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  • 1.
    Almberg, Ellinor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Riskstudie av en förändrad användning av bromerade flamskyddsmedel2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a qualitative study about the changing image of risk when the use of brominated flame retardants BFR goes from prohibited ones, to alternative flame retardants, with the account of existing knowledge and the effects on humans and the environment. The use of brominated flame retardants has been going through a large increase since the 1950s. Today the global production estimates 200 000 ton each year. The five most common BFR and those the focus lay on in this paper are: Tetrabromobisphenol A TBBP-A, Penta-, Octa- and Decabromodiphenylether (PBDE) and Hexabromocyclododecane HBCDD. These substances are all exist in many different variants where the properties could vary. Some characteristic properties for all of them are low general volatility but high solubility in fat and that they are persistent. BFR are used in many different areas like textiles, building material, electrical products and in printed circuit cards for computers. BFR can leak out during the products whole life-cycle. Each year, tonnes of BFR release to the European environment.

    PBDE have been discovered in animals, scattered over big parts of the world. The evidence of the negative effects is not considered to be strong enough for a full ban of TPPP-A, HBCDD or DecaBDE in the European Union. However effects like impairing learning functions, changes in the spontaneous behaviour and different hormone levels have been detected in tests on laboratory animals. Levels of BFR have also been found in human breast milk. This is a big risk factor because small children and embryos are particularly sensitive. The neurological development is for example very complex and a changing hormone level could have devastating consequences.

    All the five Swedish authorities that have been contacted in this paper consider the usage of brominated flame retardants as a problem and have the opinion that the solution lay in measures in a European Union level. The agencies have different commissions but all of them work, either for an increased security and information level, or for a sustainable society development. The fact that the use of BFR involves many insecurities, make their tasks even more difficult to reach. Different circumstances can lead to either an increase or a decrease usage of BFR. Legislation and directives can inhibit the use of BFR whereas lobbying and fire safety demands could have the opposite effect. Alternative fire retardants have been developed; both technical solutions where the safety lay in the design of the product but also new way of protect plastics from fires.

    The conclusion is; the risk will decrease if legislation prohibits a whole group of chemicals, but not fast enough. The level of knowledge about the existing chemicals is rising but the knowledge about the brominated options is still to low.

  • 2. Andersson, B. I.
    et al.
    Bishop, K. H.
    Borg, G. C.
    Giesler, G.
    Hultberg, H.
    Huse, M.
    Moldan, F.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nygaard, P. H.
    Nyström, U.
    The covered catchment site: A description of the physiography, climate and vege-tation of three small coniferous forest catchments at Gårdsjön, South-west Sweden1998In: Experimental Reversal of Acid Rain Effects: the Gård-sjön Roof Project, redaktörer: Hultberg H. och Skeffington R., John, England: Wiley & Sons Ltd , 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Andersson, Elin
    Transportinformationskampanjer och klimatproblematiken: En studie av fyra teman som påverkar beteendeförändringar2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4. Andersson, M
    et al.
    Carlsson, B
    Danielsson, K
    Enström, J
    van Hees, P A W
    Lundström, U S
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Försurning av skogsmark i Värmland1996Report (Refereed)
  • 5. Andersson, Peter
    Europeiska Unionens vattenramdirektiv: En studie i dess inverkan på Östersjöns vattenkvalité2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Andersson Sjöberg, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Samhällets Sårbarhet för Klimatförändringarna2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of the climate changes are expected to generate several substantial direct and indirect consequences on both ecosystems and societies. It is the extent of the negative consequences that determents the vulnerability of the things or the ones exposed. The knowledge of the effects and consequences by a changing climate provides an opportunity to take measures to reduce the vulnerability.Our society’s vulnerability depends on how we choose to act out of the existing knowledge and what measures we choose to take. 

    Karlstad municipality has good knowledge and perception of the increased flood risks the climate changes will generate and the probable consequences that most likely will follow. How the municipality decides to manage the flooding issue is not just affected by the will to mitigate the vulnerability but also by the vision to increase the number of citizens. Karlstad municipality wants to oblige the citizen’s demand of settlements close to the water in order to reach the aim to gain the population quantity. Hereby attractive areas are developed even though they are estimated to be vulnerable. The motivation is that the knowledge about the flood risks makes it possible to take necessary measures to reduce the risks.

  • 7.
    Andersson-Skold, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, S-40278 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Effective and Sustainable Flood and Landslide Risk Reduction Measures: An Investigation of Two Assessment Frameworks2016In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, ISSN 2095-0055, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 374-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural events such as floods and landslides can have severe consequences. The risks are expected to increase, both as a consequence of climate change and due to increased vulnerabilities, especially in urban areas. Although preventive measures are often cost-effective, some measures are beneficial to certain values, while some may have negative impacts on other values. The aim of the study presented here was to investigate two frameworks used for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of physical and nonphysical flood and landslide risk reduction measures. The study is based on literature, available information from authorities and municipalities, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder views and values. The results indicate that the risks for suboptimization or maladaptation are reduced if many aspects are included and a broad spectrum of stakeholders are involved. The sustainability assessment tools applied here can contribute to a more transparent and sustainable risk management process by assessing strategies and interventions with respect to both short- and long-term perspectives, including local impacts and wider environmental impacts caused by climate change, for example. The tools can also cover social and economic aspects. The assessment tools provide checklists that can support decision processes, thus allowing for more transparent decisions.

  • 8.
    Andréasson, Robin
    Karlstad University.
    En kritisk diskursanalys av Europa 2020 strategins förhållningssätt till hållbar utveckling.: Ur perspektiven ekologisk modernisering och miljörättvisa.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Inspired by Maarten A. Hajer (1995), this work will analyze and attempt to clarify how environmental and equity issues are reflected in the development policies that takes place from a contemporary perspective at EU level. In this case, with a focus on the Europe 2020, “A European strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth” Which are analyzed through a critical discourse analysis after Fairclough’s three dimensional model in relation to the research question: Which discourse/discourses appears in the “Europe 2020” in terms of economic development in relation to the environment and justice, and; What truths/hegemonies emerges in relation to the environment and development in this communicative event? The analysis contributed to the clarification of a number of prominent discourses, truths/hegemonies described constituted and likewise reproduce the larger ideological social practice. Growth discourse is seen as the reigning discourse for which all inferiors discourses comply. Its realization is seen as a prerequisite for sustainable development and social shared stance. This thus realized through ecological modernization as a tool to decouple environmental degradation and create new markets and competitive advantages and thus prosperity in terms of growth. In relation to the essays purpose to see whether the EU sustainability discourse is used as a power discourse, it is clear in relation to previous research and critique of ecological modernization that some equity perspectives and interests are being excluded in this discursive practice.

  • 9.
    Anting Paulsson, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hur framställs klimatflyktingar i media?: En jämförelse mellan svenska och amerikanska nyhetsartiklar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10. Bergelin, Rebecca
    Påverkan av extrem nederbörd på det svenska vägnätet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Berggren, Ella
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Landsbygdens gröna omställning: En studie om hur invånare på landsbygden ser på en grön omställning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A green transition in Swedish households has a crucial role in reducing the current environmental problems. Environmental problems have been individualized and the responsibility for living a more environmental friendly life is thus at the individual level. When environmental problems are individualized with an increased responsibility of the individual as a result, the conditions are required to be able to live a more environmentally friendly life, conditions that vary as a result if where the individual chooses to live. It becomes complicated if a green transition is not adapted för the whole nation but only part of it.

    The study is a qualitative interview study focusing on how citizens in rural areas opinion on a green transition based on the usual areas of transition, transport, waste, consumption and energy. The material from the interviews has been analyzed with a qualitative content analysis. The purpose of the study has been to examine how the citizens look at a green transition and what obstacles and opportunities are presented.

    The results of the study shows that there are good opportunities for households in rural areas to implement green transition in certain sectors while other changes are presented as more complicated. The possibility of implementing a green transition in practice is presented differently based on were the individual chooses to live. The study thus shows that the green transition are perceived differently based on whether the individuals lives in rural or urban areas.

  • 12.
    Bergius, Emilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Landsbygden, folkhälsan och den fysiska planeringen: En fallstudie om hur mindre svenska landsbygdskommuner integrerar folkhälsa i fysisk planering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är en svensk ambition att folkhälsan ges större utrymme i samhällsplaneringen. Dock finns i dagsläget inga lagstadgade krav eller tydliga riktlinjer kring hur folkhälsoaspekter ska integreras i fysisk planering. En stor del av ansvaret för att uppfylla denna ambition hamnar på de svenska kommunerna och det är i dessa som de svåra avvägningarna mellan olika intressen måste göras. Syftet med denna studie är att studera vilka hinder och möjligheter som finns med att integrera folkhälsoaspekter i planering och utformning av den kommunala fysiska miljön.

    Denna studie är utformad som en fallstudie där en svensk kommun har studerats med hjälp av intervjuer och dokumentanalyser. Resultaten från denna studie visar att konflikter med miljömässiga och ekonomiska värden är ett hinder när folkhälsoaspekter ska integreras i kommunal samhällsplanering. En rådande oenighet kring hur folkhälsobegreppet definieras och används, samt bristande kunskap om begreppet är ytterligare hinder som belyses i studien. Att folkhälsoinsatser sällan ger mätbara resultat är en ännu en faktor som hindrar integreringen av folkhälsoaspekter i fysisk planering. Engagemang, arbetsbelastning och tidsbrist är andra faktorer som påverkar i vilken utsträckning folkhälsoaspekter beaktas i den kommunala samhällsplaneringen. Slutligen är målsättningar och tvärsektoriellt samarbete centralt för att skapa likvärdiga förväntningar och samförstånd mellan aktörer där folkhälsofrämjande insatser ska genomföras.  

  • 13.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Student 'sustainability consciousness' and decision making on sustainability dilemmas: Investigating effects of implementing education for sustainable development in Swedish upper secondary schools2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The central role of education for sustainable development (SD) has been emphasized since the 1990s. SD involves the three areas of environment, economy and society, with a focus on the relationships between environmental protection and human development. Education for sustainable development (ESD) takes a holistic view on the environmental, economic and social dimensions of SD and aims to empower students to engage in the democratic development of society in a more sustainable direction. Policy-level and research community discussions have addressed the ways in which ESD has been implemented internationally. This study focuses on upper secondary students, and investigates their views on sustainability and the ways they make decisions related to SD. The study aims to address the interdisciplinary and multidimensional content embraced in the concept of SD and the development of competences often associated with ESD. A survey investigating students’ (n=638) sustainability consciousness (SC) and their decision-making in a number of SD related contexts was conducted in 15 Swedish upper secondary schools. The results show that students attending schools with an ESD profile are characterized by stronger SC than students attending regular schools; however the difference is small and mostly related to the economic dimension of SD. Furthermore, students who prioritize environmental decisions in SD dilemmas show stronger SC than students giving priority to economic reasons. When environmental, economic and social dimensions are introduced separately, social aspects are given the highest priority by the students. In contrast, environmental aspects are up-graded when the dimensions are introduced in an integrated manner. However, different dimensions are prioritized in different contexts. The study provides empirical support for using multiple contexts and including both harmonious and conflict-based perspectives on SD in education. It also contributes knowledge to the discussion about the implementation of ESD in Sweden in terms of outcomes among students.

  • 14.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Education for sustainable development: Student views on environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainable development and their interrelationships2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development (SD) isbased on the idea that environmental problems must be managed in relation to social and economic perspectives. The important role of education for a more sustainable future has been emphasized in transnational policy documents over the years (UNESCO 2006;2015). In education for sustainable development (ESD), an interdisciplinary approach to SD can facilitate students’ understanding of its complexity (Gough 2002; Warburton 2003). This contribution aims to provide insight into young adults’ views of the relationships between dimensions of SD. 638 students in their final year of upper secondary schools across Sweden (age 18-19) responded to a Likert-scale questionnaire. The results indicate that economic perspectives are associated with great complexity and less recognized compared to social and environmental perspectives in SD (Author et al. 2014; 2015). The role of the economy has been discussed longtime, in relation to its impact on the environment and the development of the society (e.g. Daly 1990; Ekins 2000; Neumayer 2003; Hopwood et al. 2005; Costanza et al. 2014). It is argued that sustainability education should embrace critical and reflective perspectives, however few educational studies have focused on the role of the economy in SD. A study from Australia concludes that economic perspectives in sustainability education are largely missing and thus, the status quo is not being challenged (Dyment et al. 2015). To look deeper into students’ understanding of economic perspectives in SD, we performed an explorative cluster analysis (Author et al. submitted), based on student responses to items concerning the relationships between economic growth, economic development and SD. Four viewpoints emerged from the analysis, which we labeled into The un-differentiating positive, The nuanced ambivalent, The bilaterally convinced and The critical ones.

  • 15.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Chang, Tzuchau
    National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan.
    A cross-cultural comparative study of sustainability consciousness between students in Taiwan and Sweden2019In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education for sustainable development (ESD) is promoted as one important component in the endeavor toward sustainable development. Goal 4 in the Sustainable Development Goals (UN in Sustainable development goals—17 goals to transform our world, 2017) in particular targets the role of ESD in this respect. The importance of cultural specificity in ESD is emphasized in numerous international policy documents, but there are few cross-cultural studies that focus on the broad context of sustainable development and ESD. The current study investigates the sustainability consciousness of grade 12 students (age 18–19) in Taiwan (N = 617) and Sweden (N = 583) and discusses the implications for ESD policy and practice. The findings indicate that significant differences exist between the two samples, both with respect to their sustainability consciousness and within the three sub-constructs of knowingness, attitudes and self-reported behaviors. The differences are considered in light of the cultural value orientations of the East Asian and Western European regions. Implications for ESD are discussed from the perspective of cultural specificity.

  • 16.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Brandin, Elisabeth
    Laskerudsprojektet -helhetssyn på restaureringsarbete i skogslandskapet2005Report (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bergman, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Är människor också djur?: Djurvälfärd betraktat från två olika ideologiska perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Djurhållning inom livsmedelsindustrin är ett stort problem, både ur miljösynpunkt men även när det kommer till djurvälfärd. I den här studien undersöks hur ekologisk djurhållning och djurrättsaktivism kan fungera tillsammans för att nå en god djurvälfärd utifrån de ideologier som ligger till grund för dessa inriktningar. För att ta reda på detta valdes två organisationer ut för att representera vardera sida, KRAV och Djurens Rätt, och sedan identifierades de bakomliggande ideologierna. Det utvalda materialet, som består av publikationer från respektive organisation, bearbetades med hjälp av en diskursanalys, som ger utrymme för egna tolkningar och reflektioner. Målet för studien har inte varit att nå en definitiv sanning, utan att presentera nya synsätt och bidra med nya perspektiv i frågan. I diskussionen framkommer att det är antropocentriska ideologier somligger till grund för KRAV och icke-antropocentriska ideologier som ligger bakom Djurens Rätt. Dessa kombineras sedan med ett feministiskt perspektiv för att utveckla diskussionen ytterligare. Slutsatser som dras är att KRAV och Djurens Rätt strävar efter samma sak, nämligen en god djurvälfärd, problematiken ligger i de bakomliggande ideologierna. En icke-antropocentrisk ideologi kan inte godta att djur dödas för mänskliga syften, men enligt antropocentrismen finns djuren till för människans nytta och rättfärdigar detta, vilket starkt antyder att de inte kan kombineras. Genom att lägga till det feministiska perspektivet finns dock möjligheten att sträva efter samexistens, där djur och människor lever jämte varandra på samma villkor. Det är inte en lösning, men det kan öppna upp för nya sätt att betrakta hur människor kan göra djurvälfärd till en naturlig del av att vara vid liv.

  • 18.
    Bergström, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Mesakalk – ett miljövänligt material eller skadligt avfall?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is experiencing major problems with the management of waste from nearly every industry within the country. There is I big waste of waste materials which are placed in landfill when they have potential of being reused. Landfills usually leach contaminated water leading to the contamination of soils and watercourses. Lime mud from the paper industry is currently at 133 000 tones. The purpose of this paper is to study the Sweden’s environmental legislation to see if it has flaws that may explain why the lime mud is not re-used even though it may have potentially useful properties. The result is based on an analysis of documents of legal provisions and completed schemes interpreted against the mesa content. The answer is that the law is neither an obstacle and opportunities and it is not possible to provide for law neither promotes nor prevents lime reuse. It is also clear that there is little research on the environmental gains and losses that would arise if the mesa came in contact with nature. What is clear is that there is an unclear division of responsibilities between authorities regarding Environmental Protection Agency and the County administrative boards of Sweden that might complicate the reuse of lime mud.

  • 19.
    Birgersson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Det moderna risksamhället: En studie om klimatrisker inom kommunal krisberedskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is now a phenomenon we cannot ignore. It is happening here and now and there is more or less common scientific consensus that so is the case. With climate change come risks that are difficult to predict and to relate to and this affects the integration of these risks in the municipal emergency preparedness. The purpose of the study is to examine the factors that are affecting the integration of climate risks in the municipal emergency preparedness. The result is based on a number of interviews conducted with people working with municipal activities and a Municipal Council. The responses have been more or less clear that the largest factors affecting the integration of climate risks in the municipal emergency preparedness is scientific uncertainty and how this is mediated by international organizations, the fact that there is a common lack of knowledge about the effects that may arise from climate change and that there is also a lower awareness of many of the risks in general. In addition, different effects are differently prioritized which affects the integration of all risks associated with climate change. I have also conducted a document analysis to give further substance to the results I found.

  • 20. Bishop, K.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Moldan, F.
    Hultberg, H.
    The hydrochemical response of runoff episodes to an experimental reduction of acid deposition1995In: Ecosystem mani-pulation experiments: Scientific approaches, experimental designs and relevant re-sults., vol. 20, redaktörer: Jenkins A., Ferrier R. C. och Kirby C., pp. 119-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Bishop, K.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Stähli, M.
    Lindström, G.
    Mellander, P.-E.
    Ottosson Löfvenius, M.
    Tjäle och avrinning från boreal skogsmark - en studie inom Vindelns Försöksparker2000Report (Refereed)
  • 22. Bishop, K.H.
    et al.
    Hauhs, M.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Seibert, J.
    Moldan, F.
    Rodhe, A.
    Lange, H.
    Lischeid, G.
    The hydrology of the covered catchment: Water storage, flowpaths and residence times1998In: Experimental Reversal of Acid Rain Effects: the Gård-sjön Roof Project, redaktörer: Hultberg H. och Skeffington R, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd , 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Björling, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Ny konsumtion av gamla kläder: – En studie om konsumenters miljömedvetenhet och motiv till att köpa second hand kläder på Myrorna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s consumption is increasing at an accelerating rate and it´s produced and consumed more goods and services than ever before. A large part of people's consumption consists of clothing that is bought and discarded increasingly leading to a number of environmental problems such as global warming, pollution, loss of biodiversity and the depletion of natural assets. One way to save the earth's resources is to buy used clothing, so called second hand, instead of new ones. The store chain “The Ants” (in Swedish “Myrorna”) has specializing in second-hand goods and sells, among other things, clothes. This study examined consumers' motive for shopping second-hand clothing on The Ants and examined whether this is related to consumers' environmental awareness and their choice to buy second hand clothes on The Ants. The shop staffs experience of the customer's environmental awareness was also examined. The methods that were chosen were surveys that The Ants customers filled out and interviews with store employees.

    The results showed that consumer´s motive to buy second-hand clothing on The Ants was mainly due to the cheap price and then because of their environmental awareness, customers were relatively environmentally aware and knew that the clothing industry contribute to environmental problems. The consumers felt that they received too little information about the problems and they would like to know more. The result also showed that consumers don´t act according to this awareness as very few of them asked questions to the staff about their clothing production or work with sustainable consumption and the environment. The Ants shop staff experienced the same thing since they rarely or never received any questions from customers about clothing and its environmental problems. Customers also bought more new clothes than second-hand clothing.

  • 24.
    Björnegran, Amalia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Green Forum: Aktiva Gröna partier och grönt politiskt inflytande i Afrika2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25.
    Bohlin, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Mulleskola i kommunala förskolor: Naturen som lekplats2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Boll, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Cykeltrafiken i Karlstad: En studie om vad som påverkar valet att cykla2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Karlstad municipality has in their transport strategy set targets which aims to increase the number of bicycle trip within the city. When used the bicycle emits either greenhouse gases or pollutants. Everyday decisions to take the bike to work for example can lead to reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, cycling can thus contribute to the meeting of important environmental objectives. Cycling promotes health. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended daily ration of 30 minutes of physical activity can readily be performed on a bicycle. Bicycle traffic volumes are affected by physical conditions, psychological factors and political policies.

     

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine which factors affect bicycle traffic in Karlstad. How do these factors influence Karlstad inhabitants choice and motivation to ride their bicycles, and which of these factors can be influenced? To obtain a basis for analysis a survey among 50 inhabitants of Karlstad was conducted. From the responses given to the open and closed questions, it appeared that what influences the inhabitants of Karlstad´s choice to cycle were in tune with previous theories and research.

     

    The primary motive of the inhabitants of Karlstad for cycling appeared to be exercise. The main reason for choosing a different mean of transportation is long distances. This survey suggests that the measures associated with enhancement of bicycle transport infrastructure are most in demand. By making it easier for Karlstad locals to get around by bike, bicycle traffic can be increased. 

  • 27.
    Brännström, Linn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Klimatperspektivet i MKB för svenska väg- och järnvägsplaner: En studie gällande hur klimataspekten hanteras i rådande miljöbedömningar och hur hanteringen bör utvecklas till följd av nya EU-direktiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has prescribed national environmental targets which states that Sweden should not cause any greenhouse emissions by 2045. To achieve these goals, efforts are required from a variety of sectors. The environmental impact of the transport system is high, but therefore are the opportunities to reduce the total greenhouse gas emissions also great. A challenge to succeeding in this is to find completely new solutions while already god existing solutions needs to be streamlined and expanded. Sustainable social development can only be achieved through a holistic perspective. To reduce the anthropogenic impact on the climate and the environment, but also to adapt the urban environment to climate change, it is therefore important to integrate climate change into planned plans, programs and projects. Environmental impact Assessments (EIA) are statutory and methodological tools, suitable for this end goal. Thus, there is an opportunity to systematically integrate climate change into a variety of public and private projects, in the work towards a more sustainable society. However, until recently (2018) this has not been statutory, but the amendment of Directive (2011/92 / EU) to (2014/52 / EU) of the European Parliament and of the Council to on environmental assessments alters this. Now climate change is also required to be treated more clearly in environmental assessments.

    The Swedish Transport Administration oversees government infrastructure and therefore an important actor to direct the construction and infrastructure industry towards a more "emission-friendly" construction. The amendment to the EU directive places new demands on how the Swedish Transport Administration will need to address this environmental aspect in the future. The purpose of the thesis work was therefore to clarify the climate perspective in EIAs and the goal to give recommendations for how the Swedish Transport Administration should handle the climate aspect in EIAs for road and rail plans in order to comply with new EU directives. Three different case studies were conducted to partly investigate: If and how the Swedish Transport Administration deals with the climate aspect in their present EIAs; to investigate how other actors implement the climate aspect; to investigate how different guides suggest that the implementation should take place. I addition to the Case Studies a literature study was conducted to compile the research area on the weaknesses in the EIA-process, if E-LCA is a good tool to use in transport planning and what the challenges are to successfully integrate the climate aspect into EIAs.

    The new EU directive states that EIAs should address:

    • Mitigation of climate effects: i.e., investigation of expected greenhouse gas emissions as a result of the projects and how these can be reduced (so called environmental measures).
    • Climate adaption of the project: an assessment of how the project may be affected by future climate change and whether the project can be adapted accordingly.

    The result shows that only 20 % of the Swedish Transport Administrations randomly selected EIAs is addressing the climate aspect in a clear way, while 45 % addresses the climate aspect very little. Only 45 % of the Swedish Transport Administrations 20 randomly selected EIAs mention "Carbon dioxide/CO2" and only 40 % mention the keyword “greenhouse gas”. The recommendations that resulted from the results include: 

    • If the climate aspect is not recognized, a motivation should be given to this.
    • Report outcomes quantitatively. Reasonably in terms of CO2 equivalents (both positive and negative).
    • Clearer grounds for assessment. Proposed: Link the project to global, national and regional goals; Use functional units, such as CO2 Equal / Km Rail.
    • Clearer definitions and expressions.
    • Use an E-LCA perspective in the EIA and report system boundaries and life scenarios. (Highlight the content of a possible EPD more clearly).
    • Illustrate uncertainties with sensitivity analyzes and scenario analyzes.
    • Clarifying the link between climate change and climate adaption.
    • Introduce the climate aspect into an "own" section or under a section called "cumulative effects"
    • To support the process of introducing the climate aspect, a reference guide, like table 20 (see Case Study 3) can be designed.
  • 28. Cafaro, Philip
    et al.
    Butler, Tom
    Crist, Eileen
    Cryer, Paul
    Dinerstein, Eric
    Kopnina, Helen
    Noss, Reed
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Taylor, Bron
    Vynne, Carly
    Washington, Haydn
    If we want a whole Earth, Nature Needs Half: a response to Buscher et al.2017In: Oryx, ISSN 0030-6053, E-ISSN 1365-3008, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 400-400Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Löwgren, Marianne
    Fiskvägar och flödesregimåtgärder i reglerade vatten:: Konsekvenser för vattendragets produktivitet och för samhällsnyttan2003Report (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Peter
    Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Gullberg, Karl
    Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Återställande av fiskvandring i Gästrikland: Fisksamhällen, kraftverk och åtgärders potential och kostnadseffektivitet i Gavleån2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många vattendrag i Europa är påverkade av mänskliga aktiviteter som jordbruk, skogsbruk, vattenkraft och annan industriell verksamhet. Vattenkraftens effekter på vandrande fiskarter har varit kända sedan länge och man har arbetat med fiskvägar för uppströmspassage i flera hundra år. Ett problem som då inte beaktats är att fisken både måste ha tillgång till habitat för reproduktion och uppväxt, samt att de även måste kunna passera samma vandringshinder vid nedströmsvandringen. Modern rehabilitering av reglerade vattendrag beaktar dock både fiskens behov av fria vandringsvägar och tillgång på lämpligt habitat.

    Budgeten för åtgärdsarbetet är oftast begränsad och man behöver därför prioritera. Dessutom kan åtgärdsarbetet ta lång tid och det är därför angeläget att börja med de objekt som är speciellt angelägna. Det är inte alltid självklart hur en sådan prioritering skall ske och för att ordningen för åtgärdsarbetet ska vara tydlig och arbetet kunna utföras kostnadseffektivt kan det vara till stor hjälp att använda någon form av verktyg. Det är dock viktigt att välja rätt verktyg och vid valkriterierna bör man beakta hur verktyget värderar och prioriterar åtgärdsnyttan. Slutligen kommer ett sådant verktyg alltid vara en förenkling av verkligheten och man bör således låta det utgöra en del av ett beslutsunderlag som kompletteras med annan information.

    Gavleån ligger i Gästrikland och dess huvudfåra utgörs av en 30 km lång sträcka med 62 meters fallhöjd mellan Storsjön och mynningen i Bottenhavet. Det finns åtta kraftverk längs denna sträcka, men inga fiskpassager. Därför är i dag bara de nedersta 2 km av ån tillgängliga för fiskarter som vandrar upp från havet för reproduktion, tillväxt och övervintring. Större delen av strömsträckorna i Gavleåns huvudfåra är indämda av kraftverken och ån har länge ansetts ha låga naturvärden. I takt med att den allmänna miljömedvetenheten har ökat och ny lagstiftning som Ramdirektivet för vatten (2000/60/EG) och Ålförordningen (1100⁄2007⁄EC) har ställt högre krav på rehabilitering av påverkade vattendrag har dock även Gavleåns potential diskuterats. Till följd av detta har ägaren av de flesta kraftverken i Gavleån, Gävle Kraftvärme AB, tillsammans med Länsstyrelsen i Gävleborg, Gävle kommun och Naturskyddsföreningen beslutat att utreda åtgärdspotentialen för Gavleån inom ramen för projektet ”Återställande av fiskvandring i Gästrikland”. Utredningen består i en fiskeribiologisk och teknisk analys av problemen för migrationsberoende fauna och dess biologiska situation i dag, samt vilka mål som kan uppnås om de rätta åtgärderna tas. Grundläggande frågor som projektet försökt besvara är ”Vilka åtgärder behövs för att rehabilitera Gavleån för vandrande fiskarter, var gör åtgärder god naturvårdsnytta och kan kostnads- och energismarta lösningar implementeras som inte äventyrar vattenkraftsproduktionen?”

    Gavleån och dess biflödens morfologiska status och fisksamhällenas sammansättning har inventerats och redovisas i delrapporten ”Återställande av fiskvandring i Gästrikland - Fisksamhällen, habitattillgång och rehabiliteringspotential i Gavleån”. Innevarande rapport utgör den andra delrapporten och sätter resultaten från provfisken och biotopkarteringen i ett åtgärdssammanhang och värderar åtgärdsnyttan med hjälp av olika prioriteringsverktyg. Slutligen används detta underlag för att rekommendera åtgärdsprogram som syftar till att långsiktigt och hållbart förvalta Gavleåns värden från såväl biologiska, samhällsekonomiska, sociala och kulturella perspektiv utan att allvarligt försämra förutsättningen för vattenkraftproduktion vid åns kraftverk.

    I ett första steg har vi bedömt vilka möjligheter som finns till att återskapa uppströms- och nedströmspassage för fisk vid kraftverken. Dessutom har dagens habitattillgång utretts och potentialen för habitatrestaurering värderats. I nästa steg har resultaten från biotopkartering och provfisken använts för att med hjälp av modeller och prioriteringsverktyg analysera vilken effekt åtgärderna förväntas ha på fiskbestånden. Detta har först studerats för hela fisksamhället utifrån tillgång och lokalisering av strömmande habitat samt förekommande fiskarters vandringsbenägenhet, skyddsvärde och kraftverkens fallhöjd som ett grovt mått på åtgärdens komplexitet och därtill hörande åtgärdskostnad. Därefter har en liknande analys på åtgärdsnyttan genomförts för Gavleåns havsöringspopulation, där resultatet presenteras i form av förväntat antal återvändande havsöringhonor till de olika delsträckorna förutsatt att både uppströms- och nedströmspassage åtgärdas. Slutligen testades två scenarier grundat på dagens habitattillgång respektive motsvarande tillgång efter en omfattande habitatrestaurering.

    Prioriteringsverktygen och resultaten från provfisken och bitopkartering visar främst att åtgärdsnyttan för vandrande strömlevande fiskarter är störst vid kraftverken i Gavleåns nedre och övre delar, eftersom det är här det i dag finns skyddsvärda fiskarter samt kvarvarande strömmande habitat, som dock är i stort behov av biotopåterställning. Troligen har det historiskt sett aldrig funnits möjlighet till fiskvandring längre än till de första strida strömsträckorna med fallhöjd i nedre Gavleån för svagsimmande arter, och endast lax, havsöring, nejonöga och ål har nått längre i ån. Det finns inte belagt att lax eller havsöring nått högre upp i Gavleån än strax uppströms Mackmyra-området.

    I mitten av ån saknas i dag såväl strömmande habitat som skyddsvärda fiskarter. De historiska strömsträckorna är idag stort sett överdämda av dammar i denna del av Gavleån. Dessutom har kraftverken där störst fallhöjd och produktion, vilket i kombination med svårigheter att anlägga åtgärder gör att dessa får en låg prioritet. Vi har utifrån dessa resultat identifierat två prioriterade åtgärdspaket.

    Högst åtgärdsprioritet får Gavleåns nedre delar på sträckan från havet till Tolvfors kraftverk, dvs. återskapad uppströms- och nedströmspassage vid Strömsborgs och Strömdalens kraftverk. Åluppsamlingen av från havet uppvandrande ålyngel måste ske med bästa i dag tillgängliga teknik (BAT), vilket efter att fiskvägar anlagts vid Strömsborg och Strödalen lämpligen sker vid Tolvfors kraaftverk.

    Dessutom behövs habitatrestaurering längs hela sträckan inklusive torrfåran vid Tolvfors kraftverk. För att åtgärderna vid Strömsborgs och Strömdalens kraftverk ska få maximal effekt behöver ett omfattande återställningsarbete ske också av biflödet Kungsbäcken. Fokus för åtgärdsarbetet i detta område ligger på diadroma arter som vandrar upp i Gavleån från havet för reproduktion, födosök samt övervintring, t.ex. ål, lax, flodnejonöga, öring och sik.

    Näst högst åtgärdsprioritet får Gavleåns övre delar på sträckan från Åbyfors kraftverk till Storsjön, vilket innebär passagefrämjande åtgärder och habitatrestaurering vid dammen i norra fåran vid Hälleströmmens kraftverk och vid Forsbacka kraftverk. För att åtgärderna vid Hälleströmsdammen och Forsbacka kraftverk ska få maximal effekt behöver ett omfattande återställningsarbete ske av norra fåran vid Mackmyra (av vissa kallad Hälleströmmen) samt i Spikåsbäcken som mynnar nedströms Mackmyra kraftverk. Sannolikt behövs även en åtgärd för nedströmspassage från Hälleströmmens kraftverk till Hälleströmmen. Fokus för åtgärdsarbetet i detta område ligger på potamodroma arter som vandrar mellan Gavleån, Hälleströmmen och Spikåsbäcken, samt arter som vandrar till och från Storsjön, t.ex. ål, öring, lake, harr och gös. Speciellt högt prioriterad är den blankål som vandrar ut från Storsjön och som bör samlas in vid Forsbacka kraftverk för transport nedströms förbi de övriga sju kraftverken. Inga passagefrämjande åtgärder bedöms således i dag vara motiverade vid Tolvfors, Prästforsen, Åbyfors och Mackmyra kraftverk, medan endast en nedströmspassage behövs vid Hälleströmmens kraftverk.

    Arbetet att ta fram ett beslutsunderlag för åtgärdsarbete kan vara omfattande, men väger man denna kostnad mot kostnaderna för att genomföra åtgärder utan att veta om något åtgärdsbehov finns, hur åtgärderna bör utformas och var de ger störst nytta, är det välinvesterade pengar. I åtgärdsarbetet som helhet utgör kostnader för förstudie och uppföljning en liten andel, i synnerhet om man tar i beaktande kostnader för felaktigt utformade och placerade i åtgärder i avsaknad av beslutsunderlag. I framtiden kommer väl genomförda åtgärdsprojekt öka acceptansen både för naturvård och vattenkraft.

  • 31.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Temporal and spatial variation in quality of hyporheic water in one unregulated and two regulated boreal rivers2007In: River Research and ApplicationsArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the temporal and spatial variations in hyporheic water quality in three boreal rivers, the River Tobyälven, an unregulated river, the river Mangälven, a regulated river with a minimum discharge requirement and the river Järperudsälven, a

    regulated river without any minimum discharge requirements. A total of 43 permanent piezometers were used to measure dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, NO3 and NH4 in the hyporheic water at 150mm and 300mm depth, at monthly intervals from October 2001 to October 2002. Another seven piezometers were installed in brown trout redds and monitored during the incubation period, from December 2001 to April 2002. In the river Tobyälven, temporal patterns in hyporheic water chemistry correlated to variations in surface water chemistry and discharge. In the river Jäperudsälven, the hyporheic water chemistry did not correlate to discharge or surface water chemistry. In the river Mangälven, the water chemistry was dominated by releases from a large upstream lake, and there were weak correlations between surface water chemistry and

    hyporheic water chemistry at some sites. The incubation conditions for brown trout eggs were most favourable in the unregulated river, characterized by high DO levels that remained high throughout the incubation period. In the river Järperudsälven the DO

    levels were variable during spawning, and then gradually declined to critically low levels during incubation, whereas in the river Mangälven the DO conditions were intermediate and stable. Thus we observed a stronger coupling between surface water

    conditions and hyporheic conditions, i.e. vertical connectivity, in the unregulated river than in the regulated river with minimum flow requirements, which in turn was stronger than in the river without minimum flow requirements. Copyright # 2007 John

    Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  • 32.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Hebrand, M
    Olsson, M
    Renöfält, B
    Karlsson, H
    Johansson, M
    Biokanalers egenskaper och möjligheter2009Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Carlström, Eric
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg; Campus Vestfold, Borre.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Ostra, Gothenburg.
    Palm, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Khorram-Manesh, Amir
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Holmer, Björn
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Berner, Andreas
    Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg.
    Örninge, Per
    Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg.
    Luning, Hampus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gelang, Carita
    Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Medical Emergencies During a Half Marathon Race - The Influence of Weather2019In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 312-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to analyze the influence of weather conditions on medical emergencies in a half-marathon, specifically by evaluating its relation to the number of non-finishers, ambulance-required assistances, and collapses in need of ambulance as well as looking at the location of such emergencies on the race course. Seven years of data from the world's largest half marathon were used. Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station, and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index was used as a measure of general weather conditions. Of the 315,919 race starters, 104 runners out of the 140 ambulance-required assistances needed ambulance services due to collapses. Maximum air temperature and PET significantly co-variated with ambulance-required assistances, collapses, and non-finishers (R (2) =0.65-0.92; p=0.001-0.03). When air temperatures vary between 15-29 degrees C, an increase of 1 degrees C results in an increase of 2.5 (0.008/1000) ambulance-required assistances, 2.5 (0.008/1000) collapses (needing ambulance services), and 107 (0.34/1000) non-finishers. The results also indicate that when the daily maximum PET varies between 18-35 degrees C, an increase of 1 degrees C PET results in an increase of 1.8 collapses (0.006/1000) needing ambulance services and 66 non-finishers (0.21/1000).

  • 34.
    Christenson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Geography teacher students’ discussions when playing a spatial planning game with focus on sustainable urban planning.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that games can facilitate learning of complex processes. This study investigates future geography teachers’ arguments when playing an urban spatial planning game. The game consists of a mat where small models represents residential buildings, institutions such as schools, hospital, police etcetera in a flood-prone area. A play master gives instructions to plan and develop the city. The game has a turning point, the city is exposed to severe flooding and afterwards the students are asked how to rearrange the city to become more resilient. The research questions include; when playing the game – A) what aspects does the students include when planning an urban area? B) what risks does the students identify? C) what preventive actions in order to increase the city’s resilience does the students identify after playing the game? A total of seven students participated in this study, all of whom studying to become upper secondary geography teachers. The game lasted for 40 minutes, was video recorded and transcribed. The inductive analysis focused on what aspects students considered in planning a city, both before and after the flooding for example to build further away from water and increase green areas, as well as what risks the students could identify. The results indicate that this type of game induce the students to, in a social setting, discuss and develop their understanding of sustainable urban planning and that this can be a valuable tool, both in school but also at the university level. 

  • 35.
    Christenson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Teaching climate change: Teachers views, methods and good examples2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching climate change, teachers views, methods and good examples

    Climate change (CC) is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity and it is of great importance that education enables students with the knowledge and skills needed for making informed and evidence-based decisions. In this pilot study we examine teachers methods and views of teaching CC. A survey included questions about the teachers’ experience of teaching the topic of climate change and their views on teaching this specific content was distributed to 84 secondary teachers. 28% of the teachers consider geography to be the subject most responsible for teaching CC, 77% report that the aim is to teach the pupils an environmentally friendly behavior. The most used teaching methods are teachers lecturing (used by 89% of the teachers), group discussions (87%) and teacher moderated whole class debates (55%). 44% reported that they have sufficient knowledge for teaching CC, 26% feel that they have enough knowledge about howto teach CC but only 12% believe they have enough time for their teaching. Although CC is perceived as an interdisciplinary issue, relatively few of the teachers reportedly use interdisciplinary work. Both the high level of lecturing and lack of interdisciplinary work can be an consequence of a (over) loaded curriculum. To cooperate with other subjects can be difficult, often the subjects are not only separated by time (different schedules) but also in space (different classrooms). We conclude by giving examples of innovative ways of facing the challenge of teaching CC using innovative pedagogical tools.

  • 36.
    Dabrowski, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Rening av rökgaskondensat i ett fjärrvärmeverk: Återanvändning av rökgaskondensat som spädvatten2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Arvika Fjärrvärme AB is manufacturing and distributing district heating to around 300 customers in Arvika. Heat production consists of a BFB boiler fed with GROT fuel (branches and peaks) and delivers a maximum power of 30 MW. In order to operate the plant, an average of 60 m3 of water per day is consumed from the urban water network. The water consumption is divided between water treatment, sooting and process cooling.

    In the processes, sulfur is dosed to obtain a more complete combustion of the hazardous flue gases that can occur. This is a result of previous thesis made for Arvika fjärrvärme. GROT is a fuel that contains high levels of moisture, which means that a high amount of condensate is formed during combustion, averaging 100 m3 per day. At present, condensate is sufficient to meet the condensate limit values ​​to be flushed into the drain. This is achieved by sand filtration and pH neutralization.

    Today, Arvika heat production is equipped with a purification stage for the feed water consisting of a softening filter and membrane filtration. This creates good conditions for cleaning the condensate and recirculating it in the process. Questions for this study are which hazardous substances the condensate can contain and how the condensate composition affected due to sulfur dosage. In addition, Arvika fjärrvärme wants to find out whether the purified condensate can replace the use of the urban water and, finally, if the condensate can be purified and used as feed water in the process.

    The execution of the work was based on a full-scale attempt in two operating cases of 9 and 18 MW. The tank collecting all condensate after purification in the sand filter and pH neutralization was coupled to the feed water purification stage. Thus, the condensate was pumped and purified in the softening filter and membrane filter. Assay substrates were collected before and after purification of the condensate.

    In addition to the topics that Arvika investigates, high levels of alkalinity were found in the condensate. The sulfur dosage that Arvika technology works with can be the cause of the high concentrations of sulphate. However, it appears that both the sulfate and alkalinity were purified in the membrane filter.

    The amount of condensate formed cannot completely replace the entire water requirement, but definitely large parts. The condensate can be used as feed water based on the retention rate for all substances. However, it appears that two substances, chloride and sulphate can create problems for the membrane filter. To investigate this, the condensate should be tested over a longer period of time to see the affect the chloride as well as the sulphate in the long run.

  • 37. Dahlberg, Julia
    Miljöbrott: Omfattning och utredning i Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Dahlgren, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Hållbar konsumtion och The Body Shop: En studie om kunders val av The Body Shop och hållbar konsumtion2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Davidsson, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Big is beautiful! Klimatkris, lokal anpassning och drömmen om tillväxt: Global problematik illustrerad via tillväxtkommunen Karlstad2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatanpassning och tillväxt är två intresseområden som kan konkurrera med varandra när vattennära områden ska bebyggas. Vattennära boende bidrar till stadens attraktivitet för att locka fler invånare och skapa tillväxt. Samtidigt är dessa områden utsatta för översvämningsrisk. Anpassning behöver därför ske för ökad säkerhet, eller byggande helt avstås från. Ett komplext problem som skapats genom globala påtryckningar att tillväxt ska strävas efter. Problematiken illustreras genom att använda Karlstad kommun som undersökt fall.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur strategier för samhällsplanering och klimatanpassning utformats lokalt i en tillväxtkommun med översvämningsrisk.

    Studien genomfördes via kvalitativ innehållsanalys samt användande av ramverk för miljörättvisa. Textanalys genomfördes av kommunala styrdokument för samhällsplanering och klimatanpassning.

    Utifrån analys av resonemang i styrdokumenten kan konstateras att skapandet av en attraktiv stad för att uppnå tillväxt väger tyngre än anpassning. Ur rättviseperspektiv tas inte hänsyn till individers sårbarhet och förutsättningar, då lockandet av önskvärda samhällsgrupper istället prioriteras. Vattennära bostadsbebyggelse är en marknadsföringsmässig tillgång, även om översvämningsrisk finns.

    Resultatet från undersökningen kan användas för att förstå komplexiteten mellan att prioritera och skydda det samhälle som finns idag, samt skapa ett samhälle där tillväxten är god och anpassning inte konkurrerar med attraktivitet.

  • 40.
    Didner, Frida
    Karlstad University.
    Att göra så gott man kan: Kan föräldraskap skapa en mer medveten konsument?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has examined how parents of children, age 0-2, in Karlstad consumes for their children within three product categories; clothing, food and toys. The aim was to see if having children could be a driving factor to become a more aware consumer. Have the participants consumption behaviour changed after they have had children? Surveys and focus groups have been completed in four open preschools in Karlstad municipality to collect data. As a theoretical framework has ecological modernization, political consumption and weak and strong sustainable consumption been used. Within the three product categories it is possible to see some differences. The survey result say that respondents shop for clothes according to need, but the focus groups talk about that they shop because it is fun, a hobby. It has become more important for the parents to buy organic food, mostly to the child. However, it is not a strong position because most respondents choose to buy conventional produced products if they don’t have an ecological alternative in the store. Because most of the respondents children where still small they hadn’t purchased that many toys yet. They express, however, that it is a difficult category to know that much about and they usually goes on what the child shows interest for. Overall, it is possible to see some changes in behaviour, but participants lack a comprehensive view of the consumption chain. They don’t reflect on the level of consumption and so they pursue on the path of weak sustainable consumption where they consumes the same amount but change to more sustainable materials. The lack of overall vision is also evident in that they don’t practice political consumption to any wider extent, they simply don’t see their own impact on the consumption chain. The result also shows that the parents are strongly guided by social norms that sets the rules for what they consider to be their needs. This is a qualitative study and could therefore have gotten a different result in another context. 

  • 41.
    Disenhed Holm, Josefin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hållbar Turism: Ekonomisk tillväxt, natur och friluftsliv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism has increased in a high speed over the last years and are an industry that has high potential to continue its growth. Tourism gives people the chance to see and experience new places and cultures and are an industry that contributes to an economic growth at that destination where tourism exists. Despite the positive effects with tourism it brings even negative effects such as travelling has increased and contribute to climate change and problems between residents and tourists has occurred. This has contributed to the discussion about sustainable tourism. Because the tourism development will need to include all the perspective of economics, ecological and social to reach a long-term development. It does not today exist clear directives, strategies or goals for a sustainable tourism which gives problems in the work to contribute a tourism development because the tourism as an industry increasing in such a high speed. Residents and tourists get caught in conflicts because there are too many tourists in a small area that affects the residents by example by don’t have no respect. It arises dilemmas where its discussed if the social development or the tourism development is the one that should be focused on and in what perspective. Tourism development tends to focus on an economic growth which in turn will lead to make a long-term sustainable development for the social and ecological. The question is if this is something sustainable and if its fair for the social and the environment. This essay will study the concept of sustainable tourism and its possibility to implemented in a Swedish municipality. Sustainable tourism will be studied to see if it tends to reach all parts of sustainable development. The result of the essay presents how a Swedish municipality plans to develop their tourism for it to be sustainable. The discussion describes forward and about what opportunities and conditions there is with sustainable tourism and if a development like this can be reached today.

  • 42.
    Edelman, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Karlstad och vattnet: En studie av hur förhållningssättet till översvämningsrisk har förändrats i Karlstads kommun sedan 1950-talet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The location on the river delta of Klarälven, adjacent to lake Vänern, makes Karlstad one of the Swedish cities where a significant flood risk is present. The city has several major floods in its memory which has caused great material damage and economic losses, the latest of which occurred in the winter of year 2000/2001. The purpose of the study is to examine how the approach to flood risk has changed in the municipality of Karlstad since the 1950s, and how this change has affected the current situation regarding the city's vulnerability to flooding. To investigate this, a document analysis was conducted, where key documents in the media and from the municipality of Karlstad was studied. Furthermore, an interview study was conducted with respondents who currently are employed or previously have been employed in the municipality of Karlstad, who in various ways work with issues of flood risk.

     

    The result of the study shows that several changes have taken place since the 1950s in terms of the municipality's approach to flood risk, which for instance has led to preventative measures being taken to a greater extent than previously in the physical planning. The flooding that occured in the winter year 2000/2001, along with the governmental climate and vulnerability inquiry that was released in 2007, was described by the respondents as the starting point for this change. Since then, awareness and knowledge of flood risk has increased, not only among municipal officials, but also among politicians, local residents and developers.

  • 43.
    Ellefsson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University.
    Varför källsorterar vi?: En kvalitativ studie om drivkrafterna bakom källsortering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Resursuttagen i Sverige är cirka fyra gånger större än vad som på lång sikt anses vara hållbart. I takt med att befolkningen växer ökar mängden hushållsavfall vilket har lett till att avfallshanteringen idag är en viktig del inom arbetet mot en mer hållbar miljö. Avfall genereras från alla hushåll och kan genom återvinning och återanvändning vara en tillgång som minskar resursuttagen. Fokus för denna studie ligger i källsortering av hushållsavfall. Syftet har varit att undersöka vilka drivkrafter som finns bakom valet att källsortera och vad som påverkar dem. Utgångspunkten i studien var att ägandeformen av bostaden påverkar graden av källsortering. Totalt har sex kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts med personer från två olika stadsdelar i en svensk tätort. Det insamlade materialet har analyserats för att kunna svara på studiens syfte. En större förståelse för vad som driver personer att källsortera innebär en möjlighet att skapa incitament för att uppnå en högre källsorteringsfrekvens i samhället. Resultatet visar att ägandeformen av bostaden inte påverkade upplevelsen av källsortering. Den främsta drivkraften ligger i individens moraliska förpliktelse att göra rätt och att ta sitt ansvar. För att kunna utöva sin drivkraft är det viktigast att det finns en rutin för beteendet för att göra det en del av vardagslivet. Möjligheten att skapa en rutin påverkas främst av tillgänglighet, men också ansvarsfördelningen och synen på vad avfall är.

  • 44.
    Engdahl, Isabell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Klimatanpassning och lantbruket i Värmland: Klimatförändringarnas upplevda effekter på lantbruket och olika aktörers åsikter om klimatanpassning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a global and slow process that affects humans all over the world. Climate adaption within agriculture is important to reduce the risks that agricultures are exposed to because of climate change.  Through climate adaption you can improve the positive effects and take advantage of them optimally. How the climate change affects agricultures varies depending on regions and societies. The purposes of the study are to examine how different actors experience the impacts of climate change on the agriculture in Värmland. And what different actors think about climate adaption within the agriculture.   

    Through a survey and structured interviews with open-ended questions the purpose was to document experienced affects and opinions from different actors. Altogether nine respondents have been interviewed to answer the research questions and they represent farmers, organizations and authorities.

    The study show that actors experience fluctuations in the weather and the climate, they think climate adaption within the agriculture is important. Rain and moisture are observed to affect the agriculture in larger scales than before, but climate change can also have positive effects like longer growing seasons and the ability to grow new crops.  Some respondents perceive that there are uncertainties about climate change which obstruct climate adaption in the agriculture. According to several respondents information is important to improve the climate adaption, but at the same time other factors like economics, politics and laws influence how climate adaption are administered within agricultures.   

     

    Keywords: Climate change, climate adaption, agriculture, actors

  • 45.
    Engkvist, Christoffer
    Karlstad University.
    Transporter i vardagen: Konflikten mellan miljömedvetenheten och beteenden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How environmentally conscious people choose to transport themselves and why they choose the type of transport they do in their everyday life to get to various leisure activities, to pick up and leave the children at preschool and school and to be able to shop for food for the family is complex and depends on several different factors. The car, public transport and the bike are used at different times and for different purposes. Private car's contribution to carbon dioxide emissions and to the global warming is great. It contributes to emissions of climate gases and emissions of air pollutions, acidification of the environment, and the formation of ground-level ozone and contributes to noise and increased land use, and to meet the environmental goals that Sweden has adopted, more people need to switch to using public transport and the bicycle instead of the car. Public transport and the bike's advantage is that they are better off from the environmental point of view than using the car.

    In this study, the use of the means of transport and the reasons why environmentally conscious people use different modes of transport are described. The purpose of this study has been to investigate how environmentally conscious people in the two municipalities choose to transport themselves in their everyday lives and why they make the choices they make. In total, seven interviews have been conducted face to face. Four of the respondents are living in Karlstad municipality and the other three in Huddinge municipality. The collected material has been analyzed through a qualitative content analysis and a discussion has been conducted where the two theories Value-Belief-Norm theory and Pro-environmental behavior have been used to explain the respondents' choice of means of transport

    This study has produced several interesting results. The collected material indicates that there are several different factors that determine which means of transport are used. The amount of time, convenience and practicalities have proved crucial for the type of means of transport to be used. The result shows that the three factors interact but that the transport type differs. For transports that take place on a daily basis, such as getting to and from work, most respondents choose to take public transport or the bike, while the car is largely chosen for activities that are carried out weekly, such as shopping or bring their children for training and other activities.

    Keywords: Transport, Environmental awareness, Everyday life, Public transport, Car, Bicycle

  • 46.
    Eriksson, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Klimatsmart politik? Ingen vill väl vara klimat-dum.: En diskursanalys av begreppet klimatsmart i politiken och hos allmänheten.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid sidan av begrepp som miljövänlig, grön och hållbar har ett nytt ord dykt upp i miljödiskursen - klimatsmart.Klimatsmart, eller enbart smart i olika miljörelaterade sammansättningar, används flitigt av gemene man, i media, i debattartiklar och reklamkampanjer. Vad innebär då klimatsmart?Denna uppsats syftar till att i en diskursanalytisk kontext undersöka begreppet klimatsmart, dels ur ett politiskt perspektiv samt i den svenske medborgarens vardag.

    Medborgaren och dennes vardagliga val är onekligen en stor del av miljö- och klimatfrågan idag. Den svenska miljö- och klimatpolitiken kräver ofta medborgares aktiva deltagande. Allt pekar på att den stora källan till dagens miljöproblem och klimatförändringar ligger i de miljontals val människor gör varje dag, och att det därför krävs att varje enskild människa tar ansvar för sina val och dess konsekvenser, för att vi ska kunna se en förändring. Samtidigt som en stor del av detta ansvar har lagts på den enskilde medborgaren, har politiken fortfarande huvudansvaret, det är politikens ansvar att förse medborgare med de medel som krävs för att möjliggöra och underlätta dessa val.Ett slående inslag i miljö- och klimatpolitiken är den kontrast som finns mellan hur allmänheten ser frågan i allmänna och enkla termer, medan hos beslutsfattare och politiker är frågan mycket mer teknisk och detaljerad. Politiken kan bli legitim och effektiv först när den lyssnar på medborgaren.

    I studien har e-postserveys med medborgare boende i Karlskoga samt intervjuer med regionala politiker verksamma i Karlskoga kommun eller Örebro län genomförts. Denna empiriska data har analyserats med hjälp av diskurs både som teori och metod samt framing-teorin. Även politiska styrdokument på nationell och internationell nivå har använts som underlag. Studien visar att för medborgaren innebär klimatsmart att i vardagen göra val som i första hand är bra för miljö och klimat, men som även har någon personlig nytta, utifrån varje individs egna förutsättningar, värderingar och intresse.I politiken har klimatsmart en plats i den talade politiska retoriken och då framförallt i regionpolitiken. Ju närmre den enskilde medborgaren politiken rör sig, desto men relevant blir begreppet klimatsmart. Med detta blir det också relevant för politiker att kunna nyttja begreppet till sin och politikens fördel, för att den medborgarinriktade miljö- och klimatpolitiken skall lyckas.

  • 47. Eriksson, Emelie
    Hur trendigt är hållbart mode?: En studie som undersöker unga vuxnas attityder till hållbar klädkonsumtion.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det moderna västerländska samhället präglas av materialism där människor konsumerar mer än vad de egentligen är i behov utav. Kläder produceras och konsumeras i allt högre takt och i allt större omfattning, vilket bland annat leder till överexploatering av naturresurser och förorenade miljöer. Kläder är dessutom nära sammanknutet med identitet och social tillhörighet, där normer har format samhällets konsumtionskultur. Klädkonsumtionen behöver minska och tillverkningsprocessen behöver ske på ett mer hållbart sätt. Att som konsument välja hållbara material, miljömärkta kläder eller köpa begagnat bidrar till en mer hållbar klädkonsumtion. Men hur förhåller sig egentligen unga vuxna till hållbar klädkonsumtion?

    Denna studie fokuserar på unga vuxna och klädkonsumtion. Syftet med studien var att undersöka unga vuxnas attityder till hållbar klädkonsumtion, och om genus har någon betydelse. Studien syftade även till att undersöka vad som krävs för att unga vuxna ska konsumera kläder på ett mer hållbart sätt. För att möjliggöra detta användes enkätundersökning som metod, där totalt 74 elever i tre olika gymnasieklasser deltog i undersökningen. Resultatet visar att unga vuxna upplever miljömärkta kläder som dyra och tantiga. Utbudet av hållbara kläder är för litet och möter inte unga vuxnas efterfrågan. Genusaspekten visade sig ha en betydande roll då miljömärkta kläder förknippas med femininet. För att unga vuxna i större utsträckning ska konsumera kläder hållbart krävs ett annat utbud av hållbara kläder och fler attraktiva second hand butiker. Dessutom krävs det förändring av stereotypa normer kopplade till klädkonsumtion där klädföretag och media har en viktig roll.

  • 48.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Mogren, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    NRTK-mätningar och kartering i Borgvik: En jämförelse mellan mätmetoderna snabbpunktsmätning och intervallmätning2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    The objective of this work was to compare two different methods of NRTK measurements, specifically rapidpoint measurement and interval measurement of 20 samples per point. Measurements of known points at Karlstad University were made to test the quality, or how much it differed between the two methods.   

    Later, measurements were carried out at Borgviks Nya Hamncafé in Grums municipality. The shoreline was the object that was measured as a test of the two methods which later was compared with control measurements made at Karlstad University.    

    The rest of the area around the café was measured by the rapid point method that went to be the basis for the map that was created over the area.    

    The coordinate and the altitude systems used during the measurements were SWEREF 99 13 30 and RH 2000. The results after the measurements were a coordinate list of the points where the both methods were used and shows how much they differ from each other in Northing and Easting direction. Calculations of the coordinates led to the conclusion that rapid point measurement method is excellent to use in similar projects, however, some parts could be measured with a total station if there are trees or houses obscuring the view to satellites. This would be recommended if the accuracy demands are at a high level.    

    Finally, a detailed map of the marina was produced that can be used by camping guests, but also for other short-term visitors, according to the wishes of the manager of Borgviks Nya Hamncafé (Niclas Lundsten, 0555-22100).

  • 49.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7070, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ghosh, Ranjan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Box 7013, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mattsson, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Ismatov, Alisher
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Box 7013, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Take-back agreements in the perspective of food waste generation at the supplier-retailer interface2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste must be minimised to make food supply chains sustainable. This is especially relevant since food waste valorisation measures, such as energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production. However, waste minimisation is costly when it includes new infrastructure or technology. Policy measures, on the other hand, can provide a low-cost option. Food rejection practices in supermarkets, such as take-back agreements (TBA), have long been identified as risk factors for food waste generation at the supplier-retailer interface, but given the relational, and often discreet, nature of these agreements, there is little evidence of their impact. In this study we provide, concrete evidence of different rejection practices. This is done by studying three types of food chains those for bread, fresh fruit and vegetables, and milk with different rejection practices in Sweden. Based on a combination of primary company information and stakeholder interviews, we found that a full TBA is in operation for bread. The retailer only pays for bread that is sold and any bread left unsold three days before the best-before date is returned to the supplier. For fresh fruit and vegetables, only goods of 'inadequate' quality are returned, but supermarkets have sole rights of determination on quality, posing a risk of categorising unsold fruit and vegetables as inadequate quality and returning them to suppliers. In the case of milk, suppliers take back unsold items, but only for waste management. The trend found in this study was that bread had the highest waste, and the most extensive take-back policy. Fresh fruit and vegetables had medium levels of waste, partly due to unverified rejections, while milk had a very low level of waste combined with an even lower level of rejections. It can be concluded that a food supply chain system where the direct costs of waste management or incentives for waste reduction are separated from the organisation responsible for generating the waste poses a significant risk factor in food waste generation and is therefore a potential hotspot for waste-reducing measures. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 50.
    Eskandari, Samieh
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Mohammadi, Ali
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Sandberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hedberg, Kjell
    Ulf Ahlden Ingenjörsfirma, Upplands Väsby.
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Hydrochar-Amended Substrates for Production of Containerized Pine Tree Seedlings under Different Fertilization Regimes2019In: Agronomy, E-ISSN 2073-4395, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of research that recognizes the potentials of biochar application in agricultural production systems. However, little is known about the effects of biochar, especially hydrochar, on production of containerized seedlings under nursery conditions. This study aimed to test the effects of hydrochar application on growth, quality, nutrient and heavy metal contents, and mycorrhizal association of containerized pine seedlings. The hydrochar used in this study was produced through hydrothermal carbonization of paper mill biosludge at 200 °C. Two forms of hydrochar (powder and pellet) were mixed with peat at ratios of 10% and 20% (v/v) under three levels of applied commercial fertilizer (nil, half and full rates). Application of hydrochar had positive or neutral effects on shoot biomass and stem diameter compared with control seedlings (without hydrochar) under tested fertilizer levels. Analysis of the natural logarithmic response ratios (LnRR) of quality index and nutrient and heavy metal uptake revealed that application of 20% (v/v) hydrochar powder or pellet with 50% fertilizer resulted in same quality pine seedlings with similar heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cr) and nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg) contents as untreated seedlings supplied with 100% fertilizer. Colonization percentage by ectomycorrhizae significantly increased when either forms of hydrochar were applied at a rate of 20% under unfertilized condition. The results of this study implied that application of proper rates of hydrochar from biosludge with adjusted levels of liquid fertilizer may reduce fertilizer requirements in pine nurseries.

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