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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Tillskottsvatten i spillvattennät: Underlag för framtida åtgärder i Fengersfors2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater contains elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus which the treatment plants are forced to deal with. If the purification in the plant are substandard these substances is emitted in lakes and streams, which can lead to eutrophication. The small village of Fengersfors, in the province of Dalsland, uses two small stabilization pounds to cleanse their wastewater. These stabilization pounds do not meet the authorities’ treatment requirements, which have led the municipality to upgrade the facility. Before expanding the treatment plant, today’s volumes of extraneous water must be reduced to be able to dimension the new pounds, in proportion to the size of Fengersfors. Extraneous water is clean water that reaches the treatment plants in addition to water from baths, showers, washing machines and toilets. Examples of additional water can be storm water and groundwater. It is desired to minimize the percentage of extraneous water in wastewater systems to avoid costly purification processes.

    The purpose of this study is to reduce the flow of extraneous water which transports to the stabilization pounds. What sources to extraneous water is there in Fengersfors and which actions should the municipality take to achieve their goal of reduced flow of extraneous water to the stabilization pounds?

    To identify seepage of extraneous water in wastewater systems is a time consuming job. To address the problem, without being forced to duplicate the system, it is important to first build an image of the area. In this study this is done by four examinations: field inventory of residential areas, field inventory of transfer schemes, investigation of groundwater levels and dye tracing of bad connections. These steps are easy to preform, requires no large financial means and need not to be performed by individuals with special skills. The survey is completed in two overview maps, Fengersfors Norra and Fengersfors Södra. These are then used for basic calculations to point out areas which are contributing large volumes of groundwater, trough foundation drainage, to the treatment plant.

    Several properties in Fengersfors have their roof surfaces connected to the wastewater system. Simple measures, such as switching to drain spouts with dense water deflector, can reduce the volume of rainwater that reaches the stabilization pounds. General for the area is that ditches have been neglected for a long time, resulting in drums and wells clogged. A functioning ditch system is necessary for transport of storm and drainage water to the recipient. During the dye tracing process parts of previously unknown storm water systems were found. Sewer system maps can now be updated and become an important part of future actions. The study provides an indication of which areas need to be addressed or further investigated by the municipality.

  • 2.
    Berggren, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Dig or no dig?: En jämförelse mellan schaktfria tekniker och konventionell schakt vid VA-produktion.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's public water and sewer system consists of 191 000 km of water- and sewer pipelines. Annually is it about 380 km of pipelines which not is reconditioned even if it should if the renovation rate should keep up with the ageing of the pipelines. The renovation costs large sums of money which is supposed to be one of the biggest reasons that some of the renovations are absent. In order to keep production going in Sweden’s water and sewer - sector is it required that both finance and time is to be reviewed.

    This study compares the economics of various methods of producing water and sewer lines. The work also includes a study of pollution in form of carbon dioxide during the production of pipelines. The methods that have been raised are conventional excavation, directional drilling and relining. In directional drilling has two methods been examined, JT and AT drilling. For relining the examined methods are slip-lining and closed -fit.

    The work has been done for Skanska Väg och Anläggning Väst , which is part of Skanska Sverige AB. The comparison has been performed with a literature study to complete the theory behind the background. The result in the comparative study of economics and environment is based on calculations from completed and ongoing projects within Skanska, as well as interviews with various contractors.

    The results show that trenchless technologies emit less carbon dioxide than conventional excavation which is not surprising since the excavation handled much larger land masses. In regards to the economy can be said that the basis of the result is substandard but a fact is still that what is most effective due to cost varies depending on the project. A generalization can be made for trenchless methods. These tend to be more profitable, the deeper and longer works, and the fewer connections and the ramifications it is on line. Directional drilling is limited by the drilling mud that is an out coming waste during the production. For bigger line sizes will the disposing of the sludge be a major expense which in some cases can make it unprofitable to drill. Generally drilling bigger sizes with god profit demands objects worthy of protection above ground.

  • 3.
    Engström Roxendal, Patrick
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Westlund, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Increasing transparency in the supply chain with blockchain technology: A case study of small and medium sized South African wine producers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is facing new challenges caused by global warming and is puttingpressure on governments, companies and the civil society to act fast. Like all industries, the wine industry is affected by climate change and wine producers are simultaneously struggling to stay viable while competing on a global market. To become sustainable, transparency is needed in the supply chain so that stakeholders and consumers can influence it. In this study, blockchain technology is investigated as a possible technology that can increase sustainability, transparency and over-all efficiency in the supply chain. The study is a case study and takes place in South Africa. The study takes the perspective of small and medium sized enterprises because they are a big part of the market and has not been researched in this area. Empirical data was collected through interviews, observations and secondary data and it was analyzed through thematic analysis. The results show that there is a lot of administrative work in the industry where compliance and certifications take a lot of time and effort. The smaller wineries, that often want to focus on making good wine, have a harder time with the administrative work since the same person might have several roles or functions in the business. The current traceability system is also one of the best in the world but is largely paper based. In the discussion it is shown that the industry has some elements that would be good for a blockchain system but the smaller producers would probably not dare to invest in such a system since they need improvements in quality or efficiency to stay viable and the technology required is expensive. The thesis concludes that the industry has some structures in place that would be a good base for a blockchain system. This could add an extra level of security and trust to the system. The implementation for the small-scale producers seems far away since the technological requirements are expensive.

  • 4.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, S P Andersensv 5, Valgrinda, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Changes in material flows, treatment efficiencies and environmental load-shifting in the wastewater treatment sector Part II: Case study of Norway2009In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 30, no 11, p. 1131-1143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Cost-benefit analysis: Leakage reduction by rehabilitating old water pipelines: Case study of Oslo (Norway)2012In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 277-286Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Wastewater treatment in Norway: An overview2013In: Journal - American Water Works Association, ISSN 0003-150X, E-ISSN 1551-8833, Vol. 105, no 5, p. 92-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges of providing services to growing populations multiply, as demonstrated by the trials faced in Norway as it searched for effective ways of addressing a growing wastewater treatment problem.

  • 7.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norway.
    Assessment of environmental impacts of an aging and stagnating water supply pipeline network: City of Oslo 1991-20062012In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 722-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging urban infrastructure is a common phenomenon in industrialized countries. The urban water supply pipeline network in the city of Oslo is an example. Even as it faces increasing operational, maintenance, and management challenges, it needs to better its environmental performance by reducing, for instance, the associated greenhouse gas emissions. In this article the authors examine the environmental life cycle performance of Oslo's water supply pipelines by analyzing annual resource consumption and emissions as well as life cycle assessment (LCA) impact potentials over a period of 16 years, taking into account the production/manufacture, installation, operation, maintenance, rehabilitation, and retirement of pipelines. It is seen that the water supply pipeline network of Oslo has already reached a state of saturation on a per capita basis, that is, it is not expanding any more relative to the population it serves, and the stock is now rapidly aging. This article is part of a total urban water cycle system analysis for Oslo, and analyzes more specifically the environmental impacts from the material flows in the water distribution network, examining six environmental impact categories using the SimaPro (version 7.1.8) software, Ecoinvent database, and the CML 2001 (version 2.04) methodology. The long-term management of stocks calls for a strong focus on cost optimization, energy efficiency, and environmental friendliness. Global warming and abiotic depletion emerge as the major impact categories from the water pipeline system, and the largest contribution is from the production and installation phases and the medium-size pipelines in the network.

  • 8.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Environmental impact analysis of chemicals and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants: Case study of Oslo, Norway2011In: Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, ISSN 1606-9749, E-ISSN 1607-0798, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 1081-1031Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norway.
    Looking for order in urban water and wastewater pipeline networks2012In: ACE : Architecture, City and Environment, ISSN 1887-7052, E-ISSN 1886-4805, Vol. 7, no 20, p. 13-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Testing the Power Law on urban water and wastewater pipeline networks2011In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 153-160Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian university of science and technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hammervold, Johanne
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian university of science and technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Combined MFA-LCA for analysis of wastewater pipeline networks: Case study of Oslo (Norway).2009In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 532-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oslo's wastewater pipeline network has an aging stock of concrete, steel, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipelines, which calls for a good portion of expenditures to be directed toward maintenance and investments in rehabilitation. The stock, as it is in 2008, is a direct consequence of the influx of pipelines of different sizes, lengths, and materials of construction into the system over the years. A material flow analysis (MFA) facilitates an analysis of the environmental impacts associated with the manufacture, installation, operation, maintenance, rehabilitation, and retirement of the pipelines. The forecast of the future flows of materials-which, again, is highly interlinked with the historic flows-provides insight into the likely future environmental impacts. This will enable decision makers keen on alleviating such impacts to think along the lines of eco-friendlier processes and technologies or simply different ways of doing business. Needless to say, the operation and maintenance phase accounts for the major bulk of emissions and calls for energy-efficient approaches to this phase of the life cycle, even as manufacturers strive to make their processes energy-efficient and attempt to include captive renewable energy in their total energy consumption. This article focuses on the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with the wastewater pipeline network in the city of Oslo.

  • 12.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) at Trondheim, Norway.
    Ugarelli, Rita
    NTNU, SINTEF.
    Kristiansen, Per
    Oslo VA.
    Oslo consumers willing to pay more for improved services: Interview with Per Kristiansen, Chief of Oslo VAV2010In: Journal of American Water Works Association, ISSN 0003-150X, Vol. 102, no 11, p. 26-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Mörk, Anton
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Granath, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utvärdering av BIM som arbetsmetod i anläggningsbranschen: En analys av BIM-implementeringen för anläggningsbranschen i byggprocessens skeden2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is regarded as conservative and slow developed where similar methods have been used since the industry began. There should be methods that are more effective in relation to the expansion of technology development. A new, but today quite unestablished, working method allows information to be integrated and coordinated in an interactive 3D model through the whole building process – building information modeling (BIM).The purpose of this study is to the construction industry illuminate the pros and cons with BIM as a working method, and also outline which obstacles there is and which measures that are required for a wider implementation.Through a case study evaluates this via qualitative interviews with representatives of the construction process in its various stages. The interviews are based on a set of evaluating questions and a built BIM model of a real construction project.Some conclusions that have been drawn from the study are that based on the current working methods that indicate a need for efficiency of joint understanding in projects. With BIM as a working method the joint understanding and the efficiency increases, which leads to reduced time and cost parameters with a higher quality and reliability in the finished product.The construction industry welcomes this and will be benefited with a change of methods in the long run. However, there are obstacles that must be rectified before a full implementation can take place. If clients should be able to demand this there must be a clearly structured standard designed which also educations and calculations to obtain a financial benefit is based on.

  • 14. Osorio, Andrea Diaz
    et al.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Integrated Management Spells Success for Medellin, Colombia's, Water and Wastewater Utility2013In: Journal - American Water Works Association, ISSN 0003-150X, E-ISSN 1551-8833, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 78-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Medellin is the second largest urban area in Colombia. The state-owned company, Empresas Publicas de Medellin E.S.P. (EPM), provides water supply and wastewater treatment services to more than 3.5 million people in the city and nine other smaller towns in the conurbation. EPM also provides public services other than water supply and wastewater treatment. Eduardo Cadavid Restrepo, director of the department of water management at EPM, described the current status, challenges, and future plans for the water supply and sanitation system in Medellin in this interview (conducted by e-mail in Spanish and later translated to English) with Andrea Diaz Osorio and Govindarajan Venkatesh.

  • 15.
    Pauliuk, Stefan
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Ind Ecol Programme, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Hydraul & Environm Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norway.
    Muller, Daniel B.
    Exploring urban mines: Pipe length and material stocks in urban water and wastewater networks2014In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 274-283Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Pihl, Petra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Dokumentationsmodell för fibernätverk: Utveckling av ett insticksprogram i QGIS2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällets ökande beroende av bredbandsstruktur och framför allt av digitala tjänster ställer krav på stabilitet och driftsäkerhet. Det innebär att infrastrukturen måste vara robust nog att motstå påfrestningar och ha så god kvalitet att den fungerar och är tillgänglig även vid störningar. Det har hittills inte funnits någon etablerad standard för hur ett nät bör förläggas vilket har lett till en stor variation kring hur nät anläggs och vilken kvalitet de håller.

    Post- och telestyrelsen (PTS) har på regeringens uppdrag tagit fram föreskrifter som ska leda till att bredbandsnätet byggs upp driftsäkert och robust. Föreskrifter har tagits fram tillsammans med flera av branschens aktörer och beskriver hur en robust fiberanläggning ska anläggas och drivas. Anvisningarna går under samlingsnamnet Robust fiber.

    I detta examensarbete är det kraven på dokumentation av fibernät som studeras. På grund av Sveriges regerings bredbandsstrategi så har utbyggande av fibernätverket gått i sådan takt att dokumentation släpar efter. Geografiska informationssystem (GIS) är lämpliga att utnyttja för dokumentation och analys av robustheten i fibernät. Syftet med examensarbetet är utveckla en metod till opensource programvaran QGIS för att dokumentera fibernätverk och information om dess beståndsdelar.

    Metoden för arbetet var att designa en relationsdatabas med stöd för geografiska objekt och implementera detta i QGIS för att modellera upp fibernätverkets struktur och generera en översikt. Databasen sköter information om objekt och utsökningar kan utföras med SQL-frågeuttryckt och kopplas ihop med nätöversikt i QGIS.

    Resultatet visar att det är möjligt att till stor del uppfylla kraven för dokumentation. Det problem som dock inte lyckades lösas var dokumentationskravet att kunna visa schematiska ritningar för kanalisation. 

  • 17.
    Ugarelli, Rita
    et al.
    Bologna university, Bologna, Italy.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian university of science and technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Di Federico, Vittorio
    Bologna university, Bologna, Italy.
    Saegrov, Sveinung
    Norwegian university of science and technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Historical analysis of blockages in wastewater pipelines in Oslo and diagnosis of causative pipeline characteristics.2010In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 335-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Oslo is evaluating strategies for the selection of appropriate materials for the pipelines and manholes of its wastewater network. The overarching motive is to minimise construction-related failures over the system lifetime and also ensure that it is able to avert flooding events. This paper analyses the blockage records of the last 16 years (1991-2006) in the wastewater pipeline network of Oslo. For the purpose of the analysis, the pipeline stock is categorised on the basis of pipe diameter, material of fabrication, slope and age. Proneness to blockages is studied and attempts are made to correlate the same to the size, material, slope and age. The analyses performed confirm that older and small diameter sewage pipelines made of concrete, laid almost horizontal to the ground surface are the high-priority candidates, and more importantly enables one to compare among the different categories and classes of pipelines.

  • 18.
    Ugarelli, Rita
    et al.
    Bologna University, Bologna, Italy.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian university of technology and science, Trondheim, Norway.
    Brattebø, Helge
    Norwegian university of technology and science, Trondherim, Norway.
    Di Federico, Vittorio
    Bologna university, Bologna, italy.
    Sægrov, Sveinung
    SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway.
    Asset management of urban wastewater pipeline networks2010In: Journal of Infrastructure Systems, ISSN 1076-0342, E-ISSN 1943-555X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 112-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pipelines account for the lion’s share of the lifetime costs of any typical urban wastewater collection. While the deterioration of pipeline is the obvious “frontline” reason to adopt asset management practices, a more overarching driver is the need to gravitate toward sustainable development and set short- and long-term objectives encompassing economic, social, and environmental goals. Optimizing the expenses and providing the required levels of service to customers are the twin targets of wastewater utilities. Oslo Vann og Avløpsetaten—the water/wastewater utility in the Norwegian capital, considered as case study in this paper, is sprucing up its data bank, rightly realizing that a very effective information management system is the spine of asset management.

  • 19.
    Ugarelli, Rita
    et al.
    Bologna university, Italy.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Noraway.
    Brattebø, Helge
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Sægrov, Sveinung
    SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway.
    Importance of investment decisions and rehabilitation approaches in an ageing wastewater pipeline network.: A case study of Oslo (Norway)2008In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 58, no 12, p. 2279-2293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As Oslo Vann og Avlopsetaten (VAV, meaning Water and Sewage Department) looks into the future, it is faced with a quandary-to replace old pipelines or to continue maintaining them. The primary goal is to improve the level of service. The secondary goals are to rejuvenate the system and stem the decline in capital value. In 1991-2006, the Operation and Maintenance expenses (O&M) were far higher than the investments, and the network aged as its capital value plummeted. However, if the funds are insufficient, the self-financing Oslo VAV would have to turn to the consumers for help. Will the consumers pay more to have a 'younger' system? What if they are happy with the 'status quo' and are unconcerned about the falling capital value? Should the pipelines be depreciated over a longer period than the 40 years which is adopted now? Should the economic method be replaced by a more engineering-based method, whereby the pipes are assessed 'on merit'-on the basis of their service lives? There are numerous issues and a good decision will ease the road ahead. This paper, using Life Cycle Costing Analysis (LCCA) and scenarios therein, looks at how Oslo VAV could strike a balance between expending on O&M, investing in upgrading the network, and decelerating the ageing of the network while augmenting the capital value, and what is the best attainable set of targets they could aim for, at the end of the next 20 years. The two approaches mentioned above are compared with each other. It is seen that a rehabilitation programme based on the pipes performance approach is preferable to one guided by an economic lifetime approach, when the motive is to optimise expenditure and also improve the level of service.

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