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Norell-Clarke, A., Jonsson, K., Blomquist, A., Ahlzén, R. & Kjellgren, A. (2022). A study of flotation-REST (restricted environmental stimulation therapy) as an insomnia treatment. Sleep Science, 15, 361-368
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A study of flotation-REST (restricted environmental stimulation therapy) as an insomnia treatment
Vise andre…
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Sleep Science, ISSN 1984-0659, E-ISSN 1984-0063, Vol. 15, s. 361-368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Flotation-REST is a treatment for deep relaxation, where a person is contained in a stimuli-restricted environment and floats in water with high salt content. The aim was to investigate the effects from flotation-REST on people with insomnia diagnosis, as previous studies of flotation-REST have demonstrated some effects on sleep but have limitations regarding sample selections and sleep measures. Material and Methods: Six participants were recruited through an outpatient psychiatry clinic and posters on a university campus. All participants fulfilled criteria for insomnia diagnosis and four fulfilled criteria for major depressive disorder. Using a single case experimental design, daily changes were investigated on sleep logs regarding sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST), and sleep efficiency over the course of 12 sessions consisting of 45 min of flotation-REST. No other treatments were offered simultaneously. Questionnaire data on insomnia severity (the ISI) and depressive severity (the MADRS) were also collected. Results: Three participants improved on their most salient insomnia symptom (long SOL or WASO), and two improved on sleep efficiency. The improvements were maintained 2 months after treatment. Insomnia severity decreased for three patients, whereas depressive severity decreased for five. No changes in TST were found and two patients did not improve on any sleep measure. The two participants who benefitted the most were students in their 20s. Discussion: The results were mixed. Flotation-REST may be beneficial for young adults with sleep-onset insomnia but more research is warranted.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Brazilian Sleep Association, 2022
Emneord
Flotation Therapy, Insomnia, Multiple Baseline, Relaxation, Sensory Deprivation, Sleep
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-89415 (URN)10.5935/1984-0063.20210012 (DOI)000762300700010 ()35371408 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85125654126 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-04-08 Laget: 2022-04-08 Sist oppdatert: 2022-07-07bibliografisk kontrollert
Kjellgren, A., Norell-Clarke, A., Jonsson, K. & Tillfors, M. (2020). Does flotation-rest (restricted environmental stimulation technique) have an effect on sleep?. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 33, 1-7, Article ID 101047.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Does flotation-rest (restricted environmental stimulation technique) have an effect on sleep?
2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: European Journal of Integrative Medicine, ISSN 1876-3820, E-ISSN 1876-3839, Vol. 33, s. 1-7, artikkel-id 101047Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Some therapies described within alternative and complementary medicine are advertised as sleep-promoting, including flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique). Flotation-REST induces deep relaxation through sensory isolation in a water-filled tank and is plausibly reported to mitigate insomnia problems, which have consistently been associated with stress, worry and arousal. However, the effects of flotation-REST have not been previously summarised. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of flotation-REST on sleep in clinical and non-clinical samples. Methods: A systematic search for studies on flotation-REST, involving at least one sleep-related variable, was conducted in the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and PsychINFO. Thirteen full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and were considered for eligibility. Nine were included in the current review. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using a structured checklist, and a standard data extraction sheet was used to summarize the ratings. Results: In all included studies, flotation-REST demonstrated beneficial effects on sleep, both in clinical and nonclinical samples. In two studies, the effects were maintained 4 or 6 months post-treatment. The quality of the sleep outcome measures were, however, low in most studies, particularly regarding the participants' nightly sleep habits, self-reported sleep problems and insomnia diagnosis. Conclusions: Flotation-REST may be a promising treatment for insomnia symptoms, but more controlled studies with established sleep measures, and on populations with clinically verified insomnia, are needed.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
New York, USA: Elsevier, 2020
Emneord
Floating, Flotation-REST, Insomnia, Sleep, Systematic review, Relaxation
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-77754 (URN)10.1016/j.eujim.2019.101047 (DOI)000526121000002 ()2-s2.0-85078783408 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-05-11 Laget: 2020-05-11 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-27bibliografisk kontrollert
Jonsson, K. (2018). Flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) in the age of anxiety: Exploring the role and treatment applications of sensory isolation in the modern world. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlstads universitet
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) in the age of anxiety: Exploring the role and treatment applications of sensory isolation in the modern world
2018 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Anxiety and the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), such as flotation-REST, have increased markedly during the last decades. Anxiety is reportedly a prevalent incentive for the use of CAMs, despite the present low state of knowledge about their safety and efficacy. Among the anxiety disorders, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is currently the most treatment-resistant. There is reason to believe that non-responders to first-line anxiety treatments might be prone to turn to CAM as a solution to their ailments. Taken together, this highlights the importance of enhancing existing treatment protocols for treatment-resistant anxiety disorders, evaluation of CAMs as anxiety-treatments, as well as to investigate the information about CAM provided by private actors. In study 1, described effects relating to the use of flotation-REST were gathered from privately-owned flotation centers’ websites on the Internet. Thematic analysis was used to characterize recurring patterns in the information, and subsequently the results were compared with scientific evidence. Study 2 evaluated flotation-REST as a treatment of GAD by conducting a randomized controlled trial using a GAD sample defined by well validated self-report measures. Study 3 used a phenomenological approach to characterize the experience of undergoing a flotation-REST treatment while having GAD, based on in-depth interviews with individuals that recently had completed treatment. In brief, the current thesis suggests: (1) that the advertised effects of flotation-REST, as provided by private actors, are not adequately in line with scientific evidence and thus could be misleading to consumers; (2) that flotation-REST is a promising complement to existing treatment of GAD; (3) that flotation-REST benefits individuals with GAD by continually providing a relaxing, safe and secluded setting that promotes self-awareness and contact with earlier negative experiences, physical sensations and emotions without the use of maladaptive strategies of avoidance.

Abstract [en]

Despite the fact that our lives are easier than ever before in human history, it has been suggested that we live in an age of anxiety. Concurrent with the increase in anxiety, the uses of alternative methods to alleviate our troubled psyches have also increased. The present thesis sets out to explore a novel form of seclusion and sensory isolation, namely flotation-REST, which seems to be the obvious antidote to a hyper-connected life-style in the ‘age of information’. Considering that the method is used mainly as an alternative treatment provided by privately-owned flotation centers, the current thesis evaluated how well their information about flotation-REST and its effects corresponds with scientific evidence. The thesis also evaluated the method as an intervention of treatment-resistant anxiety and explores how the treatment was experienced. The results indicate: (1) that the information provided on Internet websites by privately-owned flotation centers does not adequately correspond with scientific evidence; (2) that flotation-REST is a promising intervention for generalized anxiety; (3) that the method benefits individuals with generalized anxiety primarily by enabling relaxation in a safe and secluded setting that promotes self-awareness.

Abstract [sv]

Ångesten och användningen av Komplementär och Alternativ Medicin (KAM), som exempelvis flyt-REST, har ökat markant under de senaste decennierna. Ångest har också rapporterats vara en vanlig orsak till att man använder sig av KAM, trots att det i dagsläget finns lite forskning om risker och effektivitet med dessa behandlingar. Generaliserat ångest syndrom (GAD) är i nuläget den typ av ångest-problematik som svarar sämst på rådande behandlingar. Det finns också skäl att tro att de patienter som inte svarar på rådande ångest-behandling inom sjukvården kan vara benägna att söka sig till KAM för att råda bot på sin problematik. Sammantaget så understryker detta vikten av att effektivisera vården av svår-behandlade ångestproblem, utvärdera KAM som används för att behandla ångest, samt att undersöka kvalitén av den information om KAM och dess effekter som tillhandahålls av privata aktörer. I studie 1 samlades beskrivna effekter relaterat till användning av flyt-REST in från hemsidor på Internet som användes av privata flyt-REST center. Tematisk analys användes för att finna återkommande mönster i datan, och resultatet jämfördes sedan med vetenskaplig evidens på området. Studie 2 utvärderar flyt-REST som en behandling av GAD genom att genomföra en randomiserad kontrollerad studie där urvalet bestod av individer med GAD såsom definierat av väl-validerade självskattningsskalor. Studie 3 använde sig av en fenomenologisk ansats med avsikt att karakterisera upplevelsen av att genomgå en flyt-REST behandling för GAD, baserat på djup-intervjuer som gjordes med individer som nyligen hade genomfört en flyt-REST behandling. I korthet kan fynden i denna avhandling summeras med att: (1) marknadsförda effekter av flyt-REST, som tillhandahålls av privata flyt-REST center på Internet, inte är i tillräcklig samklang med rådande vetenskaplig evidens och således kan vara missvisande för användare av metoden; (2) att flyt-REST är en lovande behandling av GAD som bör beforskas och utvärderas vidare då metoden har potential att förbättra rådande behandling; (3) att flyt-REST ger positiva behandlingseffekter för individer med GAD genom att kontinuerligt möjliggöra vistelse i en miljö som upplevs som avslappnande, trygg och avskild; samt vilket främjar själv-medvetenhet och kontakt med tidigare negativa livsepisoder, fysiska sensationer och emotioner utan att använda sig av maladaptiva undvikande strategier.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Karlstads universitet, 2018. s. 129
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2018:1
Emneord
Flotation-REST, Sensory isolation, Sensory deprivation, Anxiety, Generalized anxiety disorder, Complementary and alternative medicine, Flyt-REST, sinnes-isolation, sensorisk deprivation, generaliserat ångest syndrom, komplementär och alternativ medicin
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65386 (URN)978-91-7063-827-5 (ISBN)978-91-7063-922-7 (ISBN)
Disputas
2018-02-14, 21A342, Karlstad universitet, Karlstad, 13:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-01-24 Laget: 2017-12-13 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-24bibliografisk kontrollert
Jonsson, K. & Kjellgren, A. (2017). Characterizing the experience of flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A phenomenological study. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 12, 53-59
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Characterizing the experience of flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A phenomenological study
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: European Journal of Integrative Medicine, ISSN 1876-3820, E-ISSN 1876-3839, Vol. 12, s. 53-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Among the anxiety disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is currently the most treatment resistant, suggesting that treatment protocols could be enhanced. A promising treatment of GAD is flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique), which in earlier studies has been shown to alleviate symptoms in GAD. Although, research on flotation-REST as a treatment of GAD has shown promising results no study has explored how the treatment is experienced. By applying a phenomneological perspective the present study aims to characterize the experience of undergoing flotation-REST treatment while suffering from GAD. Nine participants with GAD, as defined with self-report measures, participated. Data was collected by semi-structured interviews that were conducted after the completion of a twelve session treatment profram with flotaiton-REST. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological (EPP) method was usedfor gathering and analyzing the data. The analysis resulted in six themes that characterize the experience of undergoing a flotation-REST treatment while having GAD: (1) obstacles in treatment, (2) a relaxed and safe vantage point, (3) non-ordinary states of consciousness, (4) connecting with oneself, (5) new attitudes and coping strategies, (6) enhanced life-quality. The results highlights that flotation-REST treatment of GAD was experienced as a comprehensive processes that were both challenging and pleasant. The results indicated that the method positively affected symptoms and the core issue associated with GAD on an experiential level. The present study also genereated some initial understanding regarding potential mechanisms that migh mediate and maintain positive treatment effects when flotation-REST is applied as an intervention of GAD. 

Emneord
Anxiety, Generalized anxiety disorder, Phenomenology, Flotation-REST, Sensory isolation, Flotation-tank therapy
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-65365 (URN)10.1016/j.eujim.2017.04.011 (DOI)000414230000008 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-12-11 Laget: 2017-12-11 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-08bibliografisk kontrollert
Jonsson, K. & Kjellgren, A. (2016). Promising effects of treatment with flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) as an intervention for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A randomized controlled pilot trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16, Article ID 108.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Promising effects of treatment with flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) as an intervention for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A randomized controlled pilot trial
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: During Flotation-REST a person is floating inside a quiet and dark tank, filled with heated salt saturated water. Deep relaxation and beneficial effects on e.g. stress, sleep difficulties, anxiety and depression have been documented in earlier research. Despite that treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are effective; it is till the least successfully treated anxiety disorder, indicating that treatment protocols can be enhanced. The use of Flotation-REST as a treatment of GAD has not been researched. The aim of the present study was to conduct an initial evaluation of the effects in a self-diagnosed GAD sample.

Methods: This study was a randomized, parallel group, non-blinded trial with 1:1 allocation ratio to waiting list control group (n = 25) or to a twelve session treatment with flotation-REST (n = 25). Inclusion criteria’s were: 18–65 years and GAD (as defined by self-report measures). The primary outcome was GAD-symptomatology, and secondary outcomes were depression, sleep difficulties, emotion regulation difficulties and mindfulness. Assessments were made at three time points (baseline, four weeks in treatment, post-treatment), and at six-month follow-up. The main data analyses were conducted with a two-way MANOVA and additional t-tests. Forty-six participants (treatment, n = 24; control, n = 22) were included in the analyses.

Results: A significant Time x Group interaction effect for GAD-symptomatology [F(2,88) = 2.93, p < .001, η2p = .062] was found. Further analyses showed that the GAD-symptomatology was significantly reduced for the treatment group (t(23) = 4.47, p < .001), but not for the waiting list control group (t(21) = 0.98, p > .05), when comparing baseline to post-treatment scoring. Regarding clinical significant change, 37 % in the treatment group reached full remission at post-treatment. Significant beneficial effects were also found for sleep difficulties, difficulties in emotional regulation, and depression, while the treatment had ambiguous or non-existent effects on pathological worry and mindfulness. All improved outcome variables at post-treatment, except for depression, were maintained at 6-months follow. No negative effects were found.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that the method has potential as a complementary treatment alongside existing treatment for GAD. More studies are warranted to further evaluate the treatments efficacy. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
BioMed Central (BMC), 2016
Emneord
Flotation-REST, Flotation-tank, Sensory isolation, Generalized anxiety disorder, Anxiety, Emotion regulation, Relaxation
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41216 (URN)10.1186/s12906-016-1089-x (DOI)000372861300001 ()
Prosjekter
Floating
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-04-04 Laget: 2016-04-04 Sist oppdatert: 2024-01-10bibliografisk kontrollert
Jonsson, K. & Kjellgren, A. (2014). Curing the sick and creating supermen - How relaxation in flotation tank is advertised on the Internet. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 6(5), 601-609
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Curing the sick and creating supermen - How relaxation in flotation tank is advertised on the Internet
2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: European Journal of Integrative Medicine, ISSN 1876-3820, E-ISSN 1876-3839, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 601-609Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2014
Emneord
floating, relaxation, stress reduction
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi inr. medicinsk psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-32122 (URN)10.1016/j.eujim.2014.05.005 (DOI)000343923800014 ()
Prosjekter
Floating, Complementary and alternative medicine; Flotation tank therapy; Internet; Advertisement;
Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-05-21 Laget: 2014-05-21 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Jonsson, K., Grim, K. & Kjellgren, A. (2014). Do highly sensitive persons experience more non-ordinary states of consciousness during sensory isolation?. Social behavior and personality, 42(9), 1495-1506
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Do highly sensitive persons experience more non-ordinary states of consciousness during sensory isolation?
2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 42, nr 9, s. 1495-1506Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Our aim was to investigate whether or not highly sensitive persons experienced more nonordinary/altered states of consciousness (ASC) during 45 minutes of sensory isolation in a flotation tank, than did less sensitive persons. Psychology students (N = 57) were allocated to 1 of 2 groups (high and low levels of sensitivity) depending on their score on the Highly Sensitive Person Scale. Prior to the flotation session participants completed questionnaires to assess their degree of depression, anxiety, optimism, absorption, and how often they had experienced a mystical state. After the flotation session we assessed degree of ASC. The main finding was that the highly sensitive individuals experienced significantly more ASC during flotation than did the individuals in the low sensitivity group. Further, the highly sensitive participants had significantly more absorption and anxiety, and had experienced mystical states more frequently prior to flotation, in comparison to individuals with low-level sensitivity.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Society for Personality Research, 2014
Emneord
highly sensitive person, sensory processing sensitivity, flotation tank, sensory isolation, nonordinary state of consciousness, altered state of consciousness
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-34558 (URN)10.2224/sbp.2014.42.9.1495 (DOI)000344358500008 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-11-06 Laget: 2014-11-06 Sist oppdatert: 2022-11-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Kjellgren, A. & Jonsson, K. (2013). Methoxetamine (MXE): A Phenomenological Study of Experiences Induced by a "Legal High" from the Internet. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45(3), 276-286
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Methoxetamine (MXE): A Phenomenological Study of Experiences Induced by a "Legal High" from the Internet
2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, ISSN 0279-1072, E-ISSN 2159-9777, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 276-286Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Methoxetamine (MXE), a ketamine analogue, is one of the new “legal highs” sold on the Internet. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an initial understanding of what character- izes the experiences induced by MXE. Anonymously written reports (33 persons) on the effects of MXE were collected from public Internet forums and analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Method. The analysis generated 10 themes: (1) preparation, motivation and anticipation; (2) initial effects; (3) malfunction of cognitive processes stabilizing normal state; (4) inner personal processes and learning; (5) emotional processes; (6) altered sensory perception; (7) dissolution and transition; (8) spiritual and transcendental experiences; (9) effects and processes after the experience; (10) re-dosing and addiction.

MXE induced a heavily altered state of consciousness. The effects were similar to those induced by classic hallucinogens (such as LSD, psilocybin) and the dissociative ketamine. MXE seemed to have quite a high abuse potential. Beside the positive effects described, negative effects like fear and anxiety were also reported. Acceptance was considered the best coping strategy. Dissolution of iden- tity and body often culminated in spiritual and transcendental experiences. More research is needed on safety issues, how to minimize harm, and the motivation for using legal highs. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
London, UK: Routledge, 2013
Emneord
MXE, internet drug, research chemical, methoxetamine, altered states of consciousness, addiction
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-27444 (URN)10.1080/02791072.2013.803647 (DOI)000327941800010 ()24175493 (PubMedID)
Prosjekter
Internetdroger
Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-05-30 Laget: 2013-05-30 Sist oppdatert: 2020-04-02bibliografisk kontrollert
Kjellgren, A., Soussan, C. & Jonsson, K. (2013). New Drugs on the Internet: Analysis of an Online Drug Discussion Forum. In: : . Paper presented at Hälsoforum, 7 nov 2013, Karlstads universitet.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>New Drugs on the Internet: Analysis of an Online Drug Discussion Forum
2013 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Emneord
Internet drug, Research chemical, legal high, Internet forum, Internetdroger, diskussionsforum, Spice, MXE, 4-HO-MET
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-29978 (URN)
Konferanse
Hälsoforum, 7 nov 2013, Karlstads universitet
Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-11-08 Laget: 2013-11-08 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1690-2573