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  • 1.
    Achberger, Christine
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Chen, Deliang
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Persson, Gunn
    SMHI.
    Future rainfall and flooding in Sweden: an integrative project to support climate-adaptation actions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Almberg, Ellinor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Riskstudie av en förändrad användning av bromerade flamskyddsmedel2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a qualitative study about the changing image of risk when the use of brominated flame retardants BFR goes from prohibited ones, to alternative flame retardants, with the account of existing knowledge and the effects on humans and the environment. The use of brominated flame retardants has been going through a large increase since the 1950s. Today the global production estimates 200 000 ton each year. The five most common BFR and those the focus lay on in this paper are: Tetrabromobisphenol A TBBP-A, Penta-, Octa- and Decabromodiphenylether (PBDE) and Hexabromocyclododecane HBCDD. These substances are all exist in many different variants where the properties could vary. Some characteristic properties for all of them are low general volatility but high solubility in fat and that they are persistent. BFR are used in many different areas like textiles, building material, electrical products and in printed circuit cards for computers. BFR can leak out during the products whole life-cycle. Each year, tonnes of BFR release to the European environment.

    PBDE have been discovered in animals, scattered over big parts of the world. The evidence of the negative effects is not considered to be strong enough for a full ban of TPPP-A, HBCDD or DecaBDE in the European Union. However effects like impairing learning functions, changes in the spontaneous behaviour and different hormone levels have been detected in tests on laboratory animals. Levels of BFR have also been found in human breast milk. This is a big risk factor because small children and embryos are particularly sensitive. The neurological development is for example very complex and a changing hormone level could have devastating consequences.

    All the five Swedish authorities that have been contacted in this paper consider the usage of brominated flame retardants as a problem and have the opinion that the solution lay in measures in a European Union level. The agencies have different commissions but all of them work, either for an increased security and information level, or for a sustainable society development. The fact that the use of BFR involves many insecurities, make their tasks even more difficult to reach. Different circumstances can lead to either an increase or a decrease usage of BFR. Legislation and directives can inhibit the use of BFR whereas lobbying and fire safety demands could have the opposite effect. Alternative fire retardants have been developed; both technical solutions where the safety lay in the design of the product but also new way of protect plastics from fires.

    The conclusion is; the risk will decrease if legislation prohibits a whole group of chemicals, but not fast enough. The level of knowledge about the existing chemicals is rising but the knowledge about the brominated options is still to low.

  • 3.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Albasrah University, Albasrah, Iraq.
    Environmental reply to vernacular habitat conformation from a vast areas of Scandinavia2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 48, p. 825-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many original ideas and useful system inputs embedded in the building of human settlements in Scandinavian regions, where the landscape and habitat are strongly interconnected. A cold climate and strong winds are the most prominent risks that affect habitats. The Longhouse is the foremost traditional habitat in the Scandinavian region, dating back to the Iron Age, 2000 BC. This study examines the influence of climate on the conformation of habitats. Climate had a solid impact on the conceptions of habitat form and internal space. Wind and extreme temperatures had firming consequences on the housing arrangements, layouts, orientations, and building materials used in the construction process. Habitats from this region were located in an optimal arrangement, and the south orientation was used effectively. This investigation will provide an evaluative interpretation and analysis of the real facts of vernacular habitats in the context of energy efficiency and ecological concepts, considering human settlement patterns, architectural creation and building material uses. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Anderson, Leif G.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, POB 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Björk, Göran
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, POB 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Holby, Ola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Jutterstrom, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Box 530 21, S-40014 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Morth, Carl Magnus
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Aarhus Univ, Dept Geosci, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Semiletov, Igor
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA.;Russian Acad Sci, Far Eastern Branch, Pacific Oceanol Inst, Vladivostok 690041, Russia.;Natl Res Tomsk Polytech Univ, Tomsk, Russia..
    Stranne, Christian
    Ctr Coastal & Ocean Mapping, Joint Hydrog Ctr, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Stoven, Tim
    GEOMAR, Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Kiel, Germany..
    Tanhua, Toste
    GEOMAR, Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Kiel, Germany..
    Ulfsbo, Adam
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, POB 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Duke Univ, Nicholas Sch Environm, Div Earth & Ocean Sci, Durham, NC 27704 USA..
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Shelf-Basin interaction along the East Siberian Sea2017In: Ocean Science, ISSN 1812-0784, E-ISSN 1812-0792, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 349-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive biogeochemical transformation of organic matter takes place in the shallow continental shelf seas of Siberia. This, in combination with brine production from sea-ice formation, results in cold bottom waters with relatively high salinity and nutrient concentrations, as well as low oxygen and pH levels. Data from the SWERUS-C3 expedition with icebreaker Oden, from July to September 2014, show the distribution of such nutrient-rich, cold bottom waters along the continental margin from about 140 to 180 degrees E. The water with maximum nutrient concentration, classically named the upper halocline, is absent over the Lomonosov Ridge at 140 degrees E, while it appears in the Makarov Basin at 150 degrees E and intensifies further eastwards. At the intercept between the Mendeleev Ridge and the East Siberian continental shelf slope, the nutrient maximum is still intense, but distributed across a larger depth interval. The nutrient-rich water is found here at salinities of up to similar to 34.5, i.e. in the water classically named lower halocline. East of 170 degrees E transient tracers show significantly less ventilated waters below about 150 m water depth. This likely results from a local isolation of waters over the Chukchi Abyssal Plain as the boundary current from the west is steered away from this area by the bathymetry of the Mendeleev Ridge. The water with salinities of similar to 34.5 has high nutrients and low oxygen concentrations as well as low pH, typically indicating decay of organic matter. A deficit in nitrate relative to phosphate suggests that this process partly occurs under hypoxia. We conclude that the high nutrient water with salinity similar to 34.5 are formed on the shelf slope in the Mendeleev Ridge region from interior basin water that is trapped for enough time to attain its signature through interaction with the sediment.

  • 5. Andersson, B. I.
    et al.
    Bishop, K. H.
    Borg, G. C.
    Giesler, G.
    Hultberg, H.
    Huse, M.
    Moldan, F.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nygaard, P. H.
    Nyström, U.
    The covered catchment site: A description of the physiography, climate and vege-tation of three small coniferous forest catchments at Gårdsjön, South-west Sweden1998In: Experimental Reversal of Acid Rain Effects: the Gård-sjön Roof Project, redaktörer: Hultberg H. och Skeffington R., John, England: Wiley & Sons Ltd , 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6. Andersson, Elin
    Transportinformationskampanjer och klimatproblematiken: En studie av fyra teman som påverkar beteendeförändringar2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Kartering av översvämningsrisker vid Vänern2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie genomfördes en översvämningskartering och -analys som utgick från fyra

    extrema vattennivåer i Vänern. Baserat på höjddata från den Nya Nationella Höjdmodellen

    (NNH) generades utbredningspolygoner med hjälp av GIS för de fyra översvämningsnivåerna.

    Överlagringsanalyser gjordes sedan med kartskikt för väg, mark och byggnader

    samt för vissa kommuner även befolkning för att urskilja vägsträckor, markområden,

    byggnader och boende inom översvämningsutbredningen vid de fyra nivåerna.

    Översvämningskartor togs fram i pdf-format och Google Earth-format. GIS-analysen har

    genererat kvantitativa data för översvämmade vägsträckor, markytor antal byggnader etc.

    Vidare har en objektsbaserad analys genomförts utifrån kartmaterial och kommunala data

    över sårbara anläggningar och funktioner. Resultaten har sammanställts kommunvis och

    för Vänerområdet i sin helhet i form av text, tabeller och diagram.

    Det som drabbas först vid en översvämning i Vänern är dels objekt som utifrån sina

    funktioner ligger vattennära t.ex. fritidsanläggningar, men även viktiga vägar som E18 och

    E45. Järnvägsträckan Göteborg-Karlstad-Stockholm översvämmas redan vid 100-årsnivån.

    Med stigande vattennivå drabbas allt fler objekt och samhällsviktiga funktioner. De städer

    som påverkas mest är Karlstad, Kristinehamn, Mariestad, Lidköping och Vänersborg.

    De direkta skadekostnaderna för en 100-årsnivå i Vänern har beräknats till 100-240 Mkr,

    där en möjlig vindeffekt kan ge ytterligare upp till 120 Mkr i skadekostnader. För en

    dimensionerande nivå skulle skadekostnaderna bli av en helt annan storleksordning och

    uppgå till ca 9,8 miljarder kr. Vid denna nivå skulle stora indirekta skador uppstå som vi

    inte har haft möjlighet att värdera ekonomiskt. De största kostnaderna kan kopplas till

    översvämmade byggnader.

    I en absolut jämförelse med Mälaren av kvantitativa data för översvämmade vägar,

    markområden och antal byggnader är konsekvenserna vid Vänern något lägre.

    Studien genomfördes på uppdrag av och i samarbete med

    Vänerkommunerna i samverkan om

    Vänerns reglering.

     

  • 8.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Environmental Sciences.
    Höiseth Borg, Veronica
    Karlstad University, Division for Environmental Sciences.
    Regnoväder och erosion: Ravinskadorna efter oväderstillfället i Hagfors kommun 4-5 augusti 20042008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Global changes in the climate during the last decade is frequently debated in today`s society. It is established that the climate is getting warmer. The consequences are already noticeable because of the warmer temperature. Since the earth temperature is increasing the weather systems around the world changes. The question is if the increasing temperature has something to do with both frequency and the extent of natural disasters. This question is very important and therefore research must continue to find new and improved facts.

    The 4-5 of August in 2004 an area in Hagfors municipality was strike by a serious rain and thunder storm. The following consequences were severe and the road around Rådasjön was totally destroyed in several places. This study is connected to the storm in Hagfors and the current climate changes. The present question is if the storm and its consequences are caused by a warmer climate. Following this study also discusses causes of this storm and its consequences.

    The area where this study was performed is tremendously sensitive to water erosion. The latest ice age has affected this area and therefore consists of material from till. Above this Rådasjön is situated in a broken valley that makes the lake very deep and steep sided. During the storm in 2004 there were at lot of material that strived down the steep sides to the lake. This affected not only the roads, but also the people who lived there during the time.

  • 9. Andersson, M
    et al.
    Carlsson, B
    Danielsson, K
    Enström, J
    van Hees, P A W
    Lundström, U S
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Försurning av skogsmark i Värmland1996Report (Refereed)
  • 10. Andersson, Peter
    Europeiska Unionens vattenramdirektiv: En studie i dess inverkan på Östersjöns vattenkvalité2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Andersson Sjöberg, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Samhällets Sårbarhet för Klimatförändringarna2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of the climate changes are expected to generate several substantial direct and indirect consequences on both ecosystems and societies. It is the extent of the negative consequences that determents the vulnerability of the things or the ones exposed. The knowledge of the effects and consequences by a changing climate provides an opportunity to take measures to reduce the vulnerability.Our society’s vulnerability depends on how we choose to act out of the existing knowledge and what measures we choose to take. 

    Karlstad municipality has good knowledge and perception of the increased flood risks the climate changes will generate and the probable consequences that most likely will follow. How the municipality decides to manage the flooding issue is not just affected by the will to mitigate the vulnerability but also by the vision to increase the number of citizens. Karlstad municipality wants to oblige the citizen’s demand of settlements close to the water in order to reach the aim to gain the population quantity. Hereby attractive areas are developed even though they are estimated to be vulnerable. The motivation is that the knowledge about the flood risks makes it possible to take necessary measures to reduce the risks.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Tonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Öppna JavaScript-bibliotek för webbkartor i kommunal tjänst: En jämförelse mellan OpenLayers 3 och Leaflet2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of web-based mapping applications is constantly increasing. In particular, an increase can be observed in the mobile use of such applications. Karlstad municipality is experiencing an increased number of mobile users of its web map. For that reason, the municipality aims to improve their web map in order to provide a more mobile-friendly service. The municipality intends to replace the technology of their existing web map with a more modern alternative and is currently looking at two different JavaScript-based open source APIs for web-based mapping applications – OpenLayers 3 and Leaflet.In this thesis, OpenLayers 3 and Leaflet are compared in terms of compatibility, functionality and performance. Compatibility and functionality are examined primarily through analysis of available documentation. Assessments are made based on requirements set forth by Karlstad municipality, regarding compatibility with existing server architecture and functionality equivalent to the municipality’s current web mapping service.Performance is assessed for WMS and WFS functions, and functions for file based vector data rendering. In addition, differences in performance with various web browsers are evaluated. The performance tests are carried out in environments set up as basic mapping applications. Given functions are tested with simple script methods for timing, together with Firebug, a Firefox web browser plugin.Test results show that both OpenLayers 3 and Leaflet meet all requirements regarding compatibility, even though Leaflet lacks support for certain formats. OpenLayers 3 shows, furthermore, a broader native support for different functions. Leaflet is more limited, natively, but can be extended through various plugins to achieve the same level of functionality as OpenLayers 3.Performance tests consistently show that OpenLayers 3 is the faster API. The results are particularly clear concerning vector data handling, where Leaflet is significantly slower. Despite distinct and measurable differences in performance, the perceived differences are not always as obvious. For this reason, practical user-focused tests are recommended for future studies of the subject.In conclusion, OpenLayers 3 is the recommended API for use in applications of larger scale and with richer functionality, while Leaflet is proposed as a more flexible alternative, suitable for simpler applications.

  • 13.
    Andersson-Skold, Yvonne
    et al.
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Falemo, Stefan
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Suer, Pascal
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Landslide risk and climate change - economic assessment of consequenses in the Göta river valley2011In: / [ed] Anagnostopoulos, A., Pachakis, M., Tsatsanifos, C., Amsterdam, 2011, p. 1313-1318Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to climate change scenarios, Swedish summers will be drier, but in large parts of Sweden there will also be increased annual precipitation, more intensive precipitation and periods with increased water flows. In many areas the risk for landslides is expected to increase. In response to this the SGI, on commission of the Environmental ministry, has started a risk analysis for the Göta river valley. The results of the analysis will be used in the surveillance of the safety along the Göta river valley. The valley is one of the most frequent landslide valleys in Sweden. The area has a long history of anthropogenic activities such as settlements, shipping, industry, contaminated soil and infrastructure including large roads and railroads. A number of landslides occur every year. The landslide risk analysis of Göta river valley is performed by traditional technical risk analysis, i.e. a function of hazard probability and consequences of the hazard. Elements at risk in the valley include for example, human life, transport and other infrastructure, properties and industrial activities, contaminated land, agriculture and forestry, and intangibles such as biodiversity. Exposure, vulnerability and the monetary value related to the landslide are used to describe the consequence of the landslide. This paper shows the process and structure of this consequence analysis for natural hazards. The consequence analysis methodology can be applied generic both nationally and internationally and for several types of natural hazards such as landslides and flooding.

  • 14.
    Andersson-Skold, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, S-40278 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Effective and Sustainable Flood and Landslide Risk Reduction Measures: An Investigation of Two Assessment Frameworks2016In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, ISSN 2095-0055, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 374-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural events such as floods and landslides can have severe consequences. The risks are expected to increase, both as a consequence of climate change and due to increased vulnerabilities, especially in urban areas. Although preventive measures are often cost-effective, some measures are beneficial to certain values, while some may have negative impacts on other values. The aim of the study presented here was to investigate two frameworks used for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of physical and nonphysical flood and landslide risk reduction measures. The study is based on literature, available information from authorities and municipalities, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder views and values. The results indicate that the risks for suboptimization or maladaptation are reduced if many aspects are included and a broad spectrum of stakeholders are involved. The sustainability assessment tools applied here can contribute to a more transparent and sustainable risk management process by assessing strategies and interventions with respect to both short- and long-term perspectives, including local impacts and wider environmental impacts caused by climate change, for example. The tools can also cover social and economic aspects. The assessment tools provide checklists that can support decision processes, thus allowing for more transparent decisions.

  • 15.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Bergman, Ramona
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Effekter av samhällets säkerhetsåtgärder (ESS) - en kartering av arbetet idag med fokus på översvämningar, ras och skred2012Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg; COWI AB, Gothenburg.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rayner, David
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Janhäll, Sara
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Gothenburg.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University.
    Moback, Ulf
    City of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Bergman, Ramona
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Gothenburg.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas2015In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 7, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from -3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings. © 2015 The Authors.

  • 17.
    Andréasson, Robin
    Karlstad University.
    En kritisk diskursanalys av Europa 2020 strategins förhållningssätt till hållbar utveckling.: Ur perspektiven ekologisk modernisering och miljörättvisa.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Inspired by Maarten A. Hajer (1995), this work will analyze and attempt to clarify how environmental and equity issues are reflected in the development policies that takes place from a contemporary perspective at EU level. In this case, with a focus on the Europe 2020, “A European strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth” Which are analyzed through a critical discourse analysis after Fairclough’s three dimensional model in relation to the research question: Which discourse/discourses appears in the “Europe 2020” in terms of economic development in relation to the environment and justice, and; What truths/hegemonies emerges in relation to the environment and development in this communicative event? The analysis contributed to the clarification of a number of prominent discourses, truths/hegemonies described constituted and likewise reproduce the larger ideological social practice. Growth discourse is seen as the reigning discourse for which all inferiors discourses comply. Its realization is seen as a prerequisite for sustainable development and social shared stance. This thus realized through ecological modernization as a tool to decouple environmental degradation and create new markets and competitive advantages and thus prosperity in terms of growth. In relation to the essays purpose to see whether the EU sustainability discourse is used as a power discourse, it is clear in relation to previous research and critique of ecological modernization that some equity perspectives and interests are being excluded in this discursive practice.

  • 18.
    Andrén, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Tillförlitligheten hos översvämningskartering: Utbredningsjämförelse med översvämningen i Hallsberg 20152016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Anting Paulsson, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hur framställs klimatflyktingar i media?: En jämförelse mellan svenska och amerikanska nyhetsartiklar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20. Backman , David
    et al.
    Asplund, Johan
    Strategi för utökning av GIS-användningen inom Karlstadsregionens Räddningstjänstförbund2008Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for the fire brigade of the Karlstad region (below referred to as "the fire brigade") is to expand their use of geographical information systems (GIS). As a step of the expansion the fire brigade has bought the computer software ArcGIS which enables presenting, editing and analyzing of geographical data. What is needed is geographical data and registers adapted for ArcGIS covering the whole region of operation. This degree project has been carried out in order to answer questions concerning the introduction of ArcGIS and the adapted data:

    1. Which reference system will be used and how should the fire brigade adapt towards the transition to SWEREF99 TM?
    2. Where will the fire brigade store its geographical data and in which data format?
    3. Who will assemble, administrate and update the geographical data and registers needed?

    The study recommends the fire brigade to use the same reference system in the entire organisation. Therefore the best solution is considered to be using RT90 2,5 gon W for GIS-applications since the operative unit will remain using mentioned reference system. All data suppliers are able to deliver data in RT90 2,5 gon W.

    When the operative unit, controlled by SOS-alarm, transcend to SWEREF99 TM the advice is to follow with the rest of the organization. The transition will probably not be made until SOS-alarm stops delivering coordinates in RT90 2,5 gon W. To change reference system into SWEREF99 TM is not technically complicated and Karlstad municipality is offering to help.

    Geographical data is recommended to be stored in the format of file-based geodatabase on the fire brigades server space.

    Karlstad municipality’s GIS-department is willing to administer and update the geographical data and the authors of this degree project believe suggested solution will be the most appropriate - since that type of competence is missing within the fire brigade.

  • 21. Baja, Kristin
    et al.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    From engagement to empowerment: climate change and resilience planning in Baltimore City2018In: Local Action on Climate Change / [ed] Moloney, Susie, Fünfgeld, Hartmut och Granberg, Mikael, Abingdon & New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 126-145Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22. Bergelin, Rebecca
    Påverkan av extrem nederbörd på det svenska vägnätet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Berggren, Ella
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Landsbygdens gröna omställning: En studie om hur invånare på landsbygden ser på en grön omställning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A green transition in Swedish households has a crucial role in reducing the current environmental problems. Environmental problems have been individualized and the responsibility for living a more environmental friendly life is thus at the individual level. When environmental problems are individualized with an increased responsibility of the individual as a result, the conditions are required to be able to live a more environmentally friendly life, conditions that vary as a result if where the individual chooses to live. It becomes complicated if a green transition is not adapted för the whole nation but only part of it.

    The study is a qualitative interview study focusing on how citizens in rural areas opinion on a green transition based on the usual areas of transition, transport, waste, consumption and energy. The material from the interviews has been analyzed with a qualitative content analysis. The purpose of the study has been to examine how the citizens look at a green transition and what obstacles and opportunities are presented.

    The results of the study shows that there are good opportunities for households in rural areas to implement green transition in certain sectors while other changes are presented as more complicated. The possibility of implementing a green transition in practice is presented differently based on were the individual chooses to live. The study thus shows that the green transition are perceived differently based on whether the individuals lives in rural or urban areas.

  • 24.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    An Experimental Study on the Influence of Using a Draft Tube in a Continuous Spouted Bed Dryer2014In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 519-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Further increasing the production of processed biofuel also increases the demands on drying capacity. With the aim of increasing the heat capacity flow, experimental tests have been performed on the process of drying sawdust in a continuous spouted bed dryer with nine different draft tube designs. The results showed that a draft tube with an increased length and an increased disengagement height decreased the dry substances' flow rate throughout the dryer. The results also showed that the mass of the material in the dryer was approximately the same in all the tests. This means that the draft tubes, no matter their size, do not influence the amount of material in the dryer.

  • 25.
    Bergius, Emilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Landsbygden, folkhälsan och den fysiska planeringen: En fallstudie om hur mindre svenska landsbygdskommuner integrerar folkhälsa i fysisk planering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är en svensk ambition att folkhälsan ges större utrymme i samhällsplaneringen. Dock finns i dagsläget inga lagstadgade krav eller tydliga riktlinjer kring hur folkhälsoaspekter ska integreras i fysisk planering. En stor del av ansvaret för att uppfylla denna ambition hamnar på de svenska kommunerna och det är i dessa som de svåra avvägningarna mellan olika intressen måste göras. Syftet med denna studie är att studera vilka hinder och möjligheter som finns med att integrera folkhälsoaspekter i planering och utformning av den kommunala fysiska miljön.

    Denna studie är utformad som en fallstudie där en svensk kommun har studerats med hjälp av intervjuer och dokumentanalyser. Resultaten från denna studie visar att konflikter med miljömässiga och ekonomiska värden är ett hinder när folkhälsoaspekter ska integreras i kommunal samhällsplanering. En rådande oenighet kring hur folkhälsobegreppet definieras och används, samt bristande kunskap om begreppet är ytterligare hinder som belyses i studien. Att folkhälsoinsatser sällan ger mätbara resultat är en ännu en faktor som hindrar integreringen av folkhälsoaspekter i fysisk planering. Engagemang, arbetsbelastning och tidsbrist är andra faktorer som påverkar i vilken utsträckning folkhälsoaspekter beaktas i den kommunala samhällsplaneringen. Slutligen är målsättningar och tvärsektoriellt samarbete centralt för att skapa likvärdiga förväntningar och samförstånd mellan aktörer där folkhälsofrämjande insatser ska genomföras.  

  • 26.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Student 'sustainability consciousness' and decision making on sustainability dilemmas: Investigating effects of implementing education for sustainable development in Swedish upper secondary schools2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The central role of education for sustainable development (SD) has been emphasized since the 1990s. SD involves the three areas of environment, economy and society, with a focus on the relationships between environmental protection and human development. Education for sustainable development (ESD) takes a holistic view on the environmental, economic and social dimensions of SD and aims to empower students to engage in the democratic development of society in a more sustainable direction. Policy-level and research community discussions have addressed the ways in which ESD has been implemented internationally. This study focuses on upper secondary students, and investigates their views on sustainability and the ways they make decisions related to SD. The study aims to address the interdisciplinary and multidimensional content embraced in the concept of SD and the development of competences often associated with ESD. A survey investigating students’ (n=638) sustainability consciousness (SC) and their decision-making in a number of SD related contexts was conducted in 15 Swedish upper secondary schools. The results show that students attending schools with an ESD profile are characterized by stronger SC than students attending regular schools; however the difference is small and mostly related to the economic dimension of SD. Furthermore, students who prioritize environmental decisions in SD dilemmas show stronger SC than students giving priority to economic reasons. When environmental, economic and social dimensions are introduced separately, social aspects are given the highest priority by the students. In contrast, environmental aspects are up-graded when the dimensions are introduced in an integrated manner. However, different dimensions are prioritized in different contexts. The study provides empirical support for using multiple contexts and including both harmonious and conflict-based perspectives on SD in education. It also contributes knowledge to the discussion about the implementation of ESD in Sweden in terms of outcomes among students.

  • 27.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Education for sustainable development: Student views on environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainable development and their interrelationships2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development (SD) isbased on the idea that environmental problems must be managed in relation to social and economic perspectives. The important role of education for a more sustainable future has been emphasized in transnational policy documents over the years (UNESCO 2006;2015). In education for sustainable development (ESD), an interdisciplinary approach to SD can facilitate students’ understanding of its complexity (Gough 2002; Warburton 2003). This contribution aims to provide insight into young adults’ views of the relationships between dimensions of SD. 638 students in their final year of upper secondary schools across Sweden (age 18-19) responded to a Likert-scale questionnaire. The results indicate that economic perspectives are associated with great complexity and less recognized compared to social and environmental perspectives in SD (Author et al. 2014; 2015). The role of the economy has been discussed longtime, in relation to its impact on the environment and the development of the society (e.g. Daly 1990; Ekins 2000; Neumayer 2003; Hopwood et al. 2005; Costanza et al. 2014). It is argued that sustainability education should embrace critical and reflective perspectives, however few educational studies have focused on the role of the economy in SD. A study from Australia concludes that economic perspectives in sustainability education are largely missing and thus, the status quo is not being challenged (Dyment et al. 2015). To look deeper into students’ understanding of economic perspectives in SD, we performed an explorative cluster analysis (Author et al. submitted), based on student responses to items concerning the relationships between economic growth, economic development and SD. Four viewpoints emerged from the analysis, which we labeled into The un-differentiating positive, The nuanced ambivalent, The bilaterally convinced and The critical ones.

  • 28.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Chang, Tzuchau
    National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan.
    A cross-cultural comparative study of sustainability consciousness between students in Taiwan and Sweden2019In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education for sustainable development (ESD) is promoted as one important component in the endeavor toward sustainable development. Goal 4 in the Sustainable Development Goals (UN in Sustainable development goals—17 goals to transform our world, 2017) in particular targets the role of ESD in this respect. The importance of cultural specificity in ESD is emphasized in numerous international policy documents, but there are few cross-cultural studies that focus on the broad context of sustainable development and ESD. The current study investigates the sustainability consciousness of grade 12 students (age 18–19) in Taiwan (N = 617) and Sweden (N = 583) and discusses the implications for ESD policy and practice. The findings indicate that significant differences exist between the two samples, both with respect to their sustainability consciousness and within the three sub-constructs of knowingness, attitudes and self-reported behaviors. The differences are considered in light of the cultural value orientations of the East Asian and Western European regions. Implications for ESD are discussed from the perspective of cultural specificity.

  • 29.
    Bergman, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gender, work and disaster2012In: Gender, work and disaster, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Brandin, Elisabeth
    Laskerudsprojektet -helhetssyn på restaureringsarbete i skogslandskapet2005Report (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Bergman, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Är människor också djur?: Djurvälfärd betraktat från två olika ideologiska perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Djurhållning inom livsmedelsindustrin är ett stort problem, både ur miljösynpunkt men även när det kommer till djurvälfärd. I den här studien undersöks hur ekologisk djurhållning och djurrättsaktivism kan fungera tillsammans för att nå en god djurvälfärd utifrån de ideologier som ligger till grund för dessa inriktningar. För att ta reda på detta valdes två organisationer ut för att representera vardera sida, KRAV och Djurens Rätt, och sedan identifierades de bakomliggande ideologierna. Det utvalda materialet, som består av publikationer från respektive organisation, bearbetades med hjälp av en diskursanalys, som ger utrymme för egna tolkningar och reflektioner. Målet för studien har inte varit att nå en definitiv sanning, utan att presentera nya synsätt och bidra med nya perspektiv i frågan. I diskussionen framkommer att det är antropocentriska ideologier somligger till grund för KRAV och icke-antropocentriska ideologier som ligger bakom Djurens Rätt. Dessa kombineras sedan med ett feministiskt perspektiv för att utveckla diskussionen ytterligare. Slutsatser som dras är att KRAV och Djurens Rätt strävar efter samma sak, nämligen en god djurvälfärd, problematiken ligger i de bakomliggande ideologierna. En icke-antropocentrisk ideologi kan inte godta att djur dödas för mänskliga syften, men enligt antropocentrismen finns djuren till för människans nytta och rättfärdigar detta, vilket starkt antyder att de inte kan kombineras. Genom att lägga till det feministiska perspektivet finns dock möjligheten att sträva efter samexistens, där djur och människor lever jämte varandra på samma villkor. Det är inte en lösning, men det kan öppna upp för nya sätt att betrakta hur människor kan göra djurvälfärd till en naturlig del av att vara vid liv.

  • 32.
    Bergström, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Mesakalk – ett miljövänligt material eller skadligt avfall?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is experiencing major problems with the management of waste from nearly every industry within the country. There is I big waste of waste materials which are placed in landfill when they have potential of being reused. Landfills usually leach contaminated water leading to the contamination of soils and watercourses. Lime mud from the paper industry is currently at 133 000 tones. The purpose of this paper is to study the Sweden’s environmental legislation to see if it has flaws that may explain why the lime mud is not re-used even though it may have potentially useful properties. The result is based on an analysis of documents of legal provisions and completed schemes interpreted against the mesa content. The answer is that the law is neither an obstacle and opportunities and it is not possible to provide for law neither promotes nor prevents lime reuse. It is also clear that there is little research on the environmental gains and losses that would arise if the mesa came in contact with nature. What is clear is that there is an unclear division of responsibilities between authorities regarding Environmental Protection Agency and the County administrative boards of Sweden that might complicate the reuse of lime mud.

  • 33.
    Birgersson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Det moderna risksamhället: En studie om klimatrisker inom kommunal krisberedskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is now a phenomenon we cannot ignore. It is happening here and now and there is more or less common scientific consensus that so is the case. With climate change come risks that are difficult to predict and to relate to and this affects the integration of these risks in the municipal emergency preparedness. The purpose of the study is to examine the factors that are affecting the integration of climate risks in the municipal emergency preparedness. The result is based on a number of interviews conducted with people working with municipal activities and a Municipal Council. The responses have been more or less clear that the largest factors affecting the integration of climate risks in the municipal emergency preparedness is scientific uncertainty and how this is mediated by international organizations, the fact that there is a common lack of knowledge about the effects that may arise from climate change and that there is also a lower awareness of many of the risks in general. In addition, different effects are differently prioritized which affects the integration of all risks associated with climate change. I have also conducted a document analysis to give further substance to the results I found.

  • 34. Bishop, K.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Moldan, F.
    Hultberg, H.
    The hydrochemical response of runoff episodes to an experimental reduction of acid deposition1995In: Ecosystem mani-pulation experiments: Scientific approaches, experimental designs and relevant re-sults., vol. 20, redaktörer: Jenkins A., Ferrier R. C. och Kirby C., pp. 119-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Bishop, K.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Stähli, M.
    Lindström, G.
    Mellander, P.-E.
    Ottosson Löfvenius, M.
    Tjäle och avrinning från boreal skogsmark - en studie inom Vindelns Försöksparker2000Report (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Bishop, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala University, Switzerland.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala University.
    Water storage in a till catchment: II: Implications of transmissivity feedback for flow paths and turnover times2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 25, p. 3950-3959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the flow paths and turnover times within a catchment characterized by the transmissivity feedback mechanism where there is a strong increase in the saturated hydraulic conductivity towards the soil surface and precipitation inputs saturate progressively more superficial layers of the soil profile. The analysis is facilitated by the correlation between catchment water storage and groundwater levels, which made it possible to model the daily spatial distribution of water storage, both vertically in different soil horizons and horizontally across a 6300-m2 till catchment. Soil properties and episodic precipitation input dynamics, combined with the influence of topographic features, concentrate flow in the horizontal, vertical, and temporal dimensions. Within the soil profile, there was a vertical concentration of lateral flow to superficial soil horizons (upper 30 cm of the soil), where much of the annual flow occurred during runoff episodes. Overland flow from a limited portion of the catchment can contribute to peak flows but is not a necessary condition for runoff episodes. The spatial concentration of flow, and the episodic nature of runoff events, resulted in a strong and spatially structured differentiation of local flow velocities within the catchment. There were large differences in the time spent by the laterally flowing water at different depths, with turnover times of lateral flow across a 1-m-wide soil pedon ranging from under 1 h at 10- to 20-cm depth to a month at 70- to 80-cm depth. In many regards, the hydrology of this catchment appears typical of the hydrology in till soils, which are widespread in Fenno-Scandia.

  • 37. Bishop, K.H.
    et al.
    Hauhs, M.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Seibert, J.
    Moldan, F.
    Rodhe, A.
    Lange, H.
    Lischeid, G.
    The hydrology of the covered catchment: Water storage, flowpaths and residence times1998In: Experimental Reversal of Acid Rain Effects: the Gård-sjön Roof Project, redaktörer: Hultberg H. och Skeffington R, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd , 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Björling, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Ny konsumtion av gamla kläder: – En studie om konsumenters miljömedvetenhet och motiv till att köpa second hand kläder på Myrorna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s consumption is increasing at an accelerating rate and it´s produced and consumed more goods and services than ever before. A large part of people's consumption consists of clothing that is bought and discarded increasingly leading to a number of environmental problems such as global warming, pollution, loss of biodiversity and the depletion of natural assets. One way to save the earth's resources is to buy used clothing, so called second hand, instead of new ones. The store chain “The Ants” (in Swedish “Myrorna”) has specializing in second-hand goods and sells, among other things, clothes. This study examined consumers' motive for shopping second-hand clothing on The Ants and examined whether this is related to consumers' environmental awareness and their choice to buy second hand clothes on The Ants. The shop staffs experience of the customer's environmental awareness was also examined. The methods that were chosen were surveys that The Ants customers filled out and interviews with store employees.

    The results showed that consumer´s motive to buy second-hand clothing on The Ants was mainly due to the cheap price and then because of their environmental awareness, customers were relatively environmentally aware and knew that the clothing industry contribute to environmental problems. The consumers felt that they received too little information about the problems and they would like to know more. The result also showed that consumers don´t act according to this awareness as very few of them asked questions to the staff about their clothing production or work with sustainable consumption and the environment. The Ants shop staff experienced the same thing since they rarely or never received any questions from customers about clothing and its environmental problems. Customers also bought more new clothes than second-hand clothing.

  • 39.
    Björnegran, Amalia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Green Forum: Aktiva Gröna partier och grönt politiskt inflytande i Afrika2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 40.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Nederbördsintensitet och andra faktorer som påverkar skyfallsskador2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige inträffar många skyfall och intensiva regn under sommarmånaderna. Det finns inga uppenbara geografiska mönster, vilket är en skillnad gentemot älv- eller sjööversvämningar där det vanligtvis är känt vilka områden som kan komma att översvämmas vid en viss vattennivå eller ett visst vattenflöde. För individer och samhällsaktörer innebär en skyfallshändelse i många fall en stor överraskning då skyfall utvecklas snabbt och dagens meteorologiska prognossystem i stort inte lyckas att prognosticera extrema regn korrekt med avseende på mängd, tid och plats. Vädervarningar kommer med kort varsel eller uteblir helt. Konsekvenserna av intensiv nederbörd och skyfall är främst översvämningar och erosionsskador på byggnader och infrastruktur, men även störningar och avbrott i olika samhällsfunktioner som kan påverka samhället och individer utanför det drabbade området.

    I denna avhandling har 15 år av försäkringsskadedata använts för att undersöka samband mellan nederbördsintensitet och skyfallsskador. Även påverkan av andra faktorer som topografi, bebyggelse och socioekonomiska aspekter har undersökts. Resultaten visar att regnintensitet under ett 60 minuters intervall i kombination med korta perioder av extrem intensitet, tillsammans med topografiska faktorer spelar en betydande roll vid uppkomsten av skador.

  • 41.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    När Vänern svämmade över: Händelseutveckling och konsekvenser av översvämningen 2000/20012010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mellan november 2000 och juni 2001 låg Vänerns vattennivå över sjöns dämningsgräns i nästan 6 månader. Situationen orsakades av en utdragen period med ovanligt stora nederbördsmängder över Vänerns tillrinningsområde mellan oktober och mitten av december 2000. Sjöns nivå ökade under denna period i genomsnitt med 2 cm per dygn. Översvämningsproblemen började uppstå längs den ca 2000 km långa kusten (utan öar) från mitten av november. När sjöns nivå kulminerade den 11 januari 2001 hade olika aktörer lyckats vidta omfattande åtgärder i de översvämningshotade områdena som skyddade samhällsviktiga funktioner såsom VA, transporter och elförsörjning, men även bostäder och industrianläggningar.

    I en genomgång av skador och konsekvenser i samband med översvämningen visade det sig inte oväntat att det främst är tangibla1 direkta och indirekta skador som är beskrivna i olika dokument och sammanställningar som har tagits fram inom olika sektorer. Uppföljningar av långsiktiga konsekvenser av översvämningen och beskrivningar av hur interaktionen mellan olika sektorer påverkades av Vänerns höga nivåer saknas däremot med några få undantag. Rapporten kan inte ge någon heltäckande bild av de ekonomiska konsekvenser som Väneröversvämningen 2000/2001 har lett till. För en del sektorer som lantbruk, yrkesfisket och de kommunala verksamheterna i de drabbade Vänerkommunerna kunde ekonomiska värderingar hittas medan de saknas för skogsbruket, delar av transportsektorn och industrierna. I rapporten görs en uppskattning av hushållens skador i Värmland med hjälp skadebeloppen som utbetalades av Länsförsäkringar Värmland i samband med Väneröversvämningen.

    Kommunerna utmed Vänerkusten fick omfattande skador på avlopps- och dagvattennäten och reningsverken. Kommunala, strandnära fritidsområden såsom fritidshamnar, campingplatser, badplatser och sjönära gång- och cykelvägar skadades i nästan alla berörda kommuner. Efter översvämningen gav regeringen kommunerna möjlighet att ansöka om bidrag för direkta fysiska skador och kostnader för förebyggande åtgärder, t ex temporära invallningar. 

    Studien genomfördes med syfte att kunna bevara, återföra och nyttja erfarenheter från översvämningen 2000-2001 inför och under kommande översvämningssituationer med likartade eller högre nivåer. Studien är en del i Centrum för klimat och säkerhets deltagande inom EU–projektet SAWA (Strategic Alliance for integrated Water management Actions) vars målsättning bl a är att utveckla planer för hantering av översvämningsrisker. Studien är det första steget av en sårbarhetsstudie i Vänern som kommer att utföras vid Centrum för klimat och säkerhet under åren 2010/2011.

  • 42.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    A GIS-based multivariate approach to identify flood damage affecting factorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates causal factors leading to pluvial flood damages, beside rainfall amount and intensity, in two Swedish cities. Observed flood damage data from a Swedish insurance database, collected under 13 years, and a set of spatial data, describing topography, demography, land cover and building type were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA). The topographic wetness index (TWI) is the only investigated variable that indicates a significant relationship with to the number and amount of insurance damage. The Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.68 for the number of insurance damages and 0.63 for amount of insurance damages. With a linear regression model TWI explained 41% of the variance of the number of insurance flood damages and 34% of variance of amount of insurance flood damage.

    Future studies on this topic should consider implementing TWI as a potential measure in urban flood risk analyses.

  • 43.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The impact of intense rainfall on insurance losses in two Swedish cities2018In: Journal of Flood Risk Management, ISSN 1753-318X, E-ISSN 1753-318X, Vol. 12, no S2, p. 1-13, article id e12504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While a major part of previous research in the field of flood damage has focused on water depth as the most important causal factor, little attention has been paid to the role of rainfall intensity. As a test, this paper used correlation and regression analyses to investigate rainfall intensity as a factor affecting flood damage. For a time period of 15 years, the relationship between insurance losses caused by floods and rainfall intensity data from rain gauges were examined in two Swedish cities. Another objective was to find an approach for damage functions based on rainfall intensity as explanatory variable. Using linear regression, two approaches with considerable high degrees of explanation were found – one based on an exponential function and one on a power function. Using a lower limit for rainfall intensity, the approaches reached degrees of explanation between 30 and 78 %. From this study it was concluded that rainfall intensity during the summer months and the occurrence of insurance damages per day caused by floods were correlated and further that rainfall intensity has a great potential to explain urban flood damages. In the future, additional studies are needed to validate the proposed methods and integrate other flood damage affecting factors in the approach.

  • 44.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Gustafsson, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Hindersson, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    10 år efter Arvikaöversvämningen2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter en mycket regnrik höst kulminerade vattennivån i Glafsfjorden den 29 november 2000 på drygt 3 m över normalnivån. De strandnära områdena i det värmländska Arvika sattes under vatten, vägnätet hotades, många mindre vägar fick stängas av och järnvägstrafiken ställdes in i över tre veckor. Samhällets krafter mobiliserades för att skydda fastigheter och infrastruktur. Många högt uppsatta besökare kom till Arvika för att se översvämningen med egna ögon. Läget var skarpt i en och en halv månad.

    Boken ger en inblick i den meteorologiska och hydrologiska bakgrunden av händelsen. Den beskriver händelseförloppet och skadorna som översvämningen orsakade. I en samhällsekonomisk genomgång summeras de direkta skadekostnaderna till 315 Mkr i 2009 års prisläge. Översvämningen följdes upp i ett stort antal utredningar och boken skildrar hur planerna till ett översvämningsskydd för staden växte fram. Den mänskliga dimensionen av händelsen förtydligas med berättelser av översvämningsdrabbade privatpersoner och intervjuer med kommunanställda.

  • 45.
    Bohlin, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Mulleskola i kommunala förskolor: Naturen som lekplats2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46.
    Boll, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Cykeltrafiken i Karlstad: En studie om vad som påverkar valet att cykla2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Karlstad municipality has in their transport strategy set targets which aims to increase the number of bicycle trip within the city. When used the bicycle emits either greenhouse gases or pollutants. Everyday decisions to take the bike to work for example can lead to reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, cycling can thus contribute to the meeting of important environmental objectives. Cycling promotes health. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended daily ration of 30 minutes of physical activity can readily be performed on a bicycle. Bicycle traffic volumes are affected by physical conditions, psychological factors and political policies.

     

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine which factors affect bicycle traffic in Karlstad. How do these factors influence Karlstad inhabitants choice and motivation to ride their bicycles, and which of these factors can be influenced? To obtain a basis for analysis a survey among 50 inhabitants of Karlstad was conducted. From the responses given to the open and closed questions, it appeared that what influences the inhabitants of Karlstad´s choice to cycle were in tune with previous theories and research.

     

    The primary motive of the inhabitants of Karlstad for cycling appeared to be exercise. The main reason for choosing a different mean of transportation is long distances. This survey suggests that the measures associated with enhancement of bicycle transport infrastructure are most in demand. By making it easier for Karlstad locals to get around by bike, bicycle traffic can be increased. 

  • 47.
    Borg, Farhana
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Concrete Examples of Education for Sustainability Practices in Preschool in Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To integrate education for sustainability (EfS) in pedagogical practices is often described as complex and challenging by teachers at preschool to higher education levels. Teachers’ lack of competence in teaching EfS or inspiring examples from educational practices have been identified as some major reasons for this (Borg, Gericke, Höglund, & Bergman, 2012; Corney, 2006; Hedefalk, Almqvist & Östman, 2015). The intention with EfS is to empower learners ‘to take informed decisions and responsible actions for environmental integrity, economic viability and a just society, for present and future generations, while respecting cultural diversity’ (UNESCO, 2019). In early childhood education, a main starting point in EfS is building on children’s participation, and viewing them as active agents and stakeholders for the future (Gothenburg Environmental Centre, 2010). Despite an increase in integrating EfS in preschools in Sweden, there are teachers that do not fully acknowledge children as active citizens who are capable of being involved in activities that bring changes in society (Ärlemalm-Hagsér, 2013).

    Preschool teachers play a significant role in developing young children’s verbal and practical knowledge about environmental and sustainability-related issues through engaging them in conversations, discussions, and in practical activities (Borg, 2017). According to Pramling Samuelsson (2011, p. 110) an important factor for developing children’s competence in EfS is ‘the teacher’s competence and understanding of the questions as such related to young children’s everyday life’. However, only a few studies have been conducted to explore how teachers integrated EfS in preschool education (e.g. Svedäng, Halvars, Elfström, & Unga, 2018). Knowledge operationalization of EfS is needed for teachers to identify practical and proven examples of how to integrate EfS in their daily pedagogical practices.  

    Aim and objectives

    The purpose of this study was to highlight preschool teachers’ operationalization of education for sustainability (EfS) in their daily pedagogical practices in Sweden. The objectives were:

    • to explore teachers’ sustainability awareness in preschool education; and
    • to investigate how teachers integrate EfS in their daily pedagogical activities

    In this paper, ‘sustainability awareness’ refers to what teachers describe about what they know and how they view of sustainability in relation to preschool education from their personal perspectives. In Sweden, preschool education refers to early childhood education for children, who are below six years old.

    In Sweden, a new curriculum for preschool education will be effective from July 2019 (Skolverket, 2018), in which a number of changes compared with the previous curriculum have been made, e.g., the concept sustainably is explicitly mentioned for the first time in relation to preschool education and children’s learning. The new curriculum states that each person that works in preschool shall promote respect for individual’s intrinsic value and for sustainability.

    Conceptual framework

    Children are active participants in learning, and the involvement of adults and knowledgeable peers can make a great difference in the learning process (Bruner, 1966). Bruner (1960, 1977) argues that a child of any age is capable of understanding complex information; even very young children are capable of learning any material if the instruction is organized appropriately. Considering the complexity of the concept of sustainability, the study uses an interlocking circles model that depicts how the environmental, the social and the environmental dimensions are closely connected (Elliott, 2013). Any practices and policies developed without taking all dimensions into account are likely to provide only limited understanding of the sustainability concept and is less likely to lead to action (Siraj-Blatchford, Smith, & Samuelsson, 2010). With regard to EfS, the challenges are not only to operationalize these sustainability dimensions for preschool’s pedagogical practices, but there is a great need to concretize EfS with examples that are connected with children’s daily life.

    Method

    This study was part of a larger EfS-school development project, which was developed with practitioners to provide support for teacher professional development (TPD) in a municipality in Sweden. A qualitative approach was utilized to acquire an in-depth understanding of preschool teachers’ sustainability awareness, and their ways of operationalizing the EfS for day-today activities. The study was conducted between April and May 2018. A description of Participants and data collection, and Data analysis is given below. Participants and data collection Individual interview data were collected from 12 certified preschool teachers, who were employed in 8 preschools that participated in the EfS-school development project for a year. The preschool teachers were all women with working experiences with young children ranging from 6 to 33 years. Although 10 preschools participated in the EfS-school development project, two of them could not participate in the study due to other commitments. An interview guide was developed that included questions concerning demographic information, teacher’s definition and views of the concept of sustainability and EfS, their experiences of working with EfS with practical examples, as well as any challenges they might have experienced to integrate EfS in preschool education. Conducted in Swedish, the interviews were audio recorded and fully transcribed by a professional transcriber. Data analysis Content analysis was undertaken to analyse the interview transcriptions to identify main contents of data and the messages (Cohen, Manion, & Morisson, 2011). The transcriptions were read and re-read in order to become thoroughly familiarized with the data and initial codes were noted concurrently. Any similarities, inconsistencies or contradictions in relation to what individual teachers informed, were noted for further exploration. In later stages of the analysis, some of the codes were modified while re-reading the transcriptions to ensure consistencies and coverage of the codes. Similar types of codes were categorized and from these categories major themes emerged. To ensure reliability, the coding started with a small sample of texts, which helps to make amendments of the coding and categorisation. This study followed the codes and guidelines of research ethics in relation to informed consents of the participants, maintenance of confidentiality, and the use of information for the study (Vetenskapsrådet, 2017).

    Expected Outcomes

    Regarding sustainability awareness, most of the teachers reported an Integrated views of sustainability. All participants were capable of describing sustainability using the three interconnected dimensions: the environmental, the social and the economic. In general, all teachers viewed sustainability as an abstract and complex concept, which can be difficult to make apprehensible in preschool’s educational activities. The preliminary findings of how the teachers integrate EfS in their daily pedagogical activities are presented under emerging themes below: Environmental dimensions on focus: Common activities in all preschools were recycling of plastic materials, reusing of milk packets and plastic corks, as well as composting of leftover food. Going out in the nature appeared to be a routine for all preschools. Concrete examples for young children: A few teachers argued that working with young children with EfS, requires efforts to concretize various activities at children’s developmental levels. In general the teachers were lacking concrete ways of working with EfS; especially to integrate the social and economic dimension. Internationalization and global perspectives: A couple of preschools started integrating global perspectives, e.g. one teacher mentioned that they had a collaboration with a preschool in Canada, and, according to her, it is important that children get a wider perspective about other countries, languages and cultures, which she viewed as a part of social sustainability. Some of the teachers connected their educational practices with the preschool curriculum highlighting the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) that address the ‘areas of critical importance for humanity and the planet’ (United Nations, 2015, p.1). To summarize the main findings, it seemed that the current TPD had, to greater extent, impact on transforming teachers’ views of sustainability into a holistic concept, and they were also struggling to transform their knowledge into concrete pedagogical activities. Positive and unexpected activities though evolved in relation to globalization.

  • 48. Brewer, T.S.
    et al.
    Åhäll, Karl-Inge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Darbyshire, D.P.F.
    Menuge, J.F.
    Geochemistry of late Mesoproterozoic volcanism in southwestern Scandinavia; implications for Sveconorwegian/Grenvillian plate tectonic models2002In: Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Brewer, T.S.
    et al.
    Åhäll, Karl-Inge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Menuge, J.F.
    Storey, C.D.
    Parrish, R.R.
    Bimodal volcanism in SW Norway: implications for recurring pre-Sveconorwegian continental-margin tectonism2004In: Precambrian Research, Vol. 134Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Broström, Linda
    Karlstad University.
    Möjligheten att servera klimatsmart mat i skolmåltidsverksamheter: Ett case från Karlstad kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Karlstad community has been working with the project ”Climate-smart food” where the community in the past years has been focusing on sustainability questions within school canteens. The concept ”One planet plate” has been tested for the first time in schools and Karlstad community was the first in Sweden to try it. This is a qualitative study, carried out by interviewing those four people responsible for catering at the selected schools within one planet plateand the food strategist of the community. The purpose of this study have been to examine how the chosen schools experience that the concept have worked on their working place and which opportunities and obstacles they find the climate smart work causes. The study have found that one planet platehas been perceived as a concrete and easy tool for those responsible of the cantines to use. However, it has been time consuming to create recipes whitin the limits of carbon emissions. To improve the concept they suggest to combine the meals with educational teaching concerning the climate impact of food, to create a better understanding for the students.

    In the climate-smart work various obstacles and opportunities were described and the most important concerns financial prerequisites and the power politicians have to affect. Also, to offer climate-smart food from an early age have been lifted as important to be able to change attitudes and knowledge that creates long-term sustainable habits.

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