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  • 1.
    Erlandsson, Ann
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Holm, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Ullén, Amanda
    Department of Immunology, Umeå University.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Department of Immunology, Umeå University.
    Sundström, Birgitta E.
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Studies of the interactions between the anticytokeratin 8 monoclonal antibody TS1, its antigen and its anti-idiotypic antibody αTS12003In: Journal of Molecular Recognition, ISSN 0952-3499, E-ISSN 1099-1352, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 157-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The monoclonal antibody TS1 against cytokeratin 8 and its antiidiotype αTS1 have been used for immunotargeting and therapy of carcinomas in experimental tumor model systems. The interaction surfaces between mab TS1, the cytokeratin 8 epitope, and its anti-idiotypic antibody, αTS1, were studied in detail in order to make future veneering of the interactions possible. The V-genes of TS1 and αTS1 were cloned and sequenced and the CDRs and the framework residues were identified. Amino acids participating in the interactions were identified following chemical modifications of residues in non-protected and protected molecules of cytokeratin 8, αTS1 and TS1. From the sequences, the three-dimensional structures were generated using computer modelling of the antibody variable regions. Several charged amino acid, histidine and tyrosine residues were displayed in the antibody surfaces implicated in the interactions and chemical modification confirmed the importance of these amino acids. The cytokeratin 8 epitope has previously been identified by Johansson et al. and it displays negatively charged amino acid residues which could be identified in the chemical modification. It was also revealed that the TS1 binding to cytokeratin 8 and αTS1 respectively are partly overlapping; a histidine identified in TS1 is probably involved only in the interaction with αTS1. Furthermore, the chemical modification demonstrated that exchanging aspartic–glutamic acids to asparagine–glutamine residues in TS1 increased the binding of TS1 to cytokeratin 8, indicating that there is at least one acidic amino acid that is an obstacle in the TS1–CK8 binding. The detailed assembly of the interaction surfaces will facilitate the future use of site directed mutagenesis to improve the TS1–CK8 association rate and the clearing of TS1 with αTS1 in vivo.

  • 2.
    Hedbrant, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Cancer and Inflammation: Role of Macrophages and Monocytes2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Macrophages are cells of the innate immune system that can be found in large quantities in cancer tumors and affect cancer progression by regulating growth and invasiveness of cancer cells. There are two main phenotypes of macrophages denoted M1 and M2. In this thesis, the M1 and M2 phenotype of human macrophages were characterized, and effects of the macrophages on the growth and invasiveness of colon and lung cancer cells were studied.

    Macrophages of the M1 phenotype, but not the M2 phenotype, inhibited growth of both colon and lung cancer cells, and the inhibition for some of the cancer cell lines was induced by cell cycle arrest in the G1/G0 and/or G2/M cell cycle phases. In the colon cancer cell line, the macrophage induced cell cycle arrest was found to attenuate the cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapeutic drug 5-FU. Macrophages were also shown to express high levels of proteases (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9) and high levels of proteins of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system, in comparison to the lung cancer cell lines studied. Expression of these has been found to predict poor outcome in lung cancer, and the results suggest macrophages to be important contributors of these in lung tumors. Furthermore, the M1 phenotype was found to express higher levels of the uPA receptor than the M2 phenotype.

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a potent inflammatory molecule expressed by e.g. macrophages and monocytes, and inhibition of its expression has been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer. Green tea and black tea was found to be potent inhibitors of PGE2 formation in human monocytes, and the inhibitory effects of green tea was likely due to its content of the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate. Rooibos tea also inhibited PGE2 formation, but was less potent than green and black tea. The primary mechanism for the inhibition was via inhibition of expression of enzymes in the PGE2 formation pathway, and primarily microsomal prostaglandin synthase-1.

  • 3.
    Holm, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Functional mapping and in vivo metabolism of the monoclonal antibody TS1 and its single-chain fragment: Its interaction with the antigen and the anti-idiotype2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibodies are proteins capable of specific interactions to a wide range of molecules. These interactions are facilitated by the complementary determining regions (CDR).

    Carcinomas are the most common of human cancers and they release significant amount of cytokeratins (CK) in the necrotic areas of the tumors. The CKs stay in the tumor, since they have low solubility. The antibody studied in this thesis, the anti-CK 8 antibody TS1, has shown to be effective in tumor targeting and is proposed to be useful in therapy.

    Single-chain antibodies (scFv) are recombinant antibodies which are much smaller than the intact IgG. This is an advantage when used in tumor therapy, since they can penetrate the tumors more easily than the larger IgG. Moreover, they are expressed by one single gene which make them easy to modify, for example by site-directed mutagenesis.

    The anti-idiotypic antibody αTS1 can be used to clear the TS1 form the circulation and thereby clear the body from non-tumor bound TS1 in therapy. To be able to modify the binding of an antibody to its antigen and or anti-idiotype, these interactions must be studied. In this study this is accomplished by chemical modifications of the IgGs TS1 and αTS1 and the antigen CK 8. Guided by these results, amino acid residues were mutated by using site-directed mutagenesis in the TS1-218 scFv and the effects were studied. From mutational study results, the functional epitope could be mapped and it was found that there are mainly tyrosines, but also charged residues, serine and a tryptophan that are important for both interactions. The binding of TS1-218 to both αTS1 and CK 8 could be improved by changing the negatively charged side-chains by mutations to their corresponding amide or alanine.

    Both the IgG and scFv versions of TS1 were administered in vivo. The IgG αTS1 was used to clear the TS1 from the circulation by forming immune complexes. The immune complexes, consisting of four or more antibodies, were mainly metabolized by the liver. The scFv TS1-218 could localize to the tumor in a tumor xenograft mouse model, although a higher uptake would be desired in a therapeutic strategy. The scFv was cleared rapidly by the kidneys, but the clearance could be slowed by pre-formed immune complexes with anti-TS1 scFv in vitro, prior to administration in vivo.

  • 4.
    Karlsson, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Studies of prostaglandin E2 formationin human monocytes2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is an eicosanoid derived from the polyunsaturated twenty carbon fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA). PGE2 has physiological as well as pathophysiological functions and is known to be a key mediator of inflammatory responses. Formation of PGE2 is dependent upon the activities of three specific enzymes involved in the AA cascade; phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and PGE synthase (PGEs). Although the research within this field has been intense for decades, the regulatory mechanisms concerning the PGE2 synthesising enzymes are not completely established.

    PGE2 was investigated in human monocytes with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pre-treatment followed by stimulation with calcium ionophore, opsonised zymosan or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Cytosolic PLA2a (cPLA2a) was shown to be pivotal for the mobilization of AA and subsequent formation of PGE2. Although COX-1 was constitutively expressed, monocytes required expression of COX-2 protein in order to convert the mobilized AA into PGH2. The conversion of PGH2 to the final product PGE2 was to a large extent due to the action of microsomal PGEs-1 (mPGEs-1). In addition, experiments with inhibitors of extracellular signal regulated kinase and p38 activation, indicated that phosphorylation of cPLA2α was markedly advantageous for the formation of PGE2.

    Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenolic compound found in fruits and nuts, was shown to inhibit stimuli induced release of PGE2 in human monocytes. The effect of ellagic acid was not due to a direct effect on the activities of the enzymes but rather to inhibition of the LPS-induced protein expression of COX-2, mPGEs-1 and cPLA2a.

  • 5.
    Rendel, Filip
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Fjaeraa Alfredsson, Christina
    Landstinget i Värmland.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Sundström, Birgitta E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of Di-Isononyl Phthalate on Neuropeptide Y Expression in Differentiating Human Neuronal Cells2017In: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, ISSN 1742-7835, E-ISSN 1742-7843, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 218-323Article in journal (Refereed)
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