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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Rasmus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utformning av en infästningsstandard: En utveckling av kvalitetsarbetet hos Nordmarkens Fasader AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the construction industry today is increasing the demands on its actors and procedures to ensurethe quality of the final product, the work on quality assurance has increased in a greater degree.Quality assurance involves a systematic approach that often follow a specific quality system orquality mark. That this is conducted is often demonstrated by a certain certification.Nordmarkens Fasader in Töcksfors is a manufacturer and installator of windows, doors, walls androofs in aluminum and glass. To ensure the quality of their products, they work for the P-markingsystem that later allows them to P-label their products. The P-mark is the Science Partners ownquality mark and proves, among other things, that the product complies with statutory or regulatoryrequirements but also in most cases higher standards demanded by the market.In their work, Nordmarkens Fasader follows a quality manual, which in its turn is modeled after therules for P-marking. This is the official summarized description of the P-marking and contains orrefers to all the documents and document types included in the quality system of NordmarkensFasader.For the products of Nordmarkens Fasader to be developed a further step in working towards a goodquality and function, they want to establish drawings that deal with attaching elements in the wall, inthe quality manual. All this to get better track of what happens to the product after manufacture.Something that makes this even more important is that they do not always handle assembly of theirproducts. A standard of attachments in this case would result in that they can influence whathappens after manufacture. To achieve this it was necessary for a standard of attachments ofelements to be designed and then also integrated in the quality manual.Because there are many wall types to choose from, the most common and most abundant of thesewas elected. It all resulted in a number of standard drawings showing where some of the products ofNordmarkens Fasader should be attached in the selected wall. For this to be put into use in everydaylife it also had to be integrated into the quality manual. In addition to these standard drawings, themanual were changed while new documents also were created in this. All to achieve the best resultswith the quality work at Nordmarkens Fasader.This work will serve as a basis for future work on attachment drawings, in the quality manual, asthere is interest in bringing in multi-wall types in this.

  • 2. Ajeel, Rima
    et al.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    Färjestadsskolan – en jämförelse av stommaterial: En ekonomisk och miljömässig jämförelse av stommaterialen prefabricerad betong och KLträ2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society the environmental impact of the construction industry is a major problem. Something that should be pursued is a more sustainable construction in which economic, social and environmental sustainability cooperate. The choice of building materials plays a significant role in creating a more sustainable development. In order to further encourage the development within sustainable building materials, the public sector is an important participant. In Karlstad, the municipality has decided to build a new school building in the residential area Färjestad. In this study, two different framework materials will be compared through an economical and environmental perspective where social aspects are considered in form of sound and fire requirements. The materials that will be compared are cross-laminated timber, CLT, and prefabricated reinforced concrete. The purpose of the study is to find out which of the materials is most economically and environmentally advantageous.

    In a school building, high demands are made regarding sound reduction and fire safety, which must be taken into account while calculating dimensions of the framework materials. The materials that will compared differ in several ways. Reinforced concrete has a high mechanical strength and is heavy which makes it steady and favorable to be used in tall buildings. Concrete is inorganic which also makes it fire and moisture resistant. CLT is made of minimum three layers of cross-glued wood boards which creates a stable and isotropic building material. In relation to its light weight CLT has great mechanical properties. Wood in general is an organic and combustible material, however cross-laminated timber has relatively good fire and moisture properties.

    In order to reach a result extensive calculations are made to decide the proportion of the two framework materials. The dimensions that are calculated are used to further calculate the costs of the project and the amount emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents. The economical calculation is primarily calculated by using BidCon. To calculate emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents, environmental product declarations, EPD, are used. The EPD: s reports the global warming potential for each material.

    The result of the economic calculation shows that a framework of CLT is slightly more expensive than a corresponding framework of prefabricated reinforced concrete. The calculations of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions show that the reinforced concrete contributes to more than twice as much emissions as a framework of CLT.

    From an economic perspective, prefabricated reinforced concrete framework is more profitable, but from an environmental perspective, cross-laminated timber is more beneficial.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Sociala krav i byggentreprenader: En tillfällig trend eller här för att stanna?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Europe has, since the economic crisis of 2007, gained increasing social segregation. The gap between rich and poor has increased and the large number of hidden statistics regarding people excluded from the labor market is greater than in many years. Social exclusion has thus taken a toll on community groups that already before the crisis had a hard time getting included. Groups such as young, elderly, immigrants and people with mental of physical disabilities. To curb this development, the European Commission have, since the 2004 directives, enabled public sector clients to, through procurement of goods, services and contracts, include measures that promote social consideration.

    Social consideration is a term that have been a part of Swedish procurement legislation since 2007, and was updated in 2010. This update meant that the meaning of this term was given greater weight and that clients were more clearly encouraged to use the term.

    The term social consideration have proven to be an unclear term, both in European tutorials and governmental investigations. Investigators describe the possibility as difficult to interpret and legally complex. To enable a smooth implementation, an open dialogue between clients and contractors have been recommended. A dialogue which, according to this study based on personal interviews, is being missing, partly or completely, in many places around central Sweden.

    The goal and purpose of this study is based on a range of issues surrounding the concept of social consideration and its impact on the public sector in Sweden. What is being done, what is wanted and why. The personal interviews where conducted with municipal housing companies and municipalities in order to reconcile the current state of the new contract term.

    These interviews clearly show that the term social consideration is known by the majority of public clients in central Sweden. However, only one out of seven interviewees have hitherto pushed through a work contract with predetermined requirements on social considerations. Notable though, is that three out of seven interviewees where in the process of publishing work contracts with the instituted social demands criterion.

    The justification for why the remaining parties did not, or where not planning to, set social standards in public work contracts was motivated mainly by the absence of knowledge in the subject. Clearer evidence and better guidance was considered a linchpin for future implementation. It was consistently put forth that social responsibility can lead to good future synergies for both society and their own company. But the design of how to set the requirement or requirements and in what stage, is something that every interviewed party had its own opinion about.

    Despite divided opinions on how and at what stage social considerations should be included in public procurement, there is a unified voice among the interviewed parties saying that the concept of social responsibility and consideration is here to stay.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Rikard
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Berglund, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Förbättra lågenergihusens materialval ur ett hållbart perspektiv: En studie hur man kan förbättra valet av isoleringsmaterial till vägg och tak samt material till grundkonstruktionen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5. Annas, Mattias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Niklas
    Effektivisering av byggproduktion: vid byte av fönster2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Anneli, Delang
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Livscykelekonomiska kalkyler (LCC) som beslutsunderlag i praktiken: - hos Landstingsfastigheter Värmland och Dalarna2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det går att spara mycket energi i befintliga offentliga fastigheter och lokaler. Sveriges landsting har under 2009-2016 sparat omkring 180 miljoner kronor i minskade energikostnader på årsbasis (SKL 2016). Livscykelkostnadskalkyler (LCC) lyfts fram av forskare som del i svaret för att överkomma brister och/eller identifiera framgångsfaktorer för hållbart byggande (Gluch 2014). Landstingen i Värmland och Dalarna är bäst i Sverige på energieffektvisering (SKL 2016) och har arbetat strategiskt och framgångsrikt med energifrågor sedan 1990 talet och har använt sig av LCC i omkring 10 år. Hur arbetar de med LCC i praktiken?

  • 7.
    Augustson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Stanser, Oscar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Projektutveckling av kvarteret Ärtan: Marknadsanalys2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Skanska Hus Väst is planning to construct condominiums in an area called Ärtan which lies in Karlstad, in the city district of Romstad. To be able to construct condominiums in this area a market analysis is needed. The market analysis describes the most appropriate type of residence to construct depending on ground conditions, public demand, the surrounding buildings and environment, the pattern in which the inhabitants move in the rural- and in the city district and how much the customer is willing to pay for a condominium on Ärtan. This means that relevant statistics of income, employment, prices on equal objects and more is needed to forecast the housing- and property market.

     

    The first part in the project development of Ärtan is to make a market analysis. The market analysis includes the city analysis, the object analysis and the business intelligence, figure 2.  

    The business intelligence is not included because the report is demarcated to the city- and object analysis only. The city- and object analysis will result in the determination of a suitable target group and how much the customer will be willing to pay for a condominium in Ärtan.  The purpose of this study is to determine these two and also decide the methods most appropriate for analyzing and determining the will of payment for the project.

     

    Business intelligence

    MARKET ANALYSIS

    City analysis

    Object analysis

    A short description of the city

    Business sector and employment

    Housing - and property market

    Population

    Supply and demand

      The state of the Property market

    A short description of the object

    Location analysis

    Equal objects

    Incomes and profitability

    Figure 2. Layout of the market analysis.

     

    The methods used for analyzing and making a conclusion in the report are:

    • Tobins Q
    • Business sector specialization quota
    • Regression analysis
    • Multiple Regression analysis
    • The method of location and price (Ortprismetoden)
    • Demand with the help of elasticity's.

     

    With these methods and with a great amount of collected data we have drawn the conclusion that the conditions for constructing condominiums in Ärtan are not optimal but still profitable. We have tried to make this judgment as objective as possible and we have looked at all the advantages and disadvantages of the area. Karlstad's business sector and employment have increased during the last years and are displaying good conditions to withstand these troubling financial times.

    We found good conditions to invest in the real estate market in Romstad, due to the lack of condominiums in the area and due to a higher level of incomes compared to the rest of the inhabitants of Karlstad.

               

    After the traces from the financial crises we assess that the will of payment on condominiums on Ärtan should be about 22 000 Swedish kronor/m2 (living area) in the interval of 20 500 - 23 000 Swedish kronor/m2 (living area). Suitable target groups for the product are people which have a good and firm will of payment and are in their thirties or forties. A good thing to do is also to adjust parts of the condominiums for older inhabitants. Our opinion is that a mix of younger and older people creates charm, comfort and a sense of safety in the neighborhood which is needed to get the area more attractive on the market.

     

    All the methods that were used in this analysis showed similar results which led us to the conclusion that all of the methods used are suitable for this assignment. However, the combination of the multiple regression analysis and the brokers' opinions is the most suitable one for the assignment because the combination can be executed easy, swift and true.

  • 8.
    Axelsson, Johannes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Olsson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Åtgärder för minskad klimatbelastning i anläggningsprojekt: Trafikverkets ökade krav på klimatgasreducering genom Klimatkalkyl2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Construction processes in the construction industry account for emissions of approximately 6 million tonnes CO2e per year in Sweden. This means a significant proportion of about 10% of the climate-related emissions in Sweden. Climate impact in the construction industry is mainly due to the consumption of fossil fuel in work machinery and transport vehicles, as well as steel, asphalt and concrete production (IVA 2014).

    The Swedish Transport Administration, which manages the infrastructure in Sweden, orders annual construction work for the amount of SEK 60 billion in investment and maintenance. The Swedish Transport Administration has been assigned by the government to contribute to the transport policy consideration for environment and health. This means a climate-neutral infrastructure by 2050 and reduced climate impact by 2020 by 15% compared with 2015. To achieve this, the Swedish Transport Administration has developed a tool called Climate calculus to calculate and define a starting point for climate-related emissions in the projects. By means of Climate calculations, the Swedish Transport Administration requires projectors and contractors to reduce the climate impact of the projects in relation to the initial situation.

    The assignment for the degree project is NCC Infra Service Middle. The Swedish Transport Administration is one of NCC's most important customers, which means that the increased demands concern them to the highest extent. The idea behind the thesis is to study a suitable project where potential climate-saving measures are calculated. The project chosen for the study is an 11 km long road project on the highway 63 outside Karlstad, which NCC Infra Service began at the end of 2016. The project is interesting to study because it could potentially be covered by the new requirements. The aim is to provide NCC Infra Services with increased knowledge and better prerequisites for meeting tomorrow's tougher requirements. A Climate calculation has been prepared for the project to identify climate impacts and materials and calculate a starting point for the project's climate impact. Investigations for the purpose of mapping options have been implemented. Finally, it has been calculated how climate impact is affected if the proposed measures are taken.

    In total, the project generates emissions of 1 433 tones CO2e. Bituminous layers, asphalt, have the greatest impact, about 40%. Diesel consumption in work machines and transport vehicles generates about 27% of total emissions. Steel in the form of rails and felt fence accounts for about 19%. Remaining is distributed on concrete, explosives and rock crushing. If all proposed measures were implemented, a 47% reduction would be achieved. Most importantly, there is a shift from diesel to Hydrogenated vegetable oil. The reduction is 23% in relation to the initial situation, or 15% if the other measures are implemented simultaneously. Using Green Asphalt-made asphalt instead of conventionally manufactured would reduce the climate impact of the project by about 13%. Crushing rock materials on-site would reduce the overall climate load by about 10%. Using only wire rods instead of beam rods would give a reduction of about 5%.

    Several of the changes should also lead to an economic saving of about 1.4 MSEK. If the Swedish Transport Administration bonus of 3% of the contract sum, in this case about 2 MSEK, also would be distributed the financial outcome would be a profit of approximately 3.4 MSEK compared to the economic outturn.

    The conclusion is that the Swedish Transport Administration's demands are fully achievable. There is a great potential to reduce emissions from the construction industry. NCC's focus should be to switch to HVO fuel, always use Green Asphalt, try to crush rock material on-site and minimize material use, especially asphalt, steel and concrete.

  • 9.
    Berg, Nicklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Eriksson, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    En jämförelse mellan modulbadrum och platsbyggt badrum vid renovering2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mellan 1960 och 1975 byggdes cirka 1 006 000 nya bostäder i Sverige. Många av dessa lägenheter har idag ett stort behov av renovering. Ett alternativ till att renovera badrummen på traditionellt sätt, där badrummet rivs ut och fräschas upp är att använda ett så kallat modulbadrum som integreras i den nuvarande huskroppen. Målet med arbetet var att med hjälp av kriterierna ekonomi, miljö och kvalitet utreda vilket alternativ som är bäst lämpat vid renovering; att bygga in badrumsmoduler eller att renovera befintliga badrum. Dessutom ska hyresgästernas åsikter i frågan utredas i form av en enkät. Vidare kontrollerades eventuella skillnader i miljöpåverkan samt kostnaderna för att klimatkompensera. Jämförelserna gjordes med hjälp av erhållna handlingar från Con-Form samt uppgifter från kalkylatorer på företag i branschen. Detta sammanställdes sedan i kalkyler i kalkyleringsverktygen BidCon och Sektionsfakta där priset per modul och priset per platsbyggt badrum kalkylerades fram. Denna summa användes för att få fram en pay off-tid för att se hur många år det, vid en hyreshöjning, skulle ta att betala sig. Materialen kontrollerades i databasen SundaHus för att se vilket alternativ som var mest miljövänligt och innehöll minst antal farliga substanser. Enkäten visade att den tänkta målgruppen är negativt inställda till modulbadrumsalternativet. Därför är det osannolikt att hyresgäster i allmänhet kommer acceptera de förändringar som modulbadrumslösningen innebär. Förlusten av ljus och försämringen av planlösningen samt de försämrade möbleringsmöjligheterna är argument tunga nog för att överskugga fördelarna. Pay off-tiden för det högsta hyresökningsalternativet är möjligtvis rimligt, men faller på att målgruppen helt förkastar lösningen. Därför är slutsatsen att modulbadrum inte är ett alternativ till att renovera befintliga badrum eftersom kundernas åsikter och kostnaderna talar emot detta. Platsbyggda badrum rekommenderas i det här fallet.

  • 10.
    Berggren, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Dig or no dig?: En jämförelse mellan schaktfria tekniker och konventionell schakt vid VA-produktion.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's public water and sewer system consists of 191 000 km of water- and sewer pipelines. Annually is it about 380 km of pipelines which not is reconditioned even if it should if the renovation rate should keep up with the ageing of the pipelines. The renovation costs large sums of money which is supposed to be one of the biggest reasons that some of the renovations are absent. In order to keep production going in Sweden’s water and sewer - sector is it required that both finance and time is to be reviewed.

    This study compares the economics of various methods of producing water and sewer lines. The work also includes a study of pollution in form of carbon dioxide during the production of pipelines. The methods that have been raised are conventional excavation, directional drilling and relining. In directional drilling has two methods been examined, JT and AT drilling. For relining the examined methods are slip-lining and closed -fit.

    The work has been done for Skanska Väg och Anläggning Väst , which is part of Skanska Sverige AB. The comparison has been performed with a literature study to complete the theory behind the background. The result in the comparative study of economics and environment is based on calculations from completed and ongoing projects within Skanska, as well as interviews with various contractors.

    The results show that trenchless technologies emit less carbon dioxide than conventional excavation which is not surprising since the excavation handled much larger land masses. In regards to the economy can be said that the basis of the result is substandard but a fact is still that what is most effective due to cost varies depending on the project. A generalization can be made for trenchless methods. These tend to be more profitable, the deeper and longer works, and the fewer connections and the ramifications it is on line. Directional drilling is limited by the drilling mud that is an out coming waste during the production. For bigger line sizes will the disposing of the sludge be a major expense which in some cases can make it unprofitable to drill. Generally drilling bigger sizes with god profit demands objects worthy of protection above ground.

  • 11.
    Berglund, Pär
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    bygglogistik: Vilka vinster kan göras genom välplanerad materialhantering?2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Bergström, Johannes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Sjöberg, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Nybyggnation av våtrum: Jämförelse mellan förtillverkat och platsbyggt2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Con-Form AS är en norskägd stomentreprenör som projekterar och egentillverkar byggdelarsåsom vägg, bjälklagselement, pelare, balk, trappor och våtrumsmoduler. Att tillverkavåtrumsmoduler är en relativt ny och obeprövad byggteknik i Sverige gentemot platsbyggdavåtrum. Anledningarna till valet av en specifik produkt är priset och kvalitén.Den prisjämförelse som utförts i denna rapport är framtagen utifrån produktion av tjugofyravåtrum. Våtrummet som har kostnadskalkylerats är på 5,9 m2 och består av en toalett, ettduschset med draperi samt ett handfat med tillhörande underskåp och armaturer.Kostnaden för våtrumsmodulen har tagits fram av Con-Form Töcksfors AB och kostnaden fördet platstillverkade våtrummet av NCC Karlstad i samarbete med underentreprenörer. I dettafall blev summan för det platstillverkade våtrummet 52 500 SEK och summan förvåtrumsmodulen 50 900 kr. Vid byggnation av platstillverkade våtrum blir de indirektakostnaderna mer omfattande. Indirekta kostnader är exempelvis ökad material- ochavfallshantering på byggarbetsplatsen. Våtrumsmodulen är därmed det billigare alternativetav de båda.En fördel med det förtillverkade våtrummet är delvis minskad materialhantering påbyggarbetsplatsen då modulen levereras vid inbyggnadstidpunkt och med kranlyft placerasdirekt i byggnaden. En nackdel med våtrumsmoduler är att dessa tidigt behöver komma in iprojekteringen och kunden låser sig därmed vid valt våtrum. Våtrumsmoduler passar därmedbäst i hotell och hyresrätter där det är en och samma beställare som tidigt i projekteringenbeslutar över utseende av våtrummen.En fördel med platsbyggnation är möjligheten att anpassa våtrummet efter kundens tycke ochbehov längre fram i byggskedet. Detta kan vara en avgörande faktor vid försäljning avexempelvis bostadsrätter. Däremot blir kostnaden för våtrummet dyrare vid platstillverkningoch logistik samt materialhantering blir mer omfattande.

  • 13.
    Buck, Dietrich
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Massivträ: Jämförelse mellan olika principer för sammanfogning av trä till plattelement med avseende på pris, hållfasthet och ekologi2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of solid wood construction methods can have a positive impact on the sustainability of constructions. The development of computer-controlled processing techniques enables the solid wood timber industry to rationalize the construction of buildings. The solid wood techniques come at time and will be higher valued in the future due to the natural characteristics of this material.

    The improvement of solid wood methods has resulted in various techniques to join wood into solid prefabricated parts. There is a need for a comparative market study of the different principles of solid wood construction to widen the knowledge and to explain interested builders the viability of these techniques. The key question for this study is: Which techniques of combining solid wood elements to whole boards are the most favorable ones concerning wood construction buildings – leaving apart questions of production costs, durability and ecological considerations?

    To point out the utility of these construction techniques and give them a broader understanding a general study of solid wood construction has been presented. The comparative study is based as well on studies of literature as on reviews of 27 companies in 6 countries.

    The following techniques for the production of boards made of solid timber elements are considered in this report:

     Laminating

     Nailing

     Stapling

     Screwing

     Stress laminating

     Doweling: vertically, horizontally, diagonally and with wooden screws

     Dovetailing techniques

     Wood welding techniques

    The study shows that the techniques of solid wood construction are very different in itself. CLT of cross-laminated timber scores highest in terms of cost and durability, but if one considers ecological factors, dovetailing is best. Taking into account both durability and ecological considerations, doweling is best. These alternatives give some freedom of choice regarding the visibility of surfaces and the efficient use of lower qualities of timber and they are therefore suitable for residential construction buildings.

    CLT is the most cost-effective, not patented and well established option in the market; the development of more health-friendly adhesives is still going on. Current researches demonstrate an alternative: Wood welding joins the parts better together than gluing them.

    Considered from the ecological viewpoint, boards made exclusively of wood, are preferable since no chemicals or not renewable resources are used. Recent researches show, that solid wood constructions have positive effects on the health of the residents of these buildings in comparison of buildings using non-natural materials.

  • 14.
    Carlén Bäckström, Lucas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Mamghaderi, Javad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    En studie om arbetsmiljö, tillbud, och risker inom produktion med fokus på kategorin fall2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The working environment in construction production is an area that is exposed to a large amount of risks, incidents and accidents. Incidents and risk observations that are the step before accidents happens daily at the construction working environment, which entails an increased risk of someone being injured or even die while doing their works. No one need to hurt themselves or die while doing their jobs, a working environment should be a safe place for everyone. Therefore, the work environment agency, the construction industry and the construction companies in Sweden all are constantly working on improving the working environment in construction production. Although the construction industries has achieved a more well-developed and safer working environment than it was before in time, risks and accidents still happening. This project is carried out with support from the construction company Peab with the aim of strengthening the knowledge of why incidents, risk observations and accidents occur in construction production and within which category the greatest problem occurs. This project has been limited to incidents and accidents within the category of fall from higher altitude. The area in this category is one of the most dangerous working environment areas where the victims are exposed to the worst consequences. The method for this study was carried out through case studies on two different workplaces, questionnaires, interviews and literature study. After the report has been compiled with using all the method and the collected data, it turns out that even today there are problems regarding risk observations, incidents and accidents at the workplaces in construction production. The fact that there are risks in the working environments in construction production depends on many parameters. like lack in communication, plans/controls, deficiencies in attitude / human factor, lack of time/stress, deficiencies in performance and weather conditions are causes that lead to most risks, incidents and accidents. The conclusion shows that the most common incidents and risks that have occurred are related to the category fall which is refer to one area of some type of higher level that is very exposed area. The winter climate in Sweden has a direct connection to the fact that the incidents and the risks through falls and slips increase significantly during the winter months. Problems within the planning phase, the execution phase and the follow-up phase occurs and the basis for the problems depends in most cases on attitude or the human factor. The most important improvement measures in terms of attitude are that every individual must think for himself and consider being more cautious and take the security measures more seriously at the risky areas. Staying for a short while in the work process and thinking before carrying out the work can make a big difference, it will make the person who carrying out the work more caution which in turn will help with reducing accidents and incidents at workplaces in production. The recommendations presented show that there are a lot of improvement measures to take to make workplaces in production safer.

  • 15. Celik, Ahmedin
    et al.
    Berggren, Daniel
    Hammarö ryttarförening - En framtid med möjligheter: Ett styrdokument för utveckling av Hammarö ryttarförenings verksamhet och anläggning2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hammarö ryttarförening (HRF) runs a riding school and rents horse stabling to individualsand there facility is located in Torp in Hammarö municipality. In the fall of 2012 HRF begana project whose purpose was to ensure that the organization and facility are conducted in linewith the association’s mission, goals and visions. The reason for the extensive work was thatthe facility is worn and heavily neglected in terms of renovations and that many of thepremises don’t meet the requirements of the business. To assist the work HRF took help fromthe construction engineering program at Karlstad University and KLARA architects inKarlstad.

    The purpose of this report was to highlight and clarify the potential development opportunitiesfor HRF’s business at the current or a new location. The objective of this report was to presenta steering document that outlines some of the development opportunities. The steeringdocument should include a business analysis that describes the present situation and vision, alocality study of potential sites, an economic analysis to estimate the economic impact of eachalternative location and a conceptual proposal of a new horse stable and new site plan at Torp.Important issues that the studies should answer were which alternative location that wasconsidered to have the greatest opportunity to achieve a more appropriate facility with highquality, safety and availability in the long term, and that is considered to have the greatestopportunity to develop and expand the association's various activities.

    A literature study was conducted where laws, rules and theory of horse stables and itsfunctions were read. The business analysis was developed in consultation with HRF throughmeetings and field trips. The locality study was made as a SWOT analysis where strengthswere analyzed against weaknesses and opportunities against threats. The approach for thesketch and drawing phase to develop a conceptual proposal was to sketch out variousalternative proposals and to have regular meetings with HRF and KLARA architects. Theeconomic report was drawn up as a budget spreadsheet for all the buildings, which would bepart of each alternative location, where total investment cost including production, contractorand other start-up costs could be estimated.

    The result of the report was a detailed business analysis that specified HRF's goals andvisions. The locality study examined three potential alternative locations, one alternative wasdismissed and two alternatives were examined in more detail. One alternative was based onHRF's current location at Torp and the other on a new location at Sätter on Hammarö. Also,the economic impact for each alternative location was evaluated.

    The conceptual proposal resulted in a draft blueprint for a new horse stable and a new siteplan for Torp where the new horse stable was included. The conclusion was that HRF wouldhave more opportunities to meet their goals and visions if HRF moved to the new location atSätter. The economic report demonstrated that there would be a greater investment to relocateto Sätter than to remain on Torp, but that it could be justified as it would give HRF and otherstakeholders a greater opportunity for long-term development and contribute to a betterassociationism.

  • 16.
    Damberg Larsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    GNSS-baserat grävsystem i VA-projekt: En undersökning om GNSS-baserade grävsystem ger ökad produktivitet och säkerhet i medelstora VA-projekt2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of machine control has long been common in major road construction and railway construction. However, machine control has become more and more common when digging trenches for pipe laying, but there are not many studies on how the use of machine control affects a work as trench digging for pipe laying.

     

    The report will investigate how a sewer, water and drain pipe project is influenced by using excavators that are equipped with machine control. The investigation will be conducted in two parts and will cover three different themes, economics, work environment and environment.

     

    Different questionnaires were customized for people with different positions. The persons surveyed were workers affected by the use of machine control in projects. These surveys addressed all three of the above topics.

     

    In order to make a deeper study of how the use of machine control affects the economy, figures on costs and progress / productivity were collected from a trench digging and pipe laying project in Toverud, Hammarö. There they used excavators that were equipped with machine control. These figures were compared to a reference project that was also carried out in Hammarö, but in 2009 when machine control was not used.

     

    The result shows that the use of machine control increases productivity while reducing workload and dangers for workers. Because the same type of work is carried out in less time, the total fuel consumption for the project decreases. The calculations showed that a work involving 1100 meters of trench digging and pipe laying. There would be savings up to around 3178 liters of diesel, and that the execution time would be about 15 days faster if the excavators were equipped with machine control.

    A limitation of machine control is that there is a lot of work for the surveyor if many revisions of the drawings are required. It is very important that the surveyor performs well with the line profile, otherwise the positive effects of using machine control at work will disappear. High buildings and forests can be a problem for the reception.

    The conclusion is that productivity increases and quality in the work environment is improved when using machine control.

  • 17.
    Dzafic, Amir
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Stölder och inbrott på byggarbetsplatser: En studie om risker och konsekvenser inom NCC:s produktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Theft and brake-ins at Swedish construction sites is a very common problem that mainly occurs during the production phase of building. The fractures that occur are not limited to a specific area but they also occur throughout the entire country. However, the areas around the major cities and larger national and European roads are most affected. Many companies are not prepared for the costs of a theft or burglary and there are no clear procedures for dealing with the situation that occurs. Stolen gods and burglaries is a waste of production that the companies should work harder to remove or at least reduce. The waste is so big that about 7000 burglaries and robberies from Swedish workplaces are reported annually. According to other studies, these 7000 burglars render a cost of 1.4 billion SEK annually for the Swedish construction industry.

    The work has been carried out and with the help of NCC Sverige AB section Värmland. The main purpose and goal of this work is to make NCC workplaces safer and more efficient by reducing the risk of a theft or burglary. The goal is also to give an increased understanding of what it means and what happens in the production phase after thefts and burglaries at construction sites.

    The method used to obtain the right information is primarily interviews and questionnaire surveys, but discussions have also been held with most supervisors, site managers and several other workers. In addition, site visits have been carried out at construction sites where routines have been investigated, placement of containers and security in and around the site offices as well as preventive measures and the risks involved on the site.

    The subject is quite unexplored, but there are some studies that have been done over the years. Svenska Byggbranschens Utveklingsfond, SBUF, has done several information papers and implemented a number of projects that deal with theft and burglaries on Swedish construction sites. Another major study that has been carried out is "Stölder och inbrott på byggarbetsplatser – omfattning, skadeverkan och risk", a study conducted at Malmö University on behalf of FoU Väst. These studies form the basis of my work and this is where knowledge and information about the subject has been retrieved.

    The investigations showed that a workplace that is close to major roads or which is located in a way that makes the insight poor, is at the highest risk of being affected by burglaries. Furthermore, it is possible to say that bad lighting, badly marked alarm signs and a workplace that is not properly protected in the form of proper fences and locks lies in a high-risk zone in case of a theft. There is a lot to work to do with the companies when it comes to routines and preventive measures. For example, one would be able to invest in a much more burglary fence which would make work difficult for any thieves.

    Given the pressure on building homes and other buildings in Sweden today, the risks will increase to be exposed by a burglary or a theft. This is an important factor that makes the topic interesting for companies in the industry so that they can get well prepared for each construction site in terms of prevention measures.

  • 18.
    Ekberg, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Granqvist, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Maskinhantering: Köpa kontra hyra maskiner och hjälpmedel2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following report investigates when it is economically most profitable to buy or rent machines or other equipment, the survey takes place on two of Skanska Sweden AB’s project around Stenungsund. To find out when a machine or other equipment becomes more viable to invest in, the authors designed a calculating spreadsheet in Excel. The calculation computes the total price for both rent and investment, but also after how many days a particular machine or equipment will be more viable to buy. By using the calculating spreadsheet, the projects most common machines and equipment have been studied to find out which machines and equipment that is economically viable to invest in or to rent.

     

    The aim of the project is that through interviews and comparisons between different machines and equipment provide suggestions for the economically most profitable option for investment and/or rental in machinery.

     

    The goal of the project is to educe the economically most profitable option for Skanska site manager concerning to purchase or rent different machines or other equipment. Moreover, the aim of the thesis and for Skanska district manager Malin Dahlstedt, which is the external supervisor for the thesis, to create a calculating spreadsheet which compare the cost of investment and renting different machines and equipment as well as calculating how many days it takes before an investment is economically viable.

     

    The calculator takes the base price of rent, number of days of rental, number of machines, discount rates and a surcharge, in percent, in regards for the calculations. The discount rates are taken from “Skanska Maskin” rental template and the surcharge, which are added to the investment price, includes repair-, maintenance- and storage costs.

     

    An example of the results is screwdrivers that costs 20 Swedish crowns a day to rent by “Skanska Maskin” and has an investment cost of 2 372 Swedish crowns. This leads to that after 279 days, it is economically viable to invest in a screwdriver according to the calculation compute. In Per-Olof’s project in Spekeröd a screwdriver were used in 245 days, which in throughout the project, this means that it is more viable to rent that screwdriver during this project. Per-Olof has, however, invested in screwdrivers because he knows that they will be used in his upcoming projects, which also means that he always has screwdrivers on site whenever they are needed.

     

    The machines and equipment that earliest becomes viable to invest in are the machines and equipment used daily out on the sites, such as nailers and screwdrivers. The remaining machines and equipment are more viable to rent by “Skanska Maskin” since the occupancy rate is not high enough.

     

    To investigate the cost and profitability of machines and other equipment in project are important because it is a relative large expenditure of each project. It is interesting when Skanska wants to win the offers and should therefore have the lowest expenses possible in every project. The study is also interesting for the authors because they will probably have great use of the results in their future engineering professions.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    LEED Commissioning: Hur man i Sverige kan uppfylla dess krav2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet visar hur den svenska byggprocessen stämmer överens med Commissioningprocessen i det amerikanska miljöcertifieringssystemet för byggnader kallat LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design). Examensarbetet går igenom de 12 stegen som LEED Commissioning är uppbyggt efter och förklarar varje steg i detalj.

    Commissioning är en kvalitetskontroll av byggnadens installerade system. LEED Commissioning fokuserar på energisystem och de system som är relaterade till dessa.

    LEED Commissioning tillför inga nya processer till den svenska byggprocessen men det skapas en ny roll, ett antal nya dokument och det måste även genomföras ändringar i existerande dokument.

    Varje steg av LEED Commissioning har blivit analyserade. Detta har resulterat i en beskrivning avde dokument som ska skapas vid varje tillfälle, länkat till den svenska byggprocessens motsvarighet. Denna analys förklarar även den uppgift som den nya rollen Commissioning Authority (CxA) skall/kan utföra.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Michaela
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Andersson, Julia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Arbetsberedningar i produktion: En analys av arbetsberedning med syfte att effektivisera och förbättra produktionen på Peab2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies show that good planning reduces operating coasts and costs for change and additional work. It means that thoughtful planning becomes a more important factor in reducing waste costs and achieving efficient production and good quality. A tool to achieve this is work preparation.

    Work preparation is a concept that, through planning, facilitates the performance of an activity. To achieve the desired result and quality, the choice of the performance method, workforce, materials, machines and other tools must be decided in good time before the work begins.

    The purpose of this graduate project is to make a status analysis of how Peab's work preparations are used in production. Identify errors or deficiencies and to investigate the possibility of streamlining. The objective is to get the work preparation more efficient and to suggest improvements.

    The study has been made in cooperation with Peab Region middle and the current building projects in Karlstad in spring 2017. It comprises a case study (on/at Talldungen preschool) and an interview study where site managers, supervisors and construction workers have been interviewed.

    The result shows that Peab has a structured work preparation and that the employees find the toolset useful. Working preparation clarifies requirements and any questions can be resolved before the start of the activity. During the preparation, the construction workers actively participate and can influence the choice of working methods, machines and tools. This results in a positive attitude and is perceived to provide better teamwork.

    One reoccurring problem is that time for work preparation is not prioritized, which means that the follow-up after a completed activity becomes insufficient and the documentation is often missing.

    Based on the conclusions drawn from the analysis, education, a bank of experience and also a drawing and instructional station are recommended as arrangements. Peab should be better at informing the employees about the available tools and should also be investing in developing the use of BIM.

  • 21.
    Erlandsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Bolstad, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Mariebergsskolans nya idrottshall: Utformning, dimensionering och jämförelse av stomalternativ i limträ2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Karlstad kommuns ägor finns 26 idrottshallar var av en är Mariebergsskolans idrottshall som är belägen 50 meter från Karlstads centralsjukhus. Idrottshallen har fuktskador och är för liten för sitt ändamål vilket lett till att flertalet förslag för renovering har funnits på agendan genom åren. Det senaste beslutet som tagits genererade i att en ny idrottshall ska börja byggas under våren 2016.

     

    Karlstad kommun uttrycker att de vill använda mer trä vid nybyggnationer men saknar i dagsläget en utarbetad träbyggnadsstrategi. Socialdemokraterna har lagt en motion om att kommunen ska arbeta fram en strategi med Växjös strategi, ”den moderna trästaden” som förebild.

     

    Målet med examensarbetet har varit att dimensionera och granska olika stomalternativ i limträ för hallbyggnaden över Mariebergsskolans idrottshall och sedan jämföra dessa i avseende materialåtgång samt materialkostnad. Val av stomme har gjorts efter att materialkostnad och materialåtgång vägts samman och det mest fördelaktiga stomalternativet tagits fram. Den valda konstruktionen har slutligen använts för ritningar och 3D-modellering av hallen.

     

    Stommen till Mariebergsskolans idrottshall består av treledstakstolar i limträ, vilande på limträpelare, med en fri spännvidd på 27 meter och en takhöjd på 7,2 meter. Den valda stommen var den mest fördelaktiga både gällande pris samt materialåtgång vilket gjorde treledstakstolen till det självklara valet.

     

    Idrottshallen har utformats med tillgänglighet och funktionalitet som grundtanke för idrottsutövare såväl som publik.

  • 22.
    Fermhede, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Effektivisering av klimatskärm: åtgärdsförslag för bostadsföreningen Stocken2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23. Flodell, Tilda
    et al.
    Aronsson, Nathalie
    Exploring Networking Barriers for Excavated Soil Management: A case study in the construction industry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is today one of the greatest consumer of natural resources, and considering the current construction rate, the resource efficiency are to be a challenge. The complexity and uniqueness of the industry create barriers for managing resources efficiently. Construction entails excavation of soil, and from a resource perspective, the excavated soil can be managed more efficiently. The purpose of the study is to examine the network of excavated soil management and how different actors and their roles are intertwined with each other and how they are related to environmental aspects in construction projects. A qualitative case study with a systematic combining approach has been conducted, where semi-structured interviews, observations and secondary documentations were used to collect data. The collected data were further analysed using the ARA-model and the iron triangle. The results generated five main networking barriers for managing the excavated soil more efficiently; communication, co-operation and willingness to compromise/collaborate, unified vision, commitment and structure. However, the analysis resulted in two concluding barriers with the most substantial impact on the excavated soil management. First, the public procurement act which limits the opportunities for early involvement of the contractors, and second, the lack of unified vision regarding the responsibility of the excavated soil. Further, commitment among all actors is required for a joint long-term management. The findings are specific to the case, due to the complexity of the industry. Further research is required to make the results more generalizable.

  • 24.
    Fredriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Ask, Fredrik
    Karlstad University.
    GC-bro med limträstomme: Dimensionering av Nya Älvbron med hjälp av datorbaserat dimensioneringsprogram2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the world today and are in great need of change and improvement. A building material that if handled properly, can contribute to reducing emissions is wood as it is the only renewable building material we have available.

    Wood has been the dominating material in bridge construction throughout history, until the last 200 years which have been characterized by concrete- and steel constructions. The relatively (relative?) new glulam can often compete with steel and concrete an make wood an attractive choice of material for example bridge constructions.

    In Karlstad a bridge of 280m for pedestrian traffic is planned to run over Klarälven and this bridge is the basis of our thesis. The bridge extends from Råtorp to Färjestad and is planned to have a frame of steel. The goal of this thesis is to design the same bridge, according to the eurocodes, with a supporting glulam frame using the computer-aided design software Robot Structural Analysis and the CAD-software Revit Structure. The bridge is sized for deadloads, snowload, windload and trafficloads both moving and static.

    The results shows that computer-aided design software can be used to great effect when sizing wooden bridges with glulam as a supporting frame, for example by calculating the results of all the possible positions of moving loads in an instant. It also shows that it is fully possible to construct a 280m long bridge made out of wood.

  • 25.
    Frid, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Eurokod1: Laster på bärverk - hur skiljer de sig från Boverkets konstruktionsregler?2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Grönqvist, Oskar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Förstärkning av bro 17-803-1: En jämförelse av förstärkningsmetoder2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    En jämförelse mellan fyra olika energisystemlösningar: För ett hus byggt efter passivhusstandard i Karlstad2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Gäwerth, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Alipour, Jamal
    Dimensioneringsdifferens mellan hand– och databeräkningsmetoder: En jämförelse mellan hand- och datadimensionering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The technology is in full progress, much is increasingly becoming computerized and automated. This is a process that is constantly evolving to get better solutions to various problems. In the concrete industry, there are technical solutions that make the production more efficient. One of the main reasons that these solutions are made is to save an important resource, time. These solutions include computer programs that facilitate various stages during production.Computer programs are getting more used in the dimensioning stage in the concrete industry. Structural engineers have for many years carried out their work with traditional hand calculations. Lately computer programs, including WIN-Statik has changed the working procedures in the dimensioning stage. Previous comparisons between existing dimensioning programs have proved that there are differences in reinforcement consumption. This leads to the issue: If there are marked differences in material consumption when comparing different dimensioning programs, then how much will the difference in material consumption be when comparing one of the widely used design software WIN-Statik against hand calculations?To implement this research, an existing building has been selected as the calculations shall be based on. Both calculation methods are conducted under the same conditions regarding the external dimension measurements. Other common conditions are the lifetime of the building, the concrete quality, reinforcing thickness for both pillars and beams, and last but not least the value of the crackangle (cot).The results from hand calculation equalize about 55 801 kg reinforcement that is required for the building, while the calculations from WIN-Statik requires 51 516 kg. This difference of 4285 kg means it requires 8.32 percent more reinforcement with hand calculation, which is equal to a cost increase of 35 000 (SEK) in only material consumption.

  • 29.
    Göthlin, Emil
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Karlström, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hur används 5S i byggbranschen?: Hur kan metoden implementeras i NCC:s dagliga arbete?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is an accident-prone industry. It is the third worst affected sector after transport and production/extraction of energy and environment. The average was, according to Arbetsmiljöverket's most recent statistics, 11 work accidents leading to absence per 1,000 active workers. All the major corporations in the industry suffer from accidents during production. The following report includes the vigorous effort made on the issue in 2014 by NCC, one of the leading construction and property development companies in Scandinavia.

     

    Safety and work environment are high priority topics within NCC and the goal is that all employees should thrive and work in a safe workplace. A long-term goal is the vision for zero accidents that apply to the entire company. In an effort to reach this vision and continually work to improve working conditions at NCC’s workplaces, various initiatives is carried out on a directorate level. One of these initiatives, which began in 2014, is to implement 5S in the organization and make the method a natural part of the daily work. The intention is that the method will improve orderliness at NCC’s workplaces, thus increasing safety, efficiency and collaboration.

     

    5S is based on the production philosophy Lean Production and intends to systematically improve the working environment and increase efficiency and collaboration. The improvements are achieved when systematic work with the five S’s coherently creates order. The method originates from the car manufacturer Toyota, but has been transformed and evolved into several other sectors and industries, including the construction industry. The five S’s for the construction industry can be termed as: sort, set in order, standardize, shine and sustain.

     

    Since the production in a construction project often differs from production in the manufacturing sector NCC had to develop a customized method for 5S before starting the implementation. The customized method for 5S includes new documents, education and presentations to reach out to the entire organization. The custom method also includes appointing a 5S responsible and a 5S team that plans the work before every project start. When production starts it’s the site managements responsibility to distribute work and ensure its execution.

     

    This thesis aim and objectives is to improve the work environment on NCC Örebro/Värmlands work sites by examining and evaluating the department’s current work with 5S as well as the method's implementation. The evaluation was conducted using a quantitative and a qualitative method in form of a questionnaire and interview study that combined generated reliable result.

     

    The result of this thesis shows that the effort, which began in 2014 to implement 5S in the organization, is neither completed nor executed in the best possible way. The effort has not been extensive enough to have a successful outcome, much due to the fact that most projects have been ongoing since before the venture. However, there are good materials available for continued work in the projects now starting up. It applies to the entire department to further inform and involve all personal in the work. Professional workers need more education, preferably together with officials and executives so that everyone's opinions will be regarded.

  • 30.
    Hamarashid, Ramyar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Mojab, Sayed Reza
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Effektivisering av produktionssystem: En fallstudie på Derome Plusshus2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This work will be carried out in cooperation with Derome Plusshus which has a factory in Kristinehamn with approximately 40 employees and produces modular home. On behalf of the company, we have taken on the challenge of identifying improvement opportunities in the production process in the workshop, where through consultation with the company, it was decided that the focus should be on the module-line, which is the bottleneck in the production process. The aim of this work is to identify improvement opportunities that exist for the production process in the Assembly station, with a focus on the lead time. As well as providesuggestions on improvement measures will lead to an increase in production capacity, which is also the goal of the work. This will be achieved by eliminating non-value adding activities. This is a development which also contributes to a sustainable production system. In essence, the observation in the workplace, which served as the material for the work in which the latter were analyzed for a better understanding of the situation. It gave a refined material that is then analyzed based on theories lean production and 5S. It helped that the suggestions could be presented divided into share increased production capacity. The used theories at work complement each other as lean production, minimize wastage in production such as; over-production, inventory, over work, transport, wait, wrong & rework, movements and untapped creativity. Then lean production processes production supplemented it with 5S that minimize disruption to the production process. 5s consists of five key words that are logical and are based on each other, the five words reads; sort, systematize, sweep, standardize and ensure systematic review. The result was an increase in production capacity by about 25 percent, however, with the condition that all the improvement proposals, which are designed for the improvement opportunities that are recurring, is implemented. Where improvement proposals range from minor adjustments in the production process to the investment of new tools and machinery which means a cost to Derome Plusshus.

  • 31.
    Hellsing, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Mård, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Bostadshus från Miljonprogrammet med påbyggnad i trä: En jämförelse mellan KL-träelement och BoKlok-moduler ur bärighets- och klimatsynpunkt2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and large carbon dioxide emissions are a few of today's major challenges, and the construction industry is a major contributing factor to these emissions. In Sweden, the industry accounts for 10 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions each year, which is equal to the emissions from all passenger cars in the country per year. A large part of the emissions can be traced to the materials in a building. By using wood instead of other materials, the emissions can be reduced since wood binds coal throughout its lifetime. Other challenges today are housing shortage, urbanization and urban densification. Housing shortage is an issue throughout Sweden, and the Swedish National Board of Housing estimates that approximately 700,000 new homes need to be built within the next 10 years. A part of the solution may be to renovate old buildings and, in addition to renovations, adding floors to create more housing. Additionally, using wood in these superstructures is beneficial both from a climate perspective and because wood is a lightweight material.

    The challenges of climate change and urban densification is in accordance with Skanska's goals and visions for the future. This report is written in collaboration with Skanska and we are looking closer at one of the company's projects in this study. The building is a concrete construction from the so called Million Programme and is located in Södertälje outside of Stockholm. Skanska is carrying out a complete renovation of the building and is adding a wood-framed top floor.The purpose of this degree project was to highlight how the choice of material can affect the emissions from future build-up projects.

    The purpose was also to develop a basis where the number of theoretical floor plans and the generated carbon dioxide emissions for the two alternatives are presented. Questions answered in this report were which alternative of the wooden construction that theoretically make the most amount of floors possible when building onto an existing building. Which one of the alternatives that leads to the lowest climate impact in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents is also answered.

    The two materials in this study were cross-laminated timber elements from Martinsons and BoKlok-modules, which are volume elements of wood stud frames from Skanska and IKEA. The climate impact of the different alternatives was based on categorization A1-A4 in the system boundary describing the material production as well as transportation from supplier to construction site. StruSoft FEM-Design has been used to model the existing concrete building. The two different attachments have been placed out as line loads on top of the model. Analysis and strength calculations have been carried out for the various additions. This is to determine the load bearing capacity of the concrete structure and the ground as well as the size of impact loads.

    The results showed that the concrete building could carry five floors of both CLT elements and BoKlok-modules. Despite this, the conclusion is that CLT is heavier. From a climate perspective, the CLT building is the one that generates the least carbon dioxide emissions in terms of production and transport of materials.

  • 32.
    Holmsten, Felicia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Etableringsbodar - köpa kontra hyra: Studie för NCC Construction Karlsta2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work is done for NCC Construction AB in Karlstad and all input is based on NCC's previous projects in Värmland. Most entrepreneurs rent their establishment sheds with the knowledge that it costs more than investing in sheds, but without studies that it is more profitable to buy the sheds. This study is based on energy efficient sheds from Cramo.

    The energy consumption for the production of a building is 15% of the building's life cycle, which leads to high costs. A large part of the energy in the production stage goes to the establishment sheds, studies has been made on sheds to produce energy efficient shed and therefore, expenditure on establishments has decreased. There is another way to save money regarding the establishment, and that is to own their own establishment sheds. The purpose is to show what is most profitable, renting or buying establishment sheds. In view of the assembly, disassembly, storage and maintenance a calculation was set up that shows input costs and conditions.

    If you have utilization on the sheds over 50%, it is more profitable for NCC Construction to buy their establishment sheds than renting them. What makes the biggest difference is the number of movements of the sheds. The price per build day can be halved if you have a high occupancy rate. Between 50% - 90% of the rental price will it cost to own their own sheds, based on occupancy days.

  • 33.
    Häggman, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Söder, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete med hjälp av BIM: Hur kan arbetsmiljöarbetet integreras i BIM? En studie utförd hos ByggDialog AB2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie har bedrivits på uppdrag av ByggDialog AB och med utbyggnaden av kraftvärmeverket i Karlstad, Hedenverket Etapp 3, som referensobjekt. Målsättningen har varit att utforma ett för ByggDialog anpassat förslag för hur det sytematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet kan integreras i BIM.Efter att ha undersökt hur ByggDialogs arbetsmiljöarbete bedrivs i dagsläget kan slutsatsen dras att det är ett över lag väl fungerande arbete med god struktur. Dock har brister inom bland annat dokumentation och kommunikation uppdagats, vilket borde kunna avhjälpas med hjälp av integrering i BIM. Målet med de i studien givna förslagen har varit att tillgodose de behov som påträffats under intervjuer med företagets personal. Förslagen har strukturerats i kortsiktiga förslag som kan genomföras i det aktuella projektet, och långsiktiga förslag som kräver viss omstrukturering och mer planering för att kunna genomföras.På kort sikt kan BIM användas vid bland annat arbetsberedning, lagbasmöten och skyddsronder. Precis som ByggDialog själva nämner i handlingsplanen kan modellen användas för visualisering men dessutom bör arbetssättet BIM användas för kommunikation och dokumentation av momenten. Det finns ett flertal applikationer i dagsläget som kan användas för det syftet.På längre sikt kan en så kallad K1-modell användas. Det är en version av bygghandlingsmodellen som används i allt arbetsmiljöarbete genom hela byggprocessen. Att även ha modellen kopplad till tidplanen, en så kallad 4D-modell, ger bäst förutsättningar för användning i arbetsmiljöarbetet. Till exempel kan identifierade risker markeras grafiskt i modellen vid den inledande riskanalysen. Modellen kan då användas vid arbetsberedning och lagbasmöten för att med hjälp av simuleringar och tidigare identifierade risker kunna planera arbetet och förutse kritiska moment. Slutligen kan K1-modellen även användas vid skyddsronder och vid tillbudsrapportering. Platser kan markeras i modellen och kopplas till foton och beskrivande texter.Ytterligare en slutsats från studien är att även om det finns en uttalad välvilja att använda sig av arbetssättet BIM hos ByggDialog, kommer det krävas en tydlig plan för hur förslagen skall genomföras. Det handlar framförallt om tydliga ansvarsroller, utbildning och att de inblandade ges tillräckligt med tid för att komma igång med de för företaget nya arbetssätten.

  • 34.
    Höij, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Nulägesanalys och förbättringar inom Veidekkes anläggningsprojekt: Veidekkes fortsatta utveckling av anläggningsprojekt2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggbranschen står i nuläget för utsläpp av cirka 11 miljoner ton koldioxidekvivalenter per år och av dem står anläggningsbranschen för 6 miljoner ton koldioxidekvivalenter per år. Alla aktörer i branschen står inför en tuff uppgift att minska de totala utsläppen tills 2050 då målet i Sverige är att minska energianvändningen med 50%. 

    Genom att certifiera anläggningsprojekt fås en positiv utveckling av branschens miljöarbete. Då CEEQUAL är det enda certifieringssystem som finns översatt till svenska och att de har mest erfarenhet i branschen är CEEQUAL det populäraste valet för att certifiera anläggningsprojekt. I CEEQUAL bedöms beställarens, projektörens och entreprenörens miljöarbete i projekten. De delar som bedöms är projektstrategi, projektledning, människor och lokalsamhälle, markanvändning och landskapsutformning, kulturhistorisk miljö, ekologi och biologisk mångfald, vattenmiljö, fysiska resurser- användning och hantering samt transporter.

    Examensarbetes syfte och mål var att undersöka skillnaderna i arbetet med hållbarhet inom verksamhetsområdena Anlägg och Bygg i Veidekke genom en nulägesanalys av arbetssättet i projekten, samt bidra till ökad förståelse för hur certifieringssystem förbättrar ett projekt.  Genom att visa hur hållbarhetsarbetet mellan anlägg och bygg skiljer sig åt, visa vad man förbättrar genom att införa ett certifieringssystem samt ta fram alternativa metoder för att utföra delmoment i projekten på ett hållbarare vis. Undersökningen genomfördes med en litteraturstudie, nulägesanalys med tre olika projekt som jämfördes samt att förbättringsförslag presenterades och där CEEQUAL fokuserades mest på.  

    Resultatet från undersökningen visade att grundidén i Veidekke Bygg och Anlägg är lika och i detta fall var enda skillnaden att bygg har kommit längre med certifieringssystem än anlägg samt att dokumentera projektet digitalt. 

    Förbättringsområden som föreslogs var enligt följande:

           1.           All dokumentation bör vara digital

           2.           Storstadskraven ska uppfyllas

           3.           Bör vara krav på användning av biodiesel

           4.           Byte till energisnålare personalbodar

           5.           Dokument för att få en bättre CEEQUAL bedömning

           6.           Bör använda hjälpsystem för grävmaskiner

           7.           Bör använda Eco asfalt

    Resultatet av CEEQUAL bedömningen visade att projekt Edsvalla VA skulle klara bedömningen ”Pass” med 27% vilket är precis på gränsen för att bli godkänt. De främsta förbättringar som bör ske för en klassning av CEEQUAL kapitel 4 och 8, anses vara:

    • Livscykelanalys av området
    • Vattenresursanalys
    • Analys av omkringliggande landskap 
  • 35.
    Ivarsson, Thomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Materialhantering på byggarbetsplatser: Vilka aktiviteter anser olika arbetsgrupper vara de största problemen beträffande materialhantering?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How building materials are managed on a construction site is today important as the cost of materials and the management of it accounts for approximately 50% of the construction costs of a building project. Material logistics is not always easy to deal with when materials come to a project with many different professionals from many different suppliers. This thesis has covered Skanska Värmlands construction site at the Central Hospital in Karlstad, where they expand and rebuild the hospital with an estimated value of 1.35 billion Swedish crones. They are aware of the existing problems with the material flow at the construction site and they know that there are improvements to make. Therefore, the questions were asked which activities are the most critical in the material managing and what changes would be achievable to get an efficient material control, both at the current site and future construction sites.

    The chosen methods to answer the question were a combination of interviews and a field survey. The interviews were used to obtain the activities that different individuals within the organization considered to be the most critical. The people interviewed were both civil servants and workers, and what everyone considered was the biggest problem in the workplace was the large amounts of material being delivered prematurely. This means that it is stored in the building, which means that materials often are in the way of the workers. To validate the performance, there was a field study which examined the proportion of working time was spent moving materials which proved to be 38% of the total time.

    To make an improvement and to get a more efficient material management four suggestions were made:

    • Material that will not be used within a day or two should be stored in a temporary logistic facility.
    • Use the calendar for deliveries stricter with the help of management policies.
    • Evaluate the ability to transport the material into the building during non-working hours.
    • Cooperation between Skanska and suppliers to get more reliable deliveries. 
  • 36. Johansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Jingfors, Johan
    Utveckling av Måkeberg och Norra Hamnplan: Development of Måkeberg and Norra Hamnplan2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet är ett förslag i en arkitekttävling på ett nytt bostads- ochhandelsområde i Åmåls kommun. Platserna som behandlas ärMåkeberg och Norra Hamnplan som tillsammans bildar en yta påcirka 50 000m2. Godkänns förslaget av kommunen så är avsiktenden att det skall ge ett underlag för en inledande dialog medkommuninvånare och som stöd i det kommande detaljplanearbetet.Man vill även illustrera områdets möjligheter till förtätning avstaden och med en ny funktionsblandad stadsdel knyta stadskärnanskontakt med vattnet. Rapporten beskriver behovet ochförutsättningarna för utformningen av området. För att nå fram tillmålet av arbetet genomfördes en litteraturstudie, skisser ochstudiebesök för analysering av platsen. Litteraturstudien ochskisserna behandlar de olika utmaningar som ställs på gestaltning.Utmaningarna är omkringliggande faktorer som påverkarbebyggelsen vilket är Vänerns framtida vattennivå, järnvägenssträckning, avloppsreningsverket och bebyggelsens inverkan pånuvarande centrum. Studiebesöket utfördes för att analyseraområdets potential och hjälpa till i gestaltningsskedet. Arbetet visarpå vilka styrkor och svagheter platsen har samt möjligheter och hotsom finns i området. Resultatet presenteras i tematiska kartor,illustrationsbilder och ritningar. Arbetet visar på hur vi bedömer attpå bästa sätt gestalta Måkeberg och Norra Hamnplan i Åmål så attde tillgodoser de behov och möter de utmaningar som finns istaden.

  • 37.
    Johansson, Sandra
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Dellså, Lovisa
    Erfarenhetsåterföring inom NCC Folkboende: En studie av kv. Smeden2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Jonsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Nilsson, Madeleine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Ett boende för alla: Utformning och gestaltning av ett tillgänglighetsanpassat vandrarhem i Valfjället2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Ajeel, Rima
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Färjestadsskolan – en jämförelse av stommaterial: En ekonomisk och miljömässig jämförelse av stommaterialen prefabricerad betong och KLträ2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society the environmental impact of the construction industry is a major problem. Something that should be pursued is a more sustainable construction in which economic, social and environmental sustainability cooperate. The choice of building materials plays a significant role in creating a more sustainable development. In order to further encourage the development within sustainable building materials, the public sector is an important participant. In Karlstad, the municipality has decided to build a new school building in the residential area Färjestad. In this study, two different framework materials will be compared through an economical and environmental perspective where social aspects are considered in form of sound and fire requirements. The materials that will be compared are cross-laminated timber, CLT, and prefabricated reinforced concrete. The purpose of the study is to find out which of the materials is most economically and environmentally advantageous. In a school building, high demands are made regarding sound reduction and fire safety, which must be taken into account while calculating dimensions of the framework materials. The materials that will compared differ in several ways. Reinforced concrete has a high mechanical strength and is heavy which makes it steady and favorable to be used in tall buildings. Concrete is inorganic which also makes it fire and moisture resistant. CLT is made of minimum three layers of cross-glued wood boards which creates a stable and isotropic building material. In relation to its light weight CLT has great mechanical properties. Wood in general is an organic and combustible material, however cross-laminated timber has relatively good fire and moisture properties. In order to reach a result extensive calculations are made to decide the proportion of the two framework materials. The dimensions that are calculated are used to further calculate the costs of the project and the amount emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents. The economical calculation is primarily calculated by using BidCon. To calculate emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents, environmental product declarations, EPD, are used. The EPD: s reports the global warming potential for each material. The result of the economic calculation shows that a framework of CLT is slightly more expensive than a corresponding framework of prefabricated reinforced concrete. The calculations of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions show that the reinforced concrete contributes to more than twice as much emissions as a framework of CLT. From an economic perspective, prefabricated reinforced concrete framework is more profitable, but from an environmental perspective, cross-laminated timber is more beneficial.

  • 40.
    Khafaji, Mustafa
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Niklasson, Rickard
    Karlstad University.
    Kartläggning av faktorer som påverkar arbetsproduktiviteten i byggproduktionen: En studie som utförts på uppdrag av ett byggföretag i Värmland2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Productivity development in the construction industry is low compared to many other industries. Rising productivity is a prerequisite for an ongoing increase in the growth of an organization. Work productivity in construction work can be seen as a rough estimate of total productivity, where the construction worker's working time becomes a reflection of how well the project organization, production management and production planning work in the business.

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out the most contributing factors that affect work productivity in construction production and to map how the various factors are experienced at the company that being examined. Furthermore, the connections between the various factors and their underlying causes with a focus on daily activities are examined. The goal is to find out improvement measures regarding work methodology for productive work. The questions that were answered in this thesis were which factors contributed most to work productivity in construction work, how construction workers and officials at the company perceive the factors examined and what improvement measures the construction company should work with that leads to increased work productivity.

    The methods used in the research report are partly a literature study that has identified which factors contribute most to work productivity in the construction phase. After this, a further study was done on each factor with the aim of finding out which sub-factors affect the examined factor. Then, a questionnaire study was carried out that was structured according to the various factors. 51 construction workers and 17 officials participated in the study. Then a survey of the questionnaire responses was made, which was then analyzed.

    The result shows that the most contributing factors that affect work productivity are work environment, production planning, communication, motivation and commitment. The general picture of how construction workers and officials at the company experience the different factors is positive.

    The most prioritized improvement measures that the company should prioritize in order to optimize work productivity are the following: well thought-out time planning, resource planning according to team best team, ordering material at the right time, involving construction workers in work preparations, that construction workers receive education that increases their competence, that the site management is out more often at the construction site and controls the work, to inform about the next task in good time, that construction workers receive a higher salary and to receive praise from the boss.

  • 41.
    Kristinegård, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Fönstermontage: Lufttäthet och montagetid för alternativa metoder2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att allt större krav ställs på låg energiförbrukning hos byggnader, ökar även vikten av en lufttät konstruktion. I samband med detta ökar även behovet att hitta nya arbetsmetoder som tidseffektiviserar arbetet men samtidigt genererar lufttäta konstruktioner som klarar eventuella täthetskrav.

    Detta projekt har utförts tillsammans med PEAB på en av deras arbetsplatser i Grebbestad där det för tillfället byggs bostads- och hyresrätter med passivhusteknik. Den fönstermonteringsteknik som har använts i Grebbestad är mycket tidskrävande och intresse över nya enklare montagemetoder har funnits.

    Syftet med detta projekt är att undersöka om det finns arbetsmetoder för fönstermontering som är tidseffektivare än den metod som används i Grebbestad men som samtidigt ger lågt luftläckage. Projektet har genomförts genom montering av fönster med olika montagemetoder. Provmonteringarna av fönstren har skett i ett tillfälligt provrum och har utförts av en rutinerad snickare för att få ett tidsperspektiv på arbetet och där varje fönstermontering har provtryckts för att veta hur lufttät respektive metod är. Risken för slarv och hur avancerad respektive metod är har även analyserats genom diskussioner med snickaren.

    Provtryckningarnas resultat har visat att fogskum som tätning kring fönstret ger lägst luftläckage av de testade montagemetoderna i detta projekt. Läckaget uppmättes till 0,4 l/s och fönster vilket kan jämföras med den montagemetod som användes i Grebbestad vars uppmätta läckage blev 1,2 l/s och fönster. Resultaten i detta projekt visar på varierat luftläckage kring fönstren och dess påverkan på husets totala läckage varierar mellan de olika montagemetoderna.

    Ur ett tidsperspektiv är montagemetoden med drev, bottningslist och fogmassa den metod som tar kortast tid att utföra. Resultaten visar att det framförallt är montagemetoderna med extra plastfolie som skall tejpas ihop som är minst tidseffektiva. Även risken för slarv ökar vid användande av plastfolie och montagemetoden med fogskum ansågs vara den metod där risken för slarv var minst då fogskummet sväller vid härdning.

    Vid en sammanvägning av resultaten i detta projekt så ger montagemetoden med fogskum bäst resultat men innan dess en rekommendation för fogskum kan göras bör materialets beständighet och täthetsfunktion över tid vara noggrannare kartlagd.

  • 42. Larsson, Elin
    et al.
    Melin, Susanne
    Östlund, Erik
    Skanska och KBAB:s partneringsamarbete: Kommunikationsrutiner2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Lindeskov, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Modin, Jimmie
    Karlstad University.
    Uttorkning av betong: Simuleringar i programvaran PPB jämförs med fuktmätningar i betongprover med Bascement2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production currently accounts for a total of 5 % of carbon dioxide emissions globally, which for example is more than twice as much as the global aviation industry. New cement and concrete recipes, with new properties, are being developed with the aim of reducing the climate load. In the Portland fly ash cement, parts of climate-stressing cement clinkers are replaced with the mineral-added fly ash, a residual product from other industries. This should lead to a reduced climate impact. Concrete with Portland fly ash cement, however, has caused delays and extra costs in production due to long drying times that did not match with simulations in the software TorkaS 3.2, which is based on concrete with Portland-limestone cement. TorkaS will be replaced by the software Production Planning Concrete, PPB, which can simulate dehydration in concrete with Portland fly ash cement.

    The aim of the study is to investigate how moisture simulations in PPB differ from executed moisture measurements in four concrete samples with two different w/c ratio. By storing the samples in different environments, the goal is to experimentally measure how the environment affects the dehydration. The goal is also to show differences between moisture simulations with the built-in climate data in PPB and with the own measured climate data.

    The results from the experimental studies show that the dehydration became larger in concrete samples with w/c ratio 0.40 than for samples with w/c ratio 0.55 after 70 days. Samples that had been stored in a stable indoor environment had dried more than samples that had been stored in a varying outdoor environment, which in this study did not correspond to simulations in PPB.

    The result of this study shows that simulations in PPB tend to show slightly greater dehydration than executed moisture measurements. This overestimation is greater in simulations with a varying outdoor environment than with a stable indoor environment. The overestimation is greater in simulations with the built-in climate data in PPB than with the own measured climate data.

    When adjusting the maximum temperature of the concrete in PPB to the actual measured maximum temperature, the moisture simulations is positively affected so that they approach the experimentally obtained results. Concrete with low w/c ratio is more affected by such an adjustment than concrete with high w/c ratio.

    The conclusion in this study is based on simulations and moisture measurements in a few concrete samples, which may have been exposed to disturbances. More studies are needed to validate the reliability of the PPB software. Choice of curing method and maximum temperature during curing can affect the drying and simulations in PPB. The experiments indicate that simulations with the PPB software tend to deviate if concrete with a high w/c ratio is exposed to water shortly after casting. Correct maximum temperature in PPB is important for a more real simulation of dehydration in concrete, especially at high w/c ratio. Simulations in PPB tend to be more accurate when using own climate data than using the built-in climate data.

  • 44.
    Louise, Zakrisson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Effektivisering av intern lagerhantering vid ett mindre förvaringslager2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Ludvigsson, Pontus
    Karlstad University, Division for Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics.
    Organisationsplan för Skanska Direkt Värmland2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Skanska Sweden has decided to split the organization that earlier handled both large and small projects into two different subsidiaries. A consequence of this is that all construction service handling will from now on be enforced under the name Skanska Direkt AB. The management of Skanska sees this as an opportunity to develop the organization and in the long term achieve higher earnings.   

    The task which Skanska in connection with the reorganization wanted to be investigated was a proposal on how the organization of work with the insurance work in the future should look like.

    The organization that is handled is from production manager to professional workers and includes damage handling that has been obtained from insurance companies in the southern and northern parts of Värmland. 

    The purpose with this work is to present a different kind of view to the problem with developing this branch of the company. The main target was to work out a proposal of an organizational plan for the damage handling in Skanska Direkt AB that is possible to apply, less sensitive for dismissals, results in higher earnings, obtains higher customer satisfaction and also a staff stab that develops their skills at their own.

    The report and work progressed as following:

    1. Opening theory study of strategies to obtain the objectives set.
    2. Restructuring of existing organization with theories as support.
    3. Interviews with the actors involved to verify feasibility of the developed organization plan

     

     Organization chart, the result of work means that some workers at each location shall be responsible for a small group of workers and work independently. They shall manage the process of invoicing and calculate costs at the same time as they work out on the workplace. In support of integration and development shall it be resource persons and development managers.

    The conclusion of the work done was that the organization chart is feasible and that in the existing organization is gaps that this organizational structure may be a possible solution of.

  • 46.
    Nilsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Tellin, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Säkrare byggarbetsplatser: Säkerhet integrerad i visuell styrning2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report shows how to improve the working environment and safety on working sites of Skanska in Värmland through integrating safety by visual monitoring.

    On the safety regulation protocols, some remarks appear frequently and those are the remarks about fall-arrest safety netting, untidyness in general and personal safety equipment. Behind these remarks, and behind the many accidents occuring on the building sites, the human factor is the main cause, which implies that many of these accidents could have been prevented.

    Visual monitoring is a method that earlier has been tested on the worksites of Skanska with the purpose of increasing productivity through communication and visibility for the workers. Through their participation in visual planning, their commitment increases and a feeling of togetherness in production is created, something that could solve many of the problems occuring on the building sites.

    At Skanska, visual monitoring in reality works out in a way that a white board is put up on the building site where the workers assemble every morning before production commences, and all priorities concerning production are gone through.

    Our idea is to integrate safety into visual monitoring through putting up points on the white board that are important from a safety aspect. To these points a scale could be added where one easily could view the current safety situation for every point on the building site. The person responsible for the white board makes a judgement in the end of every working day by indicating where he thinks the level of safety is among the points put up. But just indicating the judgement of safety is in our opinion not enough. The person responsible for the white board should explain the basis used in forming his judgement and call attention to shortcomings, while not forgetting positive feedback. Through constant remarks and reminders, this should produce a result as it is the workers own security that is being discussed.

    This method is thought to work because it is simple and straightforward and puts focus on the most important issues. The formulation on the white board and the matters discussed can easily be altered which means that the whiteboard can be adjusted to all building sites.

  • 47.
    Nilsson, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Möjliga förbättringsåtgärder för en mer ekologiskt/miljömässigt hållbar byggproduktion.: Studie av ByggTema i Örebro AB:s aktiva miljöarbete i byggproduktionen.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry was recently faced with the challenge of constructing that were more sustainable as a finished product. This in terms of less energy use, less environmental impacts, and more. This development has meant that the construction industry in order to develop a completed building has become a larger part of the construction industry's environmental impact.

    The interest in expanding work to create more ecologically/ environmentally sustainable construction sites has increased sharply in recent years. As it may be expensive to evaluate their own business to find improvement measures, the major companies in Sweden have made radical changes in daily work. This has increased the interest of ByggTema in Örebro AB to follow in the same track to compete with equivalent environmental parameters.

    The starting point of the study has been to find simple improvement measures for ByggTema to apply throughout the building process.

    To investigate how interest and knowledge levels were within the company, a survey was used, which showed that they actively sort waste and that they have too little time on each project to develop active environmental work in building production. The next steps in the study were to interview selected individuals within ByggTema to get an insight into what is happening in the detailed work on these issues, as well as to find possible solutions to the problems that currently hinder more ecological/ environmentally friendly work in building production. When gathering information about this, field studies were carried out at two school projects located in Örebro (Brunns School and Norrby School). This in order to draw conclusions about which improvement measures are appropriate for ByggTema to apply in the business.

    The result of the study was a number of possible improvement measures for ByggTema to apply in its operations. These included, among other things, involving more personnel in the planning phase, increasing the level of knowledge/ awareness of employees through internal and external education, high demands on subcontractors in the form of lighting and containers. In short, uninsulated containers that need to be heated should be banned and halogen lamps should be prohibited to accommodate LEDs with significantly lower energy consumption. Low energy shed should be banned, partnerships should be applied and the willingness to cooperate should be common.

  • 48.
    Norling, Ola
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wikström, Therese
    Karlstad University, Division for Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics.
    Checklista för projektledaren vid ROT-arbete av verksamhetslokal: En sammanfattning av risker och åtgärder2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemet vid ROT-arbete är att många delar av upprustningen kan orsaka tidsfördröjning, vilket är extra känsligt för projekt under stor tidspress. Om det handlar om att återställa en byggnad som inhyser en verksamhet, så arbetas det mot en mycket större tidspress än vid återställande av bostadshus. Förseningar är något som man varken har tid eller råd med. Det gäller att få igång verksamheten så fort som möjligt, dels för att inte ägarna ska förlora inkomst och dels för att försäkringsbolaget vill betala ut rätt försäkringspengar.

    Examensarbetet visar de viktigaste momenten i både teori och praktik. Det har gjorts en litteraturstudie inom ämnet för att få en bred kunskapsbas. En intervju har också genomförts med en i dag erfaren projektledare, som pekat på de viktigaste arbetsuppgifterna för en projektledare i ett ROT-projekt.

    Syftet är att finna de faktorer som kan försena ett ROT-projekt och precisera dessa i en checklista för att projektledaren ska kunna upprätta en säkrare tidsplanering.

    Det är viktigt att projektledaren, trots det pressade tidsschemat, genomför riskhanteringsmetoden vid ROT-arbeten. En planerare som för första gången ska analysera risker med ett ROT-arbete bör gå efter riskhanteringsmallen för att undvika att förbise viktiga riskmoment och hanteringsmetoder.

    Vissa av projektledarens viktiga åtaganden beskrivs inte i teorin, vilket gör det svårt för en projektledare utan tidigare erfarenhet från yrket. Därför är denna studie användbar, då den belyser både teori och praktik.

  • 49. Olsson, Daniel
    Visuell Projektering: En studie utförd på Centralsjukhuset i Karlstad2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Visuell projektering har rötter i Japan och företaget Toyota där man först utvecklade Lean production. Man finner också rötter till visuell projektering i entreprenadavtalet partnering. Visuell projektering handlar om visuell planering i projekteringsfasen. Visuell projektering arbetar med en fysisk whiteboardtavla och post-it lappar som placeras i ett rutnät, med dess olika intressenter representerade i x- och y-led.

    Centralsjukhuset i Karlstad har mött stora framgångar genom hela produktionen i samband med nybyggnation av operationssalar. Under våren 2016 påbörjades projekteringen för en ombyggnation av de befintliga operationssalarna på sjukhuset. Projekteringen utförs visuellt och projektdeltagarna tycker att metoden är mycket bra men ingen vet riktigt varför metoden ger så bra resultat. Projektdeltagarna vet inte heller om det finns fler framgångsfaktorer i projekteringsprocessen än visuell projektering. Hur fungerar kommunikationen runt tavlan, vad övriga projektdeltagare anser om agerandet runt tavlan och om det finns några förbättringar att genomföra i avseende för visuell projektering är frågor som behandlas.

    Gemensamt projektkontor, stort engagemang och visuell projektering är några av framgångsfaktorerna för Centralsjukhuset. Engagemanget kommer av storleken och det tekniskt avancerade bygget. Visuell projektering leder till effektiva, korta möten där detaljfrågor endast diskuteras mellan de personer som berörs av ämnet. De flesta av deltagarna är handplockade och tycker att visuell projektering är näst intill felfritt men att det ändå finns förbättringar att genomföra, ofta nämns digitalisering som ett förbättringsförslag. Ett dokument innehållande riktlinjer för visuell projektering samt förtryckta lappar för tavlan presenteras som underlättande stöd och ett led i förbättring för visuell projektering.

    Den avgörande faktorn för ett projekt att uppnå framgång handlar om vilka personer som deltar. Regler kring tavlan och storlek på projekt är detaljer i sammanhanget, om än inte oviktiga. Det viktigaste är ändå att rätt personer arbetar med rätt saker, då uppnår projektet framgång.

  • 50.
    Olsson, Lovisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Arnäs-Nielsen, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    BIM i produktionsskedet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis treats Building Information Modeling, BIM, in the production stage. Briefly

    described BIM is virtual model of a building object where all information about the

    object is gathered. All the involved operators in the construction project have access to

    the model and can gather or share information about the project. There are several ways

    to apply BIM in the production stage. This thesis primarily deals with visualization of the

    object, preparation and planning, the ability to take amounts from the model and

    coordination and clash control.

    The basic issue was highlighted by Byggdialog AB. The company has a vision about how

    they want to use BIM in all the different stages in a building project. Byggdialog want

    their partnering entrepreneurs to develop their BIM usage in the production stage in

    order to fulfill this vision. Goodtech is one of Byggdialogs partnering entrepreneurs and

    is the company that has been studied during this thesis.

    The goal with this thesis was to develop proposals as to how the BIM usage in the

    production stage can improve. The purpose was to make the partnering entrepreneurs

    understand why it is important and helpful to use BIM. The intention was also that other

    partnering entrepreneurs should be able to use this thesis while working with BIM in

    the production stage.

    The methods to collect information have been visits to construction sites, literature

    search, and interviews. The interviewees represented different operators that can affect

    the usage of BIM in the production stage.

    This thesis resulted in concrete proposals as to how the partnering entrepreneur can

    improve their BIM usage. Proposals as to how Byggdialog can ensure that their

    entrepreneurs are using BIM correct have also been developed. Today the partnering

    entrepreneur uses BIM to

    visualize the building object. As a suggestion the entrepreneur

    should also use the BIM model while

    preparing and planning their work and in order to

    calculate material amounts

    .

    It’s important that the entrepreneur understand how the model can be used and what

    kind of information it contains in order to enable these applications. It’s also important

    that the design phase is carefully executed. Proposals as to how this can be achieved is to

    educate the staff in BIM and how it should be used, that the partnering entrepreneur

    participates in the coordination meetings and that the partnering entrepreneur place

    greater demands on their electrical consultant.

    In order for Byggdialog to ensure that their partnering entrepreneurs are using BIM

    correct they should offer them education about BIM and how it works, make the BIMmodel

    more user-friendly and place demands on how they want BIM to be used in the

    project specifications.

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