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  • 1.
    Alfredsson, Svante
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Konceptutveckling av transportlösning för kaffeutrustning till event2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is done during the spring semester 2016 for the Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design programme at Karlstad University. The mission of the thesis was provided by the company 3TEMP AB in Arvika.

    In order to serve large quantities of coffee at big events, festivals and fairs a powerful coffee machine is required. Due to its size the machine is difficult handle during transport. This project is about finding a solution that makes the transport of the coffee machine and its related equipment safer and easier to handle during transportation between events.

    The goal of the project was to find a possible solution that makes the transportation of the equipment more efficient and ergonomic. In order to find as many ideas as possible the design process has been used. This includes a research followed by an ideation, concept development and concept evaluation. The project ended with one concept presented in the form of a layout design in CAD together with assembly drawings, sketches and a model.

    In this project interviews and observations has been done together with the people who transport coffee equipment on a daily basis. The results of the observations were later compared with the recommended lifting weight for manual lifting tasks using NOISH lifting equation. In the event business different types of vehicles are used to transport equipment at the event areas. Everything from ATVs and snowmobiles to tractors and caterpillar vehicles are used. In the project there has been a search for a common denominator between those vehicles.

    During the project benchmarking of similar products has also been done to find inspiration for new ideas. To further evaluate the concepts an examination of laws and regulations for transportation of equipment in traffic and off-road has been done.

    The equipment also has to withstand long distance transport by rail, road, sea and air. To meet these requirements interviews were made with the company MariTerm AB who works with educating in cargo securing of goods for worldwide shipment.

  • 2. Andersson, Erik
    Hydrostatisk drivlina: För tunga lastfordon2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Andersson, Gustav
    -.
    Handling-Force Software: Calculation software for tailgate and bonnet in concept stages2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This report focuses on the creation of a software to calculate handling forces of bonnet and tailgate. The handling force is the force required by a user to open or close a tailgate. It is a bachelor thesis conducted for Karlstad’s university. The work is conducted at CEVT in Gothenburg, the software will be used to improve workflow in early design phases.

    The resulting software from this project is easy to use and shows good resemblance to the reference values, which is old calculations done by a manufacturer. Comparing to manufacturer calculation the software shows only small deviations in results. The software is deemed to be an asset in the development work at CEVT.

    The software is also easy to use and have been tested by employees, whom could operate the software easily without instructions. It is based on regular equilibrium equations and the software structure is logical and easy to follow, to make it simple to maintain and develop the software if the need would arise.

    The finished software calculates single pivot hinges and four bar mechanism-based hinges equipped with gas springs. It also has the possibility to work with tailgate and bonnet simultaneously to keep one project in one file.

    The work has focused on, creating the software, user interfaces and kinematics/kinetics of different types of hinges, with support from both literature and reports. This led to a software built in Microsoft Excel, which was chosen due to its standard features for graphical display of data. Building the software in Excel also makes it accessible to all employees who wishes to use it.

    The conclusion is that the software could in extension lead to higher quality on finished products by allowing more tested configurations and continuous changes during the design process.

  • 4.
    Andrée, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Nya metoder för vibrationsmätning på vindkraftverk2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has revolved around finding better ways of overseeing vibrations of the gearbox at a wind power station. The gearbox has been a huge problem at the stations located at Gässlingen and the sooner the warning of an incoming breakdown is at hand the more money you can save from preparations. The work has been carried out together with Askalon AB in cooperation with consults from ÅF. Askalon is a company with a department focused on overseeing vibrations and it is in collaboration with that department the work has been carried out.

     

    During this work, new positions for the sensors and new methods of gathering and analyzing data have been worked out. This was then implemented at a wind power station to be tried out on site. The measurement has been overseen online via remote control and the results have been analyzed in a program called AMS Suite: Machinery Health Manager.

     

    The new type of measurement shows that some kind of damage has been done to a specific part of the gearbox and that there is a risk it might escalate. However the measurement used today has not yet alarmed and therefor the conclusion made from this is that the project has been successful. Therefor it is time to refresh the overseeing of vibrations.

  • 5.
    Ankartoft, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utveckling av kaffemaskin för event2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers a product development project conducted by Robin Ankartoft as Bachelor of Science thesis for the innovation & design engineer program at Karlstad University. 

    The assignment was provided by the company 3TEMP AB, Arvika. The company has requested a concept proposal of a coffee machine for events. The coffee machine has to be able to serve coffee fast and during long periods of time, to the visitors of different events. The product also has to be able to be used in different environments, as for example in events like skiing contests, festivals, hockey games or weddings. In the assignment from the company 3TEMP, a powerful, flexible and user-friendly product was sought, that also had good ergonomic qualities. 

    The objective of the project has been to develop a product concept of a coffee machine for events, using the design methodology and an engineering approach. The concept shall meet the needs, requirements and expectations of the user and of the company. It should also have a design that because of its functionality and idiom stands out among today’s products.  

    The outcome of the project was a concept proposal of a coffee machine for events. The concept is based on knowledge of the user to make the product user-friendly by having good ergonomics and being easy to understand as well as use. The concept aligns with the vision of 3TEMP and is, thanks to its design and functionality, considered to stand out among today’s products.

  • 6. Asplén, Rickard
    Lekmöbel anpassad för förskolemiljö: Ett produktutvecklingsprojekt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract  The report deals with a product development project commissioned by Ludmilla Kompaniet at Almi Business Partner. The project is carried out in the course "Degree Project for degree of Bachelor of Science in innovation and design" at Karlstad University. The project supervisor is Monica Jacobsson, lecturer and the examining professor is Leo de Vin. The work is being examined in spring 2018. The commissioner Ludmilla Kompaniet had an idea of a furniture that children could use without harming themselves and they could play with it and use their full creativity. The furniture should not influence the child that will use it. The purpose of the project is to provide a concept for a furniture that is safe for children to use and that it should encourage the children to choose their own area of use. The project follows the design process described in Produktutveckling – effektiva metoder för konstruktion och design av Johannesson et al. (2004), which is taught at Karlstad University. The final concept is a furniture that is adapted for children in pre-school age. It can be used in different kind of ways and by children in different ages. The child controls how it wants the furniture to be used, in play or as traditional furniture. It is easy to wash and has a shape that prevents children from falling on it. The material is free of hormone-disturbing substances that can harm the health of the children. A function model has been manufactured and tested by children but not in the intended material as it exceeded the economy of the project.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Konstruktion av XC500 skruvtransportör2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet har utförts på uppdrag av Autofric AB i samarbete med Nordic Water som avslutning på högskoleingenjörsprogrammet inom Maskinteknik på Karlstad Universitet under våren 2017.

    Arbetet behandlar konstruktion av en skruvtransportör som är avsedd att användas i vattenreningsverk. Nordic Water konstruerar och säljer idag skruvtransportörer under serienamnet XC. För att kunna utöka sitt utbud för kunder vill de nu konstruera en skruvtransportör i diameterstorlek 500 mm, XC500.

    Under konstruktionsarbetet har kraftanalyser utförts för att förstå vilka krafter som angriper drivenheten på skruvtransportören. Vidare har hållfasthetsberäkningar utförts på de kritiska delar hos drivenheten för att kunna dimensionera dessa delar korrekt. Finita elementmetoden har tillämpats på de delar hos drivenheten med komplicerade geometrier och randvillkor. 

    Vid konstruktion av komponenter som finns i olika varianter har familjetabeller använts vid modellering. På så sätt kan Nordic Water snabbt ta fram 3D-modeller i olika dimensioner vid framtida konstruktionsarbete. Ett pneumatisktteleskoputkast har analyserats och modellerats. En viktanalys utfördes tillsammans med statikberäkningar för att kunna bestämma om tänkta lyftkolvar skulle klara dimensionsökningen XC500 transportören medför.

    Målet att konstruera enklare komponenter samt analysera drivenheten har uppfyllts med gott resultat. Ritningsunderlag har tagits fram för över 50 komponenter och drivenheten har dimensionerats för att klara beräknad belastning. Målet att konstruera benkonstruktionen hann inte uppfyllas på grund av bristande tidsrymd.

  • 8.
    Baradi, Divyank
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Control strategies and inspection methods for welded part2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Present and future demonstrator designs were used to demonstrate the quality assurance of welds. The NDT methods tested on prototype demonstrator parts are: visual inspection, radius gauges, throat size gauge, liquid-penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing and ultrasonics with pulse echo and phased array. The other methods like eddy current, time of flight diffraction, radiography, impression test, macro test and infrared thermographs are currently being analyzed along with their inspection costs.

     

    The control plans for present and future designs with corresponding present and future NDT methods are suggested to minimize a shift in process.

    • Magnetic particle testing revealed a lack of fusion and cracks for fillet welds, whereas ultrasonic pulse echo and phased array identified an internal lack of fusion, inner pores/slag inclusions on butt welds.
    • Ultrasonic PAUT & TOFD could be used for accurate defect identification and thermography for online identification of lack of penetration, depth of penetration and weld parameters.
  • 9.
    Berg Johansson, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Konstruktion av sorteringsramp: Examensarbete vid Karlstads universitet2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har varit ett projekt där målet har varit att en komplett sorteringsramp för pappersbruk skulle konstrueras och syftet med detta har varit att komplett tillverkningsunderlag skulle tas fram. Två typer av maskiner har konstruerats, så kallade rullpuffare och rullstopp samt ramper mellan rullstopp. För att konstruera för marknaden konkurrenskraftiga maskiner har tidigare sådana studerats och använts som grund och vidareutvecklats under projektarbetets gång.

    Vid konstruktion av rullpuffare har kraftanalyser skett för att utröna hur maskinen belastas. Vidare har hållfasthetsberäkningar gjorts på de delar på konstruktionen som bedömts som kritiska. Även Finita Elementmetoden har använts som grund för att få en inblick i vilka spänningar och deformationer som uppstår i den sammansatta konstruktionen.

    När rullstopp konstruerades lades stor vikt vid att försöka lösa ett problem med sprickande svetsar som uppstod i tidigare konstruktion. Även vid konstruktion av denna maskin har kraftanalyser, hållfasthetsberäkningar samt FEM-analyser skett.

    Vid konstruktion har stor vikt lagts vid monteringsvänlighet och att om möjlighet funnits utforma de båda maskinerna så att dessa skulle kunna använda samma komponenter.

    En ny typ av golv har valts att användas till sorteringsrampen där val av golv har till största delen baserats på rekommendationer från olika leverantörer.

    Några av de mindre uppsatta målen hann inte uppfyllas, men projektet i sin helhet bedöms ha gått väldigt bra.

  • 10. Bergh, Gustav
    Improved Method on theDetermination of Allowable Forceson Sliding Shoes Used in PipingSystems2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Berglund, Felix
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Cellphone Survey System: En studie om marknadsförhållanden och produktlansering för Tradewell Group AB2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s market for companies doing statistical surveys is a market consisting of mostly standardized methods where differentiating your company from the competitors is hard. Simultaneously both the society at large and technology in specific is under constant development and everything needs to be done at a faster pace with better precision.

     

    One of the companies on the market mentioned above is Tradewell Group AB. During 2008/2009 Tradewell has developed a new method for doing statistical surveys. The method named by Tradewell is called Cellphone Survey System, CSS and include using existing technology in a, for this market, unknown way. By doing so Tradewell offer their customers fast and price worthy surveys where the results can be viewed online where they are constantly being updated.

     

    At this very moment CSS is about to be launched och so the purpose of this master thesis is to identify and analyse those factors impacting the success of product development and product launching and also to do a mapping over the market at which Tradewell is an actor. The goal is then to combine the above mentioned analyse and mapping with results given from my own market survey to discuss Tradewell at large and CSS in more detail which then will lead to recommendations regarding how to move further, both as a company and with their launch of CSS.

     

    The master thesis consists of a literature study where product development and product launching has been researched. It also includes a mapping over those methods most frequently used and offered on today’s market. Finally I did my own market survey among 72 of Tradewell’s potential customers, all respondents chosen in collaboration with the management at Tradewell. The purpose of the survey was to gain knowledge about potential customers and to see if there is any interest for a service like CSS.

     

    Some of the most important factors when launching a product that were identified during the work of the thesis were pricing, timing, market orientation and market communication. The results from the survey showed, among other things, that most of the respondents already do customer surveys and also that there is an interest for a service like CSS. The conclusions drawn from the results of the survey together with the literature study lead to the final discussion. The discussion brings up how Tradewell are doing today, seen in the light of the different factors; what they do well and what needs improvement. Finally it is discussed what can be done to make these improvements and why they are necessary and I give recommendations for how to move along with the launch of CSS.

  • 12.
    Bjällfalk, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Integration av Design to Cost i Produktlivscykeln: Med hänsyn till kostnad som en designparameter i produktutveckling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Being a competitive company in today's society requires prioritization of many areas. With the advancement of technology, it becomes all the more important as the lifetimes of products become increasingly short-lived. In order to maintain their attraction in the market, an effort is needed for improvement and an important parameter in this is costs. There are various strategies that focus on cost reduction, but some are more useful than others. One of the parties involved is Design to Cost (DtC) and its purpose is primarily to optimize product development. The reason lies in taking cost into account already in a product's design phase. In the design phase, approximately 70% is estimated to be the life cycle costs, which makes the part most relevant to analyze.

    At Valmet Karlstad, the method has been recognized and there is therefore an ambition to integrate DTC into its internal PLC process. The company is a global one and is a leading developer and supplier in technology, automation and service. Great focus is on sustainability and high quality. What, on the other hand, is less prioritized today is costs. There is a tendency to carry out cost analysis at a late stage where it is less influential. To maintain its position and its positive reputation, this should therefore be improved.

    This report therefore contains a survey of DtC as a tool. An evaluation of the need for the strategy has been made as well as f the existing knowledge at the company. This has been done through analysis of internal data, several interviews and a larger meeting arrangement in the form of a workshop. The work then resulted in recommendations on how DtC can be implemented in the process and applied in the daily operations. Important factors and actions were also given that can improve and facilitate the process.

  • 13.
    Daouacher, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics, Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Rearward facing travel for every child's safety2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was made within the Child Safety group at Volvo Car Corporation.  The purpose of this bachelor thesis was to study the different aspects of rearward facing child restraint systems, which is the safest way for small children to travel, in order to suggest improvements in the development of child restraint systems. The studies included scientific articles regarding child safety and fatally injured children in car accidents, both in Sweden and internationally. The overall aim is to find factors that enables the increase in usage of rearward facing child restraint systems, including the increase of usage time to as long as possible.

     

    Swedish accident data, obtained by the Swedish Traffic Data Acquisation, was studied. It was found that the fatally injured children during car accidents in Sweden between the years 2000-2016 commonly were involved in extraordinarily accident scenarios with an outcome independent of how they were restrained. The literature study and the survey that was made were both supporting the statement of inconvenience while using rearward facing child restraint systems. The inconvenience often corresponded to different types of misuse. The main issue with rearward facing according to the responding parents was lack of leg space, both for their child but also for the driver and the front seat passenger. These issues made some parents turning their children forward facing at early age, whereas they could still fit in the rearward facing child restraint system.

     

    One key in order to increase the global use of rearward facing child restraint systems lies in changes of the materials and design. A more lightweight and compact design is suggested, providing a more spacious travel environment for the children and easier mounting for the parents. The need of education is apparent, preferable by means of social media due to the easiness of sending information globally with low cost.

  • 14.
    De Matos Lobos, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Förbättring av vattenkraftstationen i Rexed via ökad elproduktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis was conducted in collaboration with Arvika Kraft AB and its purpose was to improve their hydropower station that is located in Rexed. During the last couple of years this specific hydropower station has had vast amounts of mechanical problems, mainly with their gearbox. The result of this has been that the hydropower station has been stationary over long periods of time. At the same time this has resulted in that the hydropower station only opens their turbine’s vanes to 80% of its maximum capability to try to avoid the recurring mechanical problems. By only opening the turbine vanes to 80% the incoming water flow is reduced, which in turn also reduces the amount on electricity that can be produced.

    The goal with this bachelor’s thesis has been to find a more economically beneficial solution than the one that is present in today’s hydropower station. It should also be noted that this thesis will only look into the possibility of changing the hydropower stations gearbox and generator. The turbine will not be dealt with in this thesis.

    Historical- and hydrological data has been analyzed so that the efficiency and a possible increase in the production of electricity for the hydropower station in Rexed could be calculated. This result was then compared with alternative solutions that were offered by Transmissionsservice in Jönköping through several investment calculations.

    The concept that was the most economically beneficial for the hydropower station in Rexed was exchanging the current gearbox for the one that Transmissionsservice in Jönköping had offered. This solution resulted in an increase of the produced electricity from 2 100 MWh up to approximately 3 000 – 3 400 MWh. With a price on electricity of 300 kr/MWh it generated an increase of income of 270 000 – 390 000 kr per year. The investment of 1 500 000 kr, for the new gearbox plus installation fees, is beneficial with an IRR of 5%. From the investment calculations it can also be found that an investment up to 5 000 000 kr still is economically beneficial, since the IRR is higher than the cost of capital, for Arvika Kraft AB.

    Before Arvika Kraft AB decides if the investment will be made or not they should investigate the possibility of receiving a certificate for their hydropower station. By reconstructing this hydropower station they could receive this certificate, which would increase the income price of the electricity produced by 50% for 15 years (or until the year 2035 if the reconstructed after 2020). With 3 000 – 3 400 MWh of electricity produced this certificate would allow for an investment up to 8 500 000 kr and still be economically beneficial, with an IRR of 5%, for Arvika Kraft AB.

  • 15.
    De Vin, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Credibility of Simulation Results – a Philosophical Perspective on Virtual Manufacturing2012In: Proceedings of the 13th Mechatronics Forum International Conference / [ed] R.Scheidl & B. Jakoby, Linz: TRAUNER Verlag, 2012, p. 784-791Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the factors that play a role in credibility of simulation results. It focuses on virtual manufacturing and in particular resource simulation as an example. However, a simulation model can be used in a number of different ways. Verification and validation of models is amongst other factors important for credibility. In this area, much work has been carried out in defense research. There are also some striking similarities between virtual manufacturing and information fusion, in particular in the field of human competence development related to credibility of simulations.

  • 16.
    Dunby, Adam
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Spänningsanalys & upphängning av ett ångrörsystem2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har gjorts på uppdrag av Sweco Industry AB i samarbete med Cambrex Karlskoga AB som en avslutning på Högskoleingenjörsprogrammet inom Maskinteknik.

    Syftet med arbetet har varit att förstå hur värmeutvidgning påverkar en konstruktion och vilken hänsyn ingenjören måste ta vid konstruktionen.

    Målet med projektet har varit att genomföra en spänningsanalys av ett förprojekteratångrörsystem och analysera/utvärdera resultaten mot gällande regler och standarder. Målet var också att utifrån resultatet av spänningsanalysen ta fram underlag för upphängningspunkter. Det var också önskvärt att ta fram ett lämpligt förslag på sekundärstöd för glidstöd anpassattill detta projekt.

    Utvärderingen fastslår att den maximala spänningen orsakad pga. expansion uppgår till 38 % under tillåten spänning. Precis enligt teorin uppstår den maximala spänningen i punkter därförskjutningarna på ett eller sätt förhindrats. Förskjutningarna ligger också inom tillåtnaintervall utan att komma i kontakt med omgivningen. Slutligen överstiger inte hellerstödlasterna de tillåtna gränserna varken vid statisk last och eller under drift.

    Framtagningen av lämpligt sekundärstöd började med ett antal koncept som sedan sålladesoch där de kvarvarande analyserades i en FEM-analys. Resultatet blev två sekundärstöd somklarade lasterna från rörsystemet. Det mest lämpliga förslaget var stödet med minst ingåendedelar, men fortfarande 34 % marginal mot tillåten spänning

  • 17.
    Ejnermark, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Vidareutveckling av häftfixtur för sammansvetsning av Volvo hjullastares lyftramverk: Ett projekt med syfte att effektivisera produktionen2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Elfving, Filip
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Simulation of laser welding in sandwich rocket nozzle2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis has been carried out at GKN Aerospace. GKN is a member of European Space Agency, designing and manufacturing rocket-nozzles for the Ariane rockets. The manufacturing process entails many welds. Weld-simulations have been made to investigate stresses and plastic strains on simplified geometries. Plastic strains have been evaluated parallel and normal to the weld for plate geometries of shell-elements with rectangular cross-section and sandwich-cross-section, using the FEM-program MSC.marc. Results shows that plate width and length have negligible effect on the plastic strains when one weld is made. A comparison between a sandwich-sector cone and a sandwich plate was made, to investigate how plastic strains and stresses were affected of geometry. Plastic strains and stresses parallel the weld are the same. Plastic strains and stresses normal the weld are affected by changing geometry. Studies on differences in stresses between solid and shell elements propose use of solid elements near the weld region, if stresses are of interest.

  • 19.
    El-Mobader, Sarah Hassan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Effect of Lap Belt Position on Kinematics & Injuries by using 6YO PIPER child HBM: in Frontal Crash Simulations2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accidents are the second leading cause of child fatality among children younger than 15 years of age. In the course of 10 years, the implementation of child restraint systems has decreased child fatality in traffic accidents with 50%, for children younger than 15 years. To gain an understanding of the kinematics and injury mechanisms of children in cars, finite element based human body models, representing higher biofidelity compared to crash test dummies, are developed. An FP7 European project, PIPER, developed a child HBM with an associated framework for scaling, morphing and positioning. The PIPER child HBM is scalable between the ages of 1.5-6YO, with scalable anthropometrics. This makes the PIPER child HBM, a powerful tool for analyzing children in vehicles. 

    There are insufficient analyses conducted with the PIPER child HBM, due to its recent release. The purpose is thus to study the robustness of the HBM and its sensitivity to variation of lap belts by conducting a parametric study. Injury analysis and its sensitivity to lap belt variations were in addition studied in terms of kinematics by the study of submarining, the pelvic interaction with the lap belt, and the study of injuries related to the skull, brain, kidneys and liver.

    A full frontal crash simulation of a 6YO PIPER child HBM, with anthropometrics, covering the 50th percentile, have been investigated. The 6YO PIPER child HBM was seated with no booster, Volvo booster cushion and Volvo highback booster, with variations of the lap belt. The hip interactions and the submarining response of the 6YO PIPER child HBM were studied, by the study of the lap belt interactions with the pelvis and abdominal organs. The abdominal organs were related to the liver and kidneys, and compared to published threshold values. 

    This study showed that the overall robustness of the model was questionable. With respect to kinematics, the model indicated higher robustness, however, when conducted the crash simulations with the 6YO PIPER child HBM, it was concluded that the robustness was low due to repeated premature terminations. The 6YO PIPER child HBM revealed repeated errors such as, mesh distortions, negative volume and shooting nodes. When studying the sensitivity of the 6YO PIPER child HBM, when varying the lap belt angles, as well as changing the type of boosters in addition to vehicle anchorage positions, it could be seen that the 6YO PIPER child HBM was able to capture variations with respect to lap belt positioning. Hence, the model seems to be capable of providing relevant information regarding sensitivity for lap belt variations from the kinematic perspective, in terms of being able to capture kinematic o↵set, submarining and pelvis interaction with the lap belt. However, with respect to predicted abdominal injuries and head injuries, the sensitivity was not as distinct. Some limitations were observed in which the 6YO PIPER child HBM indicated unrealistic predicted injuries related to the head, which was associated with excessive movement of the 6YO PIPER child HBM.

  • 20.
    Fellenius, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Reduction of vibration transmitted through car seats: A study to reduce test drivers’ whole-body vibrations at Volvo Car Group’s test facility2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Present thesis will concentrate on the attention to reduce the input of whole-body vibrations transmitted to test drivers in durability tests. On behalf of Volvo Cars, the purpose has been to develop a concept solution on the driver's seat. Solving this problem is significant due to test driver’s safety and theirs ergonomically conditions. This project is conducted as a Bachelor of Science thesis for the Innovation & design engineer program at Karlstad University.   

    The assignment is in collaboration with the research and development department Proving Ground Testing Group located outside Borås on their test facility, Hällered Proving Ground (HPG). Where they perform endurance tests on rough roads with complete vehicles. The main goal of this project is to increase the time drivers can actively drive the test cars each day, as well as reduce the exposure of whole-body vibration transmitted to test drivers.  

    The project has been carried out through the Engineering Design Process, which is a substantial model for working with creativity during product development. The report consists of a pre-study in areas like dynamic systems of vibration, ergonomics, previous research, benchmarking and seat structure. This was achieved by identifying the problem areas in an early stage. A number of concepts solutions were evaluated and compared according to implementability and realizability. The final decision was made on a concept, resulted in changing the current foam in the seat. Thereafter, it presents the evaluation of materials throughout the material database CES EduPack and through product research.    

    The last part of the report presents results from laboratory testings and a field test. The objective was to determine which arrangement provided the best isolation throughout different combinations of materials/products and material thicknesses.

    The result of the test showed that an increase of material thickness was the optimal solution. Polyurethane (PUR) foam is best suited for this and factors such as material properties and combination of materials has less or none impact on reducing whole-body vibrations. Therefore, the current foam can maybe be enough, but it needs to be evaluated further. This solution doesn't do any major changes to the cars specification and therefore the cars can be evaluated as before.  

    Further development is to build a prototype with thicker dimensions and implement it in a test vehicle. Subsequently verifying a decrease of exposure from whole-body vibrations, in the form of a real-life test.

    The solution is intended solely for test vehicles at Volvo’s endurance track facility at Hällered. The assignment was to facilitate working conditions for test drivers and make the work more efficient. The thesis purpose was to achieve a sustainable solution, according to Volvo Cars` requirements to reduce exposure from whole-body vibrations and this project is therefore fulfilled. It was important that the solution was easy to implement and can be applied on all platforms, correspondently be used on future test cars from Volvo.  

  • 21.
    Fernström, Vilma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Böjning av kräppschabern vid mjukpapperstillverkning: Ändring av kräppvinkeln2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the tissue industry, it is important to develop and maintain as good a quality as possible on the products in order to stay on the market. It is therefore important to have knowledge of all the steps of the manufacturing process and how they affect the final result. An important part of the production is the creping process, which largely gives the paper its properties and quality. It is in this stage of manufacturing process that the structure of the paper is determined. This means that a great focus is to understand and develop the creping process.

     

    This report is made in collaboration with a tissue manufacturer who recently discovered a greater demand from customers to participate in and control the settings in their projects. Since there is a lack of knowledge of how different factors affect the creping, uncertainty has arisen. The purpose of this report is to contribute with the knowledge required about the creping process in order to reduce uncertainty in the company and satisfy the customers' demand and needs. In the creping process, creping blade is the most important component to examine as it is this blade that performs the creping itself.

     

    The most relevant factors for the creping blades settings are selected to be examined in this report. The analysis of the parameters is performed by varying one parameter at a time and then checking how the bending of the creping blade looks. With the deflection of the blade, a crepe angle can be calculated in order to highlight the relationship between the chosen parameters and the crepe angle. This will be accomplished by using three different methods, the results of which are then compared with each other to determine the calculated conditions. The different methods who are used is an analytical calculation based on the linear elasticity equation and two studies in FEM programs where the blade geometry is modeled.

     

    Plots are designed, displaying values ​​from the different analysis’s as a basis. A chart for each parameter is created, the charts show how the crepe angle changes as the parameter varies within the selected intervals. All parameters examined were found to affect the crepe angle more or less, but all at a level that makes them relevant to the setting of the creping blade as a certain desired quality is required. After a comparison of the results from the different methods, some deviations could be found. However, these deviations are not significant and may therefore be ignored. There are many possible reasons for these deviations such as e.g. various presumptions and computational differences. The conclusions that can be made about this report are that all the parameters that were examined have a significant role in the reduction of the crepe angle and that the results from the various methods gave consistent results. In future investigations, therefore, the most convenient of the methods tested may be recommended.

     

  • 22.
    Ganic, Adrian
    Karlstad University.
    Modellering och simulering av teleskopläktare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis work has been performed on behalf of Egas Sport AS, a company based in Norway, with activities geared towards various types of sports equipment. The task was to create a parametric 3D model of a telescopic bleacher with 3D CAD programs as well as to perform finite element analyzes (FEM) for determining stresses in the construction and to calculate the critical load for elastic instability (buckling). The telescopic bleacher contains several different components, some of which are as follows:

    • Front panel: Conceals the supporting steel frame and prevents possible personal injury in case of climbing.

    • Diagonal link: A link that prevents the structure from swaying sideways during use

    • Steel pillars: Taking up pressure forces from the deck.

    The results from the FEM calculations showed that no part of the construction was at risk of failure, either because the stress levels were too high, or that critical load for buckling was achieved.

  • 23.
    Glaad, Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Pressurizing of high-pressure fuel system forsingle cylinder test cell2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis covers the development of a high-pressure fuel system for compression ignitedfuels such as diesel and diesel-like fuels that will be deployed into a single cylinder test cell at AVLMTC Södertälje, Sweden. The test cell is used by AVL to conduct research and testing of new fuelsfor their customers and this new fuel system will widen the span of fuels able to be tested by theequipment.This thesis focuses on pumping and pressurizing of the fuel, ensuring that all ingoing materialsare non-corrosive in this environment and compatible with the necessary fuels and lastly a safetyanalysis of the system with respect to operator and process safety. Other aspects of the projectsuch as mass flow measurements and fuel conditioning is covered in a sister thesis Mass flowrate measurement of compression ignition fuels in high-pressure stand-alone pump unit for singlecylinder test cell written by C. Aksoy [1].The goal of this thesis project was to deliver a finished manufactured fuel system and if the timeallowed for it, also validate its performance and finally installing and incorporating it into the singlecylinder test cell. The development process started with the writing of a product specificationoutlining the requirements and request on the product in a specification of requirements matrix andrelate these to product properties of the system using a quality function deployment (QFD) matrix.This document was then used as a base for further advancement in developing concepts to solveeach product property and weighing these concepts against each other using Pugh’s matrices. Thechosen concepts were then further developed, a flow chart for the system was developed as well asfuel lines and other supporting components were analyzed and chosen.In the end the high-pressure fuel pump from Scania’s XPI fuel system were chosen as well asa pressure transducer in the HP1000 series from ESI. Within the time frame of this thesis, theproject did not end up getting finished to the degree planned, but due to time constraints werehalted before starting manufacturing of the system. Some minor component choices remained aswell as documentation such as drawings and finalizing the physical layout of the system remained.All information regarding the remaining work needed to finalize the project and deploying thesystem in the test cell were outlined and with more time, the fuel system should fulfill its purposeof allowing testing and research of compression ignited fuel to be possible in the test cell.

  • 24.
    Grahn, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Development of portable unit for the coffee industry2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project is executed along with the course “Degree of Bachelor of Science in innovation and design engineering”. The course takes part at the faculty of Health, Science and Technology at Karlstad University. The employer is in the coffee industry with a focus on the professional market. The company wishes to complete its product range with a new unit for the coffee industry. The technology behind the aid has already been developed by the company, of which the bachelor thesis concerns the design and construction of the product. By agreement with the company, the product's function will not be exposed in the report.

    The work follows the design process from start to finish including a project plan, pre-study, product specification, concept generation, configuration and prototype development. A large part of the work relates to the pre-study that has been conducted. The study is divided into two branches, one of which aims to chart the process of product development. The second purpose of the study is to answer how the product can be designed to reflect the company brand, current trends, human ergonomics and the cognitive understanding of the user. The pre-study does also aim to chart which stakeholders should be considered when developing the product. The process has been adapted to the fact that the product's function cannot be exposed to people who are not in direct contact with the project. As the product is new in the product range it does also lack precursor and known users. Due to these facts the company itself has had a very high influence in the decision making of the product´s final design. Therefore, trend and user analyses have been performed to broaden the understanding of the need that will be posed by the actual user.

    The final concept is a suggestion of how an exclusive variant of the unit may look. Potential end users of the product are almost everyone in the coffee industry, where the spectrum extends from waiters to the more skilled technician at a vending company which means that the unit will be used from once a year to each day. Thus, the design of the product is held simple to ease the cognitive understanding of the product regardless of user. The main materials in the product are aluminium and wood. The size of the device is selected to be ergonomically easy to handle and grip. The dimensioning is also motivated by the thought of giving a solid and stable expression. Complementary to the product a box has been developed to easy transportation of the product.

    The development of this type of product requires an understanding that the product does not work alone but acts in a context. In addition to its function, it acts as a service both for operator and customer by generating a certain type off experience. Today´s coffee and barista industry offer more than just receiving a cup of coffee, where identity and trends are important in addition to the taste of the cup itself.

  • 25.
    Gunnarsson, Jacob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Konceptframtagning av kaffebryggare för kaffeentusiaster.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    3TEMP was the company that provided the task. They have a vision to enter the market for home coffee equipment with a product that works as an automatic coffee machine. 3TEMP has a solution for how the machines main functions of the machine can work technically but they need a concept for the whole product. 

    The work was carried out as a project with a project plan containing a time chart, risk management, and a description of the organization and file management. The project consisted of the phases: planning, research, product specification, concept generation and evaluation, and construction and design. 

    The concept was developed with a product specification in mind. The specification is a list of user needs and preferences, and demands from 3TEMP. Information about this was collected during the research phase. The research showed that one of the most important factors, in addition to the taste of the coffee, is that the product is kept clean and fresh. Many costumers also think that it’s important to minimize the noise from the product. Also trends have been analyzed in order to create a concept that fits into many people’s kitchens. The trends suggest that tactile and natural materials are becoming more popular, and openness is desirable because it creates confidence in the product. 

    Concepts were generated by using the ideation methods: association by random words, speedstorming and brainsketching. Association by random words was used with an opportunity oriented perspective to find ways to add value to the product. Speedstorming and brainsketching was used to find ideas for the products functions and finding solutions to problems. The ideas from the ideation were combined in five different concepts. Two of these were sorted out using a relative decision matrix. One of the three remaining concepts was selected with a matrix with weighted criteria. 

    The final concept has well-known elements from the cafe industry as bent tubes of stainless steel, large grip surfaces, and visible containers. The coffee grounds container has a handle that is directly accessible from the outside of the product. This is for highlighting the container as an important function rather than hiding it like many other products do. 

    Sketches were frequently used to test ideas through the project. The selected concept has been tested with simple physical models to find appropriate forms and dimensions. After this, a more detailed physical model and a model in CAD were made. Pictures were created in CAD to show the arrangement of the components. A high resolution rendering was used to show how the product may look like in reality with real materials.

  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    The Systematic Development Process Applied on a Cab Rotation Unit: Pre-study, concept generation, embodiment design, material selection and optimization2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis studies and applies the systematic development process. The process is initially described in general, creating a template for the process, and later on applied on a real case scenario to show the performance. Finally eventual advantages, drawbacks and suggestions for future improvements are given.

    The systematic development approach has been performed at Laxå Special Vehicles, who produce truck cabs and special truck chassis for Scania CV AB. The project has focused on the cabs, i.e. the Crew Cabs and the Low Entry. Crew Cabs are extended normal truck cabs, containing four doors to make additional passengers possible, suitable for fire trucks etc. Low Entry is a lowered normal truck cab, lowering the approaching height, making this cab type suitable for city applicable usage where the driver or passengers enter and leave the cab frequently. The task given was to develop the current cab rotation unit to be able to handle both cabs, which from the beginning only could handle the Crew Cabs, called CC28 and CC31. The major goal of this project has been to enable rotation of the Low Entry too.

    Five phases – pre-study, concept generation, embodiment design, material selection and optimization – were carried out. The pre-study generated a fundamental base of knowledge, according to both the systematic development process and information about the tilt. The concept generation contained a problem degradation, generation of possible solutions and finally an evaluation of these. During the embodiment design the best suited concept was described and developed in detail to allow a suitable material to be selected during the material selection phase. The optimization process consisted of investigating properties according to mechanical strength and stiffness.

    Two construction solutions to accommodate the mounting points height and length difference between the Crew Cab and the Low Entry were developed. These were a covering plate, called K4, and a mounting plate, called K100, handling the problems occurring for length and height respective. The development process is thus considered to be well operating. It generated a useful result, although possibilities for further improvements exists.

  • 27.
    Hallbäck, Nils
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Tofique, Muhammad Waqas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Development of a distributed dislocation dipole technique for the analysis of multiple straight, kinked and branched cracks in an elastic half-plane2014In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 51, p. 2878-2892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A distributed dislocation dipole technique for the analysis of multiple straight, kinked and branched cracks in an elastic half plane has been developed. The dipole density distribution is represented with a weighted Jacobi polynomial expansion where the weight function captures the asymptotic behaviour at each end of the crack. To allow for opening and sliding at crack kinking and branching the dipole density representation contains conditional extra terms which fulfil the asymptotic behaviour at each endpoint. Several test cases involving straight, kinked and branched cracks have been analysed, and the results suggest that the accuracy of the method is within 1% provided that Jacobi polynomial expansions up to at least the sixth order are used. Adopting even higher order Jacobi polynomials yields improved accuracy. The method is compared to a simplified procedure suggested in the literature where stress singularities associated with corners at kinking or branching are neglected in the representation for the dipole density distribution. The comparison suggests that both procedures work, but that the current procedure is superior, in as much as the same accuracy is reached using substantially lower order polynomial expansions.

  • 28.
    Haraldsson, Ludwig
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Vidareutveckling av eventtältet Nimbus2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report "Further development of the event tent Nimbus" written by the student Ludwig Haraldsson describes a product development project in the course Degree project for the Bachelor of Engineering program innovation technology and design, MSGC12, at the Faculty of Health, Natural and Engineering Sciences at Karlstad University in spring 2019. Advisor for the project has been university lecturer Lennart Wihk and examiner for the project has been Professor Leo de Vin.The client for the project was Tentipi AB. Their buisness is focused on tents both for hiking and major events. The event tents are used in different settings such as markets and weddings. The tents take inspiration from the shape and construction of the Sami tent. The project aims to improve the assembly process and the construction of their smallest event tent called Nimbus. The product has problems with the tension of the fabric as the material of the fabric is stiff which can lead to the product not being mountable if one of the parts differs too much in dimensions or the fabric is sewn wrong. This means that the company wants a base construction that fits the fabric better or is adjustable. The assignment came with various requirements, for example regarding production cost and that the fabric would remain the same.Through the product development process several concepts were created. The concepts were presented to Tentipi AB and then carry out a concept selection based on these candidates. A final choice was discussed in the form of a further development of two combined concepts. The concept shares the function with an umbrella in how it spans the fabric. This means that adjustment of the tension of the fabric can occur during as well as after the assembly process. In addition, the concept otherwise follows the company's requirements and preserves its iconic form. A 3D model was created in the computer program Creo to visualize the concept and examine whether mounting is possible. Finally, a downscaled model of various hobby materials was made to prove the functionality of the clamping mechanism. Further work is needed in the form of design drawings and thorough testing on a full-scale prototype.

  • 29.
    Hasslöf, Hampus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utveckling av bockningsmaskin för massiv rektangulär stålstång2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of a thesis of 22.5 ECTS for a Degree of Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design Engineering at Karlstad University during the 2017 spring semester.

    The thesis is carried out on behalf of Rejlers AB, a Swedish technology consultancy. Rejlers has manufactured and tested a prototype for two years for bending steel parts. The prototype in its current form automatically adjusts the steel part to the end user's needs, by incremental shaping.

    When steel parts with a large cross-section are bent, problems arise in the form of plastic deformation of components in the machine.

    The project is based on the fact that Rejlers has now started the design of the next version of the prototype, to implement improvement proposals that occurred during the test run and solve the problem of deforming components in the machine.

    The purpose of the work is to create the basis for detail design and dimensioning of prototype number two.

    The problem is solved by applying the product development process and delivering a conceptual solution in the form of a layout design. In the layout design, critical components are integrated in a scalable way, so that future work on dimensioning and detailing is facilitated.

  • 30.
    Hedberg-Häger, Torleif
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Vidareutveckling av säkring/pipväljare för tvåpipigt gevär2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Product developement of a safety and barrel selector mechanism in a two barreled shotgun, in which there are specifications regarding both user experience and functionality.Studies were done on existing solutions and a number of concepts were generated.During the course of the work the questions that needed answering changed when states of the development process were reached that needed new input. The first steps of the work were focusing on ease of manufacturing. The second step was to identify what the market may perceive as exclusive enough in the high segment that the product is marketed against. The two goals were reached separately and concepts satisfying the demands were presented.

  • 31.
    Hernvall Jonsson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Konceptuell modell för ljusförsörjning i skyddsrum vid strömbortfall2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a parallel with the potential reestablishment of new production of swedish shelters, an awareness of a great potential of modernisation on swedish shelters has occurred. Sweden is in the process of a new potential production of modern swedish shelters, but there is a long process before all the technical details has been updated. This is a bachelor thesis for a degree in mechanical engineering at Karlstad university. The object of this report is to show how a shelter can be best supplied with light during a period when normal power fail.

    The recommendation of the report is to use wall mounted LED units that are supplied from an electric generator, operated manually by hand. This model has been developed based on swedish regulations for shelters and includes recommendations from these regulations. The concept could also be considered as a necessity for protectetive cautions during realistic crise circumstances.

    This project was initially a construction developing-oriented project for a specific product that aimed for higher security and functionality in shelters, but resulted in a koncept for light. The method has therefore followed processes for product developing.

  • 32.
    Hoikka, Arvid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Strength simulations of tension bars for heavy lifting2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Proplate, a world leading company, is expert on volume-based cutting and machining of both ordinary steel as well as stainless steel. One of Proplate’s mayor products is tension bars, which is a component made to balance high forces and give stability to structures such as cranes, buildings, bridges and much more. Proplate builds their tension bars in different high strength steel materials, purchased from SSAB, and sells them worldwide. Proplate would like to market themselves better and wishes to produce a catalogue for the maximum load that can be applied to their tension bars, as competitors Pretec and Macalloy, already have for their tension bars. The purpose of the project has been to investigate the tension bars and the maximum load they can withstand before failure. The tension bars have been modeled in the CAD-program Creo Parametric, and then sent to the finite element method program ABAQUS to analyze their structural strength. Three different types of tension bars, and a fourth tension bar (called the walnut-strap) used as a connecting element between some of the tension bars, were investigated. They were modeled with sprints, to hold several tension bars together, and with a construction called loader, to simplify the model load application step. The three different types of tension bars have been analyzed as individual and also when connected to other tension bars. Some tension bars could be directly connected to each other with sprints, and some used the walnut-strap to connect other tension bars to each other. The project was limited to fatigue analyses, which is an important factor to control. This could instead be a great continuation of the project. The results from the strength analyses show that the stress is higher at the surfaces around the hole at the end of each tension bar, and the maximum load the tension bars can withstand depends on this area. The length, thickness and orientation of the tension bar has been varied, and the maximum load that each model can withstand has been listed. The length and direction of the tension bars did not influence the result for singular tension bars, but the thickness did. Both the length and the thickness of the tension bars did influence the result when multiple tension bars where connected to each other. Tables have been derived which shows the absolute maximum load that the tension bars can withstand. Proplate can use the tables in their catalogue, and they can also put a safety factor on the models to make them safer. Another part of the study was to investigate advantages and disadvantages with if the sprints, the connecting element between the tension bars, were replaced with screws instead. The result describes the yield strength needed for the screws and how the structures would behave compared to the current structure. A larger investigation into the effect of using screws may be one way to continue the work after this project, together with other investigations of, for instance, the use of compression bars.

  • 33.
    Holmén, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Konceptrealisering av tappvarmvattenproducerande sol- och luftvärmepump: Framtagning av funktionsprototyp med syftet att tilltala investerare eller samarbetspartner2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has been a degree project for the Bachelor of Science programme in Innovation and Design at Karlstad University. The degree project extends 22, 5 ECTS credits and has been carried out by Andreas Holmén. The academic supervisor from Karlstad University was industrial designer and lecturer Lennart Wihk and the examiner was Professor Fredrik Thuvander.

    The degree project was part of a bigger project involving five other students. The project was an industrial cooperation between Karlstad University, Glava energy center and Värmestugan AB.

    The project is built around an idea about being able to improve the energy efficiency of the heating of domestic water by combining solar heating and heat pump technology. The initial phase of the project was carried out with the whole project group together, when the group agreed on a main concept each member of the group focused on his/her specific task.

    This specific degree project set out to find out the requirements suitable for a functional prototype meant to accost an investor or a partner company. But also in what way these requirements could be reached within the project’s timeframe.

    The task was solved by making a research that was compiled by using a functional analysis and a semantic analysis resulting in a requirement specification. Later the information that emerged through the research was used to come up with ideas and design documents for the prototype.

    The construction of the prototype took up the largest part of this project, since it was the group’s main objective to produce a functional prototype within the projects timeframe.

    The final result of this project was the functional prototype of a air-air heat pump aided by the sun, but also the knowledge that was accumulated during the research phase and the making of the prototype.

  • 34. Huss, Niclas
    Analysis of headbox structural strength: OptiFlo II TIS 22002019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Valmet is a world leading supplier of tissue machines. In the tissue industry the demand on the machines is high to be able to produce the finest paper for use in products such as toilet paper and napkins. The machine components need to perform to be able to produce a product of consistent quality. Many different properties of the tissue can be evaluated through manipulation of the fibre content. Layers of cellulose are added into the process through a headbox, which acts as nozzle which distributes the fibres and water along the machine width. The tissue machines can be around 6 metres wide which put high demands on structural rigidity of the machine components to be able to maintain a uniform product along the machine width. Crucial parts are calculated prior to manufacturing to make sure they fulfil stress and rigidity criteria.

    This thesis covers the development of such a computational model of a headbox. The aim was to create a model which will be accurate in terms of deflection but also fast to calculate using ANSYS Workbench software.

    Many simplifications were made in the model to speed up solving time such as:

    • Removal of non-structural parts

    • Mirror symmetry

    • Material manipulation to replace perforated structurally important itemsAlso contact formulations were showing a large effect on accuracy and solution time in the model.With applied simplifications the solver time was decreased by over 73% compared to the initial model.

    The computational model was used in the thesis to evaluate the current configuration of the transverse welds in the headbox when exposed to static load. The load was applied by internal pressure. An evaluation was desirable following a material change from austenitic stainless steel SS2343 to the LDX2101 of duplex grade. LDX2101 which have a significantly higher yield stress of near 500 MPa compared to 250 MPa for SS2343.For static evaluation the welds showed low stresses in welds throughout the headbox. This leaves room to possible optimization of weld applications by reduction to least recommended throat measure of 3mm. This reduction result in quicker manufacturing time and thereby lower manufacturing costs. Static calculations show possible reductions of 66% in application time.

  • 35.
    Hörling, Anton
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Formgivning av en papperskorg2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This thesis documents a bachelor’s degree project for the engineering programme in Innovation Technology and Design, spring semester 2018 at Karlstad University. The project has been carried out in accordance with conventional product development process, in an assignment to design a paper bin for SPAZA; a Swedish company that provides elegant products for spa and hotel environments. All products in the assortment are within the SPAZA material and manufacturing specification: laser cut, bent and powder coated stainless steel sheet.

    The purpose of the project is to apply knowledge acquired from the engineering programme and, with a scientific basis, design a paper bin that considers the needs in all the different stages of its life cycle. This without compromising style or aesthetic expression.

    A pre-study identified the needs in manufacturing, shipping, assembly and use by hotel guests and cleaning staff. These needs were then formulated openly as primary and secondary requirements, and together with what had already been specified by the outsourcer, a product specification was formed, which was later used in idea generation.

    Idea generation produced a lot of ideas for forms and functions. These were combined, and together they formed concepts that were developed further in work with models. Recognized methods for screening were then used to determine which concepts that were of value to present to the outsourcer, and during a conceptual meeting a decision was made on which concept to realize.

    A final concept, Concept 4 as it was called, derives from an idea for function about using the sheet metal’s flexing material properties to hold up the bag. The concept meets the needs in the various life cycle stages with a total of 30 out of 31 fulfilled requirements listed in the product specification.

    A CAD model of Concept 4 was sent to CNC Plåt in Västervik for prototype manufacturing. The prototype was evaluated and adjusted in accordance with identified improvements in forms or function, and with a second version of the CAD model having been delivered to the outsourcer, the goal of the assignment was achieved.

    The project is finished, and the paper bin is one step closer to production.

  • 36.
    Iverlund, Hans
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Akustisk kontroll av framtidens kontor: Summit Flexiwall2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project presented in this report was conducted by Hans Iverlund and was the final thesis of the Study programme in innovation and design engineering at Karlstad University. The project included 22,5 ECTS credits. Parts of the project were carried out in collaboration with Robin Westlund, who also did his final thesis of the Study programme in innovation and design engineering.

    The project was conducted in collaboration with Moelven Eurowand AB, which is a company that manufactures, sells and installs room solutions consisting of wall systems, door portals and some furniture, mainly for offices. Supervisor from Moelven Eurowand AB was Pernilla Irewährn, tutor from Karlstad University was Monica Jakobsson and examiner for the project was Professor Fredrik Thuvander. Moelven Eurowand AB wished to get better insight for how the future office would look and operate, so that they could develop their future products in the right direction. To gain that insight, the project began with extensive research, consisting of literature studies, field studies and interviews with people that work in offices. Parameters that were identified as important for the future of office were the ability of control over the surroundings and the need for acoustical and visual privacy and social interaction with other people. This resulted in a vision for the future that was visualized with a continuously variable dimmer switch that controls the acoustic environment and the visual interaction with other people in the area in which the individual office employee is located. The dimmer switch became the aim for the development of a product that would fit into this vision for the future. The product development was carried out using a list of demands, idea generation and a systematic generation of concepts. The product that was developed was called Summit Flexiwall, and was a flexible panel-wall solution that enabled control of the acoustic environment and the amount of social interaction. The product may serve several different functions in an office environment.

  • 37.
    Janebrink, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Construction of tilt table with high loads: A construction with complete hydraulic system2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At Uddeholm AB, they today use two overhead cranes with chains to move and tilt steel sheets for visual inspection of surface defects. The tilting is done to give the operator a better view of these defects using reflection of light. The problem with this approach is that it is combined with danger of life with hanging load, in case a chain breaks. Therefore Uddeholm AB would like to develop a tilt table that can be mounted on their lift table they use today.

    To solve this problem, 5 concepts was developed using a product development process. The chosen concept was further developed into a product that met the defined load case to tilt the sheets, weighing up to 20 tonnes, 55 degrees. The design that was selected use two points of rotation and is driven by three hydraulic cylinders.

    The structure has been calculated by hand and with the structural mechanics software Ansys. To tilt the table a complete hydraulic system was developed and dimensioned. The hydraulic system has been calculated by hand and simulated by a computer program called Hopsan developed at Linköping University. 

  • 38.
    Jansson, Adam
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics, Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Further development of Sand Bed Burner2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To determine whether a weapon system meets the requirements set for insensitivity, the system is getting exposed for special tests. One of these tests shows how the system reacts when it ends up in a fire. This test is called the "Fast Cook-Off (FCO) Test", called FCO-test, and performed with a Sand Bed Burner (SBB). According to primary testing provision, the fuel for this test is used of jet fuel such as Jet A-1. A project at Bofors Test Center (BTC) is in progress to use an alternative fuel of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This fuel is very advantageous compared to jet fuel in terms of environmental impact, work environment and testing costs.

    The aim of this thesis is to improve the existing test equipment considering fire over the entire surface and solve the problems with dropped gas flow and freezing of gas bottles.

    SBB works in the sense that the new petrol LPG streams into the SBB and expands in the free space below the sand bed before the gas will diffuse through the bed of sand and the fire engulfs the object.

    LPG is a condensable gas that requires oxygen. LPG exceed from liquid to gas phase and needs a large lateral surface to take up more energy which results in better evaporationto the phase transfer. Reaction products from complete combustion of LPG are only water vapor and carbon dioxide, the same as in your exhaled air.

    To solve these problems it was needed to change P11 composite bottles to P45 steel bottles to get a longer evaporation and larger lateral surface. Four flow inlets instead were used of one into SBB for a better stream in the free space under the sand bed. Propane regulators used to get a lower and more constant flow to avoid freezing. Compressed airconnected tothe SBB to geta mix between oxygen and LPG.

    The result shows in higherheat radiation efficiency even though the flow was settled down to 1/3 with the new propane regulators. In test 2 the value was 37 kW/m2 and in test 7 it was around 57 kW/m2. Because of a smaller flow and bigger steel bottles the freezing disappeared. Smaller grain of sand together with four inlets and compressed air gave a more complete combustion.

  • 39.
    Johansson, Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Chassiintegrerade lastceller: Installation i fjädersäte på Scania tandemboggibakaxlar2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis presented in this report has been made on behalf of Scania and their basic frame design department with the subject to solve an implementation of a weight sensing system in the chassis. The system is supposed to be implemented in the seat springs, and the reason for this is that all the force will have to go through the weight sensing transducers. With all the force going through the transducers the weight sensing system will not be sensitive for the differences in tolerances from manufacturing. The transducers could be pre-calibrated to avoid a calibration of the whole vehicle after it’s completed from the manufacturing line.

    Weight sensing systems is today a reality in trucks with air springs. Complete systems is also sold in the big aftermarket for trucks. None of Scanias competitors have a solution for this as of today.

    The thesis was from start limited to only process the BT-301S bogie. A system will likely be easy to adapt to the other bogies with small modifications.

    Through the thesis possible problems are illuminated to understand the function and make a properly working weight sensing system. In the present bogie system the main problem for a proper function is the frictional forces that appears in the surface between the spring and the spring seat. 

    In the report a proposition with a rubber part between the spring and the spring seat is introduced, with the idea to get around the known problems with the frictional forces. The rubber itself does produce a reaction force when deformed, but the forces could through simulation be known, and hence compensated for. A rubber part under the spring would result in a contact surface much higher than today. A new spring, or a new version of the spring, will be needed for this solution to work.

    For the work to come, Scania need to decide what precision the weight sensing system need. But smaller decisions like the size and stiffness for the rubber part will also be needed. This thesis has only dealt with the bogie, but in a close future, the front axles need to be done. Much can likely be carried over from this thesis for that.

    A weight sensing might be possible to implement, but with what precision at uneven ground? Most likely will the variation in load on the transducers be too much. An approximation for the precision with a total span of 7% is realistic.

  • 40.
    Kahn, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Saar, Nimrod
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Analys och utredning av hjulmotorer/kontrollsystem samt SotA inom det valda området ur ett elektromekaniskt perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Precer Group is a Swedish company that develops and provides technological solutions to produce electricity by burning solid fuels. Precer has developed a unique system based on an adaptive technique for charging different kinds of hybrid vehicles such as cars, trucks, utility vehicles and boats but, also for housing in the form of electricity generation. They have a patent on a heat engine that drives a generator that charges the battery.Precer Group also has collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) in which they are working together to develop new types of powertrains and fuels to create very environmentally friendly hybrid vehicles that do not run on fossil fuels.We have been working together with Precer Group to try to determine how todays technology with wheel motors and the motor controls can be implemented in this specific concept vehicle and also see how the problem that exsist with this tecnology e.g. unsprung weight, power and controlfunctions and systems can be solved. We have concentrated on finding out the best performance for in-wheel motors and the best functionality, safety and usage of motor controllers available on the present market.We received a list of specifications from Precer that we adhered to when we checked and analyzed different manufacturer’s motors. The reason behind attempting to use wheel motors, in oppose to more conventional motors, is weight reduction. By using wheel motors we are able to omit axels and gearboxes, thereby reducing the total weight of the vehicle which must be kept within a maximum limit. Another reason is that the use of in-wheel motors gives possibilities to implement smart electrical systems to control the motors and the vehicle through CAN buses. This leads to faster and more complex steering of the vehicle to improve the efficiency, stability and safety. Precer also specified the use of four separate wheel motors in order to utilize a four-wheel drive concept. We have compared the performance of the various motors and controllers available, and we have concluded which motor best suits this vehicle. Through physical calculations and functional comparisons of data that we have received from some of the leading companies we have come to results that show that systems which integrate the in-wheel motors and the controllers demonstrate a better performance when it comes to acceleration and climb ability. Also their functionality is considerably higher than the systems that integrate in-wheel motors with a universal controller. Although it’s able to configure the universal controllers considerably more and so make it possible for the user to personalize the system by desire.

  • 41.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Drömmen om den röda stugan: Huruvida varumärket Falu Rödfärg kan utvidgas till en ny produktkategori2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "The dream of the Swedish red cottage" is a final thesis for the Innovation and Design Engineering program at Karlstad University. Anna Karlsson and Sebastian Karlsson have executed the project during spring term of 2011. The thesis includes 22,5 ECTS credits.

     

    Johan Molin, at Falu Rödfärg, has been the assigner for this project, as well as the project supervisor. Lennarth Wihk, industrial designer and lecturer at Karlstad University has been the academic supervisor for this project. Fredrik Thuvander, lecturer and professor has been the examiner.

     

    Falu Rödfärg is an outdoor paint for untreated and rough timber. The production and manufacturing of Falu Rödfärg have occurred since 1764, in the area around Falu copper mine. The color fabrication is a simple process and contains among other things boiling water, wheat flour and the characteristic red pigment. The pigment comes from the mineralization of the Falu copper mine, where red mull is created from ore with low copper content that has decomposed for a long time. The mine has been closed since 1992, after more than a thousand years of mining.

     

    The brand Falu Rödfärg is registered and legally protected and guarantees that the product is genuine Falu Rödfärg. Until 2006, there were a number of licensed manufacturers of Falu Rödfärg, who made and sold the color under their own names. The only requirement was that the brand had to be on the jar. As a first step in protecting and enhancing the brand, Falu Rödfärg made the decision that the color was only to be sold in one type of design, and the number of licensees was cut down. The reaction to this action was that several copies emerged on the market and Falu Rödfärg lost some of its ground. In 2008, Falu Rödfärg took over total responsibility of manufacturing and sales.

     

    The purpose of this project is to provide a basis and suggestions for products in a new product category to which Falu Rödfärg can extend their brand. The goal is to identify a proposal for an appropriate product category to which the brand can be extended, and produce recommendations for products which fit to the new category.

     

    The product category is subsequently proposed to the category “Outdoor environment / Garden” and the prototypes developed during the project are based on an extensive market research with respect to the category. Both needs and desires of the consumers, as well as the products that are available in today’s market have been identified.

     

    Through concept generation, concept evaluation and processing the project team thereby developed three prototypes that fit to the new product category, and can form the basis for Falu Rödfärg’s brand extension.

     

    Products designed for and developed to the garden market may be an appropriate product category to which Falu Rödfärg can extend their brand. An additional consumer research is needed to locate the inherent associations of the brand, and an evaluation of the adequacy considering the product category from a consumer point of view, from which the company’s continued brand management can proceed.

  • 42.
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Kund- och användarinvolvering i utvärderingsprocessen: En utvärderingsmetod för gavelisolering till Yankee-cylindrar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay is

    to develop a holistic collection method for selection critera by using service logic and sustainability and an evaluation method and also investigate the difference between customer criteras and producer criteras.

    Theories in the essay are derived from classical product development combined with service research and especially service innovation. To answer the four research questions, below, a case study has been conducted.

    1. How should the criterias be generated to ensure a holistic perspective?

    2. When evaluating products which criterias should be used?

    3. How should the criteria be used to ensure that the product meets the imposed requirements?

    4. Due to customer and user involvation, how does the criterias change in the development process?

    The result of this essay is an evaluation method for Yankee head insulation using a

    product specification, Phal and Beitz's elimination matrix, Pugh's decision matrix, and Kesselring's matrix. When the evaluation method was developed an analysis was cunducted of the process and how customer and user involvement affected the criteria used in the method.

    The essay contributes to further knowledge of customer and user involvation in the development process as well as a method for how customers and users' knowledge can be used in the evaluation process.

  • 43.
    Kashif, Muhammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Design  and Manufacturing of Test Rig for Linear Electric Machine2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Technology has earlier developed a full scale prototype of linear electric machine but combustion was not controlled and there was a requirement to build the test rig. the objective was to run the prototype without using combustion.

  • 44.
    Lundqvist Hagelin, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Expandering av smörjsystem till valsmaskinen vid Uddeholms AB: Analys av kandidater till utbyggnad2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Expandering av smörjsystem till valsmaskinen vid Uddeholms AB – Analys av kandidater till utbyggnad är ett examensarbete som genomförts på Karlstads Universitet inom högskoleingenjörsutbildningen i Maskinteknik. Arbetet har utförts i samarbete med Uddeholms AB och SKF Lubrication competence center AB. Uddeholms AB är ett världsledande företag inom tillverkning av verktygsstål för industriella verktyg och finns i 90 länder med cirka 3000 anställda globalt. För att fortsätta vara världsledande krävs hög tillförlitlighet på maskinerna. En viktig del i detta är underhåll av maskinerna där smörjning är av hög vikt. I denna studie analyseras lämpliga kandidater till utbyggnad av ett smörjsystem på en valsmaskin vid Uddeholms AB:s avdelning Götvalsverket. Projektets syfte var att sätta sig in i produktionens processer för att kunna identifiera hur det befintliga smörjsystemet fungerar och vilken kapacitet som fanns att tillgå. Målet var att ta fram lämpliga kandidater till utbyggnad av smörjsystemet och att konstruera ett schematiskt ritningsunderlag utan krav på toleranser samt att undersöka lönsamheten i detta. Metoder såsom Process FMEA, förstudie, undersökningar, kvalitativa metoder, SKF:s beräkningsprogram för lager och konstruktionsprogrammet Autocad 2019 har använts. I studien framkom att smörjsystemet går att bygga ut med 300 kandidater och att pumpen har större kapacitet än vad som behövs. Konstruktionen är visualiserad med schematiskt ritningsunderlag som beskriver hur kandidaterna är indelade för varje doseringsgrupp. Rapporten innehåller andra viktiga dokument såsom översiktsritning för doseringsgrupper och schematiska ritningar för detaljer. Lönsamheten i utbyggnadsprojektet är god. Investeringen på cirka 300000 SEK har en återbetalningstid på drygt två år.

  • 45.
    Lundström, William
    Karlstad University.
    Effektivisering av en rengöringsprocess i en produktionslinje: Kompakt tvättkonstruktion som ersätter befintlig tvättanläggning2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report documents a bachelor thesis in the course engineering program in innovationtechnology and design. The course comprises 22.5 credits and is conducted in the spring term2019 at Karlstad University. The project has been carried out in collaboration with RZ ZampartAB

    The existing processes in RZ Zampart's production have been reviewed and there areopportunities for improvement. The contractor's purpose with the project is to streamline one ofthe cleaning processes in a production line. In the existing cleaning process, an alkaline solutionis used which is necessary to get the details sufficiently clean for further processing. At present,the aluminum parts are cleaned in a conventional manner, which means storing the parts inorder to make maximum use of the existing washing plant. The conventional method leads toan increased number of products in work that involve tied capital and used by valuable floorspace.

    The aim was to develop a solution that replaces the first cleaning in the process stage,which leads to lower throughput time, reduced tied capital in stored parts and reduced use offloor space.The project has applied the design process with a project model that includes the phasespreparatory work, feasibility study, requirement specification, concept generation, conceptselection and a layout design. Creative and systematic methods such as tree technology,morphological analysis, models and structural engineering have been used.

    The result is a compact design that uses steam as a washing medium instead of alkaline solutionsand the parts are washed immediately after the turning operation. The construction createsbetter conditions for a more efficient production where the throughput time decreases, less laborand smaller products in work.

  • 46.
    Malmborg, Petter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Engine air filter requirements: How different running conditions affect service life2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The internal combustion engine requires clean air in order to operate without problems the entire service life. The air filter acts as a barrier between the ambient air ridden with particulate matter, and the sensitive interior of the engine. Several factors affect the air filter performance, such as pressure drop, efficiency, and dust holding capacity. Many external factors affect the air filter too, such as driving style, engine type, if the car is equipped with hybrid propulsion et cetera.

    The scope for this thesis work aims to extend the knowledge of air filtration for the customer, in this case, Volvo Cars. A comprehensive literature study along with benchmarking of competitors acts as a foundational approach. Regarding air filter service life, three parameters are identified as the most significant: dust holding capacity, efficiency and pressure drop over the filter element.

    Reverse engineering shows some competitor design decisions. A model of estimating air consumption is developed using a data-driven approach with real-world driving data as a basis. The model shows how much the actual air consumption varies between different markets and various engines. As a result, the service lifetime of air filters in certain cars with certain engines may be extended or allow for a smaller filter size for the same service lifetime.

  • 47.
    Martin, Larsson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Framtagning av frekvenssyrd filterkärra2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten handlar om framtagning av användarvänlig konstruktionslösning till en frekvensstyrd filterkärra och görs på uppdrag av Lars-Olof Larsson vid Filterteknik AB i Karlstad. Kursen är Examensarbete högskoleingenjörsexamen i maskinteknik, MSGC17 vid fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap på Karlstads universitet under vårterminen 2014.

    I detta examensarbete tas en konstruktionslösning fram till en frekvensstyrd filterkärra som är en blivande produkt och ersättare till två tidigare filterkärror. Filterkärrans uppgift är att filtrera olika oljor från vatten och partiklar. En testkörningsprototyp fanns från början och huvudkomponenterna var utvalda. Genom produktutvecklingsprocessens metodik har ett antal prototyper tagits fram och utifrån det har den med bäst lösning valts och arbetats vidare med. 

    Resultatet blev en kärra med samma ramstomme som tidigare liknade kärror. Det valda konceptet har två filter placerade bredvid varandra och ett frekvensskåp på framsidan över filtarna. På baksidan placeras motor och pump. Ritningar och stycklista har tagits fram för framtida CE-märkning och hållfasthetsberäkningar har utförts på ramkonstruktion.

    Slutsaten är att den slutliga konstruktionslösningen är en bra fungerande lösning som går att gå vidare med för att slutligen bli en ny produkt.

  • 48.
    Mossberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    On the use of two sampling strategies for solving an errors-in-variables problem2015In: 2015 EUROPEAN CONTROL CONFERENCE (ECC), IEEE, 2015, p. 1778-1783Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two sampling strategies are used for solving an errors-in-variables problem where the system as well as the white measurement noises are of a continuous-time nature. The sampling strategies are integrated sampling, and lowpass filtering followed by instantaneous sampling. Covariance relations are derived and systems of equations are formed for the data obtained from the two sampling strategies, and parameter estimators based on these relations and equations are proposed.

  • 49.
    Myhrman, Christopher
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Optimering av hydraulsystem på pappershanteringstruck2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet inom Maskiningenjörsprogrammet på Karlstad universitet har utförts på Linde Material Handling AB i Örebro. Arbetet inleddes med att en kundundersökning utfördes genom en enkät till personal på Stora Enso Skoghall. Enkäten innehöll relevanta frågor om hur kunden upplever sina truckar från Linde, hur service och underhåll fungerar, samt hur de skulle vilja förbättra truckarna inför framtiden.

    Utifrån kundundersökning hos Stora Enso uppdagades det bl.a. att hydrauliken i klämaggregatet går för långsamt och att detta är ett störande moment som medför irritation bland truckförarna. Frågeställningen blev, hur väl anpassat klämaggregatet är till truckens hydrauliska funktion utifrån dagens krav på klämkraft och fart. Hydrauliken hos truckar som byggs idag är mycket förfinad gentemot äldre system och kan leverera högre hydraultryck. Med ett högre hydraultryck kan samma klämkraft uppnås med en mindre cylinderdiameter.

    Arbetet har gått ut på att undersöka och kartlägga förluster i lasthanteringshydrauliken, samt att om möjligt minska dessa. Arbetet har avgränsats till att undersöka hydraulsystemet för klämhydrauliken, från truckens ventilblock, genom masten och ut till aggregatet. Aggregatets hydraulcylindrar ingick i undersökningen, även utvärdering av dess dimension, med mål att minimera tiden från öppet till stängt aggregat.

    Resultatet av experiment och beräkningar visar att slangvindan, och tillhörande slangledningar, för klämfunktionen är underdimensionerad och ger upphov till en stor värmeeffekt som ger energiförluster i form av onödig uppvärmning av hydrauloljan. Genom grövre dimensionering av slangvindan kan besparingen på ett år uppnå till 9 m

    3 dieselbränsle, motsvarande cirka 126 000 Skr. Detta beräknat på att utlastningstruckarna på Stora Enso Skoghall hanterar 700 000 ton kartong per år. Ur miljöperspektiv skulle bränslebesparingen motsvara cirka 22 ton fossil koldioxid.

    För att öka farten från öppet till stängt aggregat finns möjligheten att minska hydraulcylindrarnas diameter och på så vis minska tiden från öppet till stängt aggregat, från 5,7 s till cirka 3,6 s, samtidigt som erforderlig klämkraft uppnås.

  • 50.
    Nilman, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Modeling and Simulation of Brake Squeal in Disc Brake Assembly2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Brake squeal is an old and well-known problem in the vehicle industry and is a frequent source for customer complain. Although, brake squeal is not usually affecting the performance of the brakes, it is still important to address the problem and to predict the brakes tendency to squeal on an early stage in the design process. Brake squeal is usually defined as a sustained, high-frequency vibration of the brake components, due to the braking action. By using simulation in finite element (FE) method it should be possible to predict at what frequencies the brakes tend to emit sound.

    The method chosen for the analysis was the complex eigenvalues analysis (CEA) method, since it is a well-known tool to predict unstable modes in FE analysis. The results from the CEA were evaluated against measured data from an earlier study. Even though there are four main mechanism formulated in order to explain the up come of squeal, the main focus in this project was modal coupling, since it is the main mechanism in the CEA.

    A validation of the key components in model was performed before the analysis, in order to achieve better correlation between the FE model and reality. A parametric study was conducted with the CEA, to investigate how material properties and operating parameters effected the brakes tendency to squeal. The following parameters was included in the analysis; coefficient of friction, brake force, damping, rotational velocity, and Young’s modulus for different components.

    The result from the CEA did not exactly reproduce the noise frequencies captured in experimental tests. The discrepancy is believed to mainly be due to problems in the calibration process of the components in the model. The result did however show that the most effective way to reduce the brakes tendency for squeal was to lower the coefficient of friction.

    The effect of varying the Young’s modulus different components showed inconsistent results on the tendency to squeal. By adding damping one of the main disadvantages for the CEA, which the over-prediction of the number of unstable modes, where minimized. 

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