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  • 1.
    Drechsler, Michal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Models in chemistry education: A study of teaching and learning acids and bases in Swedish upper secondary schools2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reports an investigation of how acid-base models are taught and understood in Swedish upper secondary school. The definition of the concepts of acids and bases has evolved from a phenomenological level to an abstract (particle) level. Several models of acids and bases are introduced in Swedish secondary school. Among them an ancient model, the Arrhenius model and the Brønsted model. The aim of this study was to determine how teachers handle these models in their teaching. Further, to investigate Swedish upper secondary students’ ideas about the role of chemistry models, in general, and more specific, of models of acids and bases. The study consisted of two parts. First, a study was performed to get an overview of how acids and bases are taught and understood in Swedish upper secondary schools. It consisted of three steps: (i) the most widely used chemistry textbooks for upper secondary school in Sweden were analysed, (ii) six chemistry teachers were interviewed, and, (iii) finally also seven upper secondary school students were interviewed. The results from this study were used in the second part which consisted of two steps: (i) nine chemistry teachers were interviewed regarding their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of teaching acids and bases, and (ii) a questionnaire was administered among chemistry teachers of 441 upper secondary schools in Sweden. The results from the interviews show that only a few teachers chose to emphasise the different models of acids and bases. Most of the teachers thought it was sufficient to distinguish clearly between the phenomenological level and the particle level. In the analysis of the questionnaire three subgroups of teachers were identified. Swedish upper secondary chemistry teachers, on the whole, had a strong belief in the Brønsted model of acids and bases. However, in subgroup one (47 %) teachers’ knowledge of how the Brønsted model differs from older models was limited and diverse. Teachers in subgroup two (38 %) and three (15 %) seemed to understand the differences between the Brønsted model and older models, but teachers in subgroup 2 did not explain the history of the development of acids and bases in their teaching. Instead they (as teachers in subgroup one) relied more on the content in the textbooks than teachers in the third subgroup. Implications for textbook writers, teaching, and further research are discussed.

  • 2.
    Holm, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Single-chain antibody construction and functional mapping of the monoclonal antibody TS1: Its interaction with the antigen and the anti-idiotype2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study are to synthesize and produce a single-chain antibody (scFv) of the anti-cytokeratin 8 monoclonal IgG antibody TS1 and to functionally map amino acid residues important for the interaction with its antigen and the anti-idiotypic antibody TS1. The TS1 antibody has been shown to be effective in binding cytokeratin 8 (CK8) expressed in tumors in vivo and is proposed to be useful in immunotargeting and/or immunotherapy. The anti-idiotypic antibody TS1 can be used to regulate the tumor:non-tumor ratio. Mutagenesis of certain amino acid residues can be used to alter the affinity to improve the tumor:non-tumor ratio further.

    In the present study, the TS1 IgG was chemically modified to specify groups of residues important for interaction with both CK8 and TS1. If important residues were found in the CDRs, they were mutated in the TS1 scFv construct and the effect was studied using ELISA.

    The main conclusions drawn from this study are that the important amino acid residues in TS1 for the interaction with both CK8 and TS1 are mainly tyrosines, charged residues and a tryptophan. A central interacting interface was identified with the somewhat unusual participation of residues in the CDR 2 of the light chain. Mutations which resulted in increased affinity to both CK8 and TS1 were also identified.

  • 3.
    Montibon, Elson
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Preparation of Electroconductive Paper by Coating Blends of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Poly(4-styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) and Organic Solvents2009In: Proceedings of the TAPPI Coating and Graphic Arts Conference (PaperCon '09), 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Nilsson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Förskolebarns tankar om vattnets kretslopp i naturen och i samhället.: skiljer sig pojkars och flickors svar åt?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The work will give the picture of what four- and five-year-olds know about the water cycle in nature and in the society. Is there any difference depending on whether a boy or a girl is answering? The work will as well try to describe a picture of how a pre-school could plan their work on a sustainable society, science, and increased gender equality. To answer these questions the information has been received from interviews with children and by studying pre-school’s local plan. 

       Earlier research on the area of water shows that it is important before working with a new topic to find out what knowledge the children already have, so that the process could be as worthwhile as possible. The proceeding work should be based on children’s previous knowledge of the topic.

       The research has been done on twelve four- and five-year-old children with the help of individual interviews. The result of the research shows that the children have some knowledge of the words which are important for understanding of the water cycle in nature, but they are not capable of talking about the entirety, as the complete cycle. The water cycle in the society is even more difficult for the children to describe, although there were some children who could explain the function of the water tower. The children do not even show the understanding or knowledge of the words which are included into the concept. The local plan gives a good picture of how the work could be planned in an appropriate way to increase the environmental awareness and equality.

       To sum up, this work will show a picture of what children know nowadays about the water cycle. Different answers can be received depending on the location of the pre-school. Identical background can lead to similar answers. If pre-schools have an opportunity to go to the forest often, the children then have the experience from there as well and answer more similar than if the opportunity doesn’t exist. The teacher shall help the children to explore there environment in as simple and interesting way. A well-planned local plan helps the pre-school become as good as possible. The children feel participating if they get attention and praise. 

    Key-words: The water cycle, Children's thoughts, Gender, Local plan.

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