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  • 1.
    Dahlström, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Den ekonomiska geografin glömmer tjänsteproduktionen1990In: Nordisk Samhällsgeografisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0282-4329, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Dahlström, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Olsen, Lise Smed
    Nordregio, Stockholm.
    Halkier, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Multi-actor and multi-scalar regional development policies in the knowledge economy2012In: Regional Development Agencies: The next generation?: Networking, Knowledge and Regional Policies / [ed] Belini, N., Danson, M., Halkier, H., London: Routledge , 2012, 1, p. 7-23Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Echeverri, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    InSitu Methodology: Outlining a New Direction for Service Research2017In: European Review of Service Economics and Management, ISSN 2495-991X, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 77-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues in favour of a new direction in service research: in situ methodology. It problematizes previous ways of conducting service research and envisages a more profound theoretical and empirical understanding. It outlines three basic arguments as a scientific rationale, discussing ontological, epistemological, and methodological matters. It is highlights the need to develop more creative methods that allow proximity to the phenomenon and the involved actors with the capacity to grasp the multi-faceted reality

  • 4.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University Umeå, Sweden.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Uppsala University Uppsala, Sweden.
    Akerlund, Ulrika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Woube, Annie
    Uppsala University Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rural Place Marketing and Consumption-Driven Mobilities in Northern Sweden: Challenges and Opportunities for Community Sustainability2017In: Journal of Rural and Community Development, ISSN 1712-8277, E-ISSN 1712-8277, Vol. 12, no 2-3, p. 114-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Similar to other northern peripheries, remote, and sparsely populated areas (SPAs) in Sweden's far north have been confronted with decreasing populations and economic stagnation, forcing local governments to more actively engage in strategies for attracting and retaining populations. This exploratory community case study considers rural place-marketing efforts in the municipalities of angstrom sele and Storuman, with a particular focus on understanding differing local strategies for attracting consumption-driven movers to "amenity-poor" and "amenity-rich" areas. The case study examines two research questions: what target groups do these municipalities envisage as desired new populations; and to what extent, and how, do they engage in rural place-marketing efforts? Our study reveals that the municipal officials' views on rural place-marketing strategies differ considerably, as angstrom sele participates in Europe's largest emigration expo while Storuman draws on its increasing tourism development to attract seasonal residents and returning young adults in the family-building stage of the life course. The findings further illustrate how production and performance aspects of mobility are essential when studying the socio-economic sustainability of everyday life in sparsely populated northern Swedish municipalities at different geographical places and levels.

  • 5.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Globalising Swedish countrysides?: A relational approach to rural immigrant restaurateurs with refugee backgrounds2018In: Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-1951, E-ISSN 1502-5292, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 82-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the article is to connect rural immigrants’ business ventures and development in Sweden to relational perspectives on their proximate and distant family and co-ethnic networks at structural and individual levels. Accordingly, the authors employ a relational approach and draw on in-depth interviews. In the context of urban–rural relationships’ meanings for the restaurateurs’ business benefits and constraints, they address two questions: (1) What does embeddedness in proximate and distant family and co-ethnic networks mean for the interviewed restaurateurs and for their businesses? and (2) How do previous and anticipated transitions in the restaurateurs’ families influence their business decisions and migration trajectories? The results suggest that the interviewees employed transnational dimensions in their social embeddedness and that they maintained material and emotional relationships with their countries of origin. This relational approach thus contributes to a better understanding of what the studied businesses mean for the entrepreneurs and the selected localities. The restaurateurs contribute to a globalisation of Swedish countrysides, but their socio-economic potential for countering rural depopulation in Sweden is not fully realised. Additionally, the study illuminates how individuals influence, and are influenced by, place-to-place mobilities on a daily basis and during their life course. 

  • 6. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    How in-vehicle activities affect work commuters’ satisfaction with public transport2012In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 24, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has recently questioned the commonly held opinion that travel time is valued as negative, arguing that engagement inactivities during travel may make these trips more enjoyable or productive. Satisfactionwith travel has to date been assessed using utility-based models or measures of productivity of the trip. The present study is the first to assess the influence of activities performed during travel on publictransport users’ subjective well-being. To this end, a survey was conducted in Sweden in 2010 in which activities during the work commute by publictransport were recorded and subjective well-being during travel was measured retrospectively using the Satisfactionwith Travel Scale (STS). Results show that talking to other passengers has the strongest positive effect on STS, whereas activities related to entertainment and relaxation lead to lower STS, possibly since engaging in these activities reflect unsuccessful attempts to abate boredom. In addition, it is found that activities during travel may have a more positive effect on the commute back home, suggesting that the mindset related to the destination influences travel satisfaction.

  • 7.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, D.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers2018In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we argue that the current focus on cycling must not neglect the need to improve public transport services for the large number of people who do not want to or are unable to cycle. An attractive public transport service is currently therefore the most important component of a sustainable transportation system. The question we address is what measures are needed to improve public transport to make people who do not cycle satisfied with the services such that their well-being increases. Based on research studies of satisfaction with public transport, measures at three levels of public transport services (use, access/egress, and overall) are identified and discussed.

  • 8.
    Gunnarson, Nicklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Schelin, Pontus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    3D-visualisering i markprojekteringsprocessen2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis has been made for NCC Teknik in Gothenburg. The NCC Corporation is one of the largest leading companies in Scandinavia within the construction industry. NCC is active throughout the whole construction process, where one part is to carry out soil investigations prior the construction of various buildings, for example residential buildings. NCC Technology wants to visualize the samples taken at the construction sites in 3D for clients, authorities and also internally to show in a simple and understandable way how contamination is spread out in the soil.

    The thesis includes the area of Limhamns läge in Malmö, previously an industrial area. The area has previously included a concrete factory and the contamination from that factory has lingered in the soil. Here, the old buildings will be demolished and will be replaced by residential area and parkland. The contaminated soil must first be transported away to enable people to inhabit in the area.

    The goal has been to develop a method that improves visualization of the soil remediation process by creating 3D models that could replace the visualization in 2D and tables with analysis results. The idea is that the method of 3D visualization can be applied to other soil remediation processes and some shafting.

    Limhamns läge has the been divided into the squares to be able to take samples, which in turn are divided into boxes in depth which is defined as 20x20x0,5m. After the samples have been analyzed it is possible to determine which boxes that can remain in place, which ones that can be reused in the area and which ones that need to be transported away for landfill.

    The created models are visualizations in 3D showing the distribution of soil contamination. One model is divided into half meter layers, making it possible to see the various levels of contaminants in the soil. A 3D model has also been created where the uncontaminated boxes have been separated from the other boxes and it allows visualization of the contaminated boxes.

    A model has been created that shows how the shafting work progresses by gradually remove boxes that have been shafted for each week.

    The models are designed to capture the results of analyzes by sieving. They are divided for each fraction, coarse, medium and fine. The models show what material can be reused and what should be transported to the landfill. The second version of the model shows the proportion of each fraction that was found in the sieved boxes.

  • 9.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå universitet.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet.
    Vad ska man ha ett land till?: Matchning av bosättning, arbete och produktion för tillväxt2013Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Kollektivtrafik för lokal och regional utveckling: förutsättningar för strategiskt kollektivtrafikarbete i Dalarna och Östergötland 2000-20112013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a study examining the institutional conditions that have shaped public transport policy and planning at regional and local level in Sweden during the past decade. An empirically grounded understanding of these conditions, including formal and informal factors, is essential for longterm, strategic public transport policy and planning. The empirical material originated from the Swedish counties of Dalarna and Östergötland. The results show that there have been many challenges in local and regional public transport policy and planning during the time period in focus: 2000-2011. One of the crucial issues centres on the relationship between owners (local municipalities and county council) and regional public transport companies. Another important question concerns the cost models used in each county, and what incentives they have created for a long-term, strategic public transport policy and planning. A third crucial issue in the two counties concerns the capacity and/or ambition to establish and maintain an overall strategic view of public transport as a tool for local and regional development. Overall, the study provides a number of examples of challenges and drivers for more strategic, long-term public transport planning. In practice, a combination of formal and informal institutional conditions often determines the effectiveness of local and regional strategic public transport planning processes. The study is concluded by a discussion about the new public transport legislation, valid since 1 Jan 2012. In many respects, this new legislation is an attempt to solve some of the problems that characterised public transport planning in the early 2000s. One of the remaining concerns is however the relationship between regional public authorities and municipalities, who through the strong tradition of local self-government (which includes a local spatial planning monopoly) largely determine the potential for public transport to become a more functional and attractive alternative for personal travel. It remains to be seen how the new legislation functions in this respect. It is important to set out an approach for close monitoring and analysis of progress, in terms of both formal and informal institutional conditions, in strategic public transport work locally and regionally.

  • 11.
    Kistler, Beat
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia..
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lohmann, Gui
    Griffith University, Australia..
    Passenger representation within the light-handed regulation - Insights from the Australian air transport market2018In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 71, p. 106-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article critically reviews the representation of passengers within the light-handed regulation (LHR) that has been in place in the Australian air transport market since 2002. The focus is the commercial negotiations between airlines and airports concerning investments that affect passengers as key stakeholders, end-users, and payers. The article draws on literature on consumer representation and willingness to pay, as well as data from 21 in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that within the current arrangement, passengers are dependent on airlines as their representatives, although their interests may differ concerning investments in airport infrastructure and services. This dependency is leveraged by the current airline duopoly in the Australian domestic air transport market because passengers have no transport alternatives among which to choose. Airports charging passengers their fees (and eventually negotiating prices for improved services) directly is not deemed a suitable option because it could increase the airports' market power and affect the passenger experience negatively. Recommendations, such as involving an independent representation body and diversifying service provision at the airport, are discussed as possibilities for increasing passengers' influence.

  • 12.
    Lindgren, Gerd
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Forsberg, Gunnel
    Kulturgeografi, Stockholms universitet.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Nordregio.
    Economic Geography in Regional Planning: Homosocial Stories or Allowing Spaces2012In: Promoting innovation: Policies, Practices and procedures / [ed] Susanne Andersson, Karin Berglund, Ewa Gunnarsson, Elisabeth Sundin, Stockholm: VINNOVA , 2012, p. 135-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The regional programme “Sustainable Värmlandic Growth for the period 2004 – 2007” is a textbook example of the regional development policy that was developed since the early 1990s in Sweden. One can find many similarities with the work being done in this county and the theoretical explanations developed in the "new economic geography". This programme lends itself very well to an analysis of economic geography and gender mainstreaming in regional policy, which we perform in this paper. We build the paper on a qualitative study in the Värmland region in the late 2000s. The study was carried out through making close readings of the growth programme documents and interactive research together with thirty appointed women in senior positions in the region. Our analysis indicates that the process of developing the growth programme was influenced by homotopical networks (place-specific male homosocial practices), as the large partnership that was formed was dominated by men and people from central areas, reconstructing past power relations. We can also conclude that the male dominated clusters were prioritised in the regional growth programme, while potentially successful clusters and innovation systems which included large numbers of women, were to a large degree excluded. We also conclude that the growth programme was not gender mainstreamed. We suggest that the concept of allowing spaces can be applied in ordet to identify alternative development possibilities and for new initiatives to take place, e.g. implying to integrate the women-dominated clusters in as potential clusters to build regional development on. Allowing spaces, we suggest, could have a potential to integrate gender into the discussion of regional development.

     

  • 13.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Ednarsson, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    International migration, self-employment and restructuring through tourism in sparsely populated areas2016In: Tourism, mobilities, and development in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Doris A. Carson, Dean B. Carson, Linda Lundmark, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, p. 70-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Sandström, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Regional Development.
    Berger, Sune
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Regional Development.
    Näringslivsutveckling i en föränderlig värld: Globalisering och omställning i Värmland2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för rapporten är två övergripande frågor: globaliseringen och klimatom- ställningen och hur dessa frågor påverkat näringslivsutvecklingen i Värmland. De fråge- ställningar som ligger till grund för studien är följande:

    • Vilkaärdeavgörandefaktorersommedförenlyckadomställning,förvärmländska företag, till ett hållbart samhälle och en mer globaliserad omvärld?

    • Hurbehandlasglobaliseringsfråganidestuderadevärmländskaföretagensstrategi- er, organisationsförändringar och vad det gäller anpassning av produktion och in- vesteringar?

    • Hursersamspeletutmellanföretag,myndigheter,universitetochoffentligaorga- nisationer vad det gäller en lyckad anpassning till globaliseringens nya förutsätt- ningar?

    • Vilken position har Värmland i pågående processer kring klimat- och energistrate- giskt arbete?

      Inledningsvis ges ett historiskt perspektiv på det värmländska näringslivets inriktning och konkurrenskraft. Därefter ges en översikt av innovationsteorier med särskilt fokus på ag- glomerationer, kluster och kreativa miljöer. En kritisk analys av tillförlitligheten hos klus- ter och klusterteorier genomförs med hjälp av ekonomisk och ekonomisk-geografisk forskning. Framväxten av värmländska kluster och regionala innovationssystem diskuteras därefter mot bakgrund av empiriska exempel.

      För att åskådliggöra globaliseringens effekter och det värmländska näringslivets an- passning och positionering till en hållbar samhällsutveckling har ett antal intervjuer ge- nomförts med företag, organisationer och myndigheter i Värmland. Intervjuerna visar att anpassningen till globaliseringen i det värmländska näringslivet är påtaglig och att inter- vjuade myndigheter och organisationer visar en tydlig öppenhet mot globaliserings- och hållbarhetsfrågor.

      Det lokala och regionala näringslivsarbetet i länet klargör att det finns uppenbara in- omregionala skillnader i förutsättningar för tillväxt. Det visar också att det är nödvändigt med ett samlat strategiarbete för att klara omställningsarbetet. Detta visar inte minst den senaste finanskrisen som slagit hårt, särskilt i vissa delar av länet. I rapporten visas med hjälp av statistiska data hur utvecklingen sett ut under den senaste tioårsperioden beträf- fande bland annat arbetsmarknad, ekonomisk utveckling och nyföretagande.

      På samma sätt ges i ett särskilt kapitel data för Värmland om olika indikatorer för en omställning mot en hållbar utveckling. Det värmländska arbetet med en energi- och kli- matstrategi visar en uppenbar vilja att arbeta för en omställning av det värmländska när- ingslivet. Strategin pekar på nödvändigheten av att minska beroendet av fossila bränslen och en övergång mot bioenergi och ökad energieffektivisering. Ett antal exempel ges på aktuella framtidsinriktade projekt och företag i länet.

      Avslutningsvis diskuteras hur samspelet mellan företag, myndigheter och organisationer ska kunna förbättras för att omställningen mot globalisering och hållbar utveckling ska kunna genomföras.

    Studiens resultat ger följande slutsatser:

    • Samverkanmellanföretag,myndigheterochuniversitet,TripleHelix,underlät- tar omställning till globalisering och hållbar utveckling

    • Devärmländskaföretagenhargodanpassningsförmågaochäraktivaipågåen- de processer kring globalisering samt energi- och klimatstrategier

    • Deintervjuadeföretagenpekarpåstyrkanmedplatsidentitetochlokalanätverk för att bli globalt konkurrenskraftiga

    • Klusterföretagenskonkurrensförmågaiförhållandetillandraföretagärsvåratt påvisa 

  • 15.
    Tømmervold, Arne
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Bergan, Per Inge
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Nerem, Vidar
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Store opplevelser - små attraksjoner.: Destinasjonen Budors forutsetninger for innovasjon og utvikling.2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourist industry is growing every year, together with the increasing competition among the travellers, both in Norway and in the rest of the world. The market for destination Budor is primarily Norway, and there are many important challenges waiting, both concerning marketing and innovation. Here we want to focus on the last mentioned item; innovation. We want to investigate if Budor has the appropriate conditions in order to continue competing for future costumers.

    We have done this by looking at both general and demographic developmental features connected to market and population, and we have especially been looking to the tourist industry and the building of Second homes.

    We have been investigating what kind of movements and innovations we see in the tourist business, and what Budor can do to meet these. We have been looking to Triple Helix theories as a power for innovations that Løiten Almenning could use, and finally we have investigated and analysed the creative climate and conditions for innovations in the organisation behind Budor; Løiten Almenning.

    Our opinion is that destination Budor has splendid natural conditions for both creativity and innovation. But, to cope with this you need cooperation and building of network together with national authorities, governmental business support apparatus i.e “Innovasjon Norge”, “FoU” and destination companies, and you need to believe in yourself and your own possibilities.

  • 16.
    Westgaard, Hilde Kristin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Lexander, Petter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Klyngeinitiativ i Hedmark: Praktiske tilnærminger til klyngeinitiativ og utvikling av regionale innovasjonssystem - og graden av behov for management i ulike staider av prosessen. To eksempler fra Hedmark Fylke2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [nb]

    Innlandet har flere klyngeinitiativ som blir fulgt opp og utviklet i regi av virkemiddelapparatet, herunder også Kunnskapsparkene. Kunnskapsparken Hedmark har bioforedling og kulturnæringer som fokusområder. I denne avhandlingen har vi valgt å presentere og belyse utfordringer knyttet til utviklingen av to ulike klyngeinitiativ, en på anvendt bioteknologi og en på musikk (pop/rock). Begge klyngeinitiativ er initiert og har sitt hovedsete i Hedmark, med tilknyttede aktører i Oppland, men også i andre regioner.

    Fokuset på å utvikle regionale næringsklynger bunner først og fremst i behovet for at næringsaktører og FoU miljø i større grad samarbeider og samhandler for å øke konkurransekraften. Ved å initiere fellesprosjekter bidrar man til å øke verdiskapingen i regionen, konsekvensen blir at man løfter ulike fagmiljø til å bli mer attraktive og man kan slik lettere rekruttere ny arbeidskraft, flere studenter og på alle måter skape merverdi. Et regionalt klyngeinitiativ går aktivt inn i prosessen med å fjerne barrierer mellom de ulike aktørene, så som mellom næring og høgskole/universitet. Det handler om å smelte sammen ulike kulturer og synliggjøre verdien av samarbeid med tanke på synergier og økt nasjonal og internasjonal konkurransekraft. Målsettingen vil da være å bli en lærende region, dvs. et innovasjonssystem der alle barrierer er fraværende og kommunikasjonsflyten derved er svært god. Slik kan man ta ut merverdien og skape et godt innovasjonsmiljø.

    Denne avhandlingen knytter arbeidet med klyngeutvikling opp til relevant teori og belyser slik de utfordringer man står overfor, systemisk og praktisk. I begynnelsen av utviklingsprosessen ligger det en forventning om sterkt offentlig engasjement, i forhold til ledelse og koordinering samt finansiering. Gjennom å gradvis få tettere dialog med de ulike næringsaktørene og evt. et FoU miljø ligger det en forventning om at næringsaktørene gradvis går inn mer aktivt i klyngeutviklingen, både med menneskelige ressurser og kapital. Forankringen hos de ulike aktørene og det å alliere seg med en respektert person som kan snakke varmt om klyngeprosessen er en kritisk suksessfaktor. Etter hvert som klyngeutviklingen blir mer kjent, forstått og akseptert kan klyngefasilitatoren rette blikket utover, fra det regionale til det nasjonale og etter hvert det internasjonale miljø.

    I Norge finnes det to hovedprogrammer for klyngeutvikling, Arena og Norwegian Centres of Expertise. Arena er ment for de mer umodne miljøene, mens NCE programmet er tiltenkt de klyngene som har størst vekstpotensial og som gjør seg gjeldende i et internasjonalt marked. Denne avhandlingen presenterer to case; BIOINN som har avsluttet sin programperiode som Arenaprosjekt og nå står på egne ben på regionale offentlige og private midler, samt musikk-klyngen i Hedmark som er i tidlig fase i utviklingen, men har et stort potensial og er i god driv. Kravet til ledelse varierer i forhold til hvilket utviklingstrinn klyngen er i, og arbeidets grad av suksess er gjerne knyttet til at man ikke slipper fokus og er i aktiv dialog med alle aktørene. Man må kontinuerlig være på post og drive aktiv markedsføring, motiveringsarbeid og på ulike måter holde trykket og entusiasmen oppe.

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