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  • 1. Ellonen, Noora
    et al.
    Peltonen, Kirsi
    Poso, Tarja
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    A multifaceted risk analysis of fathers' self-reported physical violence toward their children2017In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 317-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research has shown that child maltreatment is carried out by both mothers and fathers. There is also an extensive body of literature analyzing reasons for mothers' violent behavior. Among fathers, reasons are less well studied, resulting in the lack of a comprehensive picture of paternal child abuse. In this study, 20 child-, parent-, and family-related factors have been included in a combined analysis to assess which of these may pose a risk for fathers' severe violent behavior toward their children. The study is based on merged data from Finland and Sweden, in which an anonymous survey was answered by parents, based on representative samples of parents with 0-12-year-old children. The merged data set included 679 fathers and analyses were carried out using logistic regression models. Six percent of the fathers had committed severe violent acts, that is, slapped, hit, punched, kicked, bit, hit/tried to hit their child with an object or shook (under 2-year-old) their child at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Corporal punishment experienced by the fathers when they were children, or used by the father as a method of discipline, strongly increased the likelihood of severe violent acts. The findings emphasize the importance of preventing all forms of corporal punishment in seeking to minimize the occurrence of severe physical violence by fathers toward their children. Aggr. Behav. 43:317-328, 2017. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 2.
    Nordheim, T.
    et al.
    Akershus University Hospital, Nordbyhagen, Norway; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Anderzen-Carlsson, Agneta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nakstad, B.
    Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Norway; University of Oslo, Norway.
    A Qualitative Study of the Experiences of Norwegian Parents of Very Low Birthweight Infants Enrolled in a Randomized Nutritional Trial2018In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 43, p. E66-E74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine how parents of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants experienced having their newborn infant enrolled in a randomized controlled intervention trial (RCT). Design and Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews with 15 parents of 9 participating VLBW infants. The data were then made the object of an inductive qualitative content analysis. Results: The parents expressed trust in the competence and motivation of the researchers and were confident that participating in the project would do no harm, but instead would potentially benefit their infant. The parents felt privileged for being given the chance to participate, to commit to the project; they were willing to invest their time and effort in the project. Participation could be stressful for the parents, ranging from minor irritation to situations in which they felt overwhelmed and not entirely in control. Many families lived stressful lives, and participation, particularly the follow-up after being discharged, may have added to this. Conclusions: Infant participation in an RCT can be a positive experience, making the parents feel that they are given a chance to both contribute and receive something special. Participation can also be stressful because of conditions both related and unrelated to the RCT. Practice Implications: We identified several issues that researchers in future trials with VLBW infants need to address to minimize parental stress. Recruitment to intervention studies within the immediate period around birth should be avoided, if possible.

  • 3.
    Shu, Huan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikstrom, Sverre
    School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bo A. G.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindh, Christian H.
    Svensson, Åke
    Department of Dermatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
    Prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with croup in Swedish infants2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 6, p. 1011-1019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study examined whether prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with lower or upper airway inflammation in infants. Methods: From 2007 to 2010, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, adjusted for creatinine, to analyse 14 phthalate metabolites and one phthalate replacement in the urine of 1062 Swedish mothers at a median of 10 weeks of pregnancy. This was used to determine any associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and croup, wheezing or otitis in their offspring until 12 months of age, using logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: There were significant associations between phthalate metabolites of butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) concentrations in maternal prenatal urine and croup in 1062 infants during the first year of life, when adjusted for potential confounders. A dose-response relationship was found between prenatal phthalates exposure and maternal reported croup in the children, with a significant association in boys. There was no clear indication with regard to associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and wheezing or otitis media in the children during the first year of life. Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that exposure to BBzP and DEHP phthalates was associated with maternal reports of croup in infants up to 12 months of age

  • 4.
    Stephen, Divya Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Vatsa, Manju
    All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Lodha, Rakesh
    All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Kabra, Sushil Kumar
    All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    A Randomized Controlled Trial of 2 Inhalation Methods When Using a Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler With Valved Holding Chamber.2015In: Respiratory care, ISSN 0020-1324, E-ISSN 1943-3654, Vol. 60, no 12, p. 1743-1748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Information on the comparative efficacy of single deep breathing versus tidal breathing for inhaled asthma medications is limited, although such information can be of much use for the treatment of patients suffering from asthma. The objective of the present study was to compare the relative difference in improvement in peak expiratory flow (PEF) with single maximal inhalation with breath-holding versus 5 tidal breaths during inhalation of salbutamol from a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) with valved holding chamber (VHC) in children 5-15 y of age with asthma.

    METHODS: The randomized controlled trial was carried out on children with asthma between 5 and 15 y of age using a pMDI with a VHC either by a single deep breath with breath-hold or 5 tidal breaths. The experimental group received 200 μg of salbutamol from the pMDI with VHC with a single maximal inhalation and breath-hold technique, whereas the control group received 200 μg of salbutamol from pMDI with VHC using the 5 tidal breaths technique. The outcome variable, PEF, was reassessed 30 min after salbutamol use.

    RESULTS: Eighty-two subjects (mean age 8.79 ± 2.5 y, 65 boys and 17 girls) were analyzed. There was significant improvement in the PEF, from baseline (pre-intervention) to post-intervention within the single maximal inhalation with breath-hold group and tidal breathing group independently (P < .001). The mean difference in improvement in PEF between the single maximal inhalation with a breath-hold and 5 tidal breaths group was 30.0 ± 18.16 and 28.29 ± 13.94 L/min, respectively, and was not statistically significant (P = .88).

    CONCLUSIONS: Single maximal inhalation with a breath-hold technique is not superior to tidal breathing for improvement in PEF following salbutamol inhalation. Either method may be used in children between 5 and 15 y of age. (India's Clinical Trials Registry CTRI/2013/04/003559.).

  • 5.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Social Work and Counselling, University of Greenwich, London, UK.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Trost, Kari
    Department of Child and Youth Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mothers’ and Fathers’ Worry and Over-Control: One Step Closer to Understanding Early Adolescent Social Anxiety2018In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 921-927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the links between parental worry, parental over-control and adolescent social anxiety in parent-adolescent dyads. Using a longitudinal sample of adolescents (Mage = 14.28) and their parents (224 mother–daughter, 234 mother–son, 51 father–daughter, and 47 father–son dyads), comparisons were conducted using cross-lagged path models across two time points. We used adolescent reports of social anxiety and feelings of being overly controlled by parents, and mother and father self-reports of worries. Our results show that boys’ social anxiety predicted higher perceived parental overcontrol, whereas girls’ social anxiety predicted higher paternal worry over time. In addition, girls’ reports of feeling overly controlled by parents predicted higher maternal worry but lower paternal worry over time. For boys, feeling overly controlled predicted less social anxiety instead. The study illustrates how mothers and fathers might differ in their behaviors and concerns regarding their children’s social anxiety and feelings of overcontrol.

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