Change search
Refine search result
1 - 28 of 28
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Tillförlitlig försörjningskedja: En fallstudie på Saabs projektprocess2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Aronsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Bidrar GLONASS till bättre positionering?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Från den 1 april 2006 gavs möjligheten att använda GLONASS-systemet vid NRTK-mätningar som dessförinnan enbart använde sig av GPS-systemet. Allt fler inbyggda positioneringstjänster i vår nya teknik går nu mot att börja använda sig av både GPS och GLONASS-systemen. Tillgången till både amerikanska och ryska satelliter borde göra att vi får bättre, mer exakta och stabila mätningar vid dåliga förhållanden. Men är verkligen följden av att använda fler satelliter lösningen, eller räcker det i vissa tillfällen med enbart GPS-satelliter. Är den mer utbreda användningen av GLONASS-satelliter bara marknadsföring från företagen för att få sälja mer, dyrare och nyare produkter och därmed lura konsumenten att den är i behov av uppgraderade produkter som har GLONASS-stöd.

    Syftet var att undersöka om GPS och GLONASS förbättrar mätningarna och tillgängligheten i öppna respektive störda miljöer eller är det bara onödigt för konsumenten att sträva efter att positioneringsverktyget i ny teknik ska stödja båda satellitsystemen.

    En annan fråga är om det finns viss ny teknik som är tillämpade för olika områden där behovet är antingen större av GPS och GLONASS eller de områden där enbart GPS räcker till och ger minst lika goda mätningar och positionering.

    I detta examensarbete gjordes NRTK mätningar mot SWEPOS på ett antal kända punkter vid Karlstads Universitet där punkterna hade olika förutsättningar så som öppna och störda miljöer. Mätningarna gjordes med enbart GPS- respektive med GPS och GLONASS-satelliter påslagna. De bestämda koordinaterna i plan för de kända punkterna jämfördes med koordinaterna från mätningarna med enbart GPS respektive med GPS och GLONASS.

    De extra GLONASS-satelliterna är bra att använda sig av när man ska mäta i störda miljöer, de hjälper till att få en bättre noggrannhet. När man dock är i icke störda miljöer med fri sikt mot satelliterna räcker enbart GPS-satelliterna långt. Med den nya tekniken som kommer så finns ofta GLONASS-systemet inbyggt och är i de flesta fall är ingen ytterligare kostnad som konsumenten behöver ta utan är endast ett bra komplement oavsett användningsområde.

  • 3.
    Bäckström, Morgan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Insamling av höjddata med UAV: En jämförelse mellan laserskanning, GNSS och UAV2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to compare elevation data, from UAV photo, with NRTK, trigonometric leveling and airborne laser scanning. The concrete issues to investigate were:

    • What quality is achieved by data acquisition using UAV, compared to laser scanning and terrestrial measurement with NRTK? • How much does different flight altitudes affect the result?

    The aerial photos were taken at 60 and 120 meters above ground, using seven flight support points and four ground control points. Those were measured with NRTK and terrestrial measurement. Collected images have been processed, with Agisoft Photoscan 1.4.2, into models in which coordinates are retrieved for comparison. The coordinates were compared and showed a deviation of 24 to 76 millimeters which is an acceptable result for a HMK standard level 2.

  • 4. Börjars, Simon
    Höjdavvägning och trigonometrisk höjdmätning: en metodjämförelse2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5. Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Christoffersson, Peter
    Byggplatsnät: Att etablera ett spänningsfritt stomnät2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Evans, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    3D-visualisering av detaljplaner: Standarder och riktlinjer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användningen och behovet av 3D-modeller inom fysisk planering har ökat, både nationellt och internationellt. I nuläget saknas standarder och riktlinjer kring hur man bör förhålla sig vid 3D-visualisering av detaljplaner, vilket skapar oklarheter kring hur de skall visualiseras. De flesta av Sveriges kommuner ser positivt på ett införande av en gemensam nationell standard för 3D-visualiseringar inom planprocessen, då detta troligtvis skulle underlätta och förbättra arbetsprocessen vid 3D-detaljplanering.Syftet med arbetet var att undersöka vilka riktlinjer och förhållningssätt man kan utgå från för att 3D-modeller i planprocesser skall öka förståelsen och engagemanget vid exempelvis samråd och medborgardialog.Förslag på riktlinjeroch förhållningssättvid 3D-visualiseringar av detaljplanertogs fram, där fokus låg kring begreppen detaljeringsnivå, ändamål, höjd och utnyttjandegrad. En undersökning gjordes även om någon av standarderna SOSI eller CityGML är lämpliga att använda för 3D-detaljplanering i Sverige utifrån de krav som ställs i plan-och bygglagen.Metoden bestod övervägande av en litteraturstudie där både nationell och internationell forskning studerades. Det samlades även in kompletterande information genom personlig kommunikation med tjänstemän från Karlstad-och Falu kommun. En fallstudie gjordes över detaljplanerna Sundsta torg och Hyttan 16 och 18 där en diskussion fördes kring hur dessa skulle kunna visualiseras i 3D.Utifrån resultatet drogs slutsatsen att det idag finns för lite forskning kring ämnet för att ta fram riktlinjer för en fullskalig 3D-Modell. Resultatet visade även att den nuvarande versionen av SOSI inte är lämplig för 3D-visualisering av detaljplaner, men att det material som beskriver den kommande versionen ser lovande ut och att CityGML har potential att användas inom detaljplanering, men förslagsvis borde den innefatta fler detaljeringsnivåer.

  • 7.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Energy consumption, costs and environmental impacts doe urban water cycle services: Case study of Oslo (Norway)2011In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 792-800Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Hedenbo, Rebecka
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Spånsugssystem och luftrörelser hos TanumsFönster AB: mätningar och förslag för minskat undertryck i fabrikslokal2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    TanumsFönster ABs fabrik utanför Tanumshede i Bohuslän är byggd i många etapper. Spånsugssystemet och delar av allmänventilationen har inte anpassats tillräckligt till nuvarande byggnad och verksamhet. Det saknas också ritningar och kunskap om aktuella luftflöden. De luftflöden som krävs för att spån-utsugen ska fungera bra ersätts inte av kontrollerad tilluft, istället läcker uteluft in genom otätheter och runt portar på grund av det stora undertryck som finns i byggnaden. Detta skapar, främst vintertid, problem i form av drag och höga uppvärmningskostnader.I detta examensarbete dokumenteras huvuddelarna av spånsugssystemet i maskinhallen med ritningar och flödesmätningar. En rökstudie har gjorts, vilken tydliggör luftrörelserna i hela fabriksdelen av byggnaden, och åtgärder föreslås för att minska undertrycksproblemet. Besök och mätningar i fabriken är gjorda under perioden november 2011 till april 2012. Flödesmätningarna gjordes med Prandtl-rör och ett antal nödvändiga uppskattningar gjordes med stöd av underhållsansvarige Morgan Gustavsson.I nuläget är skillnaden mellan bortfört luftflöde och retur i maskinhallen ca 16 m3/s. Då returen inte lämnas där luften bortförs saknas i två inbyggda fräsrum ca 8 m3/s respektive ca 12 m3/s. Bland de åtgärdsförslag som ges för att minska problemen finns bättre utnyttjande av befintlig ventilation, skapande av en avgränsad kall zon, nya luftöppningar med ljuddämpning och effektivisering av spånsugsflöden.

  • 9.
    Henningsson, Gustav
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Larsson, Cassandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Gröna tak i Karlstad: Potentialen och effekterna av att implementera gröna tak2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world population is gradually increasing which requires that more habitations are built and natural green spaces are being replaced and needs to be restored. Urbanizations in cities contribute to environmental problems and climate changes with fatal changes like extreme weathers, higher water-standing and flooding. The high value of greenhouse gas, from the human’s impact by using carbon dioxide, results in such high values of gas that the vegetation can’t absorb and the air quality deteriorates. The environmental problems also result in loss of species and habitats which consumes the natural ecosystem that is the foundation of the human well-being and survival.  

     

    The study comprises in how green roofs can preclude the risks of flooding and contribute to a more sustainable usage of surface water in the central areas of Karlstad and which other surplus values green roofs can add to the economical-, ecological- and social development.

     

    The study was aimed to investigate the benefits of green roofs in Karlstad, where the calculations was performed on the surface water use, Tingvallastadens ability to buffer against flooding, the profit investment and the potential capacity for greens roofs to absorb air pollution. The defined benefits of green roofs were reduction of noise, decreasing cost of maintenance, improved health both mentally and physically, lower temperatures and where the roofs also can be used as isolation. From the calculations it appeared that green roofs can conduce to a lowered flooding risk and also help to absorb insanitary particles in the air.

    The conclusion of the project and the presented literature is that green roofs can provide good possibilities to Karlstad in a social- and ecological matter. The benefits, that is promoting the ecosystem and biodiversity, the surface water use, noise reduction and improving the wellbeing, have not been able to evaluate like the economical investment, which result in that the economical profitable investment may have a bigger impact than the results indicates for Karlstad.

     

    Green roofs have a potential to reduce the risks of flooding for all the recurrence intervals. If consideration to the cultural heritage is taken to Karlstad it’s only possible to reduce the flooding caused by a rainfall for 10 years.  On that ground it’s hard to motivate an investment in green roofs from a flooding perspective if it is not combined with other arrangements that contributes to a sustainable surface water use.

  • 10.
    Jansson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    En noggrannhetsundersökning av fotogrammetrisk detaljmätning i stereo2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this degree project is to study the accuracy in photogrammetric measurements in stereo. Since before there is a rule of thumb that the standard uncertainty in these kinds of measurements is about 1 pixel in plane and 1.5 in height. But there is no one who has done any deeper study regarding this before.

    A total of 62 points has been measured, both photogrammetric and geodetic in field. The results has then been compared. The points are located in Jönköping, Norrköping and Skellefteå. The photogrammetric measurements has been made both at Lantmäteriets standard pictures with a resolution of 25 or 50 cm and pictures with higher resolution between 6 and 12 cm.

    Every point is measured photogrammetrically five times. In the field they are measured three times each with GNSS during 60 seconds and at least two hours between each measurement. I have calculated the average results and compared them to each other. The results are presented both in meters and in pixels.

    I came to the conclusion that in plane the radial deviation is about one pixel of the pictures resolution, the range is 0.72–1.23 pixels. The deviation seems to be independent of location and resolution of the pictures. In height the deviations are significantly bigger and the range is 0.42–2.44 pixels. The reason for this, is that the big deviation may depend on how many ground support points that are used in the block triangulation.

    The degree project also describes the theory behind stereo photogrammetry and explains in short words the process to create a stereo model.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    En informationssammanställning inför utveckling av en ny nationell ortnamnsdatabas: Insamling av metainformation och visualiseringstekniker för geografiska objekt och informationsutvinning av metainformation om ortnamn2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lantmäteriet har som statlig ortnamnsmyndighet till uppgift att tillhandahålla, granska, editera och besluta om ortnamn. Idag finns det cirka 950 000 ortnamn lagrade i Lantmäteriets ortnamnsdatabas. Det finns dock en begränsad mängd metainformation kring alla ortnamn vilket är något Lantmäteriet planerar att åtgärda.Projektet MTP (modern topografisk produktion) är ett projekt som startades upp 2015 av Lantmäteriet. Ett av målen med projektet är att ta fram en ny ortnamnsdatabas. Projektgruppen ”Ortnamn och karttext” som har hand om denna del av MTP ansåg därför att det vore lämpligt att utannonsera ett examensarbete för att undersöka den delen.Målet med examensarbetet var att ge förslag på hur metainformation om ortnamn kan presenteras samt vilken metainformation som är av intresse, sammanställa information om rumsliga databaser, utföra en kartläggning av hur metainformation kan insamlas från internet, hur ortnamns geografiska avtryck kan visualiseras samt att undersöka vilka beståndsdelar som utgör en karttjänst för geografiska sökningar av ortnamn.Arbetet att undersöka vilken metainformation om ortnamn som är av intresse utfördes mha. workshops. Lantmäteriet hade identifierat fem olika målgrupper, varav tre medverkade; friluftsintresserade, studenter och tjänstemän. Totalt anordnades tre workshops, en för varje målgrupp. Resultatet varierade, men vissa idéer var återkommande i samtliga workshops. Deltagarna vill ha metainformation om det sökta ortnamnet, så som historisk bakgrund, ålder, areal, längd, betydelse och länkar till sidor som innehåller ytterligare information om ortnamnet.Resultatet från workshopparna visar att Lantmäteriets nuvarande karttjänst för sökning av ortnamn anses som bra. Detta tros bero på att den har de grundläggande elementen för en sådan tjänst, samt att gränssnittet efterliknar linkande tjänsters.Resultatet från workshopparna visade också att intresset för att se ortnamnens geografiska utsträckning var stort. Detta leder dock till att valda objekt måste urskiljas från resterande objekt i kartan för att ge användaren en bättre möjlighet att finna dem. Möjligheterna för att göra det anses goda då vektordata besitter flertalet visuella variabler.Resultatet från kartläggningen om utvinning av metainformation från internet pekar på goda möjligheter att utvinna information från internet då det finns flera ramverk och programvaror som möjliggör detta, en nackdel är att relativt få av dessa stödjer det svenska språket.Lantmäteriet kommer att behöva sätta upp klara ramverk med vilken och hur mycket metainformation som ska redovisas, och källorna till denna, då allt detta styr karttjänstens syfte, utformning och användning.

  • 12.
    Kempe, Pontus
    Karlstad University.
    Användning av UAV för datainsamling för 3D-modeller: Undersökning av flyg- och fotograferingsparametrar för UAV2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, 12 aerial photographs flights were taken over a small building in the municipality of Trosa, with a drone, or the correct name in this case is UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). Where the purpose was to create 3D models from the aerial images. UAV by model DJI Mavic Pro was used and controlled with smartphone apps like DroneDeploy and Pix4Dmapper.

    Different values ​​for flight and shooting parameters were tested to see how it affects the quality of the 3D model. The flight and photographing parameters that were investigated were the UAV's flight speed, flight altitude and overlap between the images. Each parameter was given a low and a high accuracy value based on what is recommended. Which results in that flight height was the parameter that had a decisive influence on the model's pixel resolution and pixel density. The resolution for a 3D model with a flying height of 25 meters was 0,828 cm / pixel. While overlap did not give a marginal difference in the model's pixel resolution and pixel density. However, there were clear differences between models with low and high overlap. The flightspeed could not be properly investigated as changes to the flightspeed of DroneDeploy did not match the flightspeed in reality.

     

    Smartphone apps, DroneDeploy and Pix4Dcapture that handle the UAV in autonomous data collection, compared where flights with similar values ​​where used for flight and shooting parameters. Three flights were made in each app where all parameters had a low, recommended and high accuracy value. The model’s pixel resolution and pixel density were equivalent between the apps, so a questionnaire survey was conducted where the models with high accuracy were compared. Which results in that all preferred the model created with aerial photos from Pix4Dcapture where it was described as better structure and higher detail.

     

    Two different software programs, Agisoft Photoscan and Pix4Dmapper that manage aerial images to create 3D models was compared to each other. Images from flights with DroneDeploy were used where all parameters had a low, recommended and high accuracy value. Which results in 3 models for each software. All models from Pix4Dmapper had a much higher pixel density. A model from each software with aerial images with high accuracy was compared in a questionnaire. There, all preferred the model created in Pix4Dmaps and described as being more accurate angle, size and clearer windows as well as keeping the original structure better.

  • 13.
    Laurell, Samuel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Terrester fotogrammetri med Trimble V10 Imaging Rover - Mätosäkerhet och leveransformat: Test av Trimble V10 Imaging Rover och Trimble Business Center2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The most common methods for collecting geographical information are currently through GNSS and total station or via traditional photogrammetry and laser scanning. The Trimble V10 Imaging Rover is an instrument that consists of 12 calibrated cameras with scanning function. This instrument serves as a compliment to traditional measurement methods such as GNSS and total station. The result of data collection with the Trimble V10 are measurable 360 ​​degree panoramas. Based on these panoramic images, measurements can be performed photogrammetically in the Trimble Business Center (TBC) software. Point clouds can also be generated in TBC based on these panoramic images.

    In this study, measurement uncertainty for the Trimbe V10 is tested at different distances from the measurement point. This to show what constraints the instrument has and which measurement uncertainty can be achieved at different measuring distances. The result shows that distances within 25 m provide a mean error in plane of less than 2 cm. The average error then increases by about 2 cm per 25 m. A distance of more than 100 m gives an average error above 1 dm. In height measurement, the average error is lower and is less affected by the measurement distance. The average error in height is between 8 mm for the shortest measurement distance of 10 m and 2 cm for the longest measurement distance of 120 m.

    The positioning of the Trimble V10 can be done with GNSS or with total station. In this study, tests are performed for which method of positioning establishment that provide the lowest measurement uncertainty. The results show that the differences between the establishment methods are equal in plane measurement. In height the total station etablishment has a lower measurement uncertainty than GNSS.

    In order to be able to perform photogrammetically calculations, images taken from at least two positions are required. A smaller test was performed in this study to assess whether the number of images used for photogrammetric calculation affects the result. That is, if a higher number of photo stations used results in lower measurement uncertainty. According to the result in this study, this is not the case.

    Because TBC was used to calculate data received from the Trimble V10, deliverables were investigated for 3D and 2D models, point clouds and panoramas. This was done to see which fileformat is best suited for data delivery to customers who do not have access to TBC. The fileformats tested in this study were the CAD formats DWG and DXF as well as the XML-format LandXML. For point clouds, the fileformats LAS and XYZ were tested. Panoramic images are tested by export to JPEG, HTML, and KMZ formats. The results show that DWG and DXF manage to handle 3D models exported from TBC with some shortage. LandXML only succeeds in managing points in 2D. The LAS and XYZ point cloud-files manage to store the same data, but LAS can be read by more software and is a smoother format for generating point clouds in TBC with. No comparison of panorama delivery routes could be performed when HTML and KMZ export failed.

  • 14.
    Lindqvist, Linus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Pantesjö, Jesper
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hantering och modellering av laserskanningsdata i FME: Automatisering av modellering av tunnlar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The building and construction industries implementation of BIM has resulted in an increased need to digitalise as-built basis. Older as-built documents, which is mostly made of paper plans, are missing their digital counterparts, which makes it that collection of new information, from the paper plans, can be vital.

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a technique that is applied for collection of data in the form of data point clouds and is a more frequent collection method for obtaining supplies of as-built. Modelling from three-dimensional point cloud data is usually a complicated matter and therefore connected with manual labour to produce an arbitrary result.

    The purpose with the bachelor thesis was to research the possibility to create a CAD-model of the layer of a tunnel from a point cloud with the use of a software called FME. The study area is a smaller tunnel segment and the collected data set is based from an earlier created point cloud. The point cloud is unprocessed and contains noise from deviant points and object of installations and construction. The earlier produced as-built, in form of a CAD-model, was applied as well to enable a comparison parallel to the newly created models in this thesis.

    FME contains several tools for handling point clouds and the work have included several tests where the different tools have been evaluated. The primary focus of the work has been to evaluate the possibilities of the tool PointCloudSurfaceBuilder, which function is to reconstruct point clouds to a mesh. A method was also created and examined to clean the point cloud from noise.

    Several tests were executed to see what kind of method works the best and models of different qualities were rendered. The construction method Poisson in the transformer PointCloudSurfaceBuilder produced the best results whereas it creates a “water tight” model that follows the point clouds spatial conditions in a better way than the as-built model. In the method of Poisson there is a parameter called Maximum Depth which showed the greatest impact for the quality of the result. For every increase of 1 in the parameter Maximum Depth was the resolution increased by a factor of two in every direction of x, y and z. The total values for amount of time, file size and number of triangles increased as well in a way parallel to the potential increase of the resolution. It is hard, if not impossible, to handle the models in CAD-environments above the value 9. That is because of too high detail in the data in relation to the size of the study area. Therefore, are the recommended values of the parameter 7 and 8 in case of modelling of similar environments in tunnel complexes.

  • 15.
    Lundqvist, Oscar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Olsson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Översvämningsanalys med hänsyn till Länsstyrelsens handbok: Planering för stigande vatten i Kristinehamns kommun2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16. Mossberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Duvdal, Robert
    CE-märkning av byggprodukter2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Nilsson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Andersson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Tillskottsvatten i spillvattennnät: Underlag för framtida åtgärder i Fengersfors2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been carried out as the final part of the Bachelor program in structural engineering at the University of Karlstad. The work comprises 22,5 credits and is performed on behalf of the Water and Sewage Department in Säffle-Åmål Municipality.

    Wastewater contains elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus which the treatment plants are forced to deal with. If the purification in the plant are substandard these substances is emitted in lakes and streams, which can lead to eutrophication. The small village of Fengersfors, in the province of Dalsland, uses two small stabilization pounds to cleanse their wastewater. These stabilization pounds do not meet the authorities’ treatment requirements, which have led the municipality to upgrade the facility. Before expanding the treatment plant, today’s volumes of extraneous water must be reduced to be able to dimension the new pounds, in proportion to the size of Fengersfors. Extraneous water is clean water that reaches the treatment plants in addition to water from baths, showers, washing machines and toilets. Examples of additional water can be storm water and groundwater. It is desired to minimize the percentage of extraneous water in wastewater systems to avoid costly purification processes.

    The purpose of this study is to reduce the flow of extraneous water which transports to the stabilization pounds. What sources to extraneous water is there in Fengersfors and which actions should the municipality take to achieve their goal of reduced flow of extraneous water to the stabilization pounds?

    To identify seepage of extraneous water in wastewater systems is a time consuming job. To address the problem, without being forced to duplicate the system, it is important to first build an image of the area. In this study this is done by four examinations: field inventory of residential areas, field inventory of transfer schemes, investigation of groundwater levels and dye tracing of bad connections. These steps are easy to preform, requires no large financial means and need not to be performed by individuals with special skills. The survey is completed in two overview maps, Fengersfors Norra and Fengersfors Södra. These are then used for basic calculations to point out areas which are contributing large volumes of groundwater, trough foundation drainage, to the treatment plant.

    Several properties in Fengersfors have their roof surfaces connected to the wastewater system. Simple measures, such as switching to drain spouts with dense water deflector, can reduce the volume of rainwater that reaches the stabilization pounds. General for the area is that ditches have been neglected for a long time, resulting in drums and wells clogged. A functioning ditch system is necessary for transport of storm and drainage water to the recipient. During the dye tracing process parts of previously unknown storm water systems were found. Sewer system maps can now be updated and become an important part of future actions. The study provides an indication of which areas need to be addressed or further investigated by the municipality.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    3D- modellering med LAS-data: Tester i ett licensierat- och i ett Open source-program2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has become more popular to create 3D models among local governments and companies today. Now it´s possible to visualize most objects in 3D, which can give an increased understanding. The local government in Lidköping wants to be able to use their LiDAR data to visualize buildings and to combine several data layers with 3D visualizations to create useful web map services. At the present, there is no software that are able create 3D models of LiDAR data at the Local government. The local government in Lidköping is interested in testing different options for modelling in 3D. Two software packages were chosen; ArcGIS Pro and QGIS. ArcGIS Pro is a GIS software that is highly acknowledged in the market. It´s licensed and can be considered expensive. QGIS is a software that is completely free to use and uses open source code, which makes it possible to create algorithms that can then be used in the program. In this view, there will be comparison between a software that is expensive and a software that is completely free.

    The method used to compare the two software consists of three stages. Stage 1 is a software comparison, where the software capabilities are set against each other in different scenarios. Stage 2 is an investigation of positional accuracy where the coordinates of the 3D model's building corners are compared with coordinates measured with Total Station as reference. RMSE is used to compare positional accuracy. Stage 3 is a visualization analysis that takes place through a questionnaire answered by people who are familiar with GIS and 3D.

    The result of all three stages, according to the method performed, shows that ArcGIS Pro is the better software. At stage 1, ArcGIS Pro won five out of eight scenarios against QGIS, though QGIS was more time efficient than ArcGIS Pro. At stage 2, ArcGIS Pro had a RMSE value for height of 1,617, which is lower than the 1,961 RMSE value that was on QGIS. At stage 3, ArcGIS Pro had over 90% of the reply rate for most of the questions, representing that ArcGIS Pro’s images were better to visualize the different scenarios. Some comparisons were not completely even though. QGIS had better time accuracy because it did not get as much errors which needed further investigations as in ArcGIS Pro. Although ArcGIS Pro’s processes for creating 3D models were faster. The positional accuracy comparison for the building’s height shows higher accuracy between ArcGIS Pro and the Total Station’s measurements. In QGIS the 3D-modell had no roof model, which made it harder to get accurate height of the building.

  • 19.
    Nygren, Viktor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    A Social Ekonomic Study of a Small-Scale Biogas Facility.: Designing and construction for a single household for the production of biogas from easily accessible substrates such as human faeces, household waste, garden waste and manure.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increased access to energy is a key factor to reduce poverty and to gain increased

    development and prosperity.

    Access to energy is not equally distributed globally. On average a Swedish person consumes

    more energy than 12 individuals in Tanzania.

    The Msambara village arose in the 1930s. 80% of the inhabitants are children and the families

    are large. Life expectancy is 52 years for women and 54 for men. The entire region is very

    poor and the standard of living in Msambara is low, even compared to other parts of the

    country.

    In rural Msambara in Tanzania the cooking method is very primitive and is usually carried out

    indoors on three stones. Indoor pollution is contributing to eye infections. Incomplete

    combustion not only emits greenhouse gases increasing global warming, but also more

    directly emits particles effecting human health. Women and girls are particularly vulnerable to

    burning caused by air pollution, especially since they are responsible for cooking.

    The women pull a heavy load in the household work. They are responsible for raising and

    caring for children, managing farms, collecting firewood, fetching water, visiting the market

    and cooking for the family.

    The adoption of biogas technology reduces the need for traditional energy and thereby

    reduces environmental degradation. In addition, the residue is an improved agricultural

    fertiliser. Biogas technology has social considerations; burning of biomass for cooking

    reduces indoor air pollution and reduces workload to collect firewood, often performed by

    women. Moreover, biogas is desirable from an economic point of view.

    The method in this work can conveniently be divided into three different parts. These are the

    designing and construction process as well as the socio-economic study. The socio-economic

    component is split into two different sections, which are field study and data modelling.

    The study shows that the social negative impact may or may not be reduced by the

    introduction of the biogas facility, but the biogas facility in the way it is made will potentially

    contribute to sustainable economic growth for the household. It also shows that the

    household’s organic waste produced from human, animal, kitchen and garden waste is enough

    to provide the necessary gas needed for cooking and no additional firewood will be needed.

    Two diary cows, in addition to the household’s waste, will provide enough gas needed to

    introduce cooling capacity for food storage. By adding cooling capacity in the household,

    time will be saved from the food preparation process but the introduction of biogas itself will

    not reduce the individual work burden when no cooling capacity is installed.

    The study also shows that placing the digester in the ground makes a stable environment for

    the mesophilic and methanogenic microbes.

    The Socio-economic study indicates that by introducing an alternative method to cooking,

    positive health effects will arise and the household benefits economically.

    It is not possible from this thesis to conclude that by adding and treating human toilets as a

    substrate that possible health benefits will take place. 

  • 20.
    Olofsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Detaljplanering: Exploatering i fjällvärlden2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Reynolds, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Bolmsvik, Åsa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Chang, Wen-Shao
    University of Bath, UK.
    Harris, Richard
    University of Bath, UK.
    Bawcombe, Jonathan
    Cambridge, UK.
    Bregulla, Julia
    Building Research Establishment (BRE), UK.
    Ambient vibration testing and modal analysis of multi-storey cross-laminated timber buildings2014In: World conference on timber engineering (WCTE), World conference on timber engineering (WCTE) , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambient movement of three multi-storey cross-laminated timber (CLT) buildings have been measured and used to determine natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios. This information, obtained by a simple, unobtrusive series of tests, can give insights into the structural performance of this form of building, as well as providing information for the design of future, taller timber buildings for dynamic loads. For two of the buildings, the natural frequency has been related to the lateral stiffness of the structure, and compared with the stiffness based on simple calculation. In future tall timber buildings, a new design criterion is expected to become important: deflection and vibration serviceability under wind load. Design standards give techniques for prediction and mitigation of wind-induced movement, but require an estimate of the mass, stiffness and damping ratio of the structure to make an accurate prediction. For multi-storey timber buildings there is no empirical basis to use for damping estimation, and there is little information for stiffness. This study therefore provides an insight into the modal properties for lateral vibration of multi-storey CLT construction which could inform the design of taller buildings in the future.

  • 22.
    Serrano, Erik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Long term in-situ measurements of displacement, temperature and relative humidity in a multi storey residential CLT building2014In: WCTE 2014 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, Proceedings, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2014, p. 398-405Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a multi-storey residential housing project comprising of four 8-storey timber buildings, the bottom storeybeing designed with concrete and storeys 2-8 in timber, the vertical relative displacement, the temperature and the relativehumidity (RH) along one vertical channel in the external wall of one building has been monitored. Measurements startedduring construction and presented herein are results of 6.5 years of in-situ measurements. Displacement data was monitoredstorey-by-storey, with a sampling frequency of 1 measurement every 10-60 minutes. In another of the four buildingsadditional temperature and relative humidity measurements have been ongoing for about 5.5 years. These temperature andRH measurements were performed at six different locations in the building, at each location in eight positions through theexterior wall with a sampling frequency of 1 measurement every 15 minutes. The results show that the total verticaldisplacement over six storeys after 6.5 years of service life is approximately 23 mm as a yearly average, and over the yearthe displacement varies from this value by approximately ±2 mm. The main cause for the relative displacement is thedecrease of moisture content in the wood material leading to shrinkage after completion of the building. The resultsobtained show also that the exterior wall design of the building behaves well in terms of not comprising a general risk fordamp or mould in the timber core of the external walls.

  • 23.
    Sjögren, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Persson, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Studie av förtätningspotentialen för området Sundsta i Karlstad: Enligt analysmodellen Förtätningsrosen2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the beginning of industrialization there has been a constant migration to cities from the countryside. This urbanization has led to a housing shortage in the central districts of many cities. To allow more housing on these sites the city has begun to be built inwards – densified. Densification is a “compact sprawl” of the city and means that already built-up places within the city limits are exploited further. This makes it possible for more people to live near the central parts of the city, leading to that existing resources are used more efficiently. The population of Karlstad has increased by 25 percent over the past 50 years and is expected to continue. Therefore Karlstad has to expand and one of the municipality’s methods of how the city should develop is through densification.

    This thesis examines the potential for densification within Sundsta in Karlstad. The intent of the study is to increase understanding of the densification concept and to analyze whether the selected area is appropriate to densify. Based on the analysis model “Förtätningsrosen” the ambition is to determine the densification potential of the area. “Förtätningsrosen” is developed by the county council of Stockholm and the potential of densification is valued by four categories: “förtätningstryck” (densification pressure), “förtätningsutrymme” (densification space), “förtätningsbehov” (densification needs) and “förtätningsfrihet” (densification freedom). Each category is divided into four factors. Depending on how well the factors apply to the area they are given a measurement - “low”, “medium” or “high”. “High” indicates that the area is suitable for densification.

    The result from the study shows that the area within Sundsta has a “relatively high” potential for densification. Based on “förtätningstrycket” and “förtätningsutrymmet” the area is suitable for densification since the measure was “high”. However the measurement for “förtätningsbehovet” and “förtätningsfriheten” was only “medium”. This means that the area within Sundsta is attractive and that there are available spaces to densify, but that densification is limited by the political and legal conditions.

    The conclusion of the thesis is that there may be more or less appropriate to use densification as a method of urban development depending on the conditions of the area and the purpose of the densification. “Förtätningsrosen” is a useful method when applied to provide a simplified view of the opportunity for densification in the area. The analysis model should however be used with supplementary information to give a more reliable result.

  • 24.
    Stensson, Lily
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Spatial Accuracy in Orthophoto produced using UAV Photographic Images2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The popularity of using UAV in image-taking for the production of 3D models and orthophotos has increased over time. Karlskoga Municipality has recently acquired an UAV to produce their own 3D models and orthophotos. This project paper aims to study the geospatial accuracy of the orthophotos and DEM files produced using the images taken with their UAV. The flight takes only a few minutes but a considerable time is spent in the production processes. Difficulty is experienced in determining the right center point for most GCPs. Produced orthophotos in the software Photoscan have a resolution from 1.7 to 2.4 centimeters while DEM files have a resolution from 3.4 to 4.8 centimeters. Four orthophotos and four DEM files are produced where GCPs are used and not used and at two different flight heights, 76 and 105 meters. The spatial data of the ten GCPs are identified on the orthophotos and DEM files in ArcMap and compared with GNSS NRTK measurements and Lantmäteriet's data. A visual control in terms of completeness of data, alignment, residual tilt and scale is also done. Standard deviations in plane for orthophotos there GCPs are not used are greater than 2 meters, while there GCPs are used are around 0.7 meters. Standard deviations for DEM files are observed at 0.8 meters.

  • 25. Strömvall, Emelie
    BIM och dess arbetsprocess på Huspartner i Skandinavien AB: En problemanalys där förbättringar och implementering av BIM granskas2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många arbetar traditionellt med 2D-Cad som är ett datorverktyg, baserat på x- och y-parametrar, samt även en del ritningar gjorda för hand (Nordstrand. 2009). Andra företag som arbetar mer moderniserat har börjat använda sig av BIM i arbetsprocessen. Alltså i stället för att rita enkla streck, så används olika objekt som innehåller information, som därefter sätts ihop till en modell. Ur modellen kan det sedan både hämtas och lämnas information som skall överensstämma med verkligheten (Granroth. 2011).

     

    Huspartner AB är ett husföretag som producerar villor och flerbostadshus, med prefabricerade väggmoduler som framställs i egen fabrik. De är också en del av Kewab-koncernen som innefattar flera yrkesgrupper inom bygg och anlägg. Syftet med föreliggande examensarbete är att se djupare i Huspartners arbetsprocess samt ge förslag på eventuella ändringar som skulle kunna förbättra arbetssituationen. Tanken är att integrera BIM i hela processen och se vilka mervärden som kan utvinnas. Målet blir då att ta fram ett konkret förslag på arbetsstruktur och upplägg som skulle kunna passa till den personalstyrka som finns.

     

    Studiens metod innebar att en problemanalys av företaget gjordes, för att sedan kunna åstadkomma ett förslag till förbättring. Genom att göra en intervjustudie och en litteraturstudie så formades ett förslag till företaget. Frågeställningarna lyder: Hur ser Huspartners nuvarande arbetsprocess ut, och vad innehåller den för problematik? Hur kan en arbetsstruktur se ut för detta företag, om de börjar arbeta men BIM? Vilka mervärden kan företaget få ut av att använda BIM? Skulle BIM vara en lösning på en del av problemen i företaget?

    Examensarbetet resulterade i att förklara Huspartners problembild, som efterföljdes av, litteraturstudien och intervjustudien, utifrån detta formades ett förslag på förbättring. Slutsatsen var att företaget saknar en fungerande arbetsstrategi, samt att om de skulle börja arbeta med BIM så skulle arbetet utgå från en modell som alla jobbar med. De mervärden som kan utvinnas är exempelvis att kollisionskontroller skulle kunna möjliggöras. BIM är dock inte lösningen på all problematik utan mycket organisationsarbete kvarstår. Diskussionen tar upp prisfrågan i en BIM- process som rapporten inte tar hänsyn till.

  • 26.
    Svedåker, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Boström, Therese
    Karlstad University.
    Inmätning av dold punkt: En jämförelse mellan mätmetoderna RUFRIS, dubbla avstånd och ortogonal inmätning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GNSS-surveying is common today and it’s interesting to investigate methods that can be applied whenthe ambiguities cannot be fixed to the correct integer on a point that are involved. Three methods arecompared and two of them tested, which are Two distances and backwards bearing and distance. N-RTK(Network- Real Time Kinematic) is used and both methods are measured 24 times each on four knownpoints with coordinates in SWEREF 99 13 30. RUFRIS (Real Time Updated Free Station) is the thirdmethod and earlier studies are the background behind the comparison for this method. The consumptionof time, material and quality are included parts of the comparison.

    RUFRIS can provide high precision results, but takes more time to establish, more equipment andrequires free sights. An establishment with two back sights can give a precision between 55.1 and 12.6mm depending on the proliferation between the back sights. The result for two distance and backwardsbearing and distance were found equivalent to each other. The mean deviation was 32 and 33 mm.Because of time, material and more flexibility is the method Two distances to prefer.

  • 27.
    Tyle, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Metoder för att etablera fri station: En jämförelsestudie av GNSS-etableringar och traditionell etablering2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this degree project is to compare the quality obtained from different types of free station establishment. Three different methods have been compared. The methods are establishing towards control points (traditional method), establishing towards GNSSdetermined points with a fast method and establishing towards GNSS-determined points with a slow method.

    The fast method is to measure a point with five (5) positions with GNSS while the total station measures the point as backsights simultaneously. Using this method each point needs to be visited only once. The slow method is to first measure all points to be used as backsights with 20 positions with GNSS, then return to each point and measure them with the total station. Each point must then be visited twice.

    Three control points in the city of Arvika were used as backsights. It was also those points that were measured with GNSS to compare the quality of GNSS measurements relative to their "true" coordinates extracted from the point description. Different number of backsights were used to investigate how the quality changed as more backsights were added.

    Free station establishment was performed with each method using three, five and seven backward objects. Three measuring rounds were made to compare the measurements in each round with each other.

    Conclusions drawn are that, when updating the primary chart, it is sufficient to use the fast GNSS method along with three backsights to achieve satisfactory quality, but in construction measuring where the quality needs to be very high the slow method with five backsights should be used instead.

    The work also describes the theory behind GNSS technology and free station.

  • 28.
    Wendel, Jesper
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Digital fotogrammetri som metod för uppdatering av kartdatabas: en jämförelse av tre programvaror2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
1 - 28 of 28
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf