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  • 1.
    Andersson, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Pellet production of Sicklebush, Pigeon Pea, and Pine in Zambia: Pilot Study and Full Scale Tests to Evaluate Pellet Quality and Press Configurations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More deaths are caused every year by indoor air pollution than malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined. Cooking with traditional fuels such as charcoal and fuelwood with poor ventilation causes the single most important environmental health risk factor worldwide. It also contributes to environmental issues such as deforestation as traditional biomass fuels and cooking stoves are inefficient and requires large quantities of wood. This is especially critical in Africa where the largest regional population growth in the world is expected to occur.

    A solution to these issues was realized through fuel pellets and modern cooking stoves by Emerging Cooking Solutions, a company started by two Swedes and based in Zambia. The production of fuel pellets in Zambia is dependent on pine sawdust from small sawmills and is a declining source of raw material. However, other sources of biomass are available in Zambia such as pigeon pea stalk, an agricultural waste product, and sicklebush, an invasive tree species. If these species are viable for pelletization, the production of pellets can increase while reducing issues with sicklebush and promoting cultivation of pigeon pea. The aim of this work is to evaluate if pigeon pea stalk and sicklebush are viable to pelletize in Zambia and how the press is affected by the different raw materials.

    A pilot study is done at Karlstad University with a single unit press, hardness tester and soxhlet extractor to evaluate how the material constituents correlate to friction in the press channel and hardness of the pellets. The results of the pilot study provide support for full scale tests done in a pellet plant in Zambia. The normal production of pellets from pine sawdust is used as quality and production reference for the tests with pigeon pea stalk, sicklebush, and different mixes of the raw materials. The properties used to evaluate the quality of the pellets are hardness, durability, moisture content, bulk density, and fines. The press configuration is evaluated by logging the electricity consumption by the press motor, calculating the power and specific energy consumption from the logs, and observations during the tests.

    The results show that sicklebush, and mixes of sicklebush with pigeon pea stalk can produce pellets with better quality than the reference pine pellets. An interesting composition is a mix of 80% pigeon pea and 20% sicklebush that produces pellets with the best quality of all the tests. However, pellets produced from sicklebush and pigeon pea show a larger variation in hardness as compared to the reference pellets from pine sawdust. Mixing pigeon pea with pine reduces these variations but reduces the hardness of the pellets below the reference. The press struggles to process sicklebush and pigeon pea stalk with fluctuating power consumption that causes the motor to trip. The inhomogeneity of the materials in sicklebush and pigeon pea are identified to cause the issues in the press. Production improvements are discussed to facilitate the production of pigeon pea stalk and sicklebush pellets.

  • 2.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Kullendorff, Anders
    Biobränsletorkning - en lägesrapport projektet Fluidtork1996Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of moisture content during densification of biomass pellets, focusing on polysaccharide substances2019In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 122, p. 322-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we pelletized four different pure polysaccharides represented cellulose - Avicel, hemicelluloses - locus bean gum mannan and beech xylan and other polysaccharides - apple pectin, and three woods - pine, spruce and beech. All were pelletized at 100° in a single pellet press unit with different level of moisture content from 0 to 15%. The maximal friction force and work required for compression and friction was analyzed together with the pellet density and hardness. The results showed that xylan pellets completely changed in color at 10% moisture content, and this also occurred to some extent with pectin pellets. The color of both Avicel and locus bean gum pellets were not affected at all. During compression, the results showed that water does not affect compression up to 5 kN, while above 5 kN water decreases the energy need for densification of Avicel, locus bean gum and woods. Above 5 kN the energy needs for compressing xylan and pectin increases with increased moisture content. The hardest pellets were produced from Avicel, while locus bean gum produced the weakest pellets. The study concludes that there is a significant difference in how water affects the two hemicelluloses, glucomannan and xylan, during densification.

  • 4.
    Henriksson, Lisa
    Karlstad University.
    Utvärdering av potentiell biomassa från Zambia för tillverkning av bränslepellets: Pelletsproduktion i enpetarpress, friktions- och kompressionsstudier samt hårdhetstest och fuktupptag2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass has been used as a fuel since ancient times. In recent decades the use has increased and the technology has developed considerably in large parts of the world. In Sub Saharan Africa, traditionally used biomass, such as wood or charcoal, is still the main source of energy in households. Zambia consumes charcoal corresponding to 6 089 000 tonnes/year. The use of biomass is very ineffective and with increasing population and energy requirements, this is placing Zambia on the top ten list of highest deforestation rates in the world. 

    Emerging Cooking Solutions Zambia Ltd. [ECS], started in 2012 with a vision to establish a pellet production in Africa. They provide modern cooking stoves and fuel pellets to counteract the unsustainable use of biomass and the health risk with traditional fuels. ECS aims to expand their production and are now striving to find a biomass that can increase hardness of pellets. The purpose of this work is to increase knowledge of the ability of raw materials to be pelletized, to support ECS expansion in a sustainable manner. 

    In this report fourteen different biomasses was evaluated at three different moisture content, 5%, 7,5% and 10%. Peanut shell, Pigeon Pea, Pine and Sicklebush was assumed to be able to be used as a base material. Remaining biomasses as additive; Bamboo, Cassava peel, Cassava stem, Eucalyptus, Gliricidia, Peanut shell, Lantana, Miombo seed capsules, Olive tree and Tephrosia. Pellet production was performed in a single pellet press located at the department of environmental and energy system at Karlstad University, Karlstad. Compression energy, friction energy, hardness and moisture uptake was some of the operating characteriztics and properties that were evaluated. Additionally, four blends were pelletized with the aim to increased hardness. 

    Pigeon Pea resulted in hardest pellets of the base materials, it managed a radial pressure of 46.3 kg, Pine resulted in low hardness, 17.7 kg. For the additives, the following materials were hardest as pellets; Tephrosia, 70.0 kg, Gliricidia 58.7 kg, Cassava peel 48.6 kg och Miombo seed capsules, 48.3 kg. Pine was the material that required relatively more energy pelletizing, 183.0 J. Lowest energy, Cassava stem, 49,1 J. 

    All blends resulted in higher hardness of pellets. Most advantageous were Cassava peel and Tephrosia. Cassava peel in Pigeon Pea increased hardness even at 10% and reduced energy requirements. Pigeon Pea with 50% Tephrosia increased hardness with 21.1 kg to 67.4 kg, slightly increasing energy requirements. Though logistic chain for Cassava peel was evaluated higher than Tephrosia. 

    For ECS to expand their production they are recommended, accordingly to the results in this study, to use Pigeon Pea at about 6% moisture content, as a base material. In order to increase hardness of pellets, they should primarily use Tephrosia, about 7% and Cassava peel at approximately 8% moisture content as an additive. 

  • 5.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). Department of Energy, Building, and Environment, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Dahlquist, E.
    Department of Energy, Building, and Environment, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Yan, J.
    Department of Energy, Building, and Environment, Mälardalen University, Sweden & Department of Chemical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Naqvi, S. R.
    School of Chemical & Materials Engineering, NUST, Pakistan.
    Nizami, A. S.
    Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Salman, C. A.
    Department of Energy, Building, and Environment, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Danish, M.
    State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, ECUST, China.
    Farooq, U.
    State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, ECUST, China.
    Rehan, M.
    Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Khan, Z.
    Systems Power and Energy, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, UK.
    Qureshi, A. S.
    Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Polygeneration system integrated with small non-wood pulp mills for substitute natural gas production2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 224, p. 636-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the potential substitute natural gas (SNG) production by integrating black liquor gasification (BLG) island with a small wheat straw-based non-wood pulp mills (NPM), which do not employ the black liquor recovery cycle. For such integration, it is important to first build knowledge on expected improvements in an overall integrated non-wood pulp mill energy system using the key performance indicators. O2-blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification with direct causticization is integrated with a reference small NPM to evaluate the overall performance. A detailed economic analysis is performed together with a sensitivity analysis based on variations in the rate of return due to varying biomass price, total capital investment, and natural gas prices. The quantitive results showed considerable SNG production but significantly reduced electricity production. There is a substantial CO2 abatement potential combining CO2 capture and CO2 mitigation from SNG use replacing compressed natural gas (CNG) or gasoline. The economic performance through sensitivity analysis reflects significant dependency on both substitute natural gas production and natural gas market price. Furthermore, the solutions to address the challenges and barriers for the successful commercial implementation of BLG based polygeneration system at small NPMs are discussed. The system performance and discussion on the real application of integrated system presented in this article form a vital literature source for future use by large number of small non-wood pulp industries.

  • 6.
    Persson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utvärdering av hur mekanisk avvattning påverkar termisk torkning av sågspån: Försök med olika partikelstorlekar och temperaturer i en konvektiv tork2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Schyllander, Josefin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Industriell symbios mellan algodling och industri för hållbar biomassaproduktion: Utvärdering av en industriellt integrerat algodling ur miljö-, energi- och kostnadssynpunkt2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringarna har medfört en ökad efterfrågan på biobaserade bränslen. Mikroalger har flera intressanta egenskaper som gör dem till en attraktiv och lovande bioråvara för bränsleproduktion. Algerna har en effektiv fotosyntes vilket bidrar till ett lägre landanspråk jämfört med terrestra energigrödor. Dessutom kan odlingarna placeras på oproduktiv mark vilket gör att produktionen inte konkurrerar med andra areella näringar. Genom att integrera algodlingar med industriell infrastruktur kan restflöden som spillvärme, koldioxid, närsalter och vatten från industri nyttiggöras och därmed bidra till en mer effektiv och hållbar biomassaproduktion.

    I detta arbete studeras en industriell symbios mellan en algodling, det lokala kraftvärmeverket (Hedenverket) och rötningsanläggningen vid Sjöstadsverket i Karlstads kommun. Symbiosen bygger på att rökgaser från Hedenverket används som kolkälla för algerna, spillvärme används för att upprätthålla en lämplig odlingstemperatur i bassängen, varma rökgaser används för att torka biomassan inför förbränning och algernas näringsbehov tillgodoses genom att cirkulera kväve- och fosforrikt rejektvatten från rötningsanläggningen på Sjöstad. Biomassan som produceras används sedan som bränsle i kraftvärmeverket. På så vis skapas nya kretslopp och ett lokalt biobränsle produceras samtidigt som spillflöden från industrin tas till vara.

    Två tänkbara scenarion för energiutvinning studerades; rötning (Scenario A) och direkt förbränning (Scenario B). För att belysa fördelarna med symbiosen analyserades även ett referensscenario, vilket bygger på att odlingen sker fristående i en så kallad Stand alone-anläggning.

    Målet med studien var att konstruera en beräkningsmodell för att simulera biomassaproduktionen utifrån platsspecifika förutsättningar samt utvärdera systemet ur miljö-, energi- och kostnadssynpunkt. Studien utformades som en förstudie med syfte att vara ett övergripande men ändå tydligt kunskaps- och beslutsunderlag för berörda aktörer. Arbetet ska belysa symbiosens styrkor, svagheter, möjligheter och risker.

    Resultatet från studien visar att det genom industriell symbios går att odla alger över en lång säsong vid Hedenverket i Karlstad med det system som föreslås. Den industriella symbiosen förlänger odlingssäsongen med 75 % jämfört med en Stand alone-anläggning och den årliga produktiviteten ökar från 14 till 18 g m-2 d-1.

    Miljöanalysen visar att det utifrån de systemförslag som undersöks finns liten eller ingen miljönytta med den industriella symbiosen. Scenario A bidrar till att öka CO2-emsisionerna med 0,2 kg m-2 år-1 medan Scenario B bidrar till en reduktion motsvarande 0,2 kg m-2 år-1. En bidragande faktor till detta resultat är att Karlstad Energis el- och värmeproduktion idag i stort sett redan är fossilfri. Detta medför att det algbaserade bränslet ersätter en redan biobaserad process. En högre miljönytta kan åstadkommas genom att överväga alternativa energiutvinningsprocesser. För att tydliggöra miljöfördelarna med en integrerad algodling bör en fullskalig livscykelbedömning för systemet genomföras.

    Nettoenergi-ration (NER-värde) för Scenario A och Scenario B beräknades till 2,6 respektive 5,3. De höga NER-värdena pekar på att utvinningen av energi med god marginal överträffar energibehovet i produktionsledet för båda processvägarna.

    Lönsamhetsbedömningen visade att båda scenariona innebär en återbetalningstid som överstiger den tekniska livslängden för anläggningen, 44 och 56 år för respektive scenario.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar studien att det finns goda möjligheter för att odla alger och framställa ett lokalproducerat biobränsle vid Hedenverket. Trots att det föreslagna systemet med industriell symbios uppvisar positiva resultat beträffande energiprestanda så finns det inte ekonomiska eller miljömässiga förutsättningar för en algodling vid Hedenverket baserat på den systemutformning som föreslagits. Genom att framställa produkter med högre värde från biomassan kan dock ekonomisk- och miljömässiga vinster uppnås, vilket är något som bör utredas vidare.

  • 8.
    Ståhl, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Additives for wood fuel pellet production - A win, win, win situation2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and use of wood-fuel pellets, preferably made from sawdust or shavings, have increased significantly worldwide in recent years. If wood-fuel pellets should continue to be a successful biofuel at the energy market there are several factors to take into consideration. The pellet production industry already tries to reduce the production cost, since it is a low margin business. Further, it tries to produce pellets from a broader raw material base and at the same time satisfy the customer requirements while producing a sustainable product. The wood fuel pellet industry has the possibility to meet all these criteria; however, it also has the potential for improvements.

    This work focuses on energy efficiency, technical aspects and environmental factors, i.e., the electricity consumption, the physical and mechanical properties of the pellets, and the CO

    2 equivalent emitted during production, respectively. 20 various additives, with an admixture of up to 2 % (wt.), have been tested during wood fuel pellet production at Karlstad University. This work presents the benefits of using different additives in pellet production and the cost associated with different additives. The results shows that additive from the sea and from farmlands (algae, rape seed cake and grass) decrease the energy use in the pellet press but unfortunately also decrease the durability. Additives from wood (resins, lignin) and molasses increases the durability of the pellet but shows almost no or little change in electricity consumption. However, using starch grades, white sugar or spent sulphite liquor as an additive increases the mechanical properties while it decreases both the electricity consumption and the climate impact, hence a win-win-win situation. To justify the use of additives from a climate impact perspective in regions with an OECD European electricity mix or the Swedish electricity mix, the usage of additives from the rest products where the CO2 equivalent emissions are allocated to the main product are crucial.

    In conclusion, it is necessary to do research that systematically investigates the consequences of using additives for wood fuel pellets to continuously be a successful biofuel at the energy market

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