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  • 1.
    Ahlman, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Tandvårdspersonals engagemang i kliniskt arbete med hemlösa: En kvalitativ studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Hemlösa har ett stort tandvårdsbehov och behöver engagerad tandvårdspersonal som är beredda att arbeta kliniskt med denna grupp. Syfte: Syftet är att studera vad som engagerar tandvårdspersonal till att arbeta med hemlösa. Metod: En kvalitativ studie och kvalitativ innehållsanalys har använts. Urval: Studien baseras på intervjuer med en tandläkare och en tandsköterska. Resultat: Resultatet presenteras i två domäner. Domänen Fängslande speglar vad informanterna upplever spännande i kliniskt arbete med hemlösa. Tre kategorier finns under denna, Intresse, Ovillighet bland kollegor och Team-work. Under domänen Medkänsla finns två kategorier Nytta och Välvilja. Där speglas känslor som informanterna upplevde i arbetet med denna grupp. Kategorierna visar vad som engagerar informanterna i deras kliniska arbete med hemlösa. Konklusion: Känslorna som tandvårdspersonalen erhåller vid det kliniska arbetet med hemlösa utgör en grund för det engagemang som personalen känner för arbetet. Dock är det flera faktorer som samverkar till detta engagemang.

  • 2.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linköping University.
    Hartvig, Per
    Copenhagen University.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Gothenburg University.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Serotonin Synthesis Rate and the Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 G-703T Polymorphism in Social Anxiety Disorder2014In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 75, no 9, p. 357S-357SArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Alubusi, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Munhygienvanor och kunskap om oral hälsa hos vuxna individer med utländsk bakgrund: En enkätstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En stor invandring innebär en ökad påfrestning på tandvården från individer med utländsk bakgrund. Hos individerna med utländsk bakgrund har man funnit en nedsatt oral hälsa. Att undersöka vad individer med utländsk bakgrund vet om orala sjukdomar samt vilka munhygiensvanor de har kan hjälpa till att hitta eventuella riskfaktorer till nedsatt oral hälsa. Detta hjälper tandvården att se inom vilket område man bör informera. och stärka denna grupp för att vid behålla deras orala hälsa. Syfte: Att undersöka munhygiensvanor och kunskaper kring oral hälsa hos vuxna individer med utländsk bakgrund. Frågeställning: Finns det någon skillnad mellan hur ofta män och kvinnor med borstar? Metod: Kvantitativ studie. Empirisk enkätstudie. Enkäten omfattar frågor om munhygienvanor, kunskap om karies och kunskap om parodontit. Urvalet bestod av vuxna män och kvinnor som har en utländsk bakgrund och är över 18 års ålder. Med utländsk bakgrund menas att individerna är födda utomlands och har utländska föräldrar. Studiedeltagarna befann sig på en SFI skola i Mellansverige. Resultat: Antal studiedeltagare som deltog i studien var 78, (n=36 män), (n=29 kvinnor), (n=13 som inte angav kön). Majoriteten av studiedeltagarna visade sig ha goda vanor med antalet gånger de borstar tänderna per dag, hur ofta de använder fluor och användning av orala munhygiensprodukter utöver tandborste. Studien visar även att en mindre del av studiedeltagarna känner de största riskfaktorerna för att få orala sjukdomar. Konklusion: Individer med utländsk bakgrund har goda munhygiensvanor men saknar till viss del kunskap kring orsaken till varför orala sjukdomar som karies och parodontit uppstår.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Annica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlsson, Malin
    Karlstad University, Division for Health and Caring Sciences.
    Arbetstillfredsställelse inom tandhygienistprofessionen2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tandhygienisters arbetstillfredsställelse och vad som påverkar denna är hittills relativt lite studerat. Det finns således ett stort behov av att undersöka detta område närmare. Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka faktorer som påverkar arbetstillfredsställelse inom

    tandhygienistprofessionen, samt hur vanligt förekommande det är att yrkesverksamma tandhygienister upplever arbetstillfredsställelse. Metoden som användes var en systematisk litteraturstudie. Resultatet visade att flera faktorer av olika karaktär är av betydelse för

    tandhygienisters upplevelse av arbetstillfredsställelse. De huvudsakliga faktorerna innefattar fysisk arbetsmiljö, psykosociala faktorer samt olika bakgrundsfaktorer. Den fysiska arbetsmiljö som förekommer inom tandhygienistprofessionen innehåller flera moment som

    kan orsaka muskuloskeletala problem, vilket kan påverka upplevelsen av

    arbetstillfredsställelse. Faktorer av psykosocial karaktär såsom stress och arbetsorganisatoriska faktorer samt samarbete och kommunikation över yrkesgränserna framstår i studien ha en stor betydelse för upplevd tillfredsställelse i arbetet. Studien visade

    också att verksamma tandhygienister upplever arbetstillfredsställelse trots att flera av de inverkande faktorerna har en negativ karaktär. Konklusionen är att arbetstillfredsställelse inom tandhygienistyrket påverkas av såväl fysiska som psykosociala förhållanden med

    tonvikt på det senare.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Ida
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Berger, Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Tandblekningens påverkan på tandsubstansen och den omkringliggande vävnaden: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    André Kramer, Ann-Catrin André
    et al.
    Public Dental Service, Region Västra Götaland.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Petzold, Max
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Demographic factors and dental health of Swedish children and adolescents2016In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 178-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dental health of Swedish children and adolescents with reference to age, gender and residence.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Electronic dental records from 300,988 3-19-year-olds in one Swedish region were derived in a cross-sectional study in years 2007-2009. The DMFT system was used. Age was categorized into 3-6/7-9/10-12/13-15/16-17/18-19-year-olds and residence into 'metropolitan', 'urban' and 'rural' areas. ANOVA, generalized linear regression models and Fisher's exact test were used.

    RESULTS: Among 7-9-year-old children, nine out of 10 were free from fillings and manifest caries, while for 18-19-year-olds; this proportion was one third. Girls (18-19-year-olds) had a significantly lower risk of caries compared to boys of the same age, RR for the DT index = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.81-0.85). This pattern was reversed in 7-12-year-old children. Children and adolescents in metropolitan and urban areas had significantly more caries than subjects in rural areas, for instance the RR for the DT index in metropolitan 7-9-year-olds was 2.26 (95% CI = 2.11-2.42) compared to their rural counterparts.

    CONCLUSIONS: In the permanent dentition, the overall pattern revealed that girls ≤ 12 years had a higher risk of caries, while adolescent girls had a lower risk of caries, both compared with boys of corresponding ages. Living in an urban or metropolitan area entailed a higher risk of caries than living in a rural area. A greater occurrence of dental caries in adolescents than in children was confirmed. The findings should have implications for planning and evaluation of oral health promotion and disease prevention activities.

  • 7.
    André Kramer, Ann-Catrin André
    et al.
    epartment of Behavioral and Community Dentistry, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Pivodic, Aldina
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Multilevel analysis of dental caries in Swedish children and adolescents in relation to socioeconomic status2019In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 96-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to investigate the variability in dental caries experience in Swedish children and adolescents, at two different area levels: dental clinics and SAMS (small areas for market statistics), with respect to multiple individual socioeconomic factors (SES). Records of manifest caries using the DMFT indices (decayed, missing, filled teeth, dependent variables) were collected from electronic dental records for 300,988 individuals aged 3-19 years (97.3% coverage) from the Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. SES data were obtained from official registers and covered ethnicity, wealth, parental education, and employment. The SES variables were used as an independent aggregated variable - an in dex - categorized in deciles. Age and gender were independently included in the multilevel models. Two-level logistic regression analyses explored the probability of a dental caries experience and the variability (intracluster correlation) within dental clinic areas and SAMS, respectively. The most deprived (10th decile, SAMS level) 3- to 6-year-old children had an OR of 5.00 (95% CI 4.61-5.43) for dental caries experience (deft), compared with children in the 1st to 5th deciles. For older children and adolescents (≥7 years), the corresponding OR (DFT) was 2.25 (95% CI 2.15-2.35). Small geographical areas explained more of the variance in caries experience compared with the more aggregated level dental clinics. SES was more strongly related to the risk of dental caries experience than age and gender. In conclusion, the associations between SES and dental caries experience in Swedish children and adolescents were strong in the study and strongest in young children at a low level.

  • 8.
    André Kramer, Ann-Catrin
    et al.
    Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry, Institute of Odontology, Göteborg.
    Petzold, Max
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Multiple Socioeconomic Factors and Dental Caries in Swedish Children and Adolescents.2018In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 52, no 1-2, p. 42-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to explore associations between multiple socioeconomic factors and dental caries experience in Swedish children and adolescents (3-19 years old). Electronic dental records from 300,988, in a Swedish region (97.3% coverage) were collected using the DMFT indices (decayed, missing, filled teeth: dependent variables). Socioeconomic status (SES) data (ethnicity, wealth, parental education, and employment) for individuals, parents, and families were obtained from official registers. Principal component analysis was used to explore SES data. Scores based on the first factor were used as an independent aggregated socioeconomic variable in logistic regression analyses. Dental caries experience was low in the participants: 16% in 3- to 6-year-olds (deft index: decayed, extracted, filled teeth) and 47% in 7- to 19-year-olds (DFT index). Both separate and aggregated socioeconomic variables were consistently associated with the dental caries experience irrespective of the caries index used: the crude odds ratio (OR) for having at least 1 caries lesion in 3- to 6-year-olds (deft index) in the lowest SES quintile was 3.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.09-3.43) and in ≥7-year-olds (DFT index) OR 1.80 (95% CI 1.75-1.84) compared with children in the 4 higher SES quintiles. Overall, associations were stronger in the primary dentition than in the permanent dentition. Large SES models contributed more to explaining the caries experience than slim models including fewer SES indicators. In conclusion, socioeconomic factors were consistently associated with dental caries experience in the children and adolescents both as single factors and as multiple factors combined in an index. Socioeconomic inequalities had stronger associations to caries experience in young children than in older children and adolescents.

  • 9.
    André Kramer, Ann-Catrin
    et al.
    Public Dental Service, Region Västra Götaland.
    Skeie, M S
    Skaare, A B
    Espelid, I
    Ostberg, A-L
    Caries increment in primary teeth from 3 to 6 years of age: a longitudinal study in Swedish children.2014In: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, ISSN 1818-6300, E-ISSN 1996-9805, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 167-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To longitudinally follow and analyse caries prevalence and development in primary dentition in Swedish preschool children from 3 to 6 years of age.

    STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal clinical study.

    METHODS: Three hundred 3-year-old children in the Public Dental Service were consecutively included. The children underwent annual clinical examinations at 3, 4, 5 and 6 years of age, performed by four calibrated dentists in clinical settings. Initial (d1-2) and manifest (d3-5) lesions were registered at surface and tooth level. Radiographs were taken when indicated and possible.

    STATISTICS: Chi-squared test was used for group comparisons. Friedman's test, Wilcoxon non-parametric test and logistic regression analyses explored caries development over the years.

    RESULTS: The parents of 271 children agreed to their children participating in the study (total dropout rate at 6 years, 10.3%). At baseline, 27.3% of the children had carious lesions (d1-5 mean 0.98, SD ± 2.44), and only 50.6% of the children were totally caries-free at 6 years (d1-5 mean 1.88, SD ± 2.81). Initial carious lesions made up the greater share at all ages. The greater part of the caries increment occurred between 3 and 4 years of age (p < 0.001). Having initial and/or manifest carious lesions at 3 years of age was a significant explanatory factor for new lesions at 6 years of age (OR 2.29; 95% CI 1.58-3.31).

    CONCLUSION: Children with an early caries experience had a high risk of further disease progression. Oral health promotion and prevention programmes should target small children and their carers.

  • 10.
    Anniko, Malin K.
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro University.
    van Wijk, Nikil Ph. L.
    Aquarius Analyses & Training, Willemstad, Curacao.
    Byrne, Don
    Australian National University, Australia.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Development of a Shortened Version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ-S): Construct validity and sex invariance in a large sample of Swedish adolescents2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, E-ISSN 2245-8875, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 4-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stressor experience is an important topic of research concerning adolescent health and ill-health. For this, valid and reliable measures of adolescent stress are needed. The Adolescent Stress Questionnaire 2 was developed to tap into stressor domains specific for adolescence. Psychometric evaluations in Australian and European samples have indicated adequate psychometric properties. However, the ASQ-2 is quite extensive, which may render its use in large cohort studies, where several aspects of adolescent health are investigated, inconvenient and problematic. Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a short version of the ASQ-2 (ASQ-S) in terms of construct validity and factorial invariance across gender. Method: The ASQ-2 was translated into Swedish and items were retained from nine of the ten scales based on factor loadings. One scale (stress of emerging adult responsibilities) was removed entirely due to low internal consistency and variance explained. The remaining 27 items were piloted and then included in an ongoing 5-year longitudinal study involving the participation of all students in the 7th and 8th grade in public schools from three Swedish municipalities (N = 2768, 47.5 % girls, mean age 13.64 years). For this study data from the first and second wave was used. Results: A nine factor Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed a good fit to the data and invariance across sexes was supported. The nine scales correlated positively with depressive symptoms, anxiety and worry and negatively with self-esteem. Girls reported higher stress levels than boys in eight of the nine scales. Stressors related to peer pressure predicted reported levels of anxiety and worry one year later, whereas stressors related to romantic relationships predicted depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Overall this study suggests that the ASQ-S could be a valid measure of adolescent stressor experience and psychometrically equivalent to the full ASQ-2.

  • 11.
    Arvidsson Persson, Berit
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Larsson, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Kliniskt prövade behandlingsmetoder för att hjälpa tandvårdsrädda individer att klara tandvårdsbehandling2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Tandvårdsrädsla är ett problem som inte verkar avta trots modernare behandlingsmetoder. Mellan 4-20% av världens befolkning lider av tandvårdsrädsla. Tandvårdsrädslan har en multifaktoriell bakgrund, vanligast anges smärtsamma minnen från barndomen och traumatiska tandvårdsupplevelser senare i livet. Hur de tandvårdsrädda hanterar sin situation beror på ett antal psykosociala faktorer i samverkan. Syfte: Att beskriva vilka kliniskt prövade metoder som finns för att få patienter med tandvårdsrädsla att acceptera och fullfölja tandvårdsbehandling. Frågeställningar: 1) Vilka olika behandlingsmetoder förekommer för att underlätta behandling av tandvårdsrädda patienter inom tandvården? 2) Hur skiljer sig behandlingsmetoderna för tandvårdsrädda barn respektive vuxna? Metod: Systematisk litteraturstudie. Resultat: De granskade artiklarna visar att de flesta barn som fick beteendevetenskaplig terapi klarade att genomgå tandvårdsbehandling. Den vanligaste behandlingsstrategin var "tell-show-do". Även hos vuxna fungerade beteendevetenskapliga metoder bäst. Kognitiv terapi gav bra resultat på sikt. Sedering eller behandling under narkos är vanligt vid tandvårdsrädsla hos barn. Även för vuxna kan sedering användas i exempelvis akuttandvård. Enbart sedering med farmaka ger dock ingen bestående förbättring av tandvårdsrädsla, varken hos barn eller vuxna. Slutsats: De psykologiska metoderna ensamma eller i kombination med sedering ger på sikt den bästa effekten när det gäller att minska tandvårdsrädslan.

  • 12. Asp, M.
    et al.
    Simonsson, B.
    Larm, P.
    Molarius, Anu
    Physical mobility, physical activity, and obesity among elderly: findings from a large population-based Swedish survey2017In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 147, p. 84-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine how physical activity and physical mobility are related to obesity in the elderly. Study design: A cross-sectional study of 2558 men and women aged 65 years and older who participated in a population survey in 2012 was conducted in mid-Sweden with an overall response rate of 67%. Methods: Obesity (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) was based on self-reported weight and height, and physical activity and physical mobility on questionnaire data. Chi-squared test and multiple logistic regressions were used as statistical analyses. Results: The overall prevalence of obesity was 19% in women and 15% in men and decreased after the age of 75 years. A strong association between both physical activity and obesity, and physical mobility and obesity was found. The odds for obesity were higher for impaired physical mobility (odds ratio [OR] 2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.14-3.75) than for physical inactivity (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.28-2.08) when adjusted for gender, age, socio-economic status and fruit and vegetable intake. However, physical activity was associated with obesity only among elderly with physical mobility but not among those with impaired physical mobility. Conclusion: It is important to focus on making it easier for elderly with physical mobility to become or stay physically active, whereas elderly with impaired physical mobility have a higher prevalence of obesity irrespective of physical activity. (C) 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Assarsson, Rebecka
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Petersen, Solveig
    Umeå universitet.
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå universitet.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Umeå universitet.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå universitet.
    Gender inequality and adolescent suicide ideation across Africa, Asia, the South Pacific and Latin America: A cross-sectional study based on the Global School Health Survey (GSHS)2019In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, no sup3, p. 1-10, article id 1663619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicide ideation is a health issue affecting adolescents worldwide. There are significant variations in suicide ideation between countries and genders, which have not been fully explained. Research is especially lacking in countries outside Europe and North America. Gender equality has been shown to matter in other aspects of adolescent mental health, such as life satisfaction, but has not been researched in relation to suicide ideation at national level.

    Objective: To investigate how national gender inequality is related to self-reported suicide ideation among adolescents, and whether this association differs between boys and girls.

    Methods: This is a cross-national, cross-sectional study using individual survey data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey, a survey in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the South Pacific, developed and supported by among others the WHO and the CDC; connecting this to national data: the gender inequality index from the UNDP; controlling for GDP per capita and secondary school enrolment. The data was analysed using a multilevel logistic regression method and included 149,306 students from 37 countries.

    Results: Higher national gender inequality, as measured by the gender inequality index, was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of suicide ideation in both girls and boys (odds ratio: 1.38 p-value: 0.015), but for girls and both sexes this was only after adjusting for selection bias due to secondary school enrolment (as well as GDP/capita). Interaction models showed that this association was stronger in boys than in girls.

    Conclusions: National gender inequality seems to be associated with higher levels of suicide ideation among adolescents in mainly low- and middle-income countries, especially among boys.

  • 14. Axelsson, P.
    et al.
    Rolandsson, Margot
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Bjerner, B.
    How Swedish dental hygienists apply their training program in the field1993In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 297-302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Axelsson, Per AT
    Karlstad University. Univ Gothenburg, S-11219 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Periodontitis Is Preventable2014In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 85, no 10, p. 1303-1307Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bauer, A. Z.
    et al.
    University of Massachusetts, 1 University Avenue, Lowell, MA, 01854, USA.
    Kriebel, D.
    University of Massachusetts, 1 University Avenue, Lowell, MA, 01854, USA.
    Herbert, M. R.
    Harvard Medical School, Charlestown USA.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Swan, S. H.
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY 10029, USA.
    Prenatal paracetamol exposure and child neurodevelopment: A review2018In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The non-prescription medication paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is currently recommended as a safe pain and fever treatment during pregnancy. However, recent studies suggest a possible association between APAP use in pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment. Objectives: To conduct a review of publications reporting associations between prenatal APAP use and offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods: Relevant sources were identified through a key word search of multiple databases (Medline, CINAHL, OVID and TOXNET) in September 2016. All English language observational studies of pregnancy APAP and three classes of neurodevelopmental outcomes (autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intelligence quotient (IQ)) were included. One reviewer (AZB) independently screened all titles and abstracts, extracted and analyzed the data. Results: 64 studies were retrieved and 55 were ineligible. Nine prospective cohort studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Data pooling was not appropriate due to heterogeneity in outcomes. All included studies suggested an association between prenatal APAP exposure and the neurodevelopmental outcomes; ADHD, ASD, or lower IQ. Longer duration of APAP use was associated with increased risk. Associations were strongest for hyperactivity and attention-related outcomes. Little modification of associations by indication for use was reported. Conclusions: Together, these nine studies suggest an increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes following prenatal APAP exposure. Further studies are urgently needed with; precise indication of use and exposure assessment of use both in utero and in early life. Given the current findings, pregnant women should be cautioned against indiscriminate use of APAP. These results have substantial public health implications.

  • 17.
    Bax, Gerhard
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Environmental Sciences.
    Buchroithner, Manfred
    High-Mountain Remote Sensing Cartography 1998: proceedings of the 5th International Symposium of the Use of Remote Sensing Data in Mountain Cartography2002Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    von Kobyletzki, Laura B.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Jan Waldenstroms Gatan 16, S-21428 Malmo, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Sahlgrenska Univ, Hlth Metr Unit, Box 414, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Determinants of Antidepressants Use and Economic Costs: A Population Based Study2017In: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, Vol. 20, no Suppl.1, p. S2-S2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Björnson, Emma
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Kunskaper och inställning till motiverande samtal hos en grupp tandhygienister: En tvärsnittsstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Boman, Linda-Mari
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Karlsson, Minna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Dental karies, dental fluoros och munvårdsvanor hos barn i Tanzania: Litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: I Tanzania lever mer än var femte innevånare i fattigdom och endast hälften har tillgång till rent vatten. Den orala hälsan tas sällan om hand på rätt sätt och behovet av orala hälsoprogram är stort. Landet har också problem med höga fluorhalter i grundvattnen vilket har förödande konsekvenser för tänderna.  Syfte: Att studera förekomsten av dental karies och dental fluoros samt vilka munvårdsvanor barn 6-18 år har i Tanzania Frågeställningar: Vilken är förekomsten av dental karies bland barn 6-18 år i Tanzania? Vilken är förekomsten av dental fluoros bland barn 6-18 år i Tanzania? Vilka munvårdsvanor har barn 6-18 år i Tanzania? Metod: En litteraturstudie Resultat: Studierna visade att kariesförekomsten i de studerade åldersgrupperna var låg. Vanligast med karies i det permanenta bettet är i djupa fissurer och andra molaren i underkäken. En ökad risk för dental fluoros genom intag av magadi och ökad fluorhalt i dricksvattnet. Dental fluoros ökar risken för ett nedsatt välbefinnande. En studie (2010) visar även på att tandborstningsfrekvensen och användning av tandkräm är mer frekvent än förr (1994, 1998). Besök hos tandläkaren sker inte kontinuerligt. Konklusion: Litteraturstudien visade på ett omfattande behov av munhälsoprogram i Tanzania samt olika åtgärder mot dental fluoros.

  • 21.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Can the provision of a home help service for the elderly population reduce the incidence of fall-related injuries?2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, no Suppl.2, p. A181-A181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Fall-related injuries are a global public health problem, especially in elderly populations. In this study, the effect of an intervention aimed at reducing the risk of falls in the homes of community-dwelling elderly persons was evaluated. The intervention, which involves home hazards reduction by providing a minor home help service, is provided in the majority of Swedish municipalities.

    Methods Intention-to-treat effect estimates were derived using quasi-experimental time series intervention (ITS) analysis for immediate effects and a difference-in-discontinuity (RD) design for long term effects, and community-level estimates were pooled using meta-analysis. The outcome measure was the incidence of fall-related hospitalizations in the treatment population, the age of which varied by municipality (≥65 years, ≥67 years, ≥70 years or ≥75 years).

    Results We found no statistically significant reductions in injury incidence in the ITS (IRR 1.01 [95% CI: 0.98–1.05]) or RD (IRR 1.00 [95% CI: 0.97–1.03]) analyses. The results are robust to several different model specifications, including segmented panel regression analysis with linear trend change and community fixed effects parameters.

    Conclusions It is unclear whether absence of an effect is due to a low efficacy of the home hazards modifications provided, or a result of low utilisation. Additional studies of the effects on other quality of life measures are recommended before conclusions are drawn regarding the cost-effectiveness of the provision of home help services

  • 22.
    Borén, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Claesson, Ekaterina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Livskvalitet hos personer med kronisk parodontit - litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Gingivit förekommer hos en större del av befolkningen och kronisk parodontit förekommer hos upptill 40 % av alla vuxna i Sverige. Kunskapen om parodontala sjukdomar och vad de kan leda till är begränsad hos den svenska befolkningen. Den parodontala behandlingen delas in i icke-kirurgisk och kirurgisk infektionskontroll. Mätinstrumenten OHIP-14 och -49 är de mätinstrument som används oftast för att mäta livskvalité.

    Syfte: Att beskriva livskvalitén hos individer med kronisk parodontit.

    Frågeställningar: Hur upplever individer med kronisk parodontit sin livskvalité?

    Metod: En litteraturstudie.

    Resultat: I resultatet framkommer det att livskvaliteten hos personer med parodontit påverkas påtagligt. Faktorer som påverkar är bland andra psykologisk och fysiologisk diskomfort/ dysfunktion, tuggfunktionen, dålig andedräkt och att mat fastnar mellan tänderna. Det har även påvisats att icke-kirurgisk parodontal behandling påverkar livskvalitén positivt.

    Konklusion: Livskvalitén hos individer med kronisk parodontit påverkas.

  • 23.
    Boström, Charlotte
    Karlstad University. Karlstad University, Division for Health and Caring Sciences.
    Metoder att behandla vuxnas tandvårdsrädsla: En systematisk litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Brännlund, Annica
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå universitet.
    Mental-health and educational achievement: The link between poor mental-health and upper secondary school completion and grades2017In: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 318-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Education profoundly affects adult socioeconomic status, so it is important to ensure that all children have the capability and opportunity to achieve educational goals.Aims: The study aimed to examine the relationship between mental-health during adolescence and upper secondary school completion and grades, which has received comparatively little research attention to date.Method: Longitudinal administrative and registered data were used to analyse the relationship between school achievement and prescriptions of psycholeptic and psycho-analeptic drugs. The sample consisted of all children born in Sweden in 1990 (n=109223), who were followed from birth to age 20. Logistic and OLS regressions were performed separately for boys and girls, controlling for birth health and family characteristics.Results: A negative relationship between mental-health problems and educational outcomes was found; this result was almost independent of the controls. Only minor differences between the sexes were detected.Conclusions: Poor mental-health during childhood correlated negatively with educational attainment. Given the strong link between educational success and adult life, more resources are needed to support children with mental-health problems.

  • 25.
    Bylund, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Olsson, Paula
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Implementering av Nationella Riktlinjer för vuxentandvård avseende karies och parodontit: En longitudinell interventionsstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: För att tandvården skall kunna styras med systematiska prioriteringar tog Socialstyrelsen fram Nationella Riktlinjer ( NR ) för vuxentandvård som ett stöd. Dessa grundas på tidigare forskning och bygger på evidens.

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka i vilken utsträckning tandhygienister kände till och tillämpade socialstyrelsens Nationella Riktlinjer för vuxentandvård avseende preventions- och behandlingsåtgärder för karies och parodontal sjukdom samt periimplantit  före respektive efter en implementeringsintervention.

    Frågeställningar:

    Var har tandhygienisterna funnit information gällande NR?

    Vilka karies-, parodontit-, och periimplantitpreventiva åtgärder enligt NR anser tandhygienisterna är de bäst lämpade för patienter med dessa sjukdomar samt vilken/vilka skillnader föreligger i val av åtgärder efter jämfört med före implementeringen?

    Metod: Trettioåtta tandhygienister fick utbildning med stöd av förändringsagenter samt genomgick ett interventionsprogram avseende NR i fyra steg.

    Resultat: Före implementeringen rekommenderade 52,6 % av tandhygienisterna tandtråd i kombination med fluorpreparat vid tillståndet ”Initial kronkaries” jämfört med 0 % efter. Av deltagarna valde 57,9 % Rökstopp + annan åtgärd före för att efter reduceras ned till 31,6 % , värdena avsedde ”Kronisk parodontit”.

    Konklusion: Implementeringen av NR visade att tandhygienister efter intervention med utbildning och stöd av förändringsagenter använde mer evidensbaserad prevention vid karies, parodontit och periimplantit än tidigare. Uppföljande utvärdering av evidensbaserad prevention inom tandvården rekommenderas, då ett mindre antal icke evidensbaserade preventiva åtgärder kvarstod.

  • 26.
    Chalmers, J. R.
    et al.
    Univ Nottingham, Ctr Evidence Based Dermatol, Nottingham, England..
    Simpson, E.
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Dept Dermatol, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Apfelbacher, C. J.
    Univ Regensburg, Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Med Sociol, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany..
    Thomas, K. S.
    Univ Nottingham, Ctr Evidence Based Dermatol, Nottingham, England..
    von Kobyletzki, Laura B.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hospital, Dept Dermatol, Malmo, Sweden.
    Schmitt, J.
    Univ Dresden, Ctr Lvidence Based Hlthcare, Dresden, Germany.;Tech Univ Dresden, Dept Occupat & Social Med, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Singh, J. A.
    Birmingham VA Med Ctr, Med Serv, Birmingham, AL USA.;Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Med, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA..
    Svensson, A.
    Malmo Univ Hosp, Dept Dermatol & Venerol, Malmo, Sweden..
    Williams, H. C.
    Univ Nottingham, Ctr Evidence Based Dermatol, Nottingham, England..
    Abuabara, K.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Dermatol, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA..
    Aoki, V.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Med, Dept Dermatol, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Ardeleanu, M.
    Regeneron Pharmaceut Inc, Immunol & Inflammat, New York, NY USA..
    Awici-Rasmussen, M.
    Psoriasis & Eczema Assoc Norway, Oslo, Norway..
    Barbarot, S.
    CHU Nantes, Dept Dermatol, F-44035 Nantes 01, France..
    Berents, T. L.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, Oslo 3, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Oslo, Norway..
    Block, J.
    Natl Eczema Assoc, Natl Eczema Org, San Rafael, CA USA..
    Bragg, A.
    Chugai Pharma Europe Ltd, London, England..
    Burton, T.
    Clemmensen, K. K. Bjerring
    Univ Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Creswell-Melville, A.
    Soc Canadienne IEczema, Keswick, ON, Canada..
    Dinesen, M.
    LEO Pharma AS, Industriparken 55, Ballerup, Denmark..
    Drucker, A.
    Univ Hlth Nem ork, Div Dermatol, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Eckert, L.
    Hlth Econ & Outcomes Res, Sanofi, France..
    Flohr, C.
    Guys & St Thomas Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, St Johns Inst Dermatol, London, England.;Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Garg, M.
    LEO Pharma, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Gerbens, L. A. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Dermatol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Graff, A. L. B.
    Natl Eczema Soc, London, England..
    Hanifin, J.
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Dept Dermatol, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Heinl, D.
    Univ Regensburg, Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Med Sociol, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany..
    Humphreys, R.
    Natl Eczema Soc, London, England..
    Ishii, H. A.
    Brazilian Atop Dermatitis Assoc AADA, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Kataoka, Y.
    Osaka Prefectural Med Ctr Resp & Allerg Dis, Osaka, Japan..
    Leshem, Y. A.
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Dept Dermatol, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Marquort, B.
    Massuel, M. -A
    Merhand, S.
    Assoc Francaise Eczema, Redon, France..
    Mizutani, H.
    Mie Univ, Grad Sch Med, Tsu, Mie, Japan.;Mie Univ, Hosp Tsu, Tsu, Mie, Japan..
    Murota, H.
    Osaka Univ, Dept Dermatol, Osaka, Japan..
    Murrell, D. F.
    St George Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ New S Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Nakahara, T.
    Kyushu Univ, Grad Sch Med Sci, Dept Dermatol, Fukuoka, Japan..
    Nasr, I.
    Nograles, K.
    Greater New York City Area Pharmaceut, Celgene Corp, New York, NY USA..
    Ohya, Y.
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Dept Med Subspecialties, Div Allergy, Tokyo, Japan..
    Osterloh, I.
    Ostermed Ltd, Kent, OH USA..
    Pander, J.
    Celgene BV, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Prinsen, C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Purkins, L.
    Ziarco Pharma Ltd, Canterbury, Kent, England..
    Ridd, M.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Sach, T.
    Univ E Anglia, Hlth Econ Grp, Norwich, Norfolk, England..
    Schuttelaar, M. -LA.
    Shindo, S.
    Osaka Univ, Dept Dermatol, Osaka, Japan..
    Smirnova, J.
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Sulzer, A.
    Sanofi Aventis, Montpellier, France..
    Gjerde, E. Synnove
    Psoriasis & Eczema Assoc Norway, Oslo, Norway..
    Takaoka, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Med, Dept Dermatol, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Talmo, H. Vestby
    Sanofi Aventis, Montpellier, France..
    Tauber, M.
    Toulouse Univ, Toulouse, France..
    Torchet, F.
    Mie Univ, Grad Sch Med, Tsu, Mie, Japan.;Mie Univ, Hosp Tsu, Tsu, Mie, Japan..
    Volke, A.
    Univ Tartu, Dept Dermatol, Tartu, Estonia..
    Wahlgren, C. -F
    Weidinger, S.
    Venereol & Allergy Univ Hosp Schleswig Holstein, Dept Dermatol, Kiel, Germany..
    Weisshaar, E.
    Heidelberg Univ, Dept Social Med, Occupat & Environm Dermatol, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wollenberg, A.
    Univ Munich, Dept Dermatol & Allergy, Munich, Germany..
    Yamaga, K.
    Osaka Univ, Dept Dermatol, Osaka, Japan..
    Zhao, C. Y.
    St George Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ New S Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Spuls, P. I.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Dermatol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Report from the fourth international consensus meeting to harmonize core outcome measures for atopic eczema/dermatitis clinical trials (HOME initiative)2016In: British Journal of Dermatology, ISSN 0007-0963, E-ISSN 1365-2133, Vol. 175, no 1, p. 69-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a report of the fourth meeting of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative held in Malmo, Sweden on 23-24 April 2015 (HOME IV). The aim of the meeting was to achieve consensus over the preferred outcome instruments for measuring patient-reported symptoms and quality of life for the HOME core outcome set for atopic eczema (AE). Following presentations, which included data from systematic reviews, consensus discussions were held in a mixture of whole group and small group discussions. Small groups were allocated a priori to ensure representation of different stakeholders and countries. Decisions were voted on using electronic keypads. For the patient-reported symptoms, the group agreed by vote that itch, sleep loss, dryness, redness/inflamed skin and irritated skin were all considered essential aspects of AE symptoms. Many instruments for capturing patient-reported symptoms were discussed [ including the Patient-Oriented SCOring Atopic Dermatitis index, Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), Self-Administered Eczema Area and Severity Index, Itch Severity Scale, Atopic Dermatitis Quickscore and the Nottingham Eczema Severity Score] and, by consensus, POEM was selected as the preferred instrument to measure patient-reported symptoms. Further work is needed to determine the reliability and measurement error of POEM. Further work is also required to establish the importance of pain/soreness and the importance of collecting information regarding the intensity of symptoms in addition to their frequency. Much of the discussion on quality of life concerned the Dermatology Life Quality Index and Quality of Life Index for Atopic Dermatitis; however, consensus on a preferred instrument for measuring this domain could not be reached. In summary, POEM is recommended as the HOME core outcome instrument for measuring AE symptoms.

  • 27. Chalmers, J. R.
    et al.
    Thomas, K. S.
    Apfelbacher, C.
    Williams, H. C.
    Prinsen, C. A.
    Spuls, P. I.
    Simpson, E.
    Gerbens, L. A. A.
    Boers, M.
    Barbarot, S.
    Stalder, J. F.
    Abuabara, K.
    Aoki, V.
    Ardeleanu, M.
    Armstrong, J.
    Bang, B.
    Berents, T. L.
    Burton, T.
    Butler, L.
    Chubachi, T.
    Cresswell-Melville, A.
    DeLozier, A.
    Eckert, L.
    Eichenfield, L.
    Flohr, C.
    Futamura, M.
    Gadkari, A.
    Gjerde, E. S.
    van Halewijn, K. F.
    Hawkes, C.
    Howells, L.
    Howie, L.
    Humphreys, R.
    Ishii, H. A.
    Kataoka, Y.
    Katayama, I.
    Kouwenhoven, W.
    Langan, S. M.
    Leshem, Y. A.
    Merhand, S.
    Mina-Osorio, P.
    Murota, H.
    Nakahara, T.
    Nunes, F. P.
    Nygaard, U.
    Nygardas, M.
    Ohya, Y.
    Ono, E.
    Rehbinder, E.
    Rogers, N. K.
    Romeijn, G. L. E.
    Schuttelaar, M. L. A.
    Sears, A. V.
    Simpson, M. A.
    Singh, J. A.
    Srour, J.
    Stuart, B.
    Svensson, A.
    Talmo, G.
    Talmo, H.
    Teixeira, H. D.
    Thyssen, J. P.
    Todd, G.
    Torchet, F.
    Volke, A.
    von Kobyletzki, Laura B.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karolinska Institutet; Lund University; University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
    Weisshaar, E.
    Wollenberg, A.
    Zaniboni, M.
    Report from the fifth international consensus meeting to harmonize core outcome measures for atopic eczema/dermatitis clinical trials (HOME initiative)2018In: British Journal of Dermatology, ISSN 0007-0963, E-ISSN 1365-2133, Vol. 178, no 5, p. E332-E341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the report from the fifth meeting of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema initiative (HOME V). The meeting was held on 12-14 June 2017 in Nantes, France, with 81 participants. The main aims of the meeting were (i) to achieve consensus over the definition of the core domain of long-term control and how to measure it and (ii) to prioritize future areas of research for the measurement of the core domain of quality of life (QoL) in children. Moderated whole-group and small-group consensus discussions were informed by presentations of qualitative studies, systematic reviews and validation studies. Small-group allocations were performed a priori to ensure that each group included different stakeholders from a variety of geographical regions. Anonymous whole-group voting was carried out using handheld electronic voting pads according to pre-defined consensus rules. It was agreed by consensus that the long-term control domain should include signs, symptoms, quality of life and a patient global instrument. The group agreed that itch intensity should be measured when assessing long-term control of eczema in addition to the frequency of itch captured by the symptoms domain. There was no recommendation of an instrument for the core outcome domain of quality of life in children, but existing instruments were assessed for face validity and feasibility, and future work that will facilitate the recommendation of an instrument was agreed upon.

  • 28. Daarstad, Eva
    et al.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    Munvård till äldre: En enkätstudie till vårdpersonal på särskilt boende2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet äldre ökar i Sverige. Åldrandet medför ökad risk att drabbas av sjukdomar vilket kan påverka munhälsan negativt. Äldre med stort vård- och omsorgsbehov flyttar ofta till särskilt boende. Många av dem behöver hjälp med munhygienen. Munvården till äldre i särskilt boende är ofta bristfällig med dålig munhälsa som följd. Syftet var att beskriva vårdpersonalens attityder och beteenden avseende den egna samt de äldres munhälsa och munvård, samt undersöka om munvårdsutbildning kan relateras till munvårdsinsatser på särskilt boende. En tvärsnittsstudie med kvantitativ ansats genomfördes och datainsamlingen gjordes med hjälp av ett frågeformulär. Resultatet visade att de flesta respondenterna ansåg munhälsan som viktig. Majoriteten tyckte att de boende bör få hjälp med munvård två gånger per dag men få hjälpte de äldre med munvård så ofta. Munhygienen ansågs vara den svåraste delen i omvårdnadsarbetet. Flertalet hade fått munvårdsutbildning och få önskade mer kunskaper. Munvården upplevdes fungera bra på avdelningarna och sågs som en del av god omvårdnad. Flera faktorer, som att de äldre gjorde motstånd och tidsbrist, uppgavs som svårigheter. Konklusionen var att attityden till munvård var positiv, men hindrande faktorer som motstånd från de äldre och tidsbrist bidrog till att den prioriterades lågt. Endast en liten del av vårdpersonalen önskade mer munvårdsutbildning.

  • 29.
    Daarstad, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Munvård till äldre: En enkätstudie till vårdpersonal på särskilt boende2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet äldre ökar i Sverige. Åldrandet medför ökad risk att drabbas av sjukdomar vilket kan påverka munhälsan negativt. Äldre med stort vård- och omsorgsbehov flyttar ofta till särskilt boende. Många av dem behöver hjälp med munhygienen. Munvården till äldre i särskilt boende är ofta bristfällig med dålig munhälsa som följd. Syftet var att beskriva vårdpersonalens attityder och beteenden avseende den egna samt de äldres munhälsa och munvård, samt undersöka om munvårdsutbildning kan relateras till munvårdsinsatser på särskilt boende. En tvärsnittsstudie med kvantitativ ansats genomfördes och datainsamlingen gjordes med hjälp av ett frågeformulär. Resultatet visade att de flesta respondenterna ansåg munhälsan som viktig. Majoriteten tyckte att de boende bör få hjälp med munvård två gånger per dag men få hjälpte de äldre med munvård så ofta. Munhygienen ansågs vara den svåraste delen i omvårdnadsarbetet. Flertalet hade fått munvårdsutbildning och få önskade mer kunskaper. Munvården upplevdes fungera bra på avdelningarna och sågs som en del av god omvårdnad. Flera faktorer, som att de äldre gjorde motstånd och tidsbrist, uppgavs som svårigheter. Konklusionen var att attityden till munvård var positiv, men hindrande faktorer som motstånd från de äldre och tidsbrist bidrog till att den prioriterades lågt. Endast en liten del av vårdpersonalen önskade mer munvårdsutbildning.

  • 30.
    Draxler, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    A modification of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy for Anorexia Nervosa – a case study2012In: Clinical Case Studies, ISSN 1534-6501, E-ISSN 1552-3802, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 201-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study illustrates the treatment of an adult woman who was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). For approximately 10 years, the client had suffered from various forms of eating disorders and had had several unsuccessful encounters with the health care services. In this study, she was treated with a modification of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E). CBT-E is a relatively new treatment guide with a transdiagnostic perspective on eating disorders. In all, the treatment consisted of 14 sessions where most sessions were held on a weekly basis. Thereafter, a maintenance and follow-up was conducted via email and with the aid of self-help literature. Treatment time lasted for 8 months followed by a follow-up of 4 months. In this study, the content of each session is described, as are the modifications that were made. The modifications were made to increase motivation and self-esteem, as well as perceived control of eating, which, in itself, is a contribution to increased efficiency and a clarification of important treatment components. Apart from a description of treatment interventions, the study shows the weight gain and other clinically significant components regarding eating disorders that concern, among other things, self-esteem and general mental health. The results of this study demonstrate that this treatment, with the proposed modifications, has been highly effective for this client and hence provides a positive anticipation that this might be a more effective treatment in general for people with AN.

  • 31.
    Edebol, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Global Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Objective Measures of Hyperactivity, Impulsivity and Inattention in Adults2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine objective laboratory measures of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adult persons and to develop measures for diagnosis and treatment using a psychometric instrument called the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instrument objectively quantifies cardinal symptom manifestations in adult ADHD using motion tracking devices and continuous performance testing. Paper I-IV suggest that ADHD predisposes adult persons to perform poorer on continuous performance tasks and to have higher levels of motor activity while performing these tasks as compared to other clinical as well as non-clinical groups. Performance by adults with ADHD is normalized following stimulant treatment which implicates therapeutic effects and measures of response to treatment and remission for ADHD is suggested.

    Paper I concludes that the psychometric instrument needs to be calibrated with regard to adult ADHD and emphasizes the importance of a composite measure for the disorder. Paper II generates two new measures, the Weighed Core Symptom scale (WCS) - a composite measure of adult ADHD ranging from 0 to 100, and Prediction of ADHD (PADHD) - a categorical variable of the diagnostic status with good predictive power. A majority of participants with ADHD has low points on WCS (indicating high levels of symptoms) and a majority of non-ADHD normative participants has high points on WCS (indicating low levels of symptoms). Paper III examines WCS and PADHD among complex clinical groups with shared symptoms vis-à-vis ADHD. Here, findings from Paper II are replicated since participants with ADHD present the highest level of global symptoms, followed by participants with bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, participant with diconfirmed ADHD and finally, non-clinical participants has the lowest level of global symptoms. In Paper IV, the measures are proposed as indications of response to treatment and remission after titration with stimulant treatment and WCS indicates response to small changes in dose level.

    The major findings of the present thesis may be summarized as the construction of two new objective measures for ADHD in adult persons with practical implications for diagnosis and treatment. Hyperactivity is the most specific marker of ADHD in both men and women, followed by the cognitive markers of inattention and impulsivity. The composite measure, WCS, quantifies the global amount of ADHD symptoms and provides the most sensitive measure for the disorder. PADHD and WCS may not replace a thorough neuropsychiatric assessment and further studies promoting diagnostic subtype stratification is suggested. Future studies may want to consider these measures in outcome-based investigations of treatment efficacy as well as in the study of neuropsychological endophenotypes. Practical implications include clinical strategies to enhance objectivity during assessment as well as optimizing beneficial effects of treatment and attaining remission.

     

     

  • 32.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    The NU-Health Care, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Objective measures of behavior manifestations in adult ADHD and differentiation from participants with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline personality disorder, participants with disconfirmed ADHD as well as Normative participants2012In: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 8, p. 134-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The present study evaluated two psychometric instruments derived from the objective measurement of adult ADHD using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instruments were examined in ADHD versus a clinical group with overlapping symptoms including borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder, and another clinical group with participants assessed for but disconfirmed a diagnosis of ADHD as well as adult normative participants.

    Methods: The Quantified Behavior Test Plus includes Continuous Performance Testing and a Motion Tracking System with parameters related to attention and activity operationalized as the cardinal symptoms of ADHD and then summarized into a Weighed Core Symptoms scale with ten cut-points ranging from 0 to 100. A categorical predictor variable called Prediction of ADHD was used to examine the levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus with regard to ADHD.

    Results: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale separated ADHD and normative participants from each other as well as from the two clinical reference groups. The scale reported highest levels of core symptoms in the ADHD group and the lowest level of core symptoms in the normative group. Analyses with Prediction of ADHD yielded 85 % specificity for the normative group, 87 % sensitivity for the ADHD group, 36 % sensitivity for the bipolar II and borderline group and 41 % sensitivity for the group with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD.

    Conclusions: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale facilitated objective assessment of adult ADHD insofar that the ADHD group presented more core symptoms than the other two clinical groups and the normative group. Sensitivity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus was lower in complex clinical groups with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline disorder and in patients with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. The psychometric instruments may be further evaluated with regard to well-documented and effective treatment programs for ADHD core symptoms.

  • 33.
    Ehrén, Zara
    et al.
    Tandhygienistprogrammet.
    Karlsson, Åsa
    Tandhygienistprogrammet.
    Munhälsopromotion bland barn: Tandhygienisters hälsofrämjande arbete på individnivå2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tandhygienisten har en stor roll när det gäller att introducera barnet till tandvården och att arbeta med pedagogik och empowerment, en process där patienten lär sig ta större kontroll över beslut och handlingar, som påverkar barnets orala hälsa.

    Syftet var att beskriva hur legitimerade tandhygienister arbetade kliniskt med munhälsopromotion till barn, hur pedagogiska strategier användes och vilka teorier strategierna grundades på.

    Metoden var en kvalitativ intervjustudie, som genomfördes som pilotstudie vilket innebar att studien utfördes i liten skala för att testa en intervjuguide.

    Resultatet visade att tandhygienisten använde ett salutogent perspektiv och tvåvägskommunikation med barnet och föräldern för att kunna få fram viktig information. Motiverande samtal, ”tell-show-do”-metoden och positiv förstärkning var pedagogiska strategier, som respondenterna tog upp.

    Konklusionen är att samtliga respondenter använder pedagogiska strategier, men de visste inte vilken teori som låg till grund för de pedagogiska strategierna. Utifrån svaren konstaterades att den humanistiska traditionen låg till grund för respondenternas arbetssätt. Tandhygienistens kunskap om pedagogiska strategier och teorier är begränsad. Detta indikerar att pedagogik, som ett obligatoriskt ämne i tandhygienistutbildningen, är betydelsefullt.

  • 34.
    Ek, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Grederup, Sofie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Hygienåtgärder för tandimplantat2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Tandimplantat är en allt vanligare ersättning för förlorade eller saknade tänder. Av patienten krävs en god egenvård för att bibehålla frisk vävnad runt implantatet samt stödjande behandling i form av klinisk vård. Bristande rengöring kan resultera i utveckling av mucosit eller peri-implantit.

    Syfte: Att beskriva olika hygienåtgärder och deras effekter i vården av tandimplantat.

    Frågeställningar:

    - Vilka hygienåtgärder finns för tandimplantat i den kliniska vården och vilka effekter har dessa?

    - Vilka hygienåtgärder inom egenvård finns för tandimplantat och vilka effekter har dessa?

    Metod: Systematisk litteraturstudie

    Resultat: Kliniska behandlingsmetoder som visat positiva resultat är ultraljud och air-powder abrasive system. Curetter, Vectorsystemet och laser gav sämre resultat. Tilläggsbehandling med antibiotika har visat varierande resultat beroende på antibiotikatyp och behandlingstid. Eltandborstens rengöringseffekt var bättre än den konventionella tandborstens. Klorhexidin påverkar inte befintligt plack men förhindrar nya bakteriers kolonisation på en ren implantatyta.

    Konklusion: Litteraturstudien kan fungera som en vägledande hjälp vid val av terapimetod för mucosit och peri-implantit inom ramarna för tandhygienistens kompetens.

  • 35. Ellonen, Noora
    et al.
    Peltonen, Kirsi
    Poso, Tarja
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    A multifaceted risk analysis of fathers' self-reported physical violence toward their children2017In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 317-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research has shown that child maltreatment is carried out by both mothers and fathers. There is also an extensive body of literature analyzing reasons for mothers' violent behavior. Among fathers, reasons are less well studied, resulting in the lack of a comprehensive picture of paternal child abuse. In this study, 20 child-, parent-, and family-related factors have been included in a combined analysis to assess which of these may pose a risk for fathers' severe violent behavior toward their children. The study is based on merged data from Finland and Sweden, in which an anonymous survey was answered by parents, based on representative samples of parents with 0-12-year-old children. The merged data set included 679 fathers and analyses were carried out using logistic regression models. Six percent of the fathers had committed severe violent acts, that is, slapped, hit, punched, kicked, bit, hit/tried to hit their child with an object or shook (under 2-year-old) their child at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Corporal punishment experienced by the fathers when they were children, or used by the father as a method of discipline, strongly increased the likelihood of severe violent acts. The findings emphasize the importance of preventing all forms of corporal punishment in seeking to minimize the occurrence of severe physical violence by fathers toward their children. Aggr. Behav. 43:317-328, 2017. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Camilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Nygren Härdig, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Sociala faktorer och barns orala hälsa: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Jarvholm, Lisbeth Slunga
    Umeå universitet.
    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg
    Umeå universitet.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Copenhagen university hospital, Denmark.
    Aerobic training for improved memory in patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized controlled trial2017In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 17, article id 322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with stress-related exhaustion suffer from cognitive impairments, which often remain after psychological treatment or work place interventions. It is important to find effective treatments that can address this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects on cognitive performance and psychological variables of a 12-week aerobic training program performed at a moderate-vigorous intensity for patients with exhaustion disorder who participated in a multimodal rehabilitation program. Methods: In this open-label, parallel, randomized and controlled trial, 88 patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder participated in a 24-week multimodal rehabilitation program. After 12 weeks in the program the patients were randomized to either a 12-week aerobic training intervention or to a control group with no additional training. Primary outcome measure was cognitive function, and secondary outcome measures were psychological health variables and aerobic capacity. Results: In total, 51% patients in the aerobic training group and 78% patients in the control group completed the intervention period. The aerobic training group significantly improved in maximal oxygen uptake and episodic memory performance. No additional improvement in burnout, depression or anxiety was observed in the aerobic group compared with controls. Conclusion: Aerobic training at a moderate-vigorous intensity within a multimodal rehabilitation program for patients with exhaustion disorder facilitated episodic memory. A future challenge would be the clinical implementation of aerobic training and methods to increase feasibility in this patient group.

  • 38.
    Feki Larsson, Selma
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Forssten, Anna-Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Behandlingsmetoder för att lindra tandvårdsrädsla: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Tandvårdsrädsla innebär ett psykiskt och fysiskt lidande för individen. Rädslan för tandvården grundas i olika företeelser: tidigare upplevelser från tandvården och påverkan från förälder. Tandvården har en betydande roll till att kunna lindra rädslan.

     

    Syfte: Att kartlägga vilka behandlingsmetoder som beskrivs i litteraturen för att lindra tandvårdsrädsla.

     

    Frågeställningar: Vilka behandlingsmetoder används för att lindra tandvårdsrädsla?

     

    Metod: Litteraturstudie

     

    Resultat: Kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT) är en lyckad metod för att behandla tandvårdsrädsla då KBT går till botten med vad som ligger bakom rädslan. Många av deltagarnas rädsla för tandvården minskade med KBT. Lokalanestesi var många gånger inte tillräckligt för att lindra smärtan. För många deltagare hjälpte inplanerad behandling med sedering att minska ångesten dagarna före besöket. Att medicineras med Midazolam och Alprazolam visade att deltagarna var mer samarbetsvilliga och kände mindre ångest i tandvårdssituationen. Lavendel och handdockor som komplement i tandvårdsbesöket lindrade inte rädslan till tandvården.

     

    Konklusion: Författarna har tittat på vilka behandlingsmetoder som kan lindra tandvårdsrädsla. Det finns studier som visar att medicinering bidrar till minskad ångest men få studier som visar att medicinering bidar till minskad tandvårdsrädsla. Därför skulle ett förslag till vidare forskning vara om medicinering bidrar till minskad tandvårdsrädsla.

  • 39.
    Friman, Göran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Golestani, G
    The Swedish Dental Service Organizations , Stockholm County A.
    Kalkali, A
    The Swedish Dental Service Organizations Västra Götaland.
    Wårdh, I
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hultin, M
    Karolinska institutet.
    Patient Experiences of Medical Screening Performed by the Dental Services: A Qualitative Study2013In: Open Journal of Stomatology, ISSN 2160-8709, E-ISSN 2160-8717, no 3, p. 497-503Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Friman, Göran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Hultin, Margareta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Gunnar H.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wårdh, Inger
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Medical screening in dental settings: A qualitative study of the views of authorities and organizations Health Services Research2015In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The practice of identifying individuals with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II or undiagnosed hypertension by medical screening in dental settings has been received positively by both patients and dentistry professionals. This identification has also shown to be cost-effective by achieving savings and health benefits, but no investigation has been made of the attitudes of authorities and organizations. The aim of this study was to describe the views of authorities and organizations. Results: Thirteen authorities and organizations were interviewed of the sample of 20 requested. Seven approached authorities and organizations did not believe it was relevant to participate in the study. The manifest analysis resulted in four categories: medical screening ought to be established in the society; dentistry must have relevant competence to perform medical screening; medical screening requires cooperation between dentistry and health care; and dentistry is not the only context where medical screening could be performed. The latent analysis resulted in an emerging theme: positive to, but uncertain about, the concept of medical screening in dental settings. The spokespersons for the approached authorities and organizations had a positive view of medical screening but the respondents experienced a lack of facts concerning the scientific communities’ position, guidelines and procedures in the topic. Conclusions and implications: Approached authorities and organizations generally had a positive view of medical screening in dental settings but were uncertain about the concept. Further scientific knowledge and guidelines concerning the topic are needed before it can be commonly introduced and additional research on implementation strategies and long-term follow-up of medical screening are needed.

  • 41.
    Friman, Göran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Wårdh, Inger
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hultin, Margareta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Identifying patients in dental settings at risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes2013In: Cardiovascular system, ISSN 2052-4358, Vol. 1, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of our study was to identify patients in a dental setting at risk of already having or developing high blood pressure or high plasma glucose, investigate possible associations between these conditions and periodontal status and explore the correlation between screening results and follow-up assessments concerning the need for medical treatment and/or lifestyle changes performed by medical staff.

    Methods: A total of 170 dental patients were consecutively included at their regular yearly check-up visit. Data on age, weight, height, amount and use of tobacco and medication for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus were collected, as well as data about systolic and diastolic blood pressure, in addition to pulse and plasma glucose. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed data about periodontal status by probing periodontal pockets and measuring marginal alveolar bone loss by means of x-rays. Patients who exceeded normal diastolic blood pressure and plasma glucose values were referred for diagnosis and care.

    Results: Thirty-nine patients exhibiting high values were provided referrals and 24 or 14.1% of the 170 participants required additional care. The correlation between oral and medical health care concerning blood pressure recorded was 64.5% (p<0.001), while the correlation was 40.0% (p<0.001) concerning plasma glucose. Among middle aged men and elderly subjects, the data revealed/showed a significant correlation between marginal alveolar bone loss and high systolic blood pressure (p=0.001).

    Conclusions: The correlation between oral health care and medical health care registrations based on blood pressure and plasma glucose indicates that it may be appropriate for dental professionals to perform opportunistic medical screening and refer risk patients to the medical care system before complications occur. In order to identify medical risk patients in dental settings on the basis of high blood pressure, a suggestion may be to examine middle-aged men and elderly patients of both sexes who exhibit radiographic markers for marginal alveolar bone loss.

  • 42.
    Fälth Källehult, Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Kariesprevalens hos barn med övervikt och fetma: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Övervikt och fetma är ett ökande hälsoproblem i världen. Karies är en väl utbredd sjukdom globalt. Både karies, övervikt och fetma är multifaktoriella sjukdomar som har kostvanor och socioekonomi som gemensamma riskfaktorer. Världshälsoorganisationen (WHO) har därför tagit fram strategier i försök att förebygga och kontrollera karies och viktökning bland barn. Syfte: Att beskriva kariesprevalensen hos barn i åldrarna 2-12 år med övervikt och fetma. Frågeställningar: Vilken är kariesprevalensen hos barn med övervikt och fetma jämfört med normalviktiga? Metod: Litteraturstudien bygger på insamlad data från vetenskaplig litteratur publicerad 2007- 2014. Resultat: Nio av 16 studier visade att barn med övervikt och fetma hade högre kariesprevalens än normalviktiga barn, medan sju artiklar inte kunde påvisa någon statistiskt signifikant association. Några studier visade att socioekonomiska faktorer och fermenterbara kolhydrater var signifikant associerat till ökad kariesprevalens. En artikel visade att konsumtion av fettrik mat var vanligt förekommande bland barn med övervikt eller fetma. Konklusion: Trots att flera av studierna visade en association mellan karies, övervikt och fetma är slutsatsen av denna litteraturstudiestudie att det föreligger en tvetydig association mellan karies, övervikt och fetma bland barn. Några studier som visade en association antydde att sockerkonsumtion var en gemensam riskfaktor. Studier som inte visade någon association hänvisade till att karies, övervikt och fetma inte hade identisk etiologi. Vidare forskning behövs som inkluderar korrelerande faktorer till både karies samt övervikt och fetma för att studera området närmare.

  • 43.
    Gohari, Homayon
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Haddad, Kamran
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Oral hälsa hos vuxna diabetiker2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes är en kronisk sjukdom och mer än 150 miljoner i världen har sjukdomen. Diabetessjukdomen försämrar både den allmänna och den orala hälsan. Diabetikernas kunskaper om sjukdomens negativa effekter på munhälsan är bristfällig. Syfte: var att beskriva hur vuxna individers orala hälsa påverkas av diabetes och vad tandhygienister ska beakta vid en tandvårdsbehandling. Frågeställningar: Vilka är de orala komplikationerna hos vuxna individer med diabetes? Kan parodontitbehandling hos diabetiker ha positiva effekter på diabetessjukdomen? Vad bör tandhygienister särskilt ta hänsyn till vid behandling av diabetiker? Metod: Studien har genomförts som en systematisk litteraturstudie. Resultat: Parodontala sjukdomar är den dominerande orala komplikationen hos diabetiker. Diabetiker som är rökare har svårare parodontala sjukdomar än de som inte röker. Liksom parodontit förekommer karies hos diabetiker men är inte lika omfattande studerad som de parodontala sjukdomarna. Diabetiker med bättre metabolismkontroll har bättre oral hälsa. Många diabetiker har dåliga kunskaper om att diabetessjukdomen kan ha negativ effekt på deras orala hälsa. Konklusion: Diabetiker har behov av både parodontala behandlingar och hälsofrämjande och förebyggande insatser. Ett samarbete mellan tandvård och sjukvård är nödvändig.

  • 44.
    Gohari, Homayon
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Haddad, Kamran
    Oral hälsa hos vuxna diabetiker2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes är en kronisk sjukdom och mer än 150 miljoner i världen har sjukdomen. Diabetessjukdomen försämrar både den allmänna och den orala hälsan. Diabetikernas kunskaper om sjukdomens negativa effekter på munhälsan är bristfällig. Syfte: var att beskriva hur vuxna individers orala hälsa påverkas av diabetes och vad tandhygienister ska beakta vid en tandvårdsbehandling. Frågeställningar: Vilka är de orala komplikationerna hos vuxna individer med diabetes? Kan parodontitbehandling hos diabetiker ha positiva effekter på diabetessjukdomen? Vad bör tandhygienister särskilt ta hänsyn till vid behandling av diabetiker? Metod: Studien har genomförts som en systematisk litteraturstudie. Resultat: Parodontala sjukdomar är den dominerande orala komplikationen hos diabetiker. Diabetiker som är rökare har svårare parodontala sjukdomar än de som inte röker. Liksom parodontit förekommer karies hos diabetiker men är inte lika omfattande studerad som de parodontala sjukdomarna. Diabetiker med bättre metabolismkontroll har bättre oral hälsa. Många diabetiker har dåliga kunskaper om att diabetessjukdomen kan ha negativ effekt på deras orala hälsa. Konklusion: Diabetiker har behov av både parodontala behandlingar och hälsofrämjande och förebyggande insatser. Ett samarbete mellan tandvård och sjukvård är nödvändig.   

  • 45.
    Granerud, Arild
    et al.
    Avdeling for folkhelsefag, Högskolen i Hedmark.
    Eriksson, Bengt G
    Högskolen i Hedmark, Avdeling for folkhelsefag.
    The Core of Green Care - from the User's Perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Grunewald, Charlotta
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Håkansson, Stellan
    Umeå universitets sjukhus.
    Höglund, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sandin-Bojö, Ann-Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Wiklund, Ingela
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svensk förlossningsvård säkras i ett rikstäckande projekt2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 19, p. 956-959Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Grönberg Eskel, Marit
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Från slutna institutioner till institutionaliserat omhändertagande2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a number of reforms have been made regarding the provision of care to people experiencing psychiatric disabilities. The aim of these reforms was to enable these people to participate in society and to ”live as others”. This political ambition, as well as research on recovery, stands to a certain extent in contrast to the message conveyed in the media, where the mentally ill/disabled to a great extent are represented as dangerous and incurable. The aim of the thesis is to analyse if, and how a group of people experiencing psychiatric disabilities create a sense of being like others, and to relate the analysis to the historical emergence of the contemporary conception of mental illness/psychiatric disability. This thesis employs the method of interviews.

    I highlight the informants encounter with the historically based stereotype that defines the persons as unreasonable, irrational and incapable of taking care of themselves. When the informants face the stereotype, they act to reduce the negative consequences. The informants’ actions can be interpreted in terms of approaches and in this perspective the informants appear as strong actors, who, contrary to the stereotype, are capable of take care of themselves. Three approaches are described: expertise, adaptation, and distancing. In situations where the stereotype is not present, the informants can create a feeling of being like anyone else. Their stories show that the feeling of being like others is individual. The development taking place in the field is “path-dependent”, meaning that the initial activity, the differentiation of persons with mental illness and the subsequent events is a development following a pattern which could explain the failure of the good political intentions. It has progressed from closed institutions to an institutionalized care service.

     

  • 48.
    Grönvalls, Cecilia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Anna, Linder
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Oral hälsa hos vuxna och äldre med hyposalivation: En systematisk litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49.
    Guo, Jing
    et al.
    Normal University, Wuhan.
    Han, Bing
    Normal University, Wuhan.
    Qin, Longjuan
    Normal University, Wuhan.
    Li, Bing
    Normal University, Wuhan.
    You, Huihui
    Normal University, Wuhan.
    Yang, Jiwen
    Normal University, Wuhan.
    Liu, Dandan
    Normal University, Wuhan.
    Wei, Chenxi
    Normal University, Wuhan.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Yang, Xu
    Normal University, Wuhan.
    Pulmonary toxicity and adjuvant effect of di-(2-exylhexyl) phthalate in ovalbumin-immunized BALB/c mice2012In: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 6, p. e39008-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex pulmonary inflammatory disease, which is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, variable airflow obstruction and inflammation in the airways. The majority of asthma is allergic asthma, which is a disease caused by type I hypersensitivity mediated by IgE. Exposures to a number of environmental chemicals are suspected to lead to asthma, one such pollutant is di-(2-ethylheyl) phthalate (DEHP). DEHP is a manufactured chemical that is commonly added in plastic products to make them flexible. Epidemiological studies have revealed a positive association between DEHP exposure and asthma prevalence.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study was aimed to determine the underlying role of DEHP exposure in airway reactivity, especially when combined with allergen exposure. The biomarkers include pulmonary histopathology, airway hyperresponsiveness (lung function), IgE, IL-4, IFN-γ and eosinophils. Healthy balb/c mice were randomly divided into eight exposure groups (n = 8 each): (1) saline control, (2) 30 µg/(kg•d) DEHP, (3) 300 µg/(kg•d) DEHP, (4) 3000 µg/(kg•d) DEHP, and (5) ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized group, (6) OVA-combined with 30 µg/(kg•d) DEHP, (7) OVA-combined with 300 µg/(kg•d) DEHP, and (8) OVA-combined with 3000 µg/(kg•d) DEHP. Experimental tests were conducted after 52-day DEHP exposure and subsequently one week of challenge with aerosolized OVA. The principal findings include: (1) Strong postive associations exist between OVA-combined DEHP exposure and serum total IgE (T-IgE), as well as histological findings. These positive associations show a dose-dependent low dose sensitive effect of DEHP. (2) IL-4, eosinophil recruitment and lung function are also indicators for adjuvant effect of DEHP.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that except the significant changes of immunological and inflammatory biomarkers (T-IgE, IL-4, IFN-γ and eosinophils), the pulmonary histological (histopathological examination) and physiological (lung function) data also support that DEHP may promote and aggravate allergic asthma by adjuvant effect.

  • 50.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Stötabsorberande golv som fallskadepreventiv åtgärd – resultat efter ett år2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I april 2011 lades ett stötabsorberande golv, framtaget för att förhindra skador vid fall, in på ett särskilt boende i Sunne kommun. Sedan 1 oktober 2011 har data om fallhändelser samlats in för att följa upp effekter av golvet. Det som undersöks är konsekvenser av fall på olika golvunderlag samt om risken att ramla påverkas.

    Under den tid som studien pågått (12 mån) har 21 fall registrerats på det stötabsorberande golvet, ingen har skadats sig allvarligt och en har skadats lindrigt som en följd av dessa fall. På övriga golvytor med fler boende har 156 fall registrerats, varav fem lett till fraktur och 30 till lindrig skada. Resultaten hittills tyder på att golvet kan ha den eftersträvade effekten.

    Det stötabsorberande golvet bidrar också till en dämpad ljudnivå vilket personalen upplever som positivt.

123 1 - 50 of 142
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