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  • 1.
    Charlwood, A.
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, Loughborough .
    Forde, C.
    Grugulis, I.
    Hardy, K.
    Kirkpatrick, I.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Stuart, M.
    Clear, rigorous and relevant: publishing quantitative research articles in Work, employment and society2014In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 155-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ciupijus, Z.
    et al.
    Leeds university.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Forde, C.
    Leeds university.
    The worker branch in Yorkshire as a way of organising Polish migrants: exploring the process of carving out diasporic spaces within the trade union structure2018In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While post-2004 Polish labour migration to the UK was underpinned by diasporic spaces instrumental in facilitating social and labour market adjustments, the institutions of the host society such as trade unions also sought to establish links with migrants. The analysis of interactions between UK unions and EU migrants focused on organising strategies and specific provisions such as English language learning. However, the discussion tended to ignore the impacts of diasporic influences, from ethnicity and native languages of migrants to the outcomes of migrant worker organising. Drawing on ethnographic and qualitative data, this paper discusses how Polishness, in its ethnic, historic and linguistic manifestations, has affected the internal dynamics of a migrant worker organisation created by a major UK trade union. The explicit acknowledgement of diasporic particularities of post-2004 Polish migrants not only enabled labour organising activities but also shaped the migrant worker organisation from within. The strength of diasporic influences on one hand and the chosen form of union organising on the other created conditions for the development of diasporic spaces within the institution of the host society.

  • 3.
    Cook, Hugh
    et al.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Business, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Karlstad University.
    Forde, Christopher
    Univ Leeds, Sch Business, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    HRM and performance: the vulnerability of soft HRM practices during recession and retrenchment2016In: Human Resource Management Journal, ISSN 0954-5395, E-ISSN 1748-8583, ISSN 0954-5395, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 557-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This multi-method case explores how change in HRM implementation can impact performance metrics in a recessionary climate. Qualitative HR outcome data are mapped against financial metrics to explore adoption of hard-line HRM practices in a major UK retailer. Despite record profits throughout the recession, the organisation responded strategically to worsening conditions in the labour market, firstly to maintain operational flexibility, but then to opportunistically enlarge jobs and intensify work to help achieve immediate gains in financial metrics, including a gain of 37 per cent in profit per employee over 3 years. These gains were achieved by derailing commitment-based approaches to HRM, pointing towards the vulnerability of soft HRM systems during times of austerity or retrenchment.

  • 4.
    Cook, Hugh
    et al.
    Leeds University Business School.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Forde, Christopher
    Leeds University, Business School.
    Union partnership as a facilitator to HRM: Improving implementation through oppositional engagement2017In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a nuanced insight into the workplace level interactions between a union and HRM systems within a union-management partnership arrangement. Soft outcomes of HRM systems typically suffer from compromised implementation by managers struggling to balance competing operational priorities, but we show how a union limits this poor implementation. Qualitative and documentary data were retrieved from a major UK retailer and a trade union to examine how union activity interacts with HRM delivery. Firstly, union communication systems enhanced or replaced company systems of employee voice. Secondly, union activity policed management implementation of HRM practices to limit their subjugation to short-term productivity increases, improving outcomes for employees and the HRM system for the company. These outcomes were achieved through oppositional engagement within the context of partnership, which points towards a persisting and productive pluralism within the cooperative rhetoric.

  • 5.
    Cornelius, Nelarine
    et al.
    School of ManagementUniversity of BradfordBradfordUK.
    Lucio, Miguel Martinez
    Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester, UK.
    Wilson, Fiona
    The Business School, University of Glasgow, UK.
    Gagnon, Suzanne
    Desautels Faculty of Management, Canada.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, UK.
    Pezet, Eric
    France.
    Ethnicity, equality and voice: The ethics and politics of representation and participation in relation to equality and ethnicity2010In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 97, no 1 SUPPL, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Forde, Chris
    et al.
    University of Leeds, UK.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Cementing Skills: Training and Labour Use in UK Construction2004In: Human Resource Management Journal, ISSN 0954-5395, E-ISSN 1748-8583, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 74-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores questions of labour reproduction and skill development under different contract arrangements within the UK construction and civil engineering industry. The central concerns of the paper relate to the ways in which skills shortages within the sector have impacted upon recruitment practices, training provision and the use of contract alternatives in terms of both direct and non-standard labour. The argument primarily draws upon data from a national postal survey conducted in 2002, covering firms of all sizes within this key economic sector. The paper reveals some interesting findings regarding recruitment and training practices, which despite some encouraging headline figures on the existence of training reveals an over dependency on contingent labour and low levels of apprenticeships particularly amongst the numerically dominant small firms. This suggests that the recognised problems of labour shortages within the sector are ongoing and the aim of attracting new workers into the industry remains unrealised.

  • 7.
    Forde, Chris
    et al.
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    Concrete solutions?: Recruitment difficulties and casualisation in the UK construction industry2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been long-standing interest in issues around the nature of employment in construction. Historically, high levels of contingent labour use in the sector, including the use of subcontractors, agency workers and self-employed workers, have led to debate over the linkages between casualisation and labour reproduction. Recent skills shortages and recruitment difficulties in the sector have intensified this debate further. This chapter examines the relationship between recruitment difficulties, the use of contingent labour and skills reproduction in the construction sector. Drawing on results from an original survey of construction employers conducted in 2002, the chapter examines recruitment difficulties among construction employers, their responses to these difficulties and their use of contingent labour. The chapter also examines the relationship between contingent labour and training. The results of the survey point to overall labour shortages in the construction sector, regardless of contract type, and suggest that further casualisation of the employment relationship and the increased use of contingent labour in the UK construction industry offer no long-term solution to labour and skills shortages in the sector.

  • 8.
    Forde, Chris
    et al.
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    Employers’ use of low-skilled migrant workers: Assessing the implications for human resource management2009In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 437-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications for HRM of employers’ use of migrants in low-skilled work in a UK-based firm. Is the use of migrant workers for low skilled work associated with "soft" or "hard" approaches to HRM? How do employers recruit migrant workers? What career progression paths are available to these workers in firms? What are the expectations and aspirations of migrant workers? Design/methodology/approach - The paper examines these issues through a case study of a UK-based employer using large numbers of migrant workers. The paper draws on data from a survey of migrant workers in the firm conducted in 2006, and from interviews with managers and migrant workers within this firm, conducted between 2005 and 2006. Findings - The paper highlights the "hard" HRM strategy pursued by the company in order to maintain a competitive advantage based on low labour costs and substitutability of workers. A contradiction is noted between the desire of the firm to retain migrant workers with a strong work ethic and gain high commitment, on the one hand, and their continued attempt to compete on the basis on minimal labour costs and follow a "hard" approach to HRM, on the other. Practical implications - The paper points to the importance of analysis of employers’ use of migrants and the strategies they are adopting towards using these workers. Developing an understanding of these strategies is critical to understanding the social and economic experiences of migrant workers. Originality/value - The paper combines qualitative and quantitative research through an intensive case study to illuminate the implications for HRM of employers’ use of migrants in low-skilled jobs. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 9.
    Forde, Chris
    et al.
    Leeds University Business School.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Leeds University Business School.
    Getting the mix right?: The use of labour contract alternatives in UK construction2007In: Personnel review, ISSN 0048-3486, E-ISSN 1758-6933, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 549-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of contingent labour in the construction and civil engineering sector in the UK. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents the findings of a national postal survey of employment practices within the UK construction and civil engineering sector. The survey was conducted in 2002 and covered firms of all sizes within the sector. This technique has been supplemented with in-depth interviews to provide a deeper understanding of the issues raised. Findings - The paper finds that employers’ use of contingent labour is widespread and that in many cases, the use of contingent labour has increased over recent years. It is argued that recourse to the use of contingent labour may increasingly be a constrained choice for employers, reflecting overall labour shortages and recruitment difficulties in the sector. The paper also finds that the use of contingent labour contributes to skills shortages in the industry, with the scope of training offered to workers on these contract forms being limited in nature. Originality/value - The paper reveals the complex relationship between the use of contingent labour and ongoing skills shortages in the sector. The paper concludes that the cycle of turning to contingent labour in response to recruitment difficulties does not replenish the skill profile of the sector and therefore offers no long-term solution to the skills shortages within the construction industry. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 10.
    Forde, Chris
    et al.
    University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    The ethical agendas of employment agencies towards migrant workers in the UK: Deciphering the codes2010In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 97, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the connections between employment agencies, ethics and migrant workers. The article identifies three approaches adopted by agencies towards ethics and migrant workers, namely, ‘business case’, ‘minimal compliance’ and ‘social justice’ approaches. Through case studies of three agencies in the UK, the article explores the potential and limitations of each of these approaches for meeting the needs of migrant workers. The article points to the limitations of both the business case and ‘minimal compliance’ approaches, stemming from tensions between the attempt to put in place ethical approaches towards the employment of migrant workers and the imperatives of the competitive strategies being pursued by agencies. The article points to the potential for social enterprise agencies to effectively meet the needs of migrants. These agencies can focus on more than just the first transition of migrants into the labour market; can formalize transitions within the labour market and link people to jobs that are more appropriate to their skills and experience, as a means of preventing the perpetuation of skill underutilisation.

  • 11.
    Forde, Chris
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    University of Leeds.
    Ciupijus, Zinovijus
    University of Leeds.
    Alberti, Gabriella
    University of Leeds.
    Understanding the Connections between Temporary Employment Agencies and Migration2015In: International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, ISSN 0952-617X, E-ISSN 1875-838X, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 357-370, article id IJCL2015020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article looks at the relationship between employment agencies and migration. The connections between employment agencies and migrants have long been recognized. However, many have suggested that the relationship between agencies and migrants is changing. Drawing on four research studies by the authors, conducted between 2005 and 2012, the article looks at three key issues: the use of employment agencies by migrants; the strategies of employment agencies towards migrants; and the outcomes for migrants associated with working through employment agencies. The article finds that agencies are adapting their strategies towards migrants, but that the outcomes of these strategies are often negative for migrants.

  • 12.
    Forde, Chris
    et al.
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    Robinson, Andrew
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    Built on shifting sands: Changes in employers’ use of contingent labour in the UK construction sector2009In: Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0022-1856, E-ISSN 1472-9296, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 653-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been widespread interest across various national contexts in employers’ use of contingent forms of labour. The tendency to conflate different contract types into catch-all categories has increasingly given way to recognition of the differences between forms of labour. Despite this, systematic comparisons of employers’ attitudes to different forms of labour remain an underdeveloped area of research. Drawing on an original survey of the UK construction sector this paper offers new insight into employers’ attitudes to different forms of contingent labour and tracks changes in their use. Uniquely, the analysis of movement between different forms of labour goes beyond approaches that focus on the dichotomy between direct and contingent labour to trace a more complex pattern of movement between the different contingent forms. This more nuanced picture of changing patterns of employers’ use of contingent labour suggests an area for development in future research. © Industrial Relations Society of Australia SAGE Publications Ltd.

  • 13. Forde, Chris
    et al.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    University of Leeds.
    Robinson, Andrew
    Firm foundations? Contingent labour and employers' provision of training in the UK construction sector2008In: Industrial relations journal, ISSN 0019-8692, E-ISSN 1468-2338, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 370-391Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Forde, Chris
    et al.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    University of Leeds.
    Robinson, Andrew
    Help wanted? Employers' use of temporary agencies in the UK construction industry2008In: Employee relations, ISSN 0142-5455, E-ISSN 1758-7069, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 679-698Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gardiner, Jean
    et al.
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    Stuart, Mark
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    Forde, Chris
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    Greenwood, Ian
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    Perrett, Rob
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    Work-life balance and older workers: Employees’ perspectives on retirement transitions following redundancy2007In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 476-489Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gardiner, Jean
    et al.
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Stuart, Mark
    University of Leeds, UK.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Forde, Chris
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Greenwood, Ian
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Perrett, Rob
    University of Bradford, UK.
    Redundancy as a critical life event: Moving on from the Welsh steel industry through career change2009In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 727-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the process of moving on from redundancy in the Welsh steel industry among individuals seeking new careers. It identifies a spectrum of career change experience, ranging from those who had actively planned their career change, prior to the redundancies, to those ’at a career crossroads’, for whom there were tensions between future projects, present contingencies and past identities. It suggests that the process of moving on from redundancy can be better understood if we are able to identify, not just structural and cultural enablers and constraints but also the temporal dimensions of agency that facilitate or limit transformative action in the context of critical life events. Where individuals are located on the spectrum of career change experience will depend on the balance of enabling and constraining factors across the four aspects considered, namely temporal dimensions of agency, individuals’ biographical experience, structural and cultural contexts.

  • 17. Grugulis, Irena
    et al.
    Stuart, Mark
    Forde, Chris
    Kirkpatrick, Ian
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Tomlinson, Jennifer
    Writing articles for Work, Employment and Society: different voices, same language Foreward2012In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 5-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Holth, Line
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Bergman, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). University of Leeds.
    Gender, availability and dual emancipation in the Swedish ICT sector2017In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 230-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Set in the context of the Swedish state’s agenda of dual emancipation for women and men, the article shows how a global ICT consultancy company’s formal gender equality goal is undermined by competing demands. Employing the concept of availability, in preference to work–life balance, the research found women opted out of roles requiring high degrees of spatial and temporal availability for work, in favour of roles more easily combined with family responsibilities. Such choices led to poor career development, plus the loss of technological expertise and confidence.These outcomes were at odds with the company’s gender equality aims, as well as government objectives to make it easier for women and men to combine work and family, and increase the number of women within ICT.

  • 19.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Management’s moral relativity regarding personal activities on company time2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When people are at work they are expected to work and not spend time on other things. But people do not engage exclusively in work; they also engage in a variety of non-work related activities, which Eddy et al. (2010) choose to term ‘personal activities on company time’ or PACT. What personal activities people engage in is determined by what they consider urgent in one way or another, and what is possible to do at the specific workplace (Ivarsson & Larsson, forthcoming). So far, most studies on this subject have focused on subordinated personnel (Lim 2002) but mid- and top-level managers also engage in PACT (Schou Andreassen et al. 2014; Ivarsson & Larsson 2015). However, management attitudes to PACT vary significantly between their own activities and the behaviour of their subordinates. Based on in-depth interviews with 20 high-level managers from different sectors and industries in Sweden, the paper explores the differences in attitude and presentation of PACT.

    We explore the incidence and rationale presented for respective actions of workers and managers,    which betrays an underlying moralising theme around work ethics that echoes back through the historic concerns of the Labour Process debate. Since the days of Taylor (1911), management have moralized about the personality and the attitude among workers – their inherited laziness and their never-ending tendency to ‘soldier’ – which has led to a perceived need to keep on monitoring and controlling employees by various means. Employees who, in one way or another, withholds working capacity – for example by engagement in some non-work related activity – are believed to cause financial loss for the organization (Self & Self 2014) and are also believed to influence overall work ethic in a negative way (Kamp & Brooks 1991).

     

    From the data, managers engage quite extensively in personal activities on official work time. Even though employees and managers may have similar reasons for engagement in personal activities, the managers believe that there is a big difference between the two.  The managers’ general perception is that work time should be devoted only to work. They do not approve when an employee engage in any other activity than work; to engage is PACT is presented as “stealing” time, and indicative of a flawed work ethic. Nevertheless, when managers themselves engage quite extensively in personal activities on official work time, this is presented as a benefit of an inherently good work ethic, or “borrowing” time based on a capacity for compensatory calculation. Even in cases where a narrow band of legitimate PACT activities for workers were tolerated, this compared to managements’ lack of need to justify their engagement in a near limitless range of non-work activities. There has been a lot of focus on blurring of work and non-work roles for managers and the need for boundary management (Rothbard et al, 2005). The managers in this study presented the inversion of this logic with the assumption of a lack of competing needs for non-managerial workers and any blurring of the boundary being regarded as “soldiering”.

  • 20.
    Larsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Bergman, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Forde, Chris
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Robinson, Andrew
    Training in the Construction Sector: A Comparative Study of Sweden and the UK2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    MacKenzie, R.
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Lucio, M. M.
    The colonisation of employment regulation and industrial relations? Dynamics and developments over five decades of change2014In: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 189-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of regulation is central to industrial relations. Deregulation, re-regulation and the transfer of regulatory responsibilities have characterised five decades of reform projects. The concepts of negotiated' change and colonisation' are engaged as ways of understanding key moments of regulatory change in UK industrial relations since the 1960s. The stigmatising and undermining of trade unionism has been a key theme in modern British industrial relations. This paper explores five features of the way in which the regulatory spaces of industrial relations were colonised once the project of formalisation failed: strategies of marginalisation, strategies of containment, strategies of voice and legitimacy, the development of new expert knowledge and the rise of new actors and boundaries.

  • 22.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Leeds University Business school.
    From networks to hierarchies: The construction of a subcontracting regime in the irish telecommunications industry2008In: Organization Studies, ISSN 0170-8406, E-ISSN 1741-3044, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 867-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived displacement of bureaucracy by external market relationships through the use of subcontracting has brought about an increase in interest in inter-organizational relations. The development of such relationships can be a protracted process, characterized by tensions and contradictions. The article traces the development of subcontracting within Eircom, the Irish telecommunications provider, from its relatively ad hoc origins in the mid-1990s to the development of a far more sophisticated contracting regime by 2003. The article explores the relationship between internal and external organizational changes associated with the construction of the subcontracting regime and the development of inter-organizational relationships. The subcontracting regime was transformed from a reliance on a series of decentralized local networks of suppliers to a highly centralized arrangement that bore increasing semblance to a unitary hierarchy. The transactions costs implications of such developments are considered throughout. The dynamics of change in this case reflect an incremental learning process as the organization adapted to changes in its environment and the emergent limitations of existing practices. Trust played an important role in the mediation of the subcontract relationships; however, the development of trust-based relationships was not a linear process. © 2008 SAGE Publications.

  • 23.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Leeds University, UK.
    Subcontracting and the re-regulation of the employment relationship: A case study from the telecommunications industry2000In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 707-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study of the use of subcontracting within BT plc the UK’s largest telecommunications firm. The 1990s have witnessed significant quantitative and qualitative changes in the utilisation and management of subcontracting within BT. The deregulation, or rather the shift in regulation, of the employment relationship represented by movement from bureaucratic hierarchical forms of organisation to subcontracting introduces several sources of uncertainty into the process of ensuring an adequate supply of labour and inducing the desired contribution within production. This study examines whether the regulation of labour in terms of supply and performance can be reconciled through subcontracting mechanisms. In this case the experience of deregulation of the capital-labour relationship threw up unforeseen outcomes. The problems that arose from the reliance upon a labour source that was ostensibly beyond the control of the firm inspired initiatives that essentially represented the partial reregulation of the capital-labour relationship.

  • 24.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Leeds University, United Kingdom.
    The migration of bureaucracy: Contracting and the regulation of labour in the telecommunications industry2002In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 599-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of the reconfiguration of bureaucracy based on a case study of subcontracting within BT plc, the UK’s largest telecommunications firm. The 1990s witnessed significant quantitative and qualitative changes n the utilization and management of subcontracting. The expansion in the use of subcontractors in this period was paralleled by reforms to the processes of negotiating, administrating and monitoring contracts. This article traces these developments and analyses their implications. The continuing process of reform saw a significant redrawing of the boundaries of responsibility between the patron firm and its supplier, as discrete elements of the production process were transferred to the remit of subcontractors, This migration of responsibility was, however, predicated upon the exportation of bureaucracy, from the patron to the supplier; the relocation of the bureaucratic mechanisms appropriate to the management of the widening range of tasks, The movement towards an increased reliance on external sources of labour could ostensibly bring greater exposure to market imperatives, but it is argued that, contrary to me theme of dismantling hierarchical employment structures, these reforms represented the reconfiguration of the bureaucratic organization of production.

  • 25.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    Union responses to restructuring and the growth of contingent labour in the Irish telecommunications sector2009In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 539-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores union responses to subcontracting in the context of the Irish telecommunications sector. Through a longitudinal case study the development of strategy is traced over a number of years as the union moved away from a policy of exclusion towards one of engagement. As the findings show, a three-tiered approach brought successes in terms of the retention and recruitment of workers on non-standard contracts. Yet this brought tensions over the role of the union in the regulation of the subcontracting process. © The Author(s), 2009.

  • 26.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Why do contingent workers join a trade union?: Evidence from the irish telecommunications sector2010In: European journal of industrial relations, ISSN 0959-6801, E-ISSN 1461-7129, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 153-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The restructuring of Irish telecommunications brought major changes to employment in the sector, including increased use of contingent labour. The Communications Workers Union won bargaining recognition in the main subcontract supply firm.The recruitment of contingent workers brought new challenges in terms of reconciling the interests of members working on traditional employment contracts and those with a variety of contingent employment forms. Successful organizing campaigns also raised the questions: why do contingent workers join the union and what does union membership mean to them? These developments are set in the context of union responses to sectoral restructuring in other countries, and possible lessons are drawn for broader attempts by unions to recruit and represent contingent workers.

  • 27.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Forde, C.
    The Social and Economic Experiences of Asylum Seekers, Migrant Workers, Refugees and Overstayers: Report for the Investing in a Multicultural Barnsley Project2007Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Forde, C.
    Ciupijus, Z.
    Migrant Worker Research Project: Final Report for the Barnsley Migration Impact Fund Project2010Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Forde, Chris
    The myth of decentralization and the new labour market2006In: Employment Relations in a Changing Society: Assessing the post-fordism paradigm / [ed] Alonso, L. & Martinez Lucio, M., Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan , 2006, p. 69-85Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    Forde, Chris
    Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom.
    The rhetoric of the ’good worker’ versus the realities of employers’ use and the experiences of migrant workers2009In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 142-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines the attitudes and strategies of a UK based employer as they developed their use of migrant labour in the latest manifestation of a strategy that targeted groups of vulnerable workers with lower labour market power. Management’s celebration of the ’good worker’, based on the stereotyping of the perceived attributes of immigrant employees, resonated with the ’business case’ and ’resource based view’ debates within the human resource management literature.Yet terms and conditions of employment remained wedded to the bottom of the labour market. The article integrates analysis of the attitudes of employers with the views, experiences and aspirations of migrant workers. Micro level processes are also located in a wider analytical framework, incorporating the broader socio-economic context and key moments of regulatory intervention.

  • 31.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Forde, Chris
    University of Leeds.
    Ciupijus, Zinovijus
    University of Leeds.
    Networks of Support for New Migrant Communities: Institutional Goals versus Substantive Goals?2012In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 631-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the role of support mechanisms for new migrant communities provided by networks of statutory, third-sector and refugee community organisations. The article explores the dynamics of the relationships between support groups, with analysis located in the urban context of NorthTown. The findings point to the possibility of tension between migrant support groups where there is a perceived need to compete over resources or political influence. Moreover, it is argued that there is a risk that institutional goals of organisational sustainability may take precedence over substantive goals of support provision. The ability of support groups to assert agency in terms of strategic responses to structural constraints on sustainability is explored. It is argued that an organising logic based on the creation of a political community within the new migrant population can prove more sustainable than contingent communities based on commonalities of language or nationality.

  • 32.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Forde, Chris
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Ciupijus, Zinovious
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Networks of Support for New Migrant Communities: Institutional Goals versus Substantive Goals2012In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 631-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the role of support mechanisms for new migrant communities provided by networks of statutory, third sector and refugee community organisations. The article explores the dynamics of the relationships between support groups, with analysis located in the urban context of NorthTown. The findings point to the possibility of tension between migrant support groups where there is a perceived need to compete over resources or political influence.  Moreover, it is argued that there is a risk that institutional goals of organisational sustainability may take precedence over substantive goals of support provision. The ability of support groups to assert agency in terms of strategic responses to structural constraints on sustainability is explored. It is argued that an organising logic based on the creation of a political community within the new migrant population can prove more sustainable than contingent communities based on commonalities of language or nationality.

  • 33.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    Leeds University Business School, UK.
    Forde, Chris
    Leeds University Business School, UK.
    Robinson, Andrew
    Leeds University Business School, UK.
    Cook, Hugh
    Leeds University Business School, UK.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Bergman, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Contingent work in the UK and Sweden: evidence from the construction Industry2010In: Industrial relations journal, ISSN 0019-8692, E-ISSN 1468-2338, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 603-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the use of contingent forms of employment in two diverse country contexts—the UK and Sweden—and investigates the influence of changing regulatory and economic conditions over a period that covers the current economic downturn. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative data for the construction sector, the article addresses three questions. How do employers balance their flexibility preferences in the context of regulatory constraints? How has the global recession influenced employer behaviour? And to what extent can the Swedish experience be explained by convergence on other country models? While the UK employment model encourages employers to externalise the risk of unpredictable market conditions through the use of contingent contracts, the more supportive welfare regime in Sweden underpins a resilient preference of employers for open-ended employment contracts. Ongoing changes in labour market regulation pose challenges to the strongly regulated Swedish model, yet we find only a shared direction of travel with the UK rather than convergence in the use of contingent employment.

  • 34.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    Leeds university, UK.
    Lucio, M. M.
    The realities of regulatory change: Beyond the fetish of deregulation2005In: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, E-ISSN 1469-8684, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 499-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article argues that any discussion of regulatory change should be sensitive to the manner in which regulation was originally constructed and developed. Any change can only be understood by a mapping of the complex interrelation of spaces, spheres and actors of regulation. The act of regulatory change requires shifts and re-alignments across a wide range of fronts. This is because regulation involves alliances and linkages across a range of spaces and actors, contingent upon the peculiarities and limits of different states and their respective civil societies.The manner in which regulatory change may be prosecuted also belies any notion of unproblematic transfer of responsibilities between actors. Copyright © 2005 BSA Publications Ltd®.

  • 35.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Lucio, Miguel Martinez
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Regulation, migration and the implications for industrial relations2019In: Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0022-1856, E-ISSN 1472-9296, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 176-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The debate on migration has extended the scope of industrial relations research and brought questions of regulation to the centre. We suggest that there is a mutuality to the relationship between the debates around migration and regulation within the industrial relations literature: the study of migration has stimulated a new set of debates within industrial relations that allow us to reconsider issues of regulation; in turn, the study of regulation offers a useful perspective on issues relating to migration. The article applies an analytical framework based on the interplay of regulatory spaces and actors to the study of international migration. The framework offers a dynamic approach to mapping the wide range of actors involved in the regulation of migration and the boundaries between regulatory spaces, which may be fluid and contested. Through applying this framework, industrial relations issues relating to migration are located within a wider view of both regulation and the international movement of people.

  • 36.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Marks, A.
    Heriot-Watt University, UK.
    Older Workers and Occupational Identity in the Telecommunications Industry: Navigating Employment Transitions through the Life Course2018In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 39-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines the relationship between restructuring and work-based identity among older workers, exploring occupational identity, occupational community and their roles in navigating transitions in the life course. Based on working-life biographical interviews with late career and retired telecoms engineers, the article explores the role of occupational identity in dealing with change prior to and following the end of careers at BT, the UK’s national telecommunications provider. Restructuring and perpetual organizational change undermined key aspects of the engineering occupational identity, inspiring many to seek alternative employment outside BT. For older workers, some seeking bridge employment in the transition to retirement, the occupational community not only served as a mechanism for finding work but also provided a sustained collective identity resource. Distinctively, the research points to a dialectical relationship between occupational identity and the navigation of change as opposed to the former simply facilitating the latter. 

  • 37.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). University of Leeds, UK.
    Marks, Abigail
    Heriot Watt University, UK.
    Morgan, Kate
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Technology, affordances and occupational identity amongst older telecommunications engineers: from living machines to black-boxes2017In: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, E-ISSN 1469-8684, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 732-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the relationship between technology and occupational identity based on working-life biographical interviews with older telecommunications engineers. In the construction of their own working-life biographical narratives, participants attached great importance to the technology with which they worked. The article contends that workers’ relationship with technology can be more nuanced than either the sociology of technology literature or the sociology of work literature accommodates. Adopting the concept of affordances, it is argued that the physical nature of earlier electromechanical technology afforded engineers the opportunity to ‘fix’ things through the skilled application of tools and act as autonomous custodians of ‘living’ machines: factors that were inherent to their occupational identity. However, the change to digital technology denied the affordances to apply hands-on skill and undermined key elements of the engineering occupational identity. Rather than simply reflecting the nostalgic romanticizing of the past, the biographies captured deterioration in the material realities of work.

  • 38.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Martinez Lucio, Miguel
    Regulating work and employment internationally: The emergence of soft regulation2014In: International Human Resource Management: An Employment Relations Perspective / [ed] Martinez Lucio, M., London: Sage Publications, 2014, p. 238-254Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Martinez Lucio, Miguel
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Regulation, stability and change: Reflections on the UK and Sweden2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 7-19Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the impact of neo-liberal agendas, the issue of regulation remains central to our understanding of economic processes, and particularly employment. The concept of regulation is often reduced to a narrowly defined set of functions performed by the state. However, processes of regulation involve a much wider range of sites and actors, within and beyond the boundaries of the state. This paper presents a framework for the analysis of the panoply of regulatory actors and the complex relations between them, including the shifting boundaries between regulatory spaces. The paper concludes with some illustrative examples of shifting regulatory structures within Sweden.

  • 40.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    et al.
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Stuart, Mark
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Forde, Chris
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Greenwood, Ian
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Gardiner, Jean
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Perrett, Robert
    University of Bradford, UK.
    ‘All that is Solid?’: Class, Identity and the Maintenance of a Collective Orientation amongst Redundant Steel Workers2006In: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, E-ISSN 1469-8684, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 833-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the importance of class andcollectivism to personal identity, and the role this played during a period ofpersonal and collective crisis created by mass redundancy in the Welsh steelindustry. The research findings demonstrate the importance of occupationalidentity to individual and collective identity formation. The apparent desireto maintain this collective identity acted as a form of resistance to theincreased individualisation of the post-redundancy experience, but rather thanleading to excessive particularism, it served as mechanism through which classbased thinking and class identity were articulated. It is argued that thecontinued concern for class identity reflected efforts to avoid submergence inan existence akin to Beck’s (1992) vision of a class-free ‘individualisedsociety of employees’. These findings therefore challenge the notion of thepervasiveness of individualism and the dismissal of class and collectiveorientations as important influences on identity formation.

  • 41. Martinez Lucio, M
    et al.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    University of Leeds.
    Regulation and change in global employment relations2011In: International Human Resource Management / [ed] Harzing, A.W. & Pinnington, A., London: Sage Publications, 2011, p. 559-582Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42. Martinez Lucio, M.
    et al.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    University of Leeds.
    Regulation and Multinational Corporations: The Changing Context of Global Employment Relations2014In: International Human Resource Management / [ed] Harzing , A.W. & Pinnington, A., London: Sage Publications, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Martinez, Lucio M.
    et al.
    Bradford University, School of Management, Bradford, UK.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Leeds University, UK.
    ’Unstable boundaries?’ Evaluating the ’new regulation’ within employment relations2004In: Economy and Society, ISSN 0308-5147, E-ISSN 1469-5766, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 77-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ’emergence’ of the ’market’ as the basis of economic and political decision-making has become a main focus of debate within the social sciences since the late 1970s. Even while those opposing the growing centrality of neo-classical economics and market-oriented political discourses remain a significant academic constituency, within their ranks there has been a growing realization that regulatory mechanisms, and in particular the role of the state, have nevertheless been the subject of extensive changes. Alternative schools of thought have argued in terms of the way in which such mechanisms have been refashioned. Regulation has become, in the words of Regini and Majone, ’transferred’ and the ’boundaries’ between regulator and regulated ’changed’: the regulatory process has been seen to shift at the macro/national level and at the micro/enterprise level. While supporting the general argument that it is the boundaries of regulation which are to be discussed, not its presence, we shall nevertheless argue that these changes are, if anything, more contentious and that a set of ironies emerges which politicize regulation even further. © 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd.

  • 44.
    Martinez Lucio, Miguel
    et al.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    The state and the regulation of work and employment: theoretical contributions, forgotten lessons and new forms of engagement2017In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 28, no 21, p. 2983-3002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the work and employment literature there has been a tendency to conflate the concept of regulation with the legislative role of the state and the enforcement of rules through various state agencies. Yet there has been limited engagement with the question of the state and its role in more abstract terms. There has been a historic tendency to view the state as a coherent, unitary actor - a tendency repeated by various theoretical perspectives. More recently, work and employment debates on regulation have too often reduced the question of the state to a one dimensional focus on its various functions: the state as legislator; as employer; or in terms of its coercive apparatus. There has been relatively limited engagement with the role of the state in more conceptual terms. Drawing on contributions from adjacent disciplines, the paper argues that the role of the state needs to be addressed at various levels of abstraction - an approach that has been increasingly overlooked in work and employment debates. Understanding the role of the state and its regulatory function requires a nuanced analysis of the various spaces and actors involved the regulatory process. In turn, such analysis needs to be located in terms of broader socio-economic configurations so as to avoid a narrow focus on institutionalism, and a piecemeal, fragmented view of the state. While the paper draws primarily on the UK for illustration, the intention is that the argument has theoretical generalisability beyond this context.

  • 45.
    McLachlan, C. J.
    et al.
    University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Greenwood, I.
    University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    The Role of the Steelworker Occupational Community in the Internalization of Industrial Restructuring: The ‘Layering Up’ of Collective Proximal and Distal Experiences2019In: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, E-ISSN 1469-8684, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 916-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the relationship between occupational community and restructuring at a UK steelworks. Through historic and contemporary experiences, restructuring has become an internalized feature of the steelworker identity. Zittoun and Gillespie’s framework of proximal and distal experiences is adapted to analyse the internalization process. The article argues that experiential resources associated with restructuring are transmitted via the occupational community, forming a part of a collective memory of workplace change. These experiences relate to the historical precedence of restructuring, the role of trade unions in accepting the inevitability of downsizing and prior personal and vicarious experiences of redundancy. The findings build on debates around the determinants of an occupational community, highlighting the role of ‘marginality’ and how experiences of restructuring bind steelworkers to a broader community of fate.

  • 46. Stuart, M.
    et al.
    Forde, C.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    University of Leeds.
    Wallis, E
    An impact study on relocation, restructuring and the viability of the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund: The impact on employment, working conditions and regional development2007Report (Other academic)
  • 47. Stuart, M.
    et al.
    Grugulis, I.
    Tomlinson, J.
    Forde, C.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Reflections on work and employment into the 21st century: between equal rights, force decides2013In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 379-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this introductory article, the editors of Work, Employment and Society reflect on the journal's body of published work and present the main contributions of the 25-year anniversary issue. As a journal of record WES is now well established and offers extensive conceptual insights into, and empirical analysis of, contemporary trends and experiences of work, employment and unemployment. Yet academic scholarship should also aspire to comment, critique and counter; four themes are elaborated, with reference to the issue's contributions, to illustrate this: labour market change; work in the service sector; post-Fordism, disconnection and financialization; and moral economy and counter movements.

  • 48. Stuart, Mark
    et al.
    Grugulis, Irena
    Forde, Chris
    Kirkpatrick, Ian
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Tomlinson, Jennifer
    The more things change ... towards 25 years of Work, Employment and Society2011In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 197-201Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 48 of 48
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