl A. Kieliszewski; James C. Spohrer; Kelly Lyons; Lia Patrício; Yuriko Sawatani (Ed.), Handbook of Service Science: Volume II (pp. 619-638). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incremental and Radical Service Innovation in Healthcare
2019 (English)In: Handbook of Service Science: Volume II / [ed] Paul P. Maglio; Cheryl A. Kieliszewski; James C. Spohrer; Kelly Lyons; Lia Patrício; Yuriko Sawatani, Springer, 2019, p. 619-638Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The growing cost and demand of healthcare is a major concern globally. Service innovation has been put forward as a top priority to address the challenges of healthcare. However, the concept of service innovation is poorly understood, in particular the differences between incremental and radical service innovation. The chapter makes two important contributions. Firstly, it conceptualizes incremental and radical service innovation based on internal and external changes; in particular, it identifies four types of service innovations. Secondly, it explores the effects and diffusion processes of service innovation. It aids practitioners and researchers to understand radical service innovation in a new way and to shed light on effects and diffusion of service innovation in healthcare.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Series
Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy
Keywords
Service innovation, Healthcare, Public sector, Wellbeing
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-82835 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-98512-1_27 (DOI)978-3-319-98511-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-98512-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-02-16 Created: 2021-02-16 Last updated: 2022-11-25Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, P., Sukhov, A., Lu, C. & Kaluza, J. (2019). Public management logics for service innovation. In: Per Kristensson, Peter R. Magnusson, Lars Witell (Ed.), Service Innovation for Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing and Capturing the value from Service Innovation (pp. 49-73). New Jersey: World Scientific
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public management logics for service innovation
2019 (English)In: Service Innovation for Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing and Capturing the value from Service Innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter R. Magnusson, Lars Witell, New Jersey: World Scientific , 2019, p. 49-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The following sections are included: Introduction Applying a Practice View to Service Innovation Public Management Logics for Service Innovation Presenting a Model for Public Management Logics for Innovation Discussion and Implications References

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New Jersey: World Scientific, 2019
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73347 (URN)10.1142/9789813273382_0004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067167441 (Scopus ID)9789813273382 (ISBN)9789813273375 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-07-02 Created: 2019-07-02 Last updated: 2022-11-25Bibliographically approved
Arsenovic, J., Otterbring, T. & Samuelsson, P. 30 seconds of fame: The effect of first impression on customer affect, attitudes, and approach behaviors.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>30 seconds of fame: The effect of first impression on customer affect, attitudes, and approach behaviors
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-85980 (URN)
Available from: 2021-09-19 Created: 2021-09-19 Last updated: 2022-11-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8520-0006

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