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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Comparing mail-in, interview and tournament catch rates for a recreational salmonid fisheryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Su, Zhenming
    Andersson, Magnus
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Estimating effort and catch of a recreational trolling fishery in one of Europe’s largest lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Modeling displacement path dependence in nailed sheathing-to-framing connections2017In: CompWood 2017 - Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structures: Programme & Books of Abstracs / [ed] Josef Füssl, Thomas K. Bader, Josef Eberhardsteiner, Vienna: TU verlag , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Path dependence in OSB sheathing-to-framing nailed connection revealed by biaxial testing2018In: Journal of Structural Engineering, ISSN 0733-9445, E-ISSN 1943-541X, Vol. 144, no 10, article id 04018197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OSB sheathing-to-wood framing connection, as typically used in light-frame shear walls, was experimentally examined in a novel biaxial test setup with respect to possible path dependence of the load-displacement relation. The connection with an annular-ringed shank nail was loaded under displacement control following nine different displacement paths within the sheathing plane, which coincided at a number of points. In intersection points, resultant connection force, its orientation and work performed on the connection system to reach the specific point were calculated and compared. Evaluation of experiments revealed significant path dependence with respect to orientation of force resultants at path intersection points. However, magnitude of the forces and the work carried out showed relatively small dependence of the displacement path undertaken. Comparison of uniaxial connection tests with the European yield model demonstrated strong contribution of withdrawal resistance of the ringed shank nail to its lateral strength. Results of this type are a valuable basis to build better models when simulating such connections in wood structures.

  • 5.
    Berg, Monica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    God hälsa som mål: En textanalys av olika rekommendationer2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är undersöka om det finns skillnader och likheter i rekommendationer inom tre olika fält där kostsammansättning och fysisk aktivitet behandlas.

    Frågor som besvaras är vilka skillnader och likheter i rekommendationer angående intag av protein, kolhydrater och fett och motion som ges. För att få svar på dessa frågor har en textanalys som baseras på Holliday’s tredimensionella modell för diskursanalys använts. Resultatet visar att de främsta skillnaderna i rekommendationer rör hur man ska fördela det totala energiintaget mellan de energigivande näringsämnena. Likheter som visar sig är att andelen snabba kolhydrater i kosten bör minskas samt att daglig motion påverkar vår hälsa positivt.

  • 6.
    Bernhardsson, Erica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Andersson, Anna-Carin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    GROT uttag i Värmlands Län: Extraction of Harvest residues in the County of Värmland2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On commission by the Swedish Forest Agency a calculation of the forest fuel potential within the county of Värmland shall be made. Forest fuel today mainly consists of harvest residues from final fellings, branches and treetops. Many factors influence the amount of forest fuels after final falling. Big fast growing trees have more branches and foliage biomass.

    In this project we have selected suitable forest types, stands ages and composition in order to obtain the largest possible volume of harvest residues. Nature reserve areas, key biotopes and riparian zones are excluded from the area suitable for forest fuel extraction.

    The result shows that there is approximately 104 000 hectare suitable woodland for forest fuel extraction in Värmland. Out of this you can get 45.4 tons of forest fuels (dry matter/hectare spruce)

    For certain parts of the lumbered areas there has been announced forest fuels extraction to Swedish Forest Agency. These areas were about 5000 hectares and calculated dry matter 31 tons of spruce dry matter/hectare, 8 tons of fir dry matter/hectare and 2.3 tons of birch dry matter/hectare. To show profitability in relation to the distance from roads, MF-curves have been calculated. Within a kilometre you have almost covered the total volume forest fuel that can be extracted, but already after 500 meters you have reached approximately 75 % of the volume.

  • 7.
    Bertilsson, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Översvämningsrisker inom fysisk planering: Fallstudie Karlstad2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay was to study how flooding risks affects the physical planning generally, and also to do a case study regarding flooding risks in Karlstad and how these affect the municipality vision of growth: “Karlstad 100 000”. The study has mainly been made through literature studies and scrutinises of various investigations and development plans.

    During recent years Sweden has been struck by several, both severe and minor, floods of areas related to seas and watercourses, which has resulted in serious environmental consequences, economic loss and severe damage to infrastructure and other societal functions. And now, climate change is expected to make the problems even worse. The vulnerability of society regarding floods is dependent on how severe the change is going to be, but also on how much consideration is taken to risks in the shaping of physical planning. Many of the problems revealed during earlier high flows could have been solved if the unburden capacity of the watercourse had been better and if buildings and other infrastructure had been planned in consideration of high flows and flooding risks.

    The municipalities has, in consequence of their planning monopoly, the greatest influence on the shaping of physical planning, hence a large part of the responsibility for the mitigation work is on them. But mitigating the built environment to flooding risks often collide with economic interest in the municipalities, for example building houses in close proximity to water, which denotes the risk that the necessary measures wont be taken. Unsure and contradictory information, short-term thinking in planning and an obvious tendency for urbanisation leading to an increased vulnerability for nature risks are other factors that complicates the mitigation work.

    Karlstad is one of the cities threatened by floods when the climate is changing. The close proximity to Vänern and the fact that Klarälven runs through the city makes it vulnerable to high flows. This creates a problem for the municipality regarding the work with physical planning and “Karlstad 100 000”. The municipality has based a large part of it’s marketing on the close proximity to the water and the possibility for estuaries next to water in order to attract new inhabitants to Karlstad. They argue that the state of knowledge is to uncertain, and thereby choose not to incorporate the recommendations regarding no new buildings on land threatened by floods. Instead, the municipality has chosen to investigate technical solutions to the problem, which could be considered a far more short term and also very expensive way of dealing with the problem. Thus, the short term economic profits seem to get the upper hand in the weighing between risks and economic interests.

  • 8.
    Dabrowski, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Rening av rökgaskondensat i ett fjärrvärmeverk: Återanvändning av rökgaskondensat som spädvatten2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Arvika Fjärrvärme AB is manufacturing and distributing district heating to around 300 customers in Arvika. Heat production consists of a BFB boiler fed with GROT fuel (branches and peaks) and delivers a maximum power of 30 MW. In order to operate the plant, an average of 60 m3 of water per day is consumed from the urban water network. The water consumption is divided between water treatment, sooting and process cooling.

    In the processes, sulfur is dosed to obtain a more complete combustion of the hazardous flue gases that can occur. This is a result of previous thesis made for Arvika fjärrvärme. GROT is a fuel that contains high levels of moisture, which means that a high amount of condensate is formed during combustion, averaging 100 m3 per day. At present, condensate is sufficient to meet the condensate limit values ​​to be flushed into the drain. This is achieved by sand filtration and pH neutralization.

    Today, Arvika heat production is equipped with a purification stage for the feed water consisting of a softening filter and membrane filtration. This creates good conditions for cleaning the condensate and recirculating it in the process. Questions for this study are which hazardous substances the condensate can contain and how the condensate composition affected due to sulfur dosage. In addition, Arvika fjärrvärme wants to find out whether the purified condensate can replace the use of the urban water and, finally, if the condensate can be purified and used as feed water in the process.

    The execution of the work was based on a full-scale attempt in two operating cases of 9 and 18 MW. The tank collecting all condensate after purification in the sand filter and pH neutralization was coupled to the feed water purification stage. Thus, the condensate was pumped and purified in the softening filter and membrane filter. Assay substrates were collected before and after purification of the condensate.

    In addition to the topics that Arvika investigates, high levels of alkalinity were found in the condensate. The sulfur dosage that Arvika technology works with can be the cause of the high concentrations of sulphate. However, it appears that both the sulfate and alkalinity were purified in the membrane filter.

    The amount of condensate formed cannot completely replace the entire water requirement, but definitely large parts. The condensate can be used as feed water based on the retention rate for all substances. However, it appears that two substances, chloride and sulphate can create problems for the membrane filter. To investigate this, the condensate should be tested over a longer period of time to see the affect the chloride as well as the sulphate in the long run.

  • 9.
    Ekström, Sara M.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sandahl, Margareta
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Lund University.
    Kleja, Dan B.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kritzberg, Emma S.
    Lund University.
    Reactivity of dissolved organic matter in response to acid deposition2016In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 78, no 3, p. 463-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluvial export of organic matter from the terrestrial catchment to the aquatic system is a large and increasing carbon flux. The successful reduction in sulfuric acid deposition since the 1980s has been shown to enhance the mobility of organic matter in the soil, with more terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) reaching aquatic systems. Changes in soil acidity also affect the quality of the DOM. In this study we explore the consequences this may have on the reactivity and turnover of the terrestrially derived DOM as it reaches the aquatic system. DOM of different quality (estimated by absorbance, fluorescence and size exclusion chromatography) was produced through extraction of boreal forest O-horizon soils from podzol at two sulfuric acid concentrations corresponding to natural throughfall in spruce forest in Southern Sweden around 1980 and today. Extraction was done using two different methods, i.e. field leaching and laboratory extraction. The DOM extracts were used to assess if differences in acidity generate DOM of different reactivity. Three reactivity experiments were performed: photodegradation by UV exposure, biodegradation by bacteria, and biodegradation after UV exposure. Reactivity was assessed by measuring loss of dissolved organic carbon and absorbance, change in fluorescence and molecular weight, and bacterial production. DOM extracted at lower sulfuric acid concentration was more susceptible to photooxidation, and less susceptible to bacterial degradation, than DOM extracted at a higher sulfuric acid concentration. Thus the relative importance of these two turnover processes may be altered with changes in acid deposition.

  • 10.
    Eros, Tibor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Balaton Limnological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Forest-Stream linkages: Effects of Terrestrial Invertebrate Input and Light on Diet and Growth of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in a Boreal Forest Stream2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsidies of energy and material from the riparian zone have large impacts on recipient stream habitats. Human-induced changes, such as deforestation, may profoundly affect these pathways. However, the strength of individual factors on stream ecosystems is poorly understood since the factors involved often interact in complex ways. We isolated two of these factors, manipulating the flux of terrestrial input and the intensity of light in a 2 x 2 factorial design, where we followed the growth and diet of two size-classes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and the development of periphyton, grazer macroinvertebrates, terrestrial invertebrate inputs, and drift in twelve 20 m long enclosed stream reaches in a five-monthlong experiment in a boreal coniferous forest stream. We found that light intensity, which was artificially increased 2.5 times above ambient levels, had an effect on grazer density, but no detectable effect on chlorophyll a biomass. We also found a seasonal effect on the amount of drift and that the reduction of terrestrial prey input, accomplished by covering enclosures with transparent plastic, had a negative impact on the amount of terrestrial invertebrates in the drift. Further, trout growth was strongly seasonal and followed the same pattern as drift biomass, and the reduction of terrestrial prey input had a negative effect on trout growth. Diet analysis was consistent with growth differences, showing that trout in open enclosures consumed relatively more terrestrial prey in summer than trout living in covered enclosures. We also predicted ontogenetic differences in the diet and growth of old and young trout, where we expected old fish to be more affected by the terrestrial prey reduction, but we found little evidence of ontogenetic differences. Overall, our results showed that reduced terrestrial prey inputs, as would be expected from forest harvesting, shaped differences in the growth and diet of the top predator, brown trout.

  • 11.
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Effect of sawdust age on the storage quality of wood pellets2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Kolväten från träbränsleindustrin: sågverk, trätorkar och pelletspressar2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Greenberg, Larry
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Länsstyrelsen i Värmland.
    Engqvist, Therese
    Länsstyrelsen i Kalmar.
    Effect of trash diverters ad overhead cover on downstream migrating brown trout smolts2012In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 48, no November, p. 25-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power plant dams constitute barriers for downstream migration by smolts. The purpose of this study was to measure guidance efficiency of existing trash diverters and the use of overhead cover in combination with trash diverters to guide brown trout (

    Salmo trutta L.) smolts away from turbine intakes into trash spillway gates at two power plants in the Emån River, southern Sweden. A total of 44 trout smolts were caught, radio-tagged, released at the two power plants and tracked daily for six weeks. The trash diverter at the lower power plant had a significant guiding effect, as the proportion of smolt that entered the spillway gate was significantly greater than the relative proportion of water that flowed through the gate (52% vs 17%). In contrast, there was no evidence of a guidance effect at upper Finsjö, where the proportion of smolts that entered the spillway gate did not differ significantly from the relative proportion of water that flowed through the gate (0% vs 10%). The lack of a guidance effect at upper Finsjö could not be explained. The effect of overhead cover was tested at the upper power plant as illumination from outdoor, overhead lamps at the power station was believed to attract smolts to the turbine intake. This was accomplishing by setting up and removing a tarpaulin placed between the trash deflector and the turbine intake approximately every 2–5 days for about one month, so that 52.6% of the time the tarpaulin was in place and 47.4% of the time it was not. The presence of the tarpaulin reduced turbine passage, as 31% of the smolts swam through the trash spillway gate instead of the turbines when the tarpaulin was in place, whereas all smolts entered the turbines when no tarpaulin was used. For fish that passed through the turbines, mortality was higher at the upper power plant, equipped with two twin-Francis turbines, than at the lower one, equipped with a single Kaplan turbine.

  • 14. Guenard, G.
    et al.
    Boisclair, Daniel
    Ugedal, Ola
    Forseth, Torbjörn
    Fleming, Ian A.
    Jonsson, Bror
    The bioenergetics ofdensity-dependent growth in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.)2012In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 69, p. 1651-1662Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Skurdal, Jostein
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Invertebrate colonization of a nature-like fishway in Eldforsen, Sweden; the effect of habitat design2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Hansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Sanfridsson, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Analys av artificiella marktyper vid vatten med hjälp av GIS, Värmlands län 20072007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On commission of the County administrative board in Värmland County a method was developed for analysis of the occurrence of artificial land use at lakes and watercourses. With artificial land use is meant land significantly affected by man. Two bases have been used to carry out the analysis. In one of the analysis the vegetation database and in the other GSD¹-Marktäckedata (land cover data) was used (this method has been used by County administrative board in Jönköping County).

    The analysis comprises all watercourses within Alsterälven river basin. The digital water bodies are created by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute on the basis of GSD-Översiktskartan (general map). The water layer is derived from GSD-Fastighetskartan (property map) and has been used as water theme in both analyses. In order to make them match each other two models have been used, one manual and one automatic.

    Vegetation data and GSD-Marktäckedata have been complemented with information about cut forest from the Swedish Forest Agency and roads from the Swedish Road Administration. Vegetation data has also been completed with power line area from the forest phase layer and GSD-Marktäckedata with buildings from GSD-Fastighetskartan. The definition artificial land uses has been classified in the vegetation data according to environmental quality criteria; cut forest, field and building sites. In the GSD-Marktäckedata has artificial land use has been classified to environmental quality criteria; cut forest, field, buildings and building sites. The artificial land use types have been summarized individually, totally and indicated as percentage of the total area. The results of the assessment are expressed in a scale of 1-5 for each water body.

    The resolution of the vegetation database is lower than in the GSD-Marktäckedata. The comparison between the vegetation database and GSD-Marktäckedata shows that artificial land use differ in area. In the vegetation database buildings are included in the data base, in GSD-Marktäckedata buildings with a buffer at 20 meters were added to the base map. The buildings in GSD-Marktäckedata cover “more space” and the percentage artificial land became larger.

  • 17.
    Harring, Niklas
    et al.
    Götebrogs universitet.
    Torbjörnsson, Tomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet.
    Solving Environmental Problems Together?: The Roles of Value Orientations and Trust in the State in Environmental Policy Support among Swedish Undergraduate Students2018In: Education Sciences, E-ISSN 2227-7102, Vol. 8, no 3, article id 124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores whether value orientation (VO) and trust in the state (TIS) are linked to support for environmental intervention and steering among Swedish students in economics, law, and political science. Furthermore, we considered whether environmental personal norms mediate the link between VO and support for environmental policy instruments and finally, whether TIS moderates the link between environmental personal norms and support for environmental policy instruments, testing this on a sample of over 800 Swedish students. We found a positive link between both a self-transcendence VO and TIS on environmental policy support; however, we cannot confirm a moderating effect of TIS on the relation between environmental personal norms and policy support. Furthermore, left-wing students displayed stronger support for environmental intervention. We conclude that more knowledge on programme-specific characteristics regarding environmental values, beliefs, and attitudes among freshman students can enhance sustainability teaching intended to develop the students' critical and reflective capabilities.

  • 18.
    Hassel, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Utvärdering av FME för analys av skoglig laserdata2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det uppdrag jag fått kommer från företaget Foran Remote Sensing. De är mest kända för SingleTree metoden de kommersialiserat. En metod som finner de enskilda träden i skogen och städer. Foran Remote Sensing har tagit fram en applikation för en sammanslagning av skogsbestånd och träd som inte är så användarvänlig. För att ersätta denna applikation vill man undersöka programvaran FME (Feature Manipulation Engine) och via ett antal tester utvärdera den.FME består av tre applikationer: FME Workbench, FME Viewer samt FME Universal Translator. Fördelar med FME workbench är främst det grafiska användargränssnittet. När FME arbetar med ett flöde så beskrivs varje steg i en tydlig beskrivning. Varje bearbetning redovisas i en summering på hur stor utdata är och den tid bearbetningen tog. Hela resultatet består av en arbetsyta i FME med 524 funktioner.Utöver programvaran har jag också haft tillgång till företagets data över samma område så att jag kunde utvärdera mitt flöde.Projektet som består av den beskrivna arbetsytan följer alla de uppsatta målen med uppdraget. Trots det är min slutsats att arbetsytan inte är en lämplig ersättare. Resultat har för närvarande värden som ligger för högt eller för lågt. Utöver de för låga och höga värdena i vissa attribut är arbetsytan en fungerande ersättare som lätt kan bearbetas av användare.

  • 19.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå universitet.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet.
    New forest owners: Change and continuity in the characteristics of Swedish non-industrial private forest owners (NIPF owners) 1990-20102016In: Small-scale Forestry, ISSN 1873-7617, E-ISSN 1873-7854, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 533-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a total survey of the characteristics and changes over time (1990–2010) within the entire population of Swedish non-industrial private forest owners (NIPF owners). By charting the changed demographic, socio-economic and geographic profile of the NIPF owners, it also provides a baseline for a discussion and analysis of potential implications for forest management, policy and values. NIPF owners differ in important ways from the general population of Sweden. However, the gap has narrowed over time with regard to, e.g., educational level and sex composition. The ongoing urbanization process is evident in the growing share of non-residential NIPF owners who live at a distance from their forest property and who differ from their residential (rural) peers through, e.g., higher education, higher income and a higher prevalence of co-ownership of their forest holdings. Although these changes might translate into updated views on forest values among NIPF owners, there could be a delay before this impacts on forest management practices and output.

  • 20.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Complexity is no excuse: Introduction of a research model for turning sustainable development from theory into practice2019In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 733-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overarching research model is introduced here that can support research for turning sustainable development (SD) from theory into practice. The model describes how existing and future theories, and empirical knowledge related to SD can be utilised to establish explicit linkages—steps—between fundamental SD principles and specific studied practices. The research model is intended to support planning, design and communication of a range of research endeavours such as individual studies, larger projects and research programmes. It internalises a number of insights from the current stock of SD literature such as explicitly linking local solutions to general SD principles, the need to embrace complexity and to use theory, the need for interdisciplinarity, and acknowledging SD as both substance and process. The model and its utilisation are explained and illustrated here by reference to a research example from river basin planning. The model is a critical and constructive attempt to establish structure and strategy in relation to the overwhelming complexity of the sustainability challenge—a challenge which urgently calls for reflective and effective research approaches.

  • 21. Jonsson, Bror
    et al.
    Finstad, Anders G.
    Jonsson, Nina
    Winter temperature and food quality affect age and size at maturity in ectotherms: an experimentaltest with Atlantic salmon2012In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 1817-1826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field studies have revealed that many ectotherms mature younger and smaller in warmer environments although they grow faster. This has puzzled ecologists because the direct effect of factors that accelerate growth is expected to be larger, not smaller size. We tested this experimentally for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at two winter temperatures and diets. Logistic regression revealed that the probability of maturation during the second year in sea water, relative to the probability of older maturation, increased with temperature and growth rate during the first winter. Also, large size and high condition factor 1 year prior to maturation stimulated maturation. In females, a high lipid diet increased the probability of maturation as one-sea-winter fish, and there were significant interactions between winter temperature and food quality and between body size and condition factor the first autumn in sea water. Thus, if the direct effect of temperature on growth rate is the main effect of warming, salmon are likely to attain maturity younger and smaller. Also, richer food decreased age at maturation in females. This finding has consequences for interpretations of climate change impacts on age at maturity in Atlantic salmon and may also hold for many other ectotherm species.

    Salmo salar) at two winter temperatures and

    diets. Logistic regression revealed that the probability of maturation during the second year in sea water, relative to the

    probability of older maturation, increased with temperature and growth rate during the first winter. Also, large size and

    high condition factor 1 year prior to maturation stimulated maturation. In females, a high lipid diet increased the probability of

    maturation as one-sea-winter fish, and there were significant interactions between winter temperature and food quality and

    between body size and condition factor the first autumn in sea water. Thus, if the direct effect of temperature on growth rate is

    the main effect of warming, salmon are likely to attain maturity younger and smaller. Also, richer food decreased age at

    maturation in females. This finding has consequences for interpretations of climate change impacts on age at maturity in Atlantic salmon and may also hold for many other ectotherm species.

  • 22.
    Jönsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Kost och hälsa: En utvärdering av utbildningseffekter2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine possible teaching effects in the subject home economics at a school. The study has included one question, which aims to identify if there are any differences in the knowledge between boys and girls in the subject.

    The theoretical survey is discussing the subject diet and health in school and is emphasising on the different parts that are included in the subject home economics. Further, a historical point of view is given on the development of the subject, and also on Swedish research concerning health and diet.

    A questionnaire with fixed and open answering options has been constructed and handed out to two different groups of students. One of the groups are students in year 7, who have not yet had education in the subject, the other group are students in year 8 who have had education in the subject. The results show that the effects of education are different between groups that have been educated in the subject and groups that haven’t had any education. The results show further that girls in general have more knowledge in the subject than boys. The results are being discussed and illustrated from different perspectives.

    Keyword: Diet, Health, Teaching Effects, Home Economics

  • 23.
    Lans, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Behaviour and metabolic rates of brown trout and Atlantic salmon: Influence of food, environment and social interactions2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), the decision to migrate or when to migrate is believed to be influenced by the individual’s metabolic rate (MR) relative its food intake. As MR was expected to be related to behaviour, the potential links between behaviour and metabolic costs was studied. For both salmon and trout the dominant individual had a higher standard metabolic rate (SMR) than its subordinate counterpart. Also, successful migrants of brown trout had a higher SMR than unsuccessful migrants, whereas no such difference was found for obligate migratory Atlantic salmon. Measures of variation in MR and boldness indicated that Atlantic salmon was more sensitive to stress than brown trout and became passive when stressed. When two trout were interacting, an increase in ventilation rate (VR) was positively correlated to fighting intensity. The first day after an interaction, VR did not differ between small dominant and subordinate trout (mean size 3.7g), whereas for large trout (26.0g) subordinates had higher VR than dominants. However, a combination of low temperature (10°C) and high water velocity (22cm/s) eliminated this difference. This probably reflects the high swimming activity of small dominants and the low motivation for dominants to defend a large territory when temperatures were low and the cost of moving was high. These results show that the relationship between MR and behaviour may differ depending on species, fish size and environmental factors.

  • 24.
    Leijen, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Semi-kontinuerlig samrötning av ensilerat våtmarksgräs och matavfall: En studie av metan utbyte2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The worlds increasing need for energy and the desire to minimize the consequences of climate change have led to several environmental goals at both national and international levels. Many resources are spent on developing the current renewable energy sources and to find new alternatives. One of the renewable energy resources is biogas. Biogas is formed when organic matter is decomposed which forms carbon dioxide and energy rich methane gas.

     

    This master's thesis has focused on two areas, the first to examine methane production in a co- digestion process with silage of wetlands grass and food waste from Mosserud biogas plant. Mosserud is located a couple of kilometers west of Karlskoga city. Today the plant mainly uses food waste, manure and ley crops. The wetland grass originates from an area outside of Säffle called Brosjö. In 2010-2014 the Brosjö area was a part of an EU project that promotes bio diversity and threaten animal species, which . Due to this project the harvesting of grass has been made easier and has no use today, but could fit in an anaerobic digestion process.

     

    The second area was to compare the results with earlier reports on anaerobic digestion and the use of wetland grass. Neldorin (2015),vconducted a study of the substrate mix at Mosserud, whihc lays as a basis for biogas production from Mosserud today compared to the results of this study. The second report studied wetland grass as an additive in pellets. Where Henriksson (2016) had focus on energy consumptions during production of pellets when using wetland grass from Brosjö.

     

    The laboratory study was made at Karlstad University, the study was a semi continuous wet anaerobic process with mesophilic conditions. Feeding and

    withdrawal of gas was made once a day, using the same lab line up as Neldorin (2015) did. The experiment lasted 10 weeks and 2 different substrate mixtures were used; one with 30% grass 70% food waste and one with 15% grass 85% food waste. The result showed that digestion with 30 % grass mix was preferred. The specific methane production was 0.300 and 0.350 Nm3 / kg VS / day, which was less than those obtained from Mosserud at 0,352 Nm3 / kg VS / day. The total production of methane gas could be increased between 1.5 - 2.6% as there was access to more substrates.

     

    Wetland grass was better used for digestion than pelleting as it could increase the total methane production, while the pellets produced did not meet the requirements of strength, bulk density and fractional fineness. The problems associated with using grass in digestion are sludge formation in the reactor tank and process stability for a long time, when the pH value fell by the accumulation of VFA.

  • 25.
    Lindhagen, Anders
    et al.
    SLU.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Trends in picking of wild berries and mushrooms in Sweden 1977-20112012In: Outdoor recreation in Change: Current knowledge and Future Challenges / [ed] Fredman, P., Stenseke, M., Liljendahl, H., Mossing, A. och Laven, D., Mittuniversitetet , 2012, p. 82-83Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Ludewig, K.
    et al.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Hanke, J. M.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Wuthe, B.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Otte, A.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Mosner, E.
    Hochschule Geisen heim University, Geisenheim, Germany.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Donath, T. W.
    Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Differential effect of drought regimes on the seedling performance of six floodplain grassland species2018In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 691-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of seedlings is crucial for the survival and persistence of plant populations. Although drought frequently occurs in floodplains and can cause seedling mortality, studies on the effects of drought on seedlings of floodplain grasslands are scarce. We tested the hypotheses that drought reduces aboveground biomass, total biomass, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and specific leaf area (SLA), and increases root biomass and root-mass fraction (RMF) and that seedlings from species of wet floodplain grasslands are more affected by drought than species of dry grasslands. In a greenhouse study, we exposed seedlings of three confamilial pairs of species (Pimpinella saxifraga, Selinum carvifolia, Veronica teucrium, Veronica maritima, Sanguisorba minor, Sanguisorba officinalis) to increasing drought treatments. Within each plant family, one species is characteristic of wet and one of dry floodplain grasslands, confamilial in order to avoid phylogenetic bias of the results. In accordance with our hypotheses, drought conditions reduced aboveground biomass, total biomass, plant height, number of leaves and leaf area. Contrary to our hypotheses, drought conditions increased SLA and decreased root biomass and RMF of seedlings. Beyond the effects of the families, the results were species-specific (V. maritima being the most sensitive species) and habitat-specific. Species indicative of wet floodplain grasslands appear to be more sensitive to drought than species indicative of dry grasslands. Because of species- and habitat-specific responses to reduced water availability, future drought periods due to climate change may severely affect some species from dry and wet habitats, while others may be unaffected.

  • 27.
    Olofsson, Jonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Sojaprotein, oxiderad majsstärkelse, vetestärkelse & ärtstärkelse som additiv i träpellets: Effekter på pelletsens kvalitet, CO2ekv utsläpp & energianvändning2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, only 2.8% of total energy use in the world is renewable energy. As a climate target in 2020, the European Union has set a goal of increasing the renewable energy to 20%. Renewable energy includes biofuel such as pellets.

     

    Pellets use has already increased significantly and several large production units have been built in recent years. To achieve a competitive pellet, production must be improved in terms of quality, environmental impact, and electricity consumption. Adding additives can improve pellets strength, reduce CO2eq emissions and reduce energy consumption.

     

    The purpose is to investigate how different percentages of additive affect pellets to achieve a more sustainable and competitive biofuel.

     

    In the quality analysis where sustainability and hardness were investigated, oxidized corn starch showed the best result where sustainability increased from 94.8% to 97.86%. The hardness varied greatly from pellets to pellets from the same sample. Since the hardness varied so widely, it was impossible to say which sample who had the highest hardness. On the other hand, it is concluded that the oxidized cornstarch samples received higher hardness than the zero sample.

     

    In the environmental section, CO2equivalents for pellet production were investigated in Sweden, OECD member countries and non-OECD member countries in Europe. In Sweden and in OECD member countries, pellets production did not reduce the CO2eq emissions with any added additive. In non-OECD member countries, wheat starch was the best additive and reduced CO2eq emissions by 2.4%.

     

    The energy consumption in the pellet press was also analyzed and the results showed that all additives reduced energy consumption. The best additive in this study was wheat starch, which reduced electricity consumption by 3.9%.

  • 28.
    Ormarsson, Sigurdur
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Geometric nonlinear analysis of a pitched roof structure of wood2016In: Eccomas 2016 Proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    The role of ecology in the salmonid conservation: ecology in practice and didactics2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Time for an update of the Lake Vänern food web model2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Pogosean, Ararat
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Framställning av syntetiska bio-drivmedel från förgasad biomassa: En studie i potentiell värmeintegration2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil fuels have since their discovery replaced biomass as the main source of energy. Especially in the transportation sector, fuels derived from fossil oil have been the dominant source of energy, mainly due to their advantages compared to biomass such as availability, price, energy density and easiness of use in an internal combustion engine. Unfortunately these fuels contain carbon atoms that no longer are part of the natural cycle and combustion leads to net addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide has the largest anthropogenic impact on the accelerated greenhouse effect that the world is experiencing, which will lead to devastating climate changes. In this context it is necessary to instead produce fuel from a renewable source, which means a carbon neutral combustion, namely biomass. At the same time it is necessary to also take into account the type of biomass used, the production of biofuels should not compete with food production. Therefore it is important that “woody” biomass is being used as the raw material, which poses no competition.

    A promising way to convert biomass into fuels is with gasification where biomass is heated until a gas is obtained, mainly consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and various trace elements. This gas then undergoes purification and processing, where particles, tars, alkali metals and trace elements are purged until only a gas consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen remains, called syngas (synthesis gas). The syngas can then be converted into a variety of fuels such as petrol and methane.

    When the gas is being purified and processed large amounts of excess thermal energy are released. If it is a stand-alone plant, excess energy cannot be utilized, which leads to relatively low efficiencies. But if the plant is integrated with, for example, a pulp and paper mill, the excess energy can be utilized, thus resulting in higher overall efficiencies.

    This work presents a compilation of purification and processing methods. This compilation was used as the basis for the modelling of eight process solutions that were simulated in the flow-sheeting program CHEMCAD. The eight cases included in the study aim to produce gasoline, diesel, methanol and methane, all with purification at relatively low temperatures (cold gas cleaning) or at relative high temperatures (hot gas cleaning).

    Based on simulation results, a so-called Pinch analysis has been carried out where it is possible to graphically read off the potential for heat integration with a typical pulp and paper mill. Finally, overall assessments of the eight cases have been made based on different efficiency calculations.

    The results clearly show that the potential for process integration is great, with useful temperature levels, and amounts in up to almost 40 MW when the biomass input is 100 MWth.

    The efficiencies are defined in four different ways allowing for deeper interpretation and evaluation of the results, but require a certain amount of caution from the reader. However, it is evident from the results of efficiency calculations that overall efficiency of the process can be increased by 10's of percentage points if surplus heat is utilized. The results emphasize the importance of heat integration and simultaneously indicate the possibility of increased efficiency in production of biofuels. Which most likely also means a more economically sound alternative, which in turn increases the interest from investors in renewable fuels. Investments of this type are an absolute necessity for sustainable fuel consumption in the future.

  • 32.
    Schweigler, Michael
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Constrained displacement boundary condition in embedment testing of dowel-type fasteners in LVL2017In: Strain, ISSN 0039-2103, E-ISSN 1475-1305, Vol. 53, no 6, article id e12238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the loading orientation with respect to the grain direction of wood and the influence of the lateral dowel displacement boundary condition on the embedment behaviour of steel dowels in laminated veneer lumber (with parallel-laminated veneers) are investigated in this study. For limit states of the lateral boundary condition, the load-displacement behaviour was experimentally studied by means of full-hole embedment tests on screw-reinforced laminated veneer lumber, for two dowel diameters and up to large dowel displacements. A novel biaxial test set-up is proposed for embedment tests with constrained lateral dowel displacement boundary condition, in order to quantify laterally evoked reaction forces. Corresponding forces were found to change orientation with increasing dowel displacement and amounted to about 20% and 40% of the vertical reaction force for dowel displacements of 5 mm and twice the dowel diameter, respectively. The influence of the lateral displacement boundary condition was highlighted by comparison of the test data with a previously established data set for unconstrained embedment testing. Constrained loading showed a stiffer response and higher nominal embedment stresses, as well as a more pronounced displacement hardening, compared to unconstrained loading.

  • 33.
    Sundbäck, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Utveckling av arealberäkningsmetod: Utveckling av metod för att beräkna areal efter markberedning hos Stora Enso Skog AB Region Väst2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Soil preparation after final felling at Stora Enso Skog is currently performed by contractors. To follow-up the soil prepared surface the forest machine is equipped with satellite positioning equipment (GNSS equipment). The GNSS-receiver logs the route in track log lines which a program calculates the area of the prepared surface from. The contractors are paid after the prepared surface. The contractors and Stora Enso Skog do not believe that the current method reflects the reality because no respect to the topography and contractors work effort is taken. The track log also comes from different sources. A distance between the soil preparation set and the GNSS-receiver also occurs.

    The purpose of this work is to create an area calculation method who calculates soil prepared surface in a better way than the current method. The questions to be answered in this work are:

    • How can geodata from different sources be threated?
    • How can the distance between the soil preparation set and GNSS-receiver be reduced?
    • How can then ground prepared surface be calculated after the topography?
    • How can the contractor’s work effort be represented?
    • How is the GNSS position affected of the external conditions on a clearing?

    Log tracks from two different sources were the basis for calculations and in ArcGIS 10.1 has the appropriate tools to put together a set of calculation. The results have been validated in the field with accurate measuring equipment. To demonstrate how the GNSS position affects to the conditions on a felling site measure studies where done. In the measure studies five points where measured. Four points have obstructed sight to the satellites in form of high enclosed forest in different directions and one point has clear view to the satellites.

    The conclusions of the work are:

    • To reflect the work effort by generalizing the surface shows only in a rough way the work effort.
    • It is possible to calculate the ground prepared surface after the topography by using the height data from NNH (Nya Nationella Höjdmodellen).
    • The position of the GNSS equipment is more affected in points with obstructed sight to the satellites in form of high enclosed forest in different directions than in points whit clear view to the satellites. 
  • 34.
    Sönefors, Adam
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Kylningens inverkan på pelletskvalitén: En studie om kylning av träpellets med olika kylningsmetoder2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det blir allt viktigare med fler hållbara och miljövänliga lösningar för att kunna ta itu med dagens miljökris och för att kunna ersätta de fossila bränslena. Pelletseldning är en lösning som anses vara koldioxid neutralt och går att elda året runt. För att pelleten ska vara lätthanterlig och tålig så är de b.la. viktigt med en bra bulkdensitet och hållfasthet. Där spelar kylning av pellets roll och därför skall detta examensarbete undersöka hur olika kylningsmetoder påverkar pelletsen kvalité.

     

    Ett antal prover av pellets tillverkades på Karlstad universitetet med en pelletsmaskin under två olika labbsessioner. Tre av dessa prover kyldes sedan på olika effekt på en fläkt i en mindre kylanläggning. Två andra prover kyldes i en hink och utspridda i en stor låda/plåt. Dessa stod under natten och kyldes till omgivningstemperaturen. Efter att proverna hade kylts så gjordes olika kvalitétstester på varje kylt prov; bulkdensitet, hållfasthet, hårdhet, fukthalt och andel fabriksmul mättes. En analys av insamlad data gjordes, efter det så kunde en slutsats dras.

     

    En fältundersökning gjordes även för att utröna hur olika pelletsföretag går tillväga med deras kylningsprocess och hur tekniken på deras kylning ser ut.

     

    Den kylningsmetod från första sessionen som hade bäst resultat i alla kvalitétstester var pelletsen som kyldes naturligt och utspridda i en låda, med en bulkdensitet på 646 kg/m3 och en hållfasthet på 96,6% samt minimalt fabrikssmul. Pelletsen som kyldes på lägsta effekt på kylanläggningen visade också bra resultat på testerna. De mindre bra kylningsmetoderna var pellets som kyldes i hink under natten samt pellets som kyldes på maxeffekt på kylanläggningen. Från andra sessionen så fick pelletsen som kyldes med 30Hz bäst hållfasthet på 98,6%  men lägst bulkvikt på 693 kg/m3. Pelletsen som kyldes med max effekt fick sämre hållfasthet och lägst hårdhet. Högst bulkvikt på 737 kg/m3 fick det provet som var utspritt på en plåt och kyldes naturligt. Inget tydligt samband kunde ses mellan resultaten från de olika labsessionerna.

  • 35.
    Tawakkoli, Sammy-Sebastian
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ekbom, Leo
    Longboards2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ”Longboards” is a degree project in the Innovations- and design engineering program at Karlstad University. The job requestor is Space Production AB with Dan Edanius, Art director and senior project manager, as the project owner.

     

    Space Production AB started out as a showcase carpentry company but has today evolved into a company that operates complete exhibitions and events. The company’s main business is to produce, install and store branded environments designed by another party but also supplies everything from idea sketches to assemblage and service. One of Space projects spring 2008 was the production of Slalom Skateboarding World Championships and it was through this a degree project was created.

     

    The task was to create a diverse product line containing three models of longboards. The products would be unique and aimed at a niche market but yet be sellable and appeal to the upper segment buyer. Further the opportunity to create more wild concepts that could be used in future projects was given. 

     

    An extensive research on materials, market, target group and culture, resulted in a creative design process. Through a target group analysis a number of reference consumers were created. Their needs worked as inspiration and was analysed. Two separate sessions of idea generating were the fundament of a categorization that eventually resulted in eight strong concepts that was presented to the management group.

     

    The project has resulted in three developed concepts that could potentially broaden the existing longboard market as well as a band of ideas that could be used for inspiration of future projects.

  • 36.
    Thor, Annelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Effekter av upphörd hävd i Lurö skärgård: Har diversiteten av kärlväxtarter förändrats?2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main reasons for the massive loss in plant species diversity is the fragmentation of habitats. In Europe, open pastures and meadows are the habitats going through the most changes during the 20th century, according to the agricultural changes. In this study vascular plants were invented at five different islands in the Lurö archipelago, Vänern, Sweden. The aim of the study was to sort out whether the diversity of plants has gone through any changes in abandoned managed grasslands compared to continuous managed grasslands. The aim was also to study if a change in the landscape has made any differences for the species development or decline. The results indicate that the number of vascular plants were significantly lower in the abandoned areas than the still managed areas. Results, only from the field layer, showed same results. There was a significant difference between the number of indicators in managed lands than lands that were abandoned for 30-40 and 100 years ago. A comparison from earlier study, from a time when grazing had just ceased at some islands, showed a significant difference in plant species diversity between the years. Just a few decades can impoverish a plant community that might have taken hundreds or even thousands of years to build up. To preserve the biological diversity formed by human impact, one must continue managing the lands.

  • 37.
    Wallquist, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Besökstudie av I2-skogen i Karlstad: Betydelsen av tätortsnära skog för samhället2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The local authority in the city of Karlstad, Sweden, want the city to increase to 100 000 inhabitants, today it has about 80 000 inhabitants. To reach the goal several urban forests needs to be exploited. To get an understanding of how well visited the urban forest is in Karlstad, a visitor study were made in November 1995, February, May and August-September in 2006 in the I2-forest. The I2-forest is an urban forest surrounded by residences in three directions. In the area there are several trails, a golf court and shooting ranges. The quantitative visitor study shows that the I2-forest is well visited by about 180 000 visitors per year. 77 % of the visitors are living in residence maximum 500 meter from the forest. The different kind of residences in the neighbourhood shows who the visitors are and what activities they are doing. Many of the visitors come several days a week to the forest. If the forests around Karlstad city will get exploited as the local authority want, it will affect a lot of people to get longer distance to a forest from their homes. A longer distance could make it take too long time to get to the forest area and the number of visitors will decrease. When people don’t have time to be in the forest the stress and ill-health will increase, even the children will be affected negatively. Therefore it would be a good idea to establish some kind of reserve in some of Karlstad’s urban forests, to protect them from future exploitations. Because the urban forest have a great social value for the inhabitants in Karlstad and therefore the urban forest need to be saved in the future.

  • 38.
    Widlund, Rasmus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Simulering av värmeförluster i ett värmevattensystem: för distrubution av värmevatten till disk, tvättmaskin samt torktumlare.2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Rowe, Zane
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    The importance of packaging functions for food waste of different products in households2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1-16, article id 2641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations sustainability goal SDG 12.3 is to reduce the amount of food that is wasted by half, due to environmental and social reasons. This paper aims to analyse the most important packaging functions that affect food waste in households for different products, as the reason for wastage can be expected to differ between different products. The reasons for food wastage of different categories and products have been compiled through literature studies, and possible improvements of packaging functions to reduce food waste have been identified. In addition, an expert workshop judged the most important packaging functions to reduce food waste for a number of products. They also discussed the obstacles and possibilities to realise the packaging improvements. This study confirms that how packaging functions influence food waste on the product level is a highly unexplored question. Most likely, there is high potential to reduce food waste through better adaptions of packaging functions to user needs and habits. Both the literature study and the expert workshop show that less food per pack and better information regarding food safety and storage have high potential to reduce food waste, but also that product specific considerations are necessary.

  • 40.
    Ängeby, Karin
    et al.
    Women’s Department, Central Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Inland Norway Univ Appl Sci, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Nursing, Elverum, Norway.
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, .
    Sandin-Bojö, Ann-Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Prevalence of Prolonged Latent Phase and Labor Outcome: Review of Birth Records in a Swedish Population2018In: Journal of midwifery & women's health, ISSN 1526-9523, E-ISSN 1542-2011, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 33-44, article id JMWH12704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of a prolonged latent phase of labor has been described as ranging from 5% to 6.5% in previous research. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of the prolonged latent phase of 18 hours or more, based on women's report, in women intending vaginal birth and who had spontaneous onset of labor. An additional aim was to compare the incidence of obstetric interventions, and the labor and neonatal outcomes in women with and without a prolonged latent phase.

    METHODS:

    A descriptive and comparative study was performed in a mid-sized hospital in western Sweden. The sample consisted of 1343 birth records of women who intended vaginal births and who had spontaneous onset of labor at 37 or more weeks' gestation during a one-year period (2013-2014). Background characteristics, obstetric interventions, and labor and neonatal outcomes were compared between women with latent phases lasting less than 18 hours and 18 hours or more, based on women's self-report. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the different exposure variables.

    A prolonged latent phase lasting 18 hours or more occurred in 23% of all births analyzed (n = 1343). A prolonged latent phase was more common among nulliparous women (29.2%) but also common for multiparous women (17%). Nulliparous and multiparous women who experienced a prolonged latent phase were more often exposed to amniotomy during latent phase. For nulliparous women, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 11.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.25-25.51) and for multiparous women the aOR was 18.73 (95% CI, 9.06-38.69). Similarly, amniotomy during active phase was more common for both nulliparous and multiparous women who experienced a prolonged latent phase (aOR, 4.05; 95% CI, 2.53-6.47 and aOR, 3.93; 95% CI, 2.43-6.37, respectively). Women with latent phases of 18 hours or more, more often experienced augmentation of labor during all phases, especially during latent phase. For nulliparous women, the aOR was 10.13 (95% CI, 2.82-36.39) and for multiparous women, aOR was11.9 (95% CI, 3.69-38.71). A prolonged latent phase was associated with more instrumental vaginal births for multiparas (aOR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.27-5.26) and emergency cesarean regardless of parity (nulliparous women: aOR, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.08-9.50 and multiparous women: aOR, 3.93; 95% CI, 1.67-9.26).

    Based on women's self-report, the prevalence of a prolonged latent phase in women at term who planned a vaginal birth and had spontaneous onset of labor was higher than previously reported. Women with a prolonged latent phase were more likely to receive obstetric interventions. Assisted vaginal birth was more common for nulliparous women with prolonged latent phase and emergency cesarean occurred more frequently for both nulliparous women and multiparous women with a prolonged latent phase.

  • 41.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Test and application of a non-destructive photo-method investigating the parasitic stage of the threatened mussel Margaritifera margaritifera on its host fish (Salmo trutta)2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Österling, Martin E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Arvidsson, Björn L
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry A
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Habitat degradation and the decline of the threatened mussel Margaritifera maragaritifera: influence of turbidity and sedimentation on mussel an its host2010In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 759-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Habitat degradation is a major reason for species extinctions. For parasite–host interactions, the decline of a parasite may not only be related to the parasite’s tolerance to habitat degradation but also indirectly through the host’s tolerance to the same disturbance.

    2. Our objective was to explore the cause of population declines of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera by relating the age distribution, density and growth of the mussels with turbidity, sedimentation rates and density of the mussel’s host, trout Salmo trutta, in 26 Swedish streams.

    3. An analysis of the age structure of nine mussel populations showed that maximum age differed by 60 years, with five populations having low proportions of juvenile mussels. Adult mussel density was higher at sites where juvenile mussels occurred than at sites lacking juvenile mussels.

    4. Growth of adult mussels during the past 10 years was lower in the five streams lacking recent recruitment than in the four streams with recent recruitment, indicating that some environmental factor may be negatively impacting these populations.

    5. A comparison among 24 populations indicated that turbidity and sedimentation may be responsible for recruitment failure in 58% of the populations. The age of the youngest mussel was positively related to turbidity and sedimentation, and juvenile mussel density was negatively related to turbidity and sedimentation. In contrast, trout density was not related to recruitment of mussels or sedimentation, but was positively related to turbidity in all streams, both with and without recent mussel recruitment.

    6.Synthesis and applications. Recruitment failure of M. margaritifera appears to be related to its own vulnerability to turbidity and sedimentation rather than to its host’s response to this type of habitat degradation. The results from our study suggest that managers might be able to evaluate the potential viability of mussel populations by measuring stream turbidity. Restoration activities to improve the mussels’ environment should focus on reducing fine material transport into streams.

  • 43.
    Österling, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Söderberg, Håkan
    Anthropogenic changes of brown trout Salmo trutta and the impact on its parasitic mussel Margaritifera margaritifera.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 43 of 43
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