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  • 1.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Den lyssnande kommunen: Om medborgardialog ur förtroendevaldas, tjänstemäns och medborgares perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    For the last decades, the party memberships in Sweden have decreased from 600.000 to 300.000, although the general interest in politics have been stable during the same period. This situation can be percieved as a threat to swedish democracy; if the political parties are loosing contact with the citizens, the parties will also face the risk of not being able to canalize the views of the citizens. If that’s the case, the represenative democracy might loose legitimacy. These conclusions have triggered local municipalities in Sweden to launch ”civil dialogue”, innovative ways to include the citizens in public projects and welfare services, with the purpose to re-establish connection and trust between the public and civil sector. However, political studies suggest that civil dialogue rarely have succeeded to strenghtened democracy. In some cases, civil dialogue seemed to hurt trust and legitimacy in local municipalities. That makes the civil dialogue phenomenon interesting – how can attempts to reinforce trust and democracy result in a backfire? What in the core of civil dialogue might catalyze this backlash?

       The nature of civil dialogue suggest that cooperation between the public and civil sphere is becoming more acceptable, even desirable, in swedish politics. This development breaks with the traditional ways of public administration and bureaucracy in Sweden. However, the cooperation between the public and civil sphere is also the core of a new broad trend in public administration and governing, namely ”governace”. Governance refers to a way of adminstrating public affairs by the logic of networks, including the civil society in the public affairs with the purpose of making the public administration more effective and to find creative solutions on new problems. The first aim of this study is to recieve a new understanding how the subjective experiences of civil dialogue participants can affect legitimacy and trust, by analyzing the experiences of participants in a failed dialogue. The second aim is to explore wether civil dialogue is better understood as a part of a new broad trend in public buraucracy, governance, rather than more traditional bureaucracy. These aims are fulfilled using a case study, which has a swedish local municipality, Sunne, in focus.

       The results of the study suggests that none of the participants of the civil dialogue in Sunne experienced that they had ”been listened to”, which seems to be an important cause behind the negative result of the specific dialogue. The innovativeand failed attempt to strengthen the legitimacy of local democracy resulted in a negative reaction through the traditional channels of political participation. The study also suggests that civil dialogue and governace have some similarities regarding their main principles of value and general logic, but since the municipality of Sunne didn’t implement the steering logics of civil dialogue in its full practice, it’s hard to judge wether it should be perceived as governance or not.

  • 2.
    Alnebratt, Kerstin
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Feminism som byråkrati: Jämställdhetsintegrering som strategi2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Feminism som byråkrati beskriver utvecklingen av svensk jämställdhetspolitik. Främst behandlas idén om jämställdhetsintegrering. En historieskrivning, men också en analys. Från början av 1990-talet fram till idag. Vilka frågor och krav har kunnat ställas inom ramen för denna politik? Och inte minst, vad har gjorts omöjligt?

  • 3.
    Alström, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Politics and History.
    En av Sveriges mest jämställda kommuner?: En implementeringsstudie av en kommun med höga visioner2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the most equal countries in the world and equality is supposed to mainstream all political areas. Implementation is a common issue when it comes to democracy. It is important that national decisions are recognisable in the municipalities and it is there for important that the decisions are implement correctly. A successful implementation, due to implementation theory, shall consist of three conditions; the applier needs to understand the decision, the applier needs to want to implement the decision and the applier has to be able to implement the decision. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate if Karlstad municipality has been able to imply equality within its organisation, as an employer, which also constitutes my research question. This thesis consists of a case study from an implementation theory perspective where interviews and text analysis are the primary sources. The conclusion shows that Karlstad municipality has not

  • 4.
    Andersson, Albin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Ringström, Joakim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Kunskapsöverföring genom slutdokument: och möjligheterna till att ta del av och sprida lärdomar - En fallstudie på Karlstads universitet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's fast-changing organizations often strive to stay competitive in the labor market, which tends to place increasing demands on the efficient dissemination of knowledge. In many cases, an organization chooses to use the project format to complete the tasks. A projects temporary nature means additional handling experience and lessons learned, especially when there is a risk that the experience is wasted when a project is finished. For this reason, there are many methods and theories that explain how the organization should capture the lessons learned and disseminate them between projects. One method consists of routine and structured creation of final reports, which includes the experience to be captured, stored and archived.

    The purpose of the study is to identify trends regarding the handling of the final document and the options available to spread and share experiences and lessons learned at Karlstad University.

    Two research questions were formulated to answer the purpose of the study:

    • How does the handling of the final document work at Karlstad University?
    • How does project managers perceive the opportunities to distribute and share lessons learned between projects at Karlstad University?

    A qualitative approach has been applied where we performed five interviews with project managers at Karlstad University. The empirical data were then analyzed on the basis of our theoretical framework of matters, including various coordination mechanisms, the final report and in particular the transfer of knowledge and the problems that may arise regarding this phenomenon.

    The results indicate that the informal channels perceived strong within the organization, where close contact had a significant role in knowledge transfer. The final document is made from a formal template, which is a relatively new procedure for the organization. This development has been seen as very positive because it contributes to a wealth of experience in the organization. However, we have been able to see trends that there are difficulties in accessing the final reports through the organization systems, partly because project management has tended to be a “IT-matter”. We have also been able to see a demand for a more structured system that is placed centrally in the organization. Finally, we have been able to discern some tendency’s that indicate that a project office would serve as a potential tool to the structure and certain problems that the respondents are experiencing.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Jan-Åke
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sturesson, Joakim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Interaktiv samhällsplanering vid planering av civilt försvar: En komparativ studie mellan Halland, Värmland, Västra Götaland och Örebro läns arbete med planering av civilt försvar.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is a comparative case study that examines the planning of civil defense from Halland, Västra Götaland, Värmland and Örebro county administrative boards from a collaborative perspective. The overall question is what similarities and differences exist between the county administrative board planning. The empiric material is obtained through semi-structured qualitative interviews with officials at the executive and supervisory level of the investigated county administrative boards. The collected material is categorized and analyzed based on an analysis model based on a framework, An Integrative Framework for Collaborative Governance. The analysis compares the work of the four county administrative boards in planning civil defense through cooperation. The results of the study shows that there are major differences between the county administrative authorities in how they have taken on the task and what activity they are pursuing to create legitimacy, cross-border action and overall understanding between actors to create the conditions for civil defense planning. There are also major differences in how they perceived the governance that comes from national authority. The result also shows that there are major similarities in the needs of the four county administrative boards, including coordination in the hierarchical organization from national to local level regarding industry agreements and coherent planning. The framework can be found useful as an analysis tool for collaborative planning in civil defense.

  • 6.
    Brouwer, Peter
    et al.
    Apeldoorn, The Netherlands.
    Staal, Klaas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    The Democracy of the Future: Do Voters Want It?2018In: Homo Oeconomicus, ISSN 0943-0180, Vol. 35, no 1-2, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frey (Homo Oeconomicus 34(1):1–9, 2017) makes several proposals to reform and extend democracy. In this contribution, we first consider the desirability of these proposals from the point of view of a rational self-interested individual. We then conduct a questionnaire to quantify the actual support among voters. It turns out that many proposals lack support in both cases. We conclude that in making such proposals, one has to take into account not only pre-existing democratic institutions but also the support such proposals can expect from rational self-interestedindividuals.

  • 7.
    Börjeson, Filippa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Den relationella kommunen?: En intervjustudie av privat/offentlig samverkan inom krishanteringsområdet på kommunal nivå i Värmlands län2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Caffyn, Alison
    et al.
    University of Birmingham.
    Dahlström, Margareta
    University of Birmingham.
    Spencer, Ken
    University of Birmingham.
    Rogers, Steve
    University of Birmingham.
    Rural Proofing for Local Authorities2002In: Local Governance, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 273-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theconcept of rural proofing, identified by the Government in its Rural WhitePaper, involves identifying whether new or existing policies will havedifferential impacts in rural areas and considering adjustments orcompensations to address these. The article examines how local authorities canput rural proofing into practice at the local level. Based on researchundertaken for the Countryside Agency, it considers how local authority policyand decision making processes can lend themselves to rural proofing andmitigate differential impacts in rural areas. A localised rural proofingchecklist is drawn up and a range of issues associated with implementing such amechanism are debated. Conclusions are drawn as to how local authorities cantake rural proofing forward.

  • 9.
    Fransson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Quist, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Tjänstelogik för offentlig förvaltning: En bok för förnyelsebyråkrater2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk offentlig sektor är i många avseenden fantastisk, men det finns också brister. Det främsta syftet med denna bok är att för första gången presentera tjänstelogik (Service Dominant Logic) som ett sätt att betrakta offentlig verksamhet. Med sådan logik för ögonen kan verksamheten förstås på ett annorlunda vis. Förhoppningsvis kan logiken bidra både till praktiska lösningar och till en förvaltningspolitik som är ändamålsenlig och relevant.

    I boken demonstreras hur retoriken bakom offentliga tjänster ofta bygger på resonemang från varuproduktion i tillverkningsindustrin (Goods Dominant Logic). Detta medan tjänsteforskare samstämmigt menar att varors logik ofta leder fel. Varor är fysiska och statiska och tillverkas vanligen i stängda fabriker. Tjänstelogiken är däremot till för organisationer som, likt våra myndigheter, arbetar med immateriella, komplexa och föränderliga ting. Enligt denna logik samskapas värden i en ofta öppen miljö, i interaktionen mellan myndigheter och medborgare, företag och andra aktörer.

    Ett annat syfte med boken är att illustrera förvaltningspolitikens betydelse för vår välfärd. Det borde inte behöva påpekas att logiken i mötet med förvaltningen kan vara livsviktig för många. Brister kan leda till att en utbetalning uteblir, så att en barnfamilj inte har mat på bordet. Misstag kan göra att någon inte kommer tillbaka i arbete efter en tids sjukdom. Men trots att problemen debatteras, och trots välfärdssystemens väsentliga andel av statsbudgeten, står förvaltningspolitik sällan högt på någon regerings dagordning.

    Med eller utan förvaltningspolitiskt stöd arbetar myndigheterna oförtrutet vidare. För dem är tjänsteforskningens rön inte obekanta. Däremot är många omedvetna om det banbrytande perspektivskifte som skett. Nytt med tjänstelogiken är bland annat att tjänstebegreppet reserverats för att beteckna alla de förutsättningar som krävs för värdeskapande. Då även varor ger sådana förutsättningar, är även de en del av tjänsters logik. Den tjänstelogik som på senare år har utvecklats, tillämpas även av ledande industriföretag. Den gör anspråk på att vara en generell teori för allt värdeskapande.

    Det är nu hög tid att tjänstelogiken, som tidigare mest tillämpats i privata verksamheter, görs tillgänglig och kommer till användning i en mer aktiv svensk förvaltningspolitik. Den något anpassade offentliga tjänstelogik (Public Service Logic) som introduceras här har utvecklats med stöd av kollegor vid Centrum för tjänsteforskning (CTF). Stödet har varit gott, då forskare vid denna institution anses höra till de världsledande inom tjänsteforskningen. De artiklar om tjänstelogik som publicerats vid CTF är flest till antalet och har sammantaget citerats av flest forskare runt om i världen.

    Även då exemplen i boken främst hämtas från statliga myndigheter, är tjänstelogiken högst relevant även för politiker och tjänstemän inom kommuner och landsting. Boken kan även fungera som kurslitteratur inom universiteten samt för utbildning av chefer och personal.

  • 10.
    Fransson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Regeringskansliet, Finansdepartementet.
    Quist, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Regeringskansliet, Finansdepartementet.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    Handelshögskolan, Örebro universitet.
    Politisk handlingskraft i en regeringsnära utvecklingsmiljö2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport förordas att regeringen ska inrätta en varaktig utvecklingsmiljö inom kommittéväsendet. Det skulle ge ytterligare politisk handlingskraft. Avsikten skulle vara att bekä­mpa sådana sektorsövergripande samhällsutmaningar som involverar ett system av aktörer och som visat sig svåra att bemästra genom ordinarie styrning och samverkan. Som exempel kan nämnas punktligheten i järnvägstrafiken eller den fara för patientsäkerheten som uppstår när livsviktiga läkemedel saknas vid landets apotek.

    Både i fråga om kvalitet och kostnad kan betydande samhällsekonomiska vinster då hämtas hem. Samtidigt skulle varken utvecklingsmiljön eller de lösningar den frambringar medföra någon belastning på statsbudgeten. Myndigheternas ansvar påverkas inte och deras deltagande skulle inte medföra några juridiska konsekvenser. Inte heller krävs det någon ny mottagarkapacitet eller andra förstärkningar inom Regeringskansliet.

    Med en regeringsnära utvecklingsmiljö skulle Sverige ansluta till en lång rad av länder som redan etablerat vad som ofta kallas för labb eller som mera kraftfullt beskrivs som en insatsstyrka.  Poängen är dock inte att tvinga fram eller att styra utformningen av de lösningar som utvecklas, ej heller att ta över ägarskapet.

    I utvecklingsmiljön skulle aktörerna få den kvalificerade hjälp de efterfrågar för att gemensamt lösa ut frågor som ”trillat mellan stolarna” och där ansvaret tycks ligga på ”ingen, någon, vemsomhelst eller alla”. Nackdelarna med den annars relativt väl fungerande sektorsindelningen och resultatstyrningen skulle kunna minska. En del av kritiken mot den så kallade stuprörsförvaltningen skulle kunna stillas. 

    Idén är inte ny. Andra har tidigare argumenterat för liknande åtgärder. Föreliggande rapport bidrar med en extensiv genomgång av relevant litteratur samt en kartläggning av Regeringskansliets arbetssätt, förmågor och tillkortakommanden. För att undersöka vad myndigheterna själva kan hantera har det även gjorts praktiska försök samt kartlagts vilka förmågor som finns i befintliga svenska utvecklingsmiljöer. 

    Försöken och kartläggningarna visar att myndigheternas egna ansvar att samverka räcker långt. Av naturliga skäl saknar de dock uppdrag och mandat att självsvåldigt anpassa och använda andra aktörers resurser i tjänstesystemet. Många myndighetsöverskridande utmaningar blir svåra att åtgärda när inte alla ställer upp. Myndigheternas representanter efterfrågar därför en aktörsneutral arena på regeringens överordnade nivå där de ges vägledning och professionellt stöd. Något sådant stöd har hittills inte kunnat påräknas.

    Genom kartläggningen av Regeringskansliets arbetssätt blir det tydligt varför idén om en utvecklingsmiljö inte tidigare har tagits tillvara. Kansliet är helt enkelt utformat för beredning av ärenden och styrning och inte lämpat för praktisk utveckling. 

    Förutsättningarna är däremot bättre inom kommittéväsendet. Där skulle den efterfrågade miljön kunna inrättas utan en bortre tidsgräns, som fallet varit med Expertgruppen för Studier i Offentlig ekonomi (ESO).

    Kommittéväsendets relativa närhet till regeringen gör att de aktörer som bjuds in till miljön sannolikt kommer att vilja delta. Genom att låta uppdragen tilldelas av Statsrådsberedningen skulle även många av de oavsiktliga hinder kunna undanröjas som följer av att styrningen är sektorsindelad och primärt inte avsedd för gränsöverskridande frågor.

  • 11.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, D.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers2018In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we argue that the current focus on cycling must not neglect the need to improve public transport services for the large number of people who do not want to or are unable to cycle. An attractive public transport service is currently therefore the most important component of a sustainable transportation system. The question we address is what measures are needed to improve public transport to make people who do not cycle satisfied with the services such that their well-being increases. Based on research studies of satisfaction with public transport, measures at three levels of public transport services (use, access/egress, and overall) are identified and discussed.

  • 12.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    Sustainable development: The four-fold path for governance2013In: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 63-66Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Att gå i procession: om nätverkspolitik och problemformulering2011In: Nordisk kommunforskning: en forskningsöversikt med 113 projekt / [ed] Andreas Ivarsson, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, Förvaltningshögskolan , 2011, p. 249-250Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Kommuner möter utmaningen från klimatförändring2011In: Nordisk kommunforskning: en forskningsöversikt med 113 projekt / [ed] Andreas Ivarsson, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, Förvaltningshögskolan , 2011, p. 277-279Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Pressures, drivers and barriers for urban low carbon transitions2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Urban transformations and policy responses2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban transformations and policy responses  

    Mikael Granberg

     

    We now have a rapidly growing global city system that is changing society. The economic and social settings are impacted and even ecology is changing as urban areas develop into new biospheres. The impact of this process is considerable and has far reaching consequences for the way society will develop in the future. Changes and challenges are channelled and mediated through societal structures and through the actions of a multitude of heterogeneous actors—formal and informal, top-down or bottom-up, individual or collective—in action and reaction to perceived changes in society. This means that the culture, lifestyles, design, economy, management and governing of cities is essential for world developments. The central issue is how societal actors in urban settings handle the impact of these changes (transformations) in a way that facilitates sustainable urban development?

    Society itself is a continuous process of action, decisions and effects where the actions of earlier generations have a considerable impact on contemporary developments and where contemporary action and decisions will impact future generations. Accordingly, we are talking about an ongoing historical conditioning of society. One aspect of this is path dependency. Path dependency occurs when incumbent structures, i.e., infrastructure or institutions (norms, routines and rules) guides (facilitates or delimits) behaviour. It is important to state, however, that the structuring always is temporary path dependency only temper continuous processes of change. Change in path dependent conditions take place through formative moments or windows opportunity and this refers to situations were historical and contemporary circumstances align in ways that make rapid change possible despite structural constraints. Changes in formative moment can be rapid and revolutionary. Formative moments can be driven by different types of crises (political, economical, technological, social and environmental) leading to paradigmatic shifts in society changing the preconditions for policy making and making more radical change possible.

    The urban setting can be perceived as a common. That is, a common pool of resource, challenges and problems that has to be owned and handled by the inhabitants of the city. Governance of commons requires a flexible system for policy making that includes interactive and adaptive steering, including social and policy learning. Flexible policy making demands a positive feedback loop that creates order out of our experience and storing these experiences as knowledge. Proactive and flexible policymaking is not about finding the right policy for the future to come. The focus must be on flexible and proactive policy making that is formulated at scales appropriate for decision makers and citizens. This is a more systemic perspective on policy that concerns itself more with who interacts with whom, about what, rather than targeting specific, well-defined outcomes as policy goals. From this perspective policy is perceived as a process. With this perspective on policy follows that a multitude of agents can act as policy-makers, not just government agencies, but also firms and industry associations, NGOs and private foundations. Uncertainty connected to social development encourages viewing policy as an on-going exploration with many possible changes of direction rather than an optimization exercise based upon detailed assumptions about the lay of the land ahead and a clear and explicit goal about where the journey is to end. One issue is, of course, if the incumbent policy system will be able to adapt to accommodate flexible policy processes or if path dependency will hinder or considerably slow down such development?

  • 17.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Montin, Stig
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Modern Municipalities. Notion and ideas guiding the development of Swedish municipalities2014In: European Consortium for Political Reseach (ECPR) General Conference: Section: Contemporary Local Self-Governance and Democracy – Challenges and Responses, Panel: Institutional Reform in Local Government,, Glasgow: Glasgow University , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe the development of Swedish municipalities as we trace the origin of the modern municipality to the late 19th century to today with a special focus on the last 40-50 years of development. With this as a background, and related to the research literature, we develop four different theoretical perspectives (ideal types): (1), The municipality as community: focusing on common interests and challenges in the local social and political order. (2), The state integrated municipality: focusing on the implementation of national welfare functions, the role of the municipality and the steering and control efforts of the nation-state. (3), The facilitating municipality: focusing on mobilization and integration of different types of resources across borders within the public sector and between public and private institutions. (4), The market oriented municipality: focusing on freedom of choice reform and that public activities should be put on the market according to the belief that competition is the most important motor of public economy. The different theoretical perspectives, it is argued, catches notion and ideas guiding the development of local politics and democracy. Experiences from reforms, which are related to these ideas, are presented. The overall questions raised are what ideas are empirically represented in different policy fields? The paper concludes by discussing two examples of contemporary policy fields in the light of the four theoretical perspectives.

  • 18.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Montin, Stig
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Modern Municipalities: The Changing Role of Local Government and Local Democracy in Sweden2014In: NOPSA 2014, XVII Nordic Political Science Congress: Kommunale reformer og organisatorisk tilpasninger – utfordringer for lokalpolitikken, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe the development of Swedish municipalities – we trace the origin of the modern municipality to the late 19th century to today with a special focus on the last 40-50 years of development – through four different theoretical lenses (ideal types): (1), The municipality as a common (communitarian) that focuses on common interests and challenges in the local social and political order. (2), The state integrated municipality that focuses on the implementation of national welfare functions, the role of the municipality and the steering and control efforts of the nation-state. (3), The market oriented municipality that focuses freedom of choice reform and that public activities should be put on the market according to the belief that competition is the most important motor of public economy. (4), The coordinating and facilitating municipality that focuses on how to mobilize and integrate different types of resources across borders within the public sector and between public and private institutions. By using the different theoretical perspectives it is shown that the development of local politics and democracy is driven by different ideas. Experiences from reforms, which are related to these ideas, are presented. The article concludes by pointing out some important challenges and potential pathways for future development of local democracy in Sweden.

  • 19.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Åström, Joachim
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Medborgarnas deltagande i stadsplaneringen och effekter av ny teknik2011In: Nordisk kommunforskning: en forskningsöversikt med 113 projekt / [ed] Andreas Ivarsson, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, Förvaltningshögskolan , 2011, p. 332-333Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Granbom, Jessica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Jörnmyr, Maria
    Persson, Monica
    Ekonomistyrning inom individ- och familjeomsorg: "Sen om himlen ramlat ner och alla har blivit funktionshindrade, det spelar ingen roll, för det ni hade innan – det får ni nästa år ändå."2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to describe how financial management functions within the individual and family care services in three mid-sized municipalities.

    27 interviews with managers and key personnel at three management levels in Örebro, Växjö and Jönkö-ping were conducted using a descriptive approach and qualitative method. In addition governing docu-ments and delineations in regards to these municipalities have been studied.

    The combined findings show that all municipalities have separate visions and control systems/models for their municipality with focus on management by objectives and politically determined goals, which in-clude economical measurements and requirements for the departments. Moreover, are also tracking sys-tems, which are described as following up on the results thru indicators and/or measurable goals. The municipalities utilize framework financials and budget processing on a high level and its timings appears similar in each municipality.

    Additionally the study has shown that there is a desire and aspiration to implement central economic goals in all three municipalities. The interviewees describe how they use their leadership to anchor, follow up and create participation in economic objectives and results thru instrumental and institutional leadership. All describe the importance of good forecasting in order for the financial management to work and create legitimacy, but they also see difficulties in anticipating needs arising mainly from livelihood support and external placements. None of the municipalities have a specific resource allocation model for individual and family care services. The study shows relatively small changes in the budget year over year, which in addition to difficulties in forecasting affects their perceived ability to take action.

    Conclusive, the study shows dilemmas in the individual and family care services and the difficulty of combining legal certainty and protection for the most vulnerable in our society, all while utilizing shared public resources in a responsible and appropriate manner.

  • 21.
    Gustavsson, Elin
    Karlstad University.
    Deliberativ demokrati och valdemokrati - i harmoni eller konflikt?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How a citizen dialogue or planning consultation is conducted can be a root cause of planning contests in new construction projects. The aim of the paper is to study the effects of the citizensial dialogue in connection with the local development “Muminlandet” theme park at Skutberget. This study explores how the citizen dialogue have been done in Karlstad and tries to look at it in different democracy perspectives. The method used is qualitative semi-structured individual interviews with politicians, civil servants and citizens in order to gain their view of the process. The study analysis shows that the development of Skutberget area in Karlstad municipality has been divided into two separate plans. In one part, which is the outdoor recreational area, citizen dialogue has taken place with deliberative aspects in the form of focus groups and direct dialogues with the citizens. The second part is about “Muminparken” and it has been planned for public consultation meeting. Citizens have only given comments on this plan, but have not had the possibility to have a direct dialog with the people in charge, so no deliberative talks have been achieved. The conclusion that follows is that there has been no opportunity for citizens to enter into dialogue with the municipality regarding the “Muminpark”. The conclusion that follows is that there has been a certain tension between the representatives from my interviews and the citizens. They see the building plan from two different perspectives.

  • 22.
    Halvorsen, Stein
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Hauge, Frank Steinar
    Karlstad University.
    KOSTRA som verktøy for styring av kommunene: en studie av 10 kommuner i Hedmark og Oppland2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian public sector, in particular local Councils as the principal supplier of welfare services, face great challenges in the coming years. Expectations and demands upon public services are increasing in proportion with the increase in private wealth. Among the consequences are higher demands on the distribution of welfare services, and the need for a more effective use of resources.

    Inspired by New Public Management theories, Norwegian local Councils have made considerable changes in management over the last 10-20 years. To meet the demands for increased activity, public sector has undergone a transition towards a less hierarchal organisational structure, their delegation to appropriate performance units has increased, and systems to monitor aims and results have been introduced. With respect to the latter, it has become crucial that data concerning resource utilisation and economy are made easily available and can be related to management issues.

    In 2001 the national government introduced the so-called KOSTRA public reporting system (Kommune-ST-at-Rapportering) The overall aim of KOSTRA is to produce relevant, reliable, current and comparable management information. In addition, the KOSTRA reporting system will provide an improved database as an aid to service provision, as well as providing a foundation for improved Council management.

    Our aim with this assignment has been to take a closer look at KOSTRA as a suitable tool for resource management within local Councils, and to see whether Councils do in fact use it actively in their own administrational priorities and activities. We have illustrated this by taking a closer look at possible connections between active use of KOSTRA and the Councils` economic situation, priorities and effectiveness.

    We have found no grounds in our studies to indicate that there is any difference in the allocation of priorities between those local Councils using KOSTRA in management-related activities and those who do not. On the other hand, we have discovered links between active use of KOSTRA and the Councils`economic situation.

    This connection is very interesting. It is the Councils under financial stress which appear to be using KOSTRA actively.

    Our major conclusion is that KOSTRA alone does not produce all necessary and relevant management information. KOSTRA is more applicable when seen in context with the complexity of public sector, and with a firm knowledge of the system's underlying indicators.

  • 23.
    Hansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Åberg, Jonas
    Krisberedskapsprocessen, samverkan mellan nivåer och utspridd ansvarsfördelning: En deskriptiv fallstudie av krisberedskap på regional och lokal nivå.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine the crisis management process in the context of Sweden’s changed agenda in terms of community preparedness to crisis management. The study is conducted through interviews with key positions at county governments and municipalities. Through a descriptive case study using a qualitative method the essay answers the following question: How is the complex crisis management process performed at county and local level and what requirements of support does the crisis management process demand? The results from the interviews were compiled to an empirical crisis management process and with help of Lundqvist´s (1992) implementation theory based on Understand, Can, Will, compared to the normative crisis management process. The most significant conclusion of the essay is a well evolved collaboration has been identified in the relation between actors at regional and local level. The study has found certain parables between the empirical crisis management process and Lundqvist´s Policy process stages with main tasks in administration. Even though the informants experience some problem within the crisis management, we find that the actors due to a great dedication are able to handle the crisis management.

  • 24.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The EU Floods Directive trickling down: Tracing the ideas of integrated and participatory flood risk management in Sweden2017In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 286-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the EU Floods Directive - an extensive and innovative legislative instrument for integrated and participatory flood risk planning in all EU member states - influences local flood risk management in one member state, Sweden. The study identifies that: many municipalities have received new knowledge; crosssectoral organisational structures for water and flood risk issues at the local level are being formed or strengthened; and the flood risk issue has been elevated up the political agenda. There are also however clear signs that a number of other fundamental issues are not being adequately addressed in the complex institutional setting that results from the directive's implementation. These issues are undoubtedly obstructing the development of a more integrated and participatory flood risk management system. Of key importance here are questions relating to how roles and mandates are communicated and adopted, the lack of coordination between the Floods Directive and the Water Framework Directive, and the inadequate involvement of the municipal level and other stakeholders. Practical recommendations on how to redirect development towards more positive outcomes in these areas are thus formulated.

  • 25.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Measuring Productive Performance Using Binary And Ordinal Output Variables: The Case of the Swedish Fire and Rescue Services2019In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 907-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire protection is an example of a complex production process. This study measures efficiency by constructing binary and ordinal output variables from information on residential fires in Sweden about how a fire spreads from when the fire and rescue brigade arrives to when a fire is suppressed. The motivations behind this study are that there are only a few studies trying to estimate production efficiency for fire and rescue services, that data on a more detailed level is interesting for some public services, and there is a need to be able to measure efficiency differences even if only a binary or ordinal output variable is available. Using a logit random parameter model, the random effects are interpreted as efficiency differences. The conclusions are that fire and rescue services with a more flexible fire organisation with first response persons, working in collaboration with other municipalities and with larger populations are more efficient.

  • 26.
    Landin, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Politiskt organisationsbyggande - Vilken betydelse har samrådsprocessen haft i arbetet med att bygga upp en ny organisation för kollektivtrafiken i Värmland?: En fallstudie av arbetet med trafikförsörjningsprogrammet i Värmland2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On the first of January 2012, a new public authority was formed in Värmland, due to a new legislation on public transport. The first task for the new public authority was to produce a plan for the development of public transport. In order to do so, it had to execute an extensive consultation process about the long-term goals of public transport. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate how a public authority can use a consultation process as a means to clarify accountability and produce unified goals. To answer that, I have done a case study about how the new regional public authority in Värmland for public transport has acted in the process of writing a plan for the development of public transport. The research assignment is: What role did the consultation process have in the task of building a new organisation for Public Transport in Värmland? I proceeded from an institutional perspective, clarified by Clarence Stone’s Urban regime theory.

    20 persons where interviewed in the study, both participants in the process and representatives of the new public authority. I have also studied the outcome of the process (the plan for the development of public transport), protocols and agreements that influence the process.

    The result of the study is that the consultation process has had three roles in the task of building a new organisation for public transport in Värmland; To inform about the new organisation, gather input and to discuss the result of the process.

  • 27.
    Lundin, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Carlsson, Elisabeth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Intern eller extern chefsrekrytering: En jämförelse mellan offentliga verksamheter och företag2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många organisationer tenderar idag att försörja chefsvakanser med interna kandidater. Vidare

    innebär detta i sig både för- och nackdelar i de organisationer som i hög grad använder sig

    utav en intern arbetsmarknad. Chefsförsörjning är en del i att vara en attraktiv arbetsgivare

    samtidigt som man kan skapa förutsättningar för att utveckla sin personal mot nya mål.

    Däremot krävs det att organisationerna vid själva rekryteringsprocessen främst ser till

    kandidaters faktiska kompetens. Därmed måste det också tas i beaktning att organisationen i

    vissa fall måste gå externt för att knyta åt sig den bästa kompetensen som de är i behov utav. I

    denna uppsats genomförs en kvalitativ studie som vänder sig mot respondenter i offentlig

    verksamhet och företag. Syftet med denna undersökning är att ta reda på hur man arbetar i

    offentlig verksamhet och företag kring intern kontra extern chefsrekrytering. Dessutom

    belyses om chefsnivå påverkar ifall kandidaterna hämtas internt eller externt till olika

    chefsbefattningar. Avslutningsvis redogörs en diskussionsdel, som återkopplar till uppsatsens

    syfte samt belyser skillnader och likheter mellan offentlig verksamhet och företag. I resultaten

    kan man se att organisationerna är positiva till att rekrytera chefer internt, dock går det att

    tyda skillnader i förhållandesättet till chefsrekrytering mellan offentliga verksamheter och

    företag. Arbetssättet vid chefsrekrytering tycks vara av likartad karaktär vid samtliga av de

    undersökta organisationerna, då respondenterna förstår vikten av att lägga ned tid på ett

    ordentligt förarbete inför en chefstillsättning. Hur de undersökta organisationerna hanterar

    chefsförsörjningen varierar från fall till fall. Vi kan dock se en skiljelinje mellan offentlig

    verksamhet och företag, då företagen betonar att intern chefsförsörjning är en fråga om behov.

    De offentliga verksamheterna betonar vikten för dem att använda sig utav program för

    chefsförsörjning, då de annars upplever det svårt att tillsätta kompetenta chefer inom

    organisationen. I fråga om chefsnivåns betydelse för om en chef rekryteras internt eller

    externt har vi kunnat ta del av information från en av respondenterna. Vid detta fall tycktes

    det som att högre chefsbefattningar, i större utsträckning än till lägre chefspositioner, snarare

    tillsattes genom externa kandidater. Gemensamt för samtliga respondenter är att de menar att

    det krävs ett mer omfattande rekryteringsarbete vid tillsättandet av högre chefsnivåer.

  • 28.
    Midbrandt, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Hurri, Per
    Professionalism och New Public Management i Försvarsmakten: En kvalitativ studie vid Skaraborgs Regemente2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's public administration underwent a large number of changes during the 1980s, which can be summarized in part under the concept of New Public Management (NPM). NPM has many influences from how private companies and businesses govern their organizations. Within the Swedish Armed Forces, in the beging of the twentiefirst century, two major changes in organization and working methods lead to a changed work situation for officers. Eliot Freidson (2001) describes in his book Professionalism the Third Logic how a profession is influenced by modern governance like NPM. He believes that the management of the profession risks being shifted from professionalism to bureaucracy and market. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the daily work of officers is influenced by NPM, in order to test Freidson's theory. The questions answered in the study are: Which ideal type is the dominant norm for the Swedish Armed Force's publication Vår militära profession, and what type of logic is dominant in everyday life for officers at Skaraborgs Regemente.Theories about NPM and professions are used as the theoretical frame of reference in the study. To answer the research questions, a qualitative approach is used and six semistructured informant interviews have been conducted in combination with a text analysis of the publication Vår militära profession. The result of the study indicates a difference between norm and everyday life. This difference can be partly explained by mechanisms from NPM. The mechanisms of NPM, which have the most influence at Skaraborg's Regemente are cost awareness, decentralization, efficiency and performance measurement. The everyday life for a officer seems to be characterized by a large amount of administration that is not directly linked to what the Swedish Armed Forces defines as core business. As a result, officers find that they no longer have the same opportunity to support and lead subordinates in the core business.

  • 29.
    Montin, Stig
    et al.
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Moderna kommuner2013 (ed. 4)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förnyelse och förändring är honnörsord i landets kommuner och har så varit under de senaste decennierna. Den nationella politiken förändras, medborgarna förändras, nya idéer om statlig och politisk styrning formuleras. Det är också på grund av dessa ständiga förändringar som denna fjärde och omarbetade upplaga av Moderna kommuner nu föreligger.

    Bokens ambition är att beskriva hur kommuner och landsting/ regioner är inplacerade i det svenska statsskicket, hur kommunerna formellt styrs, vilka verksamheter som förekommer och hur idéer och praktik formar den kommunala politiken, men också att tillhandahålla begrepp och teoretiska perspektiv som kan användas för att förstå kommunernas verksamhet, utveckling och utmaningar.

  • 30.
    Nyhuus, Katrine Haugli
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Thorsen, Tone
    Karlstad University.
    Partnerskap: intensjon og virkelighet i NAV reformens velferdskontor2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The new Welfare Reform in Norway consists of the establishment of a new welfare office; NAV office. The NAV office will open in all municipalities within 2010 as local partnerships between the state and the municipals as equal partners. The central government will keep responsibility for the national services and the local governments will keep responsibility for the locally provided welfare services. As such the NAV office will consist of two separate public servcelines, with the accountabilities for their individual services intact. The Government wished to keep the separation between the national and local governmental services but needed to ensure the provision of a more holistic, integrated and effective service delivery, more in tune with the public need. The aim was to provide a more joined-up welfare service and to put more effect behind the efforts to achieve the reform goals: increased work participation, more user-friendly services and more effective public administration. The NAV office as such becomes a local one-stop-shop.

    The challenge of this partnership is that two separate, traditionally hierarchic public structures embark on a partnership venture where the more relational and both vertical and horizontal communicational skills are required, true to the spirit of the joined-up government model. Our aim with this study was to investigate how a few early onset NAV offices cope with this partnership stunt. We particularly wished to examine how the partners establish and use the important vertical and horizontal dimensions, and how the partnership manager operate to facilitate the partnership activities.

    We mean that the focus of 4 partnership actors rather than two governmental partners is more correct with respect to depicting the situation in the local NAV partnerships and how the central partnership managerial duties are shared. We have developed a new model of how they divide the partnership responsibilities between them and the operations of an emergent essential partnership driving force. We have also due to the nature of the NAV partnership actors and the way they operate in the partnership, developed a new partnership model. This dialogue model is a more accurate picture of the NAV partnership than the original partnership model.

    The early attempts to provide integrated services has not reached the potential we have hoped for, partially due to the allowance of the two partners to continue service production in the old way while the reform structure and following administrative challenges are ironed out. We believe that an understanding of the particularities of partnership management and the adherence of the relational qualities to the partnership structure is a prerequisite in successfully managing the NAV partnership and thus the reform goals. This needs to be the imminent focus of the reform participants.

  • 31.
    Ranström, Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Samverkan mellan Arbetsmarknadsenheterna och daglig sysselsättning LSS: Möjligheter och hinder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this study was to examine advantages and barriers that can appear when the municipal employment service and daily activity center work together in close collaboration. The study is based on semi-structured interviews with managers and employees in three municipalities in Värmland. The questions were:

     How does the municipal employment service and the daily activity center work together?

     Are the respondents experiencing any barriers in the collaboration processes between the municipal employment service and daily activity center?

     Are the respondents experiencing any advantages when the municipal employment service and daily activity center work close together? If so, are the advantages primarily economical, professional or individual?

     Does the collaboration processes in the three municipalities reflect the factors that supports as well as impedes collaboration that Danemark and Kullberg´s identified in their report (1999)?

    The results are analyzed from the new-institutional theory by Grapes (2006) and the factors that support and impede collaboration by Danemark & Kullberg (1999). The study shows three completely different ways of collaboration. In Hagfors the two sectors collaborate primarily in daily job tasks, in Grums there are no collaboration at all and in Kristinehamn they collaborate at some extent regarding external work training sites.

    Furthermore, the results show some of the barriers the municipalities experience such as inadequate information, differences in knowledge as well as economy. The respondents could see great advantages for the individual in enhanced quality, teamwork among staff and in work performance. The summary that compiles factors who supports and impedes collaboration shows that in comparison, Hagfors is best prepared when it comes to collaboration between the two sectors and Grums is least equipped for working together.

  • 32. Sjögren, Simon
    Kommunpolitik i modern tid: En studie av New Public Managements genomslag i Arvika kommun2017Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att analysera och söka efter inslag av styrnings- och förvaltningsteorin New Public Management (NPM) i Arvika kommun. Detta görs framförallt genom framtagandet av tre indikatorer av NPM. Enligt den av uppsatsen använda teoretiska förståelsen tenderar dessa att vara närvarande i förvaltningsorganisationer influerade av NPM.

    Uppsatsen finner genom en analys av kommunens vision, strategiska plan samt specifika verksamhetsplaner att Arvika kommun har en i stora drag centraliserad politisk organisation (första indikatorn). Det finns även ett visst inslag av en beställare- och utförarmodell (andra indikatorn) men den är framförallt begränsad till verksamhetsplanen för vård och omsorg. Analysen finner även att den tredje indikatorn, en mål- och resultatutformad verksamhet, är framträdande i alla de av uppsatsen analyserade handlingarna.

    Konsekvensen för Arvika kommun är att man tangerar den idealtyp av kommun vilken kallas marknadskommun till nackdel för den i Sverige traditionellt framträdande statsintegrerade kommunen.

    Medvetet eller omedvetet har Arvika kommun antagit verksamhetsformer vilka är vanliga inom NPM. De mest framträdande i denna uppsats är den centraliserade politiska organisationen samt struktureringen av en mål- och resultatutformad verksamhet.

  • 33.
    Stenström, Gabriel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Varför är det ont om specialisternär det är gott om läkare?: - en studie om policyprocesser i svenska landsting2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines the policy process of specialist medical training in three Swedish counties. The essay will first describe the policy process. Secondly the politicians parti-cipating in the process is examined. Thirdly, it is tested whether it is possible to analyze the policy process based on Ostrom's theories of cooperation around a common pool resource. In this case, the common pool resource is specialized medical practitioners skills that the Swedish county councils must collaborate on to competence should be sufficient for the county council needs, something that is not the case today.

    One conclusion of the study is that the health care law is not clear enough when it comes to who is responsible for providing a sufficient number of specialists. This makes it unclear who should intervene to adjust the shortage that exists today. The survey also shows that political participation in the investigation process is low, which creates problems of legitimacy in the access to and distribution of medical specialists. Consideration of Ostrom's theories shows that the theories are useful for describing the possibilities and problems of co-operation between Swedish county councils for better resource utilization of specialized medical practitioners skills. Based on the theories the conclusion of the essay is that a partnership would be possible, and in the end the essay presents suggestions on how such cooperation could be organized.

  • 34.
    Sunarto, Retno Sari
    Karlstad University. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Contractual Governance of Indonesia Railway System - Case Study:Customer Satisfaction in Jabodetabek Area Vs Värmlandstrafik AB2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of private motor vehicle grows rapidly each year have negative impact not only forthe extra contribution of air pollution but also to time wasting. That impact can lead todecreasing of people quality life. Public transportation is one of the solutions for the problem.Therefore, the shift from private motor vehicle user to public transportation, in other wordincreasing market share of public transportation, is necessary. One of the public transportationthat can attract more market share is railways. It has large capacity, high safety level, and freefrom traffic jam. Those characteristic makes railway as primary public transportation.Indonesian railways nowadays have lot of problems and receive many complaints from thepassenger. Train travel is still colored with the delay, limited well-condition vehicle, and uncleartrain travel information that often disadvantage passengers, and many of services offered werefailed to attract passengers. These conditions result in decreasing quality of services andinsufficient railways operation. This will be a barrier to Indonesian railways accomplishment inmaking it to be a reliable and sustainable transport mode. Therefore, to improve market shareand to improve the railway condition, it necessary to have contractual governance withstandard that can lead to costumer satisfaction and making the process improve therelationship between the stakeholders. This lead to the problem of what is the customersatisfaction factors in using railway as their transport, what service quality item that satisfiedthe passenger, and how contract can maintain the relationship between the stakeholders.Finding in this thesis consist of several point. First, from the customer satisfaction index, thecustomers of Jabodetabek commuter train are not satisfied with the service. Second, theanalysis discovered that there are four factors that have high correlation with overallsatisfaction. The four factors are equipment and facility, assurance, competency, and traveltime and appearance. The attributes is grouping into five SERVQUAL dimension. Fromregression analysis of SERVQUAL dimensions there are two service items that influence thecustomer satisfaction; assurances and tangibles. Third, from gap analysis there are gaps inservice process that need to be closed in order to deliver service quality which lead tocustomer satisfaction in railway operational. Fourth, from contract analysis can be concludedthat present condition PT.KAI as the operator cannot perform as it is stated in contract. Thiscan be influenced by many factors such as; the lack of infrastructure, the lack of vehicle,customer misbehavior, staff misbehavior and external factors. In delivering service qualitywhich can lead to customer satisfaction, it is recommended to improve the service that relatedto assurances and tangible items and to involves passengers in controlling and improvingrailway operational. The result expected from the improvement is the increase of overallperformance of railway operation which can lead to the increase customer satisfaction andmarket share. From side of contractual governance, the research discovered that there areproblem in contract clausal and relationship between DGR, PT. KAI and people as customer ofrailway service. The recommendation is to include customer complains in setting contractclausal that can make DGR, PT. KAI and people as customer in mutualism developingrelationship.

  • 35.
    Sundstrom, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Govt Agcy Innovat Syst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Service innovation as a political process2017In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 37, no 5-6, p. 341-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation processes are driven by stakeholders in interaction and are understood and sketched as a value negotiation process that consists of an iterative process of securing potential value in service. While previous research has focused on service innovation as a harmonious closed system, our study explores service innovation as a political process in which stakeholders negotiate to create and secure future value. Data are collected through interviews and participant observations in four different case studies. Our study contributes to the field by illuminating service innovation as a political process and explaining how this is operationalized. The findings also contribute to an understanding of how stakeholder resources impact a chosen strategy; the resulting strategy's impact on the service concept vis-a-vis its potential value; and how several involved stakeholders formulate, negotiate, and secure future potential value, which are the activities that drive a service innovation process.

  • 36.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Charles, Michael
    Southern Cross University, Coolangatta, Australia.
    The Application of a Service Ecosystems Lens to Public Policy Analysis and Design: Exploring the Frontiers2019In: Journal of Public Policy & Marketing JPP&M, ISSN 0743-9156, E-ISSN 1547-7207, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 19-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance of marketing for public policy has been questioned because its focus on dyadic exchanges does not consider the dynamism and complexity of public problems. Public service-dominant logic, as a new lens for public policy and management, does not address this limitation, because its focus remains on delivering services to the end user. Integrating recent developments in service-dominant logic and related research, this article proposes applying a service ecosystems lens to public policy. Five propositions guide the application of this lens to public policy analysis and design. Public policy is conceptualized as a means to enable service by coordinating multiple actors' value cocreation activities to address public problems. Inherent in this conceptualization is the multilevel nature of policy analysis, which includes the users' value creation process (micro level), the context (meso level), and the broader value constellation (macro level). Policy design, in turn, includes the identification and support of emergent solutions driven by different actors. Policy makers therefore need to consider problem-conditions-solution combinations across the value constellation and the effect of public interventions on these constellations. The article concludes by presenting policy makers with marketing and design practices that can assist in the analysis of service ecosystems and engage relevant stakeholders in change initiatives.

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