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Shams, Poja, Senior LecturerORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9751-6000
Biography [eng]

Poja Shams är biträdande lektor vid Karlstads universitet Service Rasearch Center (CTF). Hans forskning har i första hand varit inriktad på konsumentbeteende och visuell uppmärksamhet i detaljhandeln. Hans forskning har tilldelats Gunnar Sundblad Forskningsfond och publicerats i flera utmärkta tidskrifter som Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, Journal of Business Research and Psychology & Marketing.

Biography [swe]

Poja Shams is assistant professor at Karlstads universitet Service Rasearch Center(CTF). His research has primarily been focused on consumer decision making and visual attention in the retail environment. His research has been awarded by the Gunnar Sundblad Research Foundation and published in several distinguished journals such as Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, Journal of Business Research and Psychology & Marketing.

Publications (10 of 31) Show all publications
Caruelle, D., Shams, P., Gustafsson, A. & Lervik-Olsen, L. (2024). Emotional arousal in customer experience: A dynamic view. Journal of Business Research, 170, Article ID 114344.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional arousal in customer experience: A dynamic view
2024 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 170, article id 114344Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Customer emotion in services has been extensively studied, but prior research has overlooked the dynamics of emotion over time. Our research addresses this gap by studying how emotional arousal varies throughout a service encounter. Drawing from the psychology literature, we identify certain features (or patterns) that characterize how arousal varies throughout a service encounter and predict how they may affect customer approach response (e.g., spending, unplanned purchases). We explore the effect of these features in field studies in two stores using a psychophysiological measure (electrodermal activity) to capture arousal over time. We find that (1) the highest arousal level reached during the encounter and (2) the skewness of the distribution of arousal levels (i.e., the frequency of lower arousal levels relative to higher ones) predict customer approach response. This paper opens new avenues for understanding customers from an emotional perspective, which can improve the customer experience in service encounters. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Arousal, Customer experience, Emotion, Service encounters
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-97550 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2023.114344 (DOI)001105751700001 ()2-s2.0-85174721613 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2023-11-28 Created: 2023-11-28 Last updated: 2023-12-11Bibliographically approved
Caruelle, D., Shams, P., Gustafsson, A. & Lervik-Olsen, L. (2022). Affective Computing in Marketing: Practical Implications and Research Opportunities Afforded by Emotionally Intelligent Machines. Marketing letters, 33, 163-196
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affective Computing in Marketing: Practical Implications and Research Opportunities Afforded by Emotionally Intelligent Machines
2022 (English)In: Marketing letters, ISSN 0923-0645, E-ISSN 1573-059X, Vol. 33, p. 163-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

After years of using AI to perform cognitive tasks, marketing practitioners can now use it to perform tasks that require emotional intelligence. This advancement is made possible by the rise of affective computing, which develops AI and machines capable of detecting and responding to human emotions. From market research, to customer service, to product innovation, the practice of marketing will likely be transformed by the rise of affective computing, as preliminary evidence from the field suggests. In this Idea Corner, we discuss this transformation and identify the research opportunities that it offers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Affective computing, Artificial intelligence, Emotions, Robots
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-88075 (URN)10.1007/s11002-021-09609-0 (DOI)000738461000001 ()2-s2.0-85122284897 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-01-13 Created: 2022-01-13 Last updated: 2022-04-21Bibliographically approved
Vakulenko, Y., Arsenovic, J., Hellstrom, D. & Shams, P. (2022). Does delivery service differentiation matter?: Comparing rural to urban e-consumer satisfaction and retention. Journal of Business Research, 142, 476-484
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does delivery service differentiation matter?: Comparing rural to urban e-consumer satisfaction and retention
2022 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 142, p. 476-484Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the context of continuously growing e-commerce and the rising global count of e-consumers, e-retailers and logistics service providers need to differentiate and tailor their offerings to refine their operations and meet econsumers' needs. This study investigates how e-consumers' residential-area type affects the satisfaction with delivery services and reuse intentions in relation to e-consumers' ability to choose between delivery options. The aim was to explore and compare rural e-consumers to urban ones and conclude whether the service fitting can be performed without satisfaction loss. The results showed that for e-consumers from rural residential areas, the availability of different delivery options did not translate into greater satisfaction with the delivery service and reuse intention, while for urban residents, service diversity was linked to greater satisfaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
E-consumer, Delivery Service, Rural Logistics, Urban Logistics
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-88751 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.12.079 (DOI)000748988100013 ()2-s2.0-85122507142 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-02-25 Created: 2022-02-25 Last updated: 2022-04-05Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T., Gidlof, K., Rolschau, K. & Shams, P. (2020). Cereal Deal: How the Physical Appearance of Others Affects Attention to Healthy Foods. Perspectives on Behavior Science, 43(3), 451-468
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cereal Deal: How the Physical Appearance of Others Affects Attention to Healthy Foods
2020 (English)In: Perspectives on Behavior Science, ISSN 2520-8969, E-ISSN 2520-8977, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 451-468Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This eye-tracking study investigated whether the physical appearance of another consumer can influence people's visual attention and choice behavior in a grocery shopping context. Participants (N = 96) took part in a lab-based experiment and watched a brief video recording featuring a female consumer standing in front of a supermarket shelf. The appearance and body type of the consumer was manipulated between conditions, such that she was perceived as 1) healthy and of normal weight, 2) unhealthy by means of overweight, or 3) unhealthy through visual signs associated with a potentially unhealthy lifestyle, but not by means of overweight. Next, participants were exposed to a supermarket shelf with cereals and were asked to choose one alternative they could consider buying. Prior exposure to a seemingly unhealthy (vs. healthy) consumer resulted in a relative increase in participants' visual attention towards products perceived to be healthy (vs. unhealthy), which prompted cereal choices deemed to be healthier. This effect was stronger for products that holistically, through their design features, managed to convey the impression that they are healthy rather than products with explicit cues linked to healthiness (i.e., the keyhole label). These results offer important implications regarding packaging design for marketers, brand owners, and policy makers. Moreover, the findings highlight the value of technological tools, such as eye-tracking methodology, for capturing consumers' entire decision-making processes instead of focusing solely on outcome-based metrics, such as choice data or purchase behavior.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Visual attention, Eye tracking, Food choice, Health, Packaging design, Nonverbal cues
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-77414 (URN)10.1007/s40614-020-00242-2 (DOI)000516266800001 ()
Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2021-06-01Bibliographically approved
Högberg, J., Shams, P. & Wästlund, E. (2019). Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 298-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising
2019 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 298-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the effect of gamification on in-store mobile advertisement. More specifically, it investigates the effect of gamification on the inclination to act on offers gained at point of purchase. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted at a supermarket, where real customers were recruited. Eye tracking, smartphone activity logging and choice were used to investigate the customers’ behaviour. The results reveal that gamification is not always useful for increasing the tendency to act on offers. In fact, engagement in a gamified shopping task is needed; otherwise, the tendency to act on offers might even decrease when gamifying.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Engagement, Gamification, Mobile in-store marketing
National Category
Applied Psychology Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69044 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2018.07.004 (DOI)000471928200033 ()2-s2.0-85049647943 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2020-07-07Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T. & Shams, P. (2019). Mirror, mirror, on the menu: Visual reminders of overweight stimulate healthier meal choices. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 47, 177-183
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mirror, mirror, on the menu: Visual reminders of overweight stimulate healthier meal choices
2019 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 47, p. 177-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined whether viewing an overweight (vs. normal weight or no) female on a food menu influences women's visual attention toward healthy and unhealthy menu alternatives and, in turn, their actual food choices. Participants (N = 121) viewed a food menu depicting healthy and unhealthy food options, with their calorie content stated, and selected the food option they were most willing to eat. Depending on condition, the menu featured an overweight female (unhealthy), a normal weight female (healthy), or no female (control). Participants in the unhealthy condition looked more at healthy (vs. unhealthy) meal alternatives than participants in the other conditions and were more inclined to choose healthy food options with lower calorie content, with visual attention toward healthy and unhealthy meal alternatives mediating the effect of experimental condition on calorie content and food choices. These results suggest that exposure to overweight women in food settings may make customers more motivated to choose healthier meals. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Body type, Eye tracking, Food choice, Overweight stereotype, Visual attention
National Category
Psychology Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-70588 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2018.11.019 (DOI)000458215400020 ()2-s2.0-85057539884 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-02-28Bibliographically approved
Vakulenko, Y., Shams, P., Hellstrom, D. & Hjort, K. (2019). Online retail experience and customer satisfaction: the mediating role of last mile delivery. International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, 29(3), 306-320
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online retail experience and customer satisfaction: the mediating role of last mile delivery
2019 (English)In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 306-320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For various industries worldwide, recent years have been defined by the remarkable growth of e-commerce. Enabled by the Internet, retailers can reach more customers, spread much further in the distribution chain, and optimize their resources. In the new market environment, customer experience has become a source of competitive advantage. This study investigates the role of last mile delivery in the customer's e-retail experience. A quantitative methodology was used, which incorporated a survey that was conducted in Sweden and measured participants' most recent e-retail experience. The results indicate that the last mile delivery experience mediates the relationship between the customer's perception of the online shopping experience and customer satisfaction. These conclusions provide ground for further thorough investigations of the role of last mile delivery in the e-retail context and support e-retailers in increasing their customers' satisfaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxon, UK: Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Customer experience, e-commerce, online retail, last mile delivery, customer satisfaction
National Category
Business Administration Psychology
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73218 (URN)10.1080/09593969.2019.1598466 (DOI)000470201900005 ()
Available from: 2019-06-28 Created: 2019-06-28 Last updated: 2020-01-07Bibliographically approved
Vakulenko, Y., Shams, P., Hellström, D. & Hjort, K. (2019). Service innovation in e-commerce last mile delivery: Mapping the e-customer journey. Journal of Business Research, 101, 461-468
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service innovation in e-commerce last mile delivery: Mapping the e-customer journey
2019 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 101, p. 461-468Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The remarkable growth of e-commerce has defined the recent years of various industries worldwide. Driven by consumers, the e-commerce surge (e-retail in particular) stems from the final leg of the supply chain: the last mile. As the growing flow of e-commerce orders continues to generate new records for annual revenues, key actors in the last mile face the challenges of increasing customer demands and transportation volumes. In response, e-retailers and logistics service providers seek innovative service solutions, often powered by technological advancements. This study consisted of focus group interviews and a usability test that incorporated an innovative technology in the delivery service. The study provides insights into how service innovation affects e-customer behavior and presents a basic map of the e-customer journey. The findings also provide a foundation for improving management of the customer experience and aiding managerial decision-making when designing new e-commerce last mile services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Customer experience, Customer journey, e-Commerce, e-Customer, Last mile delivery, Service innovation
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71271 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.01.016 (DOI)000473379000041 ()2-s2.0-85059896365 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Otterbring, T., Wästlund, E. & Shams, P. (2019). Spotlighting Customers' Visual Attention at the Stock, Shelf and Store Levels with the 3S Model. Journal of Visualized Experiments (147), 1-6, Article ID e58846.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spotlighting Customers' Visual Attention at the Stock, Shelf and Store Levels with the 3S Model
2019 (English)In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 147, p. 1-6, article id e58846Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several models of the in-store search process exist in the fields of retailing, marketing, and consumer-based research. The present article presents a new conceptualization of this search process, which captures customers' visual attention at three distinct levels of analysis: Stock, Shelf, and Store. We refer to this conceptualization as the 3S Model and illustrate its usefulness through three eye-tracking studies, one from each level of analysis. Our experimental examples, which range from manipulating certain stimuli on a single product (e.g., the placement of textual and pictorial packaging elements) to manipulating the entire shopping trip for customers during their stay in a store (e.g., through more or less specific shopping tasks), highlight the broad applicability of this alternative approach for understanding customers' in-store search behavior. Thus, our model can be seen as a helpful tool for researchers interested in how to conduct experimental eye-tracking studies that shed light on the perceptual processes preceding product choices and purchase decisions. The 3S Model is equally suitable in controlled lab conditions and under ecologically valid settings in the real retail environment. Furthermore, it can be used from the micro level, with a focus on the meaningful metrics on a particular product, through the intermediate level, with the emphasis on the area surrounding products in shelves and other in-store spaces, all the way to the macro level, examining customers' navigational paths throughout a store as a function of their shopping tasks, cognitive capacity, or ability to acquire in-store information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Journal of Visualized Experiments, 2019
Keywords
Behavior, Issue 147, Visual attention, Eye tracking, In-store search, 3S model, Store, Shelf, Stock, Packaging design, Shelf design, Store design
National Category
Psychology Economics and Business
Research subject
Psychology; Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-73213 (URN)10.3791/58846 (DOI)000469977600014 ()31180363 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-28 Created: 2019-06-28 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Caruelle, D., Gustafsson, A., Shams, P. & Lervik-Olsen, L. (2019). The use of electrodermal activity (EDA) measurement to understand consumer emotions: A literature review and a call for action. Journal of Business Research, 104, 146-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The use of electrodermal activity (EDA) measurement to understand consumer emotions: A literature review and a call for action
2019 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 104, p. 146-160Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a psychophysiological indicator of emotional arousal. EDA measurement was first employed in consumer research in 1979 but has been scarcely used since. In the past decade, the ease of access to EDA recording equipment made EDA measurement more frequent in studies of consumer emotions. Additionally, recent calls to include physiological data in consumer studies have been voiced, which in turn is increasing the interest in EDA. Such a growing interest calls for assessing why and how EDA measurement has been used and should be used in consumer research. To this end, we undertook a critical review of studies of consumer emotions that employed EDA measurement. We found that most of these studies did not sufficiently report how they recorded and analyzed EDA data, which in turn impeded the replication of the findings. We therefore make recommendations derived from the psychophysiology literature to help consumer researchers get meaningful insights from EDA measurements. Finally, we call on researchers to be more transparent when reporting how they recorded and analyzed EDA data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, USA: , 2019
Keywords
Electrodermal activity, Customer experience, Emotion, Physiological measurement, Arousal
National Category
Business Administration Psychology
Research subject
Business Administration; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-75097 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.06.041 (DOI)000484647500011 ()
Available from: 2019-10-07 Created: 2019-10-07 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
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