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  • 1.
    Bernhardsson, Erica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Andersson, Anna-Carin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    GROT uttag i Värmlands Län: Extraction of Harvest residues in the County of Värmland2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On commission by the Swedish Forest Agency a calculation of the forest fuel potential within the county of Värmland shall be made. Forest fuel today mainly consists of harvest residues from final fellings, branches and treetops. Many factors influence the amount of forest fuels after final falling. Big fast growing trees have more branches and foliage biomass.

    In this project we have selected suitable forest types, stands ages and composition in order to obtain the largest possible volume of harvest residues. Nature reserve areas, key biotopes and riparian zones are excluded from the area suitable for forest fuel extraction.

    The result shows that there is approximately 104 000 hectare suitable woodland for forest fuel extraction in Värmland. Out of this you can get 45.4 tons of forest fuels (dry matter/hectare spruce)

    For certain parts of the lumbered areas there has been announced forest fuels extraction to Swedish Forest Agency. These areas were about 5000 hectares and calculated dry matter 31 tons of spruce dry matter/hectare, 8 tons of fir dry matter/hectare and 2.3 tons of birch dry matter/hectare. To show profitability in relation to the distance from roads, MF-curves have been calculated. Within a kilometre you have almost covered the total volume forest fuel that can be extracted, but already after 500 meters you have reached approximately 75 % of the volume.

  • 2.
    Eros, Tibor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Balaton Limnological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Forest-Stream linkages: Effects of Terrestrial Invertebrate Input and Light on Diet and Growth of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in a Boreal Forest Stream2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsidies of energy and material from the riparian zone have large impacts on recipient stream habitats. Human-induced changes, such as deforestation, may profoundly affect these pathways. However, the strength of individual factors on stream ecosystems is poorly understood since the factors involved often interact in complex ways. We isolated two of these factors, manipulating the flux of terrestrial input and the intensity of light in a 2 x 2 factorial design, where we followed the growth and diet of two size-classes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and the development of periphyton, grazer macroinvertebrates, terrestrial invertebrate inputs, and drift in twelve 20 m long enclosed stream reaches in a five-monthlong experiment in a boreal coniferous forest stream. We found that light intensity, which was artificially increased 2.5 times above ambient levels, had an effect on grazer density, but no detectable effect on chlorophyll a biomass. We also found a seasonal effect on the amount of drift and that the reduction of terrestrial prey input, accomplished by covering enclosures with transparent plastic, had a negative impact on the amount of terrestrial invertebrates in the drift. Further, trout growth was strongly seasonal and followed the same pattern as drift biomass, and the reduction of terrestrial prey input had a negative effect on trout growth. Diet analysis was consistent with growth differences, showing that trout in open enclosures consumed relatively more terrestrial prey in summer than trout living in covered enclosures. We also predicted ontogenetic differences in the diet and growth of old and young trout, where we expected old fish to be more affected by the terrestrial prey reduction, but we found little evidence of ontogenetic differences. Overall, our results showed that reduced terrestrial prey inputs, as would be expected from forest harvesting, shaped differences in the growth and diet of the top predator, brown trout.

  • 3.
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Effect of sawdust age on the storage quality of wood pellets2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå universitet.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet.
    New forest owners: Change and continuity in the characteristics of Swedish non-industrial private forest owners (NIPF owners) 1990-20102016In: Small-scale Forestry, ISSN 1873-7617, E-ISSN 1873-7854, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 533-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a total survey of the characteristics and changes over time (1990–2010) within the entire population of Swedish non-industrial private forest owners (NIPF owners). By charting the changed demographic, socio-economic and geographic profile of the NIPF owners, it also provides a baseline for a discussion and analysis of potential implications for forest management, policy and values. NIPF owners differ in important ways from the general population of Sweden. However, the gap has narrowed over time with regard to, e.g., educational level and sex composition. The ongoing urbanization process is evident in the growing share of non-residential NIPF owners who live at a distance from their forest property and who differ from their residential (rural) peers through, e.g., higher education, higher income and a higher prevalence of co-ownership of their forest holdings. Although these changes might translate into updated views on forest values among NIPF owners, there could be a delay before this impacts on forest management practices and output.

  • 5.
    Sundbäck, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Utveckling av arealberäkningsmetod: Utveckling av metod för att beräkna areal efter markberedning hos Stora Enso Skog AB Region Väst2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Soil preparation after final felling at Stora Enso Skog is currently performed by contractors. To follow-up the soil prepared surface the forest machine is equipped with satellite positioning equipment (GNSS equipment). The GNSS-receiver logs the route in track log lines which a program calculates the area of the prepared surface from. The contractors are paid after the prepared surface. The contractors and Stora Enso Skog do not believe that the current method reflects the reality because no respect to the topography and contractors work effort is taken. The track log also comes from different sources. A distance between the soil preparation set and the GNSS-receiver also occurs.

    The purpose of this work is to create an area calculation method who calculates soil prepared surface in a better way than the current method. The questions to be answered in this work are:

    • How can geodata from different sources be threated?
    • How can the distance between the soil preparation set and GNSS-receiver be reduced?
    • How can then ground prepared surface be calculated after the topography?
    • How can the contractor’s work effort be represented?
    • How is the GNSS position affected of the external conditions on a clearing?

    Log tracks from two different sources were the basis for calculations and in ArcGIS 10.1 has the appropriate tools to put together a set of calculation. The results have been validated in the field with accurate measuring equipment. To demonstrate how the GNSS position affects to the conditions on a felling site measure studies where done. In the measure studies five points where measured. Four points have obstructed sight to the satellites in form of high enclosed forest in different directions and one point has clear view to the satellites.

    The conclusions of the work are:

    • To reflect the work effort by generalizing the surface shows only in a rough way the work effort.
    • It is possible to calculate the ground prepared surface after the topography by using the height data from NNH (Nya Nationella Höjdmodellen).
    • The position of the GNSS equipment is more affected in points with obstructed sight to the satellites in form of high enclosed forest in different directions than in points whit clear view to the satellites. 
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