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  • 1.
    Albinson, Karin
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Säg det tydligt!: Stil i text på webben2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    Write the most important things first in text that will be read by a scanning web user. This paper is based upon theories about

    – how we read

    – what style in texts is

    – how texts should be written for web pages

    Reading from computer screens is about 25 percent slower than reading from paper. This because screens

    – flicker

    – have lower resolution than paper

    All text with the purpose of being read from a screen should be adjusted to the reader’s physical condition. The theories above were studied and interviews were done to find out how text for web should be written. Three persons were interviewed. They answered questions about how they produce text to their web sites. And the conclusion was

    – write short and distinct

    – put the most important first

    – explain to the visitor to guide them correct

    – use comprehensive words

    – short sentences are better than longer

    – skip all unnecessarily

    – use objective language

    – do not think that the reader reads the whole text

    – split longer texts into multiple pages with hypertext links

    The interviewed peoples are

    – Swedish Rescue Services Agency’s web master

    – Big brother’s web editor in chief

    – Information design’s leader of projects

    This abstract can be read from a screen. If the whole paper should be read it should be printed first. The paper is not supposed to be read from a screen.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Klassisk medieanalys - nytt medium: En semiotisk analys av fyra tv-spel2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt by me to give the gaming medium the same kind of treatment as many other kinds of mediums before it I have chosen four games of two different genres for an analysis of their plot, characters, aesthetics and gameplay. The plot is summarized according to the rules for narrative storytelling and a semiotic approach is then used for finding things, signs, that are worth taking up for analysis in all four categories. Some comparisons are made between the games, foremost within the aesthetics and gameplay categories, first within genres and then between genres to find similarities and differences in the ways the game developers have chosen to challenge the player, make the games fun to play and present the games’ plot. The chosen games are Capcom’s Devil May Cry 3: Dante’s Awakening, Sony Computer Entertainment America’s God of War, Konami’s Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty and Ubisoft’s Splinter Cell: Chaos Theory. The results are comments by me on the signs deemed important enough within every category. The conclusion is made that the games, though different when representing the genre they belong to, have certain common signs that are traceable back to the arcade games of the old days.

  • 3.
    Apell, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Johansson, Josefin
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Den goda webbplatsen: – en undersökning om användbarhet med fokus på liseberg.se2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Usability is a way to study how good a website is which is what our research builds upon. On a mission from Liseberg our purpose is to find out if their website is good from a user’s perspective. Our way of carrying this out where grounded upon a qualitative study through observations and following interviews with a number of participants. By compositing tools of method we have started with the theories descriptions of usability tests and we have also used the theories to be able to reflect around and to understand the results from the tests. To be able to get the best use of the theories we have put together a frame with important concepts which describes usability in a structure and concrete way. These concepts works as a starting point of our data collection. In observations and the following interviews certain usability problems with appear. These results then are put to analysis based upon theories and our own understanding of the subject. To sum up a description of what should be reflected upon and changed on a website, with as an example, is presented. We want to show what makes the good website.

  • 4.
    Bergvall, Åke
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Mithander, Conny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Leffler, Yvonne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Berättelse i förvandling: Berättande i ett intermedialt och tvärvetenskapligt perspektiv2000Book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bjelvert, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Skolan och populärkulturen2006Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about popular culture in school. The investigation is based on interviews with eight students and five teachers working in elementary school in central Sweden.

    The aim with this report is to gain an understanding of what the teachers’ opinions are regarding popular culture in school, how they work with it and what they think about working with it. I try to find out whether working with popular culture in school affects the students’ attitude towards school and if it makes learning easier for them.

    The literature review shows what earlier studies have shown regarding popular culture, the attitudes towards it, its history in school and in which way one should work with it in school and why.

    The result of my own study shows that the teachers agree that the popular culture in school is important because of how the society today is characterized and how it is run by the media and technology.

    Both teachers and students find it difficult to make popular culture a part of school since they see it as a subject of its own. However, the results show that popular culture should be integrated in school and that it ought to be used as a complement to what is being taught, as something to proceed from, not something to replace another subject with.

  • 6.
    Bladh, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Det kommunicerande konstmuseet: En litteraturstudie om hur konstmuseer bör kommunicera med sina besökare2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhället förändras och moderniseras hela tiden. Det ställs allt högre krav på bättre kommunikation hos organisationer och institutioner i samhället. Samtidigt står konstmuseet kvar som evig institution och kommunicerar dåligt eller överhuvudtaget inte alls. Hur ska därför konstmuseer kommunicera med sina besökare för att förmedla kunskap om sina samlingar? Utifrån dessa frågor och funderingar har uppsatsens bakgrund växt fram.

    Uppsatsen är en teoretisk litteraturstudie med syftet att undersöka hur forskare och yrkesmän anser att konstmuseer bör kommunicera med sina besökare, samt hur denna kommunikation ska översättas i praktiken. Syftet inbegriper även att undersöka hur dessa författare ser på makt och kunskap. Som teoretiskt perspektiv i uppsatsen används forskaren Eilean Hooper-Greenhills teorier kring museikommunikation. Hennes teorier influeras i sin tur av andras teorier kring makt, kunskap, kommunikation och lärande. Dessa teorier har även använts som teoretiskt perspektiv i uppsatsen. Resultaten har visat skilda syner på kommunikation och kunskap. Dock kan det överlag sägas att den kommunikation som författarna föreslår närmar sig kommunikationssynen där sändare och mottagare tillsammans skapar verkligheten. Författarna hävdar därför att konstmuseer måste ta hänsyn till vilka besökarna är, samt att de som individer skapar konstverkens betydelser. Författarna menar även utifrån sin kunskapssyn att konstmuseet innehar makt i utformandet av berättelserna och konstutställningarna. Därmed måste konstmuseet vara medvetet om den makt det har då det utformar sina utställningar. Analysen visar även att den kommunikation som de undersökta författarna förespråkar överlag liknar Hooper-Greenhills teorier om museikommunikation. Dock med ett undantag från en författare som argumenterar för den kommunikationsform som Hooper-Greenhill kritiserar.

  • 7.
    Brask, Elin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Jakobsson, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Med Trust i Fokus: en undersökning om information i samband med Uddeholms marknadsföring2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Colin, Nathalie
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    English and Swedish Animal Idioms: A Study of Correspondence and Variation in Content and Expression2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Idioms are found in every language and learning them is an important aspect of the mastery of a language. The English language is no exception as it contains a large number of idioms, which are extensively used. However, because of their rather rigid structure and quite unpredictable meaning, idioms are often considered difficult to learn. Although little research has been done to date on the nature of idioms as well as how they are used, a better understanding of variations in idioms can nevertheless be acquired by looking at some theories and thoughts about their use and their structure.

    The aim of this paper is to examine a number of animal idioms, focusing primarily on English idioms and the similarities and differences found in equivalent Swedish idioms, even when the Swedish idioms do not contain an animal. Two types of studies are presented. In the first one, the English and Swedish animal idioms collected are grouped into four categories. The results of such a categorization show that half of the English animal idioms found have an equivalent in Swedish containing an animal. In the second study, the content, structure, wording, semantics and metaphorical meaning of the animal idioms are analysed and compared. The results indicate that the Swedish animal idioms that correspond to the English animal idioms have, for the most part, the same structures and similar variations in degree of literalness, fixity, manipulation and transformation. Furthermore, the use of metaphor, personification and simile appears to be common both in English and Swedish animal idioms. The role of context and literal and figurative translation are also addressed in this study.

  • 9.
    Dornerus, Emma
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Breaking maxims in conversation: A comparative study of how scriptwriters break maxims in Desperate Housewives and That 70’s Show2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When we converse we constantly fail to observe the rules of conversation in order to simplify and make dialogues more effective. The scriptwriters who work with TV shows use non-observances of maxims in order to evoke different feelings from their viewers. The aim of this paper was to investigate how frequently non-observances of maxims occurred in the TV shows Desperate Housewives and That 70’s Show. I examined where and why they were used as well as how often flouting was used compared to violations. The base of the study was a drama and a comedy show.

    Research has shown that the maxim of relevance is most frequently used to create different comical or dramatic situations. The scriptwriters have their characters ignore what is relevant to the situations in order to make them come off as flustered, odd and stupid in humorous situations and as mysterious, cowardly, respectful or bold in dramatic situations. Also research shows that flouting occurs more frequently than violations when it comes to breaking maxims. Violations occur most often with the maxim of quality when the characters lie to mislead in order to direct blame away from him/herself. In Conclusion, this investigation has shown that non-observances of maxims are important for scriptwriters in order to create humorous and dramatic situations in verbal interaction.

  • 10.
    Ericsson, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Bertil Ludvigsson - Ett liv med bilder: En studie av en fotografs arbete2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Evertson, Pär
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Att läsa mellan raderna: Om de svarta hålen och deras funktion i P O Enquists Kapten Nemos bibliotek2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Forsberg, Gunnel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Grenholm, Cristina
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Att sätta genusrelationer i rörelse2005In: ...och likväl rör det sig: Genusrelationer i förändring / [ed] Gunnel Forsberg & Cristina Grenholm, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2005, 221-228 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln reflekterar vi över likheter mellan kampen för en heliocentrisk världsbild och kampen för jämställdhet. Några generella slutsatser dras från forskningsprogrammet Genusrelationer i rörelse och begreppet mångvetenskap belyses i det sammanhanget. Slutligen konstaterar vi att nya forskningsfrågor måste ställas, då schabloner krackelerar

  • 13.
    Forssten, Johan
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Say it loud, I'm black and I'm proud: En presentation av psykotronisk film, behandling av kultfrågan, samt det konkreta exemplet Blaxplotation med full historik1999Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en historisk översikt om blaxplotation (black explotation) genren. Presentationen av genren kommer att utgå från en personlig teori om kultbegreppet döpt till ”filmen som en identitetsfaktor”, samt att genren är underordnad termen psykotronisk film. Detta kommer att visa att Blaxplotation spelade en viktig roll I afroamerikanernas kamp för en erkänd kulturell identitet. Delsyften av den totala studien är en presentation och definition av termen psykotronisk film samt en genomgång och en begreppsbestämning av den litet oklara beteckningen kult.

  • 14.
    Frederiksen, Maria
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Svenne och Amal: Skönlitterära utgångspunkter för etiska samtal i skolan2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har romanerna Svenne av Per Nilsson och Ser mitt huvud tjockt ut i den här? av Randa Abdel- Fattah analyserats. Syftet var att undersöka hur verken behandlar fördomar och främlingsfientlighet samt att utreda deras lämplighet i ett skolsammanhang där man diskuterar dessa frågor. Utgångspunkten för studien var att läsning av skönlitteratur är bra för att föra fram moraliska frågor till diskussion i klassrummet och för att främja förståelse för olika människor. Läroplanerna är tydliga med att bekämpning av främlingsfientlighet är viktigt i skolans alla ämnen. Därför borde läsning och diskussioner av böcker med detta tema starkt kunna motiveras i svenskundervisningen.

    Analysen visar att moralen som förmedlas i Svenne är oklar och romanen kräver kritisk läsning medan det i Ser mitt huvud tjockt ut i den här? görs mer tydliga ställningstaganden. Resultatet tyder på att den valda litteraturen lämpar sig bra för undervisning. Svenne passar för moraliska diskussioner eftersom den är mångbottnad och fordrar aktiva ställningstaganden av läsaren. Ser mitt huvud tjockt ut i den här? fungerar bra för att få inlevelse och förståelse för hur människor från olika religioner kan leva samt för att främja elevers läslust genom att låta dem läsa berättelser med teman som rör deras verklighet.

  • 15.
    Gard, Malin
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Datorn i bildundervisning: En studie på tre elevgrupper med fokus på samarbetetIndependent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to carry out and evaluate a pedagogic ICT-project, where the computer was implemented in art class. Focus was on the consequences of collaboration and also on the students’ understanding of their own performance, compared to techniques in traditional art class.

    The study was qualitative and began with studies in literature. The contents of the literature are the foundation of the discussion, especially theories concerning the learning process, IT and computer-based learning. In the project, three different groups of students from upper secondary school attended and they where given tasks to solve in the image editing program Paint Shop Pro. The students were observed as well as interviewed and they also answered a questionnaire both before and after the project was carried out.

    IT and computer-based learning is a complex topic. This study shows that it is not easy to draw conclusions on how computers should be used in learning situations, as many researchers have discovered before. This study also shows that computerized art-teaching often will get a positive reaction from the students.

    Before and during the study, there were problems with the booking of computer classrooms and the access to relevant computer programs. This probably derives from economical aspects which according to previous research is a common problem. Some researchers imply that teachers without the “right” knowledge should not be afraid to use the technique in their teaching. This is contradicted by this study, based on some students’ lack of basic computer knowledge; which makes these students in need of a competent teacher.

    Through this study I have found that it can be hard to accomplish a propitious collaboration when the computer is implemented in art class. The concept of collaboration is complex; it seems not to have a universal meaning for the students. This and the fact that the tasks might not have been encouraging collaboration might be reasons why propitious collaborations were not accomplished. This in itself has affected the study in a way that has made it impossible to draw any conclusions on whether collaboration is propitious for the implementing of computers in the art class or not. The questionnaires, interviews as well as the observations has shown that the students who solved the tasks by themselves were more positive to computerized art-teaching than the students who had been working in pairs. Even though it is unclear if the reason is the actual individual solving of the tasks, because these students were according to the opening questionnaire more positive from the beginning. The implementing of computers can further be seen as positive for students’ understanding of their own performance in the art class. This conclusion cannot be seen as general because some students imply the opposite.

    Through this study I consider myself to have contributed to the public debate regarding ICT and education, and specifically in two areas; “What does the collaboration look like during computerized teaching; when and why does the propitious collaboration take place?” and “The importance of teachers’ knowledge and interest when using computerized teaching”

    Research should in the future be done on how to accomplish collaboration and how to use the implementing of computers in art class to strengthen the students who believe they are low performers.

  • 16.
    Granander, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Kallhagen, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Internkommunikation vid förändringsarbete: en studie av internkommunikationen vid omlokaliseringen av Konsumentverket2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this essay is to through theories about internal communication, channels to communicate through and change management study how these can be related to the processes at the Swedish Consumer Agency due to its future relocation. The main question within this essay is therefore:

    - How has the internal communication and the change management at the Swedish Consumer Agency developed in comparison with the prescribed theories?

    This essay is divided into three different parts (ideal, reality, ideal/reality) which can be derived to the essays theory, result and analysis chapters. The theories are the ideal while the result describes the internal communication and the change management during the process (the reality). In the analysis chapter, the ideal and the reality are compared to distinguish how the reality has been working in comparison to the ideal.

    The internal communication has mainly been distinguished through the authority’s intranet and the information communicated has comparatively been fast, open, objective and reliable. One of the prerequisites for this is that the authority has been permeated by clear goals and visions. All in all the result shows that the internal communication and the change management have been successful but some flaws have been detected. One of the reasons for this might be that the authority and its co-workers have been exposed in the process due to the fact that it has been enforced and because of its extent.

  • 17.
    Grenholm, Cristina
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    A Theologian and Feminist Responds2000In: Reading Israel in Romans: legitimacy and plausibility of divergent interpretations, Harrisburg: Trinity Press International , 2000, 105-123 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can a feminist adopt Abraham as "father of us all"? The article adresses this theme of Paul's epistle to the Romans in a response to several articles

  • 18.
    Grenholm, Cristina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Patte, Daniel
    Choices of Interpretations: Regarding Gender and the Authority of Romans2005In: Gender, tradition and romans: shared ground, uncertain borders / [ed] Cristina Grenholm & Daniel Patte, New York: T&T Clark, 2005, 181-191 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Gunnarsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Le vin comme thème dans Gargantua de Francois Rabelais2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Gustafson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Hur ser män på kvinnliga karaktärer i dataspel?: En kvalitativ intervjuundersökning2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My choice of topic for this essay is the habits of television and computer gaming among young men; mostly their opinion of male and female objectives. My vision of this, being a woman, I often think of the possibilities men have of choosing games where the female characters, in my opinion, often are exposed in a degrading way. To my help I have earlier works on the topic by media scientist Mary Flanagan as the leading authority. She writes much of the character of Lara Croft, and the way she could be an icon for the computer gaming girls of today, despite she is having a stereotypical body shape. I even want to briefly share my thoughts of the always imminent discussion about media panicking; and whether gaming giving the players positive or negative influences. To conclude on this topic, I am going to do a qualitative interview with six young males, on their perspective of male / female issues in gaming, but even look at the way said males practising gaming; hereby trying to implement earlier science on today’s computer gamers.

  • 21.
    Hedin, Jennie
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Vuxen i lagens mening: bakomliggande teorier, idéer och resonemang2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the century 18/1900 Swedish law looked upon young people as being adults at about the age of 15. At 15, the young person had left school, had his first employment and provided for himself and also had been confirmed to full membership of the Swedish State Church. Thus he was to be considered an adult and responsible for his actions. Parents, society/school and Church had done what was expected of them and now it was up to the 15-years old to live according to the laws and to be punished if the laws were broken. Over the following hundred years, at the time of the millennium, Swedish society changed a lot. So the laws did not and still a young person of 15 is considered an adult in the eye of the Swedish law. This paper looks upon the ideas that the law was based on at the turn of the century 18/1900 and the ideas that are put forward by Swedish courts today. The law has not changed, but today Swedish young people leave school between the ages of 19-25, and find their first employment even later. The paper gives the historical background and looks at the underlying ideas of adulthood. How people think and what is considered being important in defining aduldthood has not changed much over those hundred years. In deciding if a person could pass as an adult, the Swedish law still use the same premisses today as it did a hundred years ago. As these premissies and ideas are the same, though society has changed, you can’t today be considered an adult until in your twenties.

  • 22.
    Hjalmarsson, Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT. Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Interkulturell kommunikation i en kinesisk kontext: En undersökning av svenska och kinesiska företagsrepresentanters upplevelser av det interkulturella mötet. Ett teoretiskt perspektiv på en praktisk utmaning.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I have through a preparatory field survey; literature review and survey interviews examined Swedish and Chinese business representatives’ experiences from the intercultural meeting, based on Swedish companies operating on the Chinese market. It was the purpose of the essay and I have started from the question: How has Swedish and Chinese business representatives experienced the intercultural meeting? Underlying questions are:

    • What cultural factors create the Chinese communication style?
    • How does Swedish business representatives experience the intercultural meeting with the Chinese market?
    • How does Chinese business representatives experience the intercultural meeting with Swedish business representatives?
    • Which of the study presented factors could facilitate the intercultural meeting of the Swedes continued business in China?

    This is done by identifying differences between Swedish and Chinese culture with the aim to explain underlying factors to why we perceive each other as we do, and through this highlight a selection of opportunities and pitfalls that the Chinese culture may have on Swedish companies operating on the Chinese market. The theoretical framework consists of theories in public relations, and intercultural communications. The literature review focuses on factors such as mianzi, lian, guanxi and philosophical influences that have an impact on the communication pattern. I have used examples from Swedish and international companies that have adapted their public relations work for the Chinese context to create an additional dimension. Moreover, the respondents’ answers are elucidated in the light of Hofstede’s dimensions of collectivism, power distance, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, time orientation and Halls’s theory of low and high context.

    My conclusion is that intercultural communicative competence, rather are social skills and understanding, which is based on responsiveness, humility, self-awareness and self-knowledge – keywords in all aspects of communication whether it is intra- or intercultural such. Differences in cultures should not be exaggerated since people are fundamentally quite similar. The majority of the Swedish and Chinese respondents have never encountered any major problems due to cultural differences. Sweden and China are not as far apart as much literature insinuates. In the light of the preparatory field survey, survey interviews and some literature I venture to say that much of the literature is characterized by an almost sensational journalistic approach with dualistic perspective exotifying and mystifying China.



    Seeing is believing! We do not see China as it actually is, but as we hope, believe and fear it is.

    Frédèric Cho, Senior Adviser, Handelsbanken Capital Markets


  • 23.
    Hulterström, Terése
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Oral Feedback: Students' Reactions and Opinions2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden we come in contact with the English language almost daily; in television shows, radio commercials and at work. English is also mandatory in the Swedish curriculum; therefore it is important that the students learn as much as possible in school, to be able to use English in their daily life. Teachers use different methods to help students acquire the tools needed to learn English, or any other subject for that matter. One method is oral feedback, which is used to immediately encourage students or correct them when making an error. My aim in this study is therefore to investigate if students find oral feedback in the classroom valuable and if not, how they would like it to be changed. To investigate this I handed out a questionnaire to five classes. The questions were divided up into three categories: if the students had noticed oral feedback being given to them, what their experiences of oral feedback were and how they would like the feedback to be delivered. I also made observations and recorded three classes. The results of this investigation showed that the students were positive to oral feedback in the classroom. Most of the students had noticed oral feedback being given to them, and the teachers had mostly corrected the students’ grammar and pronunciation. These were also the areas where the students felt they had developed the most from oral feedback. In the questionnaire the students pointed out that they wanted the feedback to be delivered privately and that the teachers have to be careful how they give the feedback, they have to always remember to give positive feedback as well as corrective feedback.

  • 24.
    Hägg, Elinor
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Virtuell mobbning: Mobbning bland ungdomar genom ny teknik2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to draw attention to a rather new phenomena, virtual bullying amongst young people. Bullying has been known for a long time but today, bullying has found new ways of expression. New technology, which includes the Internet and cell phones, has given the bullies new weapons to use in their bullying.

    The study I have done has been qualitative and contained interviews. Represents from two communities, Playahead and LunarStorm, and two organisations, BRIS and Friends, all together five persons (two persons from LunarStorm) have been interviewed and had the opportunity to tell me their view on virtual bullying.

    The results show that young people see the new technologies as a valuable prolongation of their reality that they won’t give up if they don’t need to. I have also discovered that the young people hide behind something they think is anonymity. When you bully on the Internet for example, you can choose to be anonymous to the ones you bully but you aren’t anonymous to everyone. The Internet-page owners know who the bully is and can trace IP-numbers and confront the bullies.

    Something my study also has shown is how important it is that adults know what their kids do on the Internet and on their cell phones. They aren’t aware of that their son or daughter can just as well get in trouble at home as out on the town a Friday night. Some future research I would find interesting is how bullying changes and adapts to new environments and what a preventive work against virtual bullying could look like.

  • 25.
    Jansson, Petra
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Learning by Doing: Can Students Become More Proficient in Grammar Through Feedback by Underlining?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to investigate if students could become more proficient in their grammatical skills through feedback by underlining. The focus is on the problems students have with verbs when they learn English as a foreign language. 16 students from two different classes participated in the investigation. Eight of the students were interviewed on two occasions. They were shown essays they had written during the fall term of 2005. The teacher had underlined the errors they had made. During the interviews the students were asked to correct and explain the errors. The other eight students served as a control group since it could be suspected that the interviews might have an impact on the students’ performance.

    The results of this paper show that the students who were interviewed were able to correct most of the errors that had been underlined. The students in this group also seemed to improve more than the control group, but the results of this investigation are inconclusive, since the total number of errors made was fairly small. Therefore, it is difficult to determine how much the students improved their proficiency in English grammar.

  • 26.
    Johansson, Richard
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Österman, Ann
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Idrottslärares uppfattningar om medier, påverkan och idrottsintresse bland högstadielever2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    The main purpose of this essay is to examine if media-sport influence pupils in their physical education and if the teachers understands it. At the same time the aim has also been to investigate how the teachers can get along with the media influence in their teaching. We have also investigated what teachers in physical education think about the curriculum and if there is space for a teaching method that respect the pupils will.

    The essay is an empirical qualitative study built on open-ended interviews with 3 respondents from two schools in the county of Värmland, Sweden. The range of qualified teacher is restricted at this school. We asked 5 teachers to join, but only 3 were accepting to join our study. Because there was not much time left of the school term we had to get started with the interviews as soon as possible. But first of all we had to make an extensive litterateur study. Not much literature is written about our subject. After that we made the interviews and transcript them into our paper.

    This qualitative study shows that

    - The main result of the research is that media influences pupils. Especially in physical education.

    - The teachers are trying to satisfy the pupil’s wishes. Though it is hard for the teachers to do this because of deficient resources.

    - The environment around the school is also important for the teachers. But if the school can’t satisfy the pupils, the teachers recommend them to join their local sport society.

    Keywords: Media influence, Health, Physical education

  • 27.
    Karlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Svensson, Helena
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Nyhetsanvändning på Karlstads Universitet: -En studie av vilka nyhetsmedier som är mest använda och har högst förtroende bland studenterna på Karlstads Universitet2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with the subject of the use of news medium amongst the students in

    Karlstads University. The presentation of the problem is about illustrating the or those

    medium that is the most used amongst the students, and also which one, ore which ones

    of the news medium the students puts largest trust in. This subject was chosen with the

    purpose to illuminate patterns and attitudes of and to news medium, to make it easier

    for eventual research in the future to connect these patterns and attitudes with the

    participation in political elections. The subject in question is interesting because of the

    fact that the news medium is one of the largest sources of information for the citizens

    knowledge’s about the society, and the citizen’s attitude to the news medium might

    possibly have the ability to affect people’s commitment in politics. The methods that

    have been used are quantitative methods, partly in the way the data has been collected,

    which has been done through a questionnaire and a quantitative analysis of those data,

    and also through qualitative methods as an interview in depth, and a qualitative analysis

    of that. The results of the analyses did partly square with those theories that have been

    laid as a ground for the analysis’s, which dealt with the subjects of the medium role in

    the democratic society and the news medium today and also the trust in medium. The

    results showed that those medium that has high trust amongst the students are those

    who are classified as more “serious” for example the news within public service and

    morning papers. Those are not yet the medium that are used in first place by the

    students with an exception to television, where papers on the Internet and free papers

    are those medium that the students use most. The conclusion of this is that the

    economical aspect and the access of different medium plays a big part in the use of

    medium as a student.

  • 28.
    Klaxman, Frida
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Rapport och Nyheterna: - innehållsanalys av deras gemensamma nyheter2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate contents in the news in order to search for similarities between the two television news reports, Rapport and Nyheterna. The news features that I examined in my investigation were broadcast in April and May 2006.

    SVT and TV4 are two Television channels both belonging to the analogue television network in Sweden, which means that they reach out to almost the whole country. Hence I thought it was interesting to investigate their reports on similar news.

    The question:

    - Which are the similarities and differences between how the two programmes describe their reporting on similar news?

    When I put together the information from the two programmes in the schedule I based my analysis on the following questions: topic, place, length, type of reporting and per-sons/sources.

    The method for this investigation is a quantitative content analysis. However, some part of the collection of information and description/interpretation of the material is qualita-tive.

    Rapport and Nyheterna had an average of 15 similar news features per week, of which foreign news dominated. During the three weeks the investigation took place Rapport and Nyheterna had in total 46 similar news features. In addition to foreign news political and crime news dominated. The news broadcast at Channel 4 has more in common with Rapport rather than the other way round. Rapports consignments are in addition to this always longer compared to Nyheternas.

  • 29.
    Kämpenberg, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Edna’s Failure to Find Her Female Role in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In The Awakening we meet Edna, a woman in search of her female identity. She is uncomfortable in her role as the “patriarchal woman” and has trouble becoming either a “modern woman” or an “emancipated woman” To fully understand Edna’s search one must understand the patriarchal society in Chopin’s works and what it means to internalize this system. Edna searches for a different female role than that of the “patriarchal woman” but she has problems internalizing any one of the roles due to her previous choices, current social position and lack of support in her quest. This essay explores what these previous choices are and why they have placed her in her current position. She has a lack of support, which is crucial if she is to break out of her current female position. Edna’s realization that she cannot obtain a full acceptance in either one of these three female roles finally led to her choosing suicide. This essay also explores why she chooses this final way to resolve her problem. Critics have said that the suicide is not in tune with the rest of the novel, but I will in contrast show how the ending is indeed very much in tune with Chopin’s portrayal of Edna. The confusion that Chopin shows in Edna’s character throughout the novel explains why Edna in the end takes her own life. Our protagonist is a woman who searches for an identity that she cannot find due to choices she has already made and a society which she cannot change, and in that light suicide is a viable alternative.

  • 30.
    Larnemark, Josefin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Virkki Björnberg, Sara
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Från misstanke till dom: En analys av Aftonbladets och Expressens skildringar av Anna Lindhs mördare2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish foreign minister Anna Lindh was murdered on September 10 2003. The police pursuit for the man that murdered her was initiated immediately. Two weeks later, the police arrested the 24-year-old man that six month later would be sentenced to imprisonment for life for the murder of Anna Lindh. The main purpose of this essay is to examine how the man that murdered Anna Lindh was described in Aftonbladet and Expressen from the time of his arrest to the sentence of guilty. One part of the purpose of this essay is also to inquire how the Swedish evening press paid regard to the ethical publicity rules in their descriptions. Five articles from every newspaper based on five important dates during this period were chosen. These ten articles were then analyzed by a qualitative dialogical text analysis with the purpose to study how the texts are intertextual related to each other.

    The analysis showed that the journalists had difficulties in paying consideration to the ethical publicity rules in their descriptions of the murderer of Anna Lindh. Aftonbladet’s and Expressen’s portrayals of the 24-year-old man didn’t change much over time. He was described as a mental instable and violent man in every article. It didn’t occur any obvious distinctions between Aftonbladet’s and Expressen’s descriptions which indicate that the newspapers within the genre evening press constitute a fairly homogeneous news institution. The texts related to each other by confirming and strengthening previous statements. The journalists were able to, by recontextualising a prior assertion, use the earlier articles as a basis and broaden the context within the discourse.

  • 31.
    Larsson, Christina
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    En lyster och lustiger dans: Studie av dansmotivet i Gustaf Frödings lyriska diktning2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har i min uppsats gjort en studie av dansmotivet i Gustaf Frödings lyriska diktning. Det visar sig att motivet oftast utmärks av en positiv laddning. Glädje och lekfullhet förknippas gång på gång med dans i Fröding dikter, och dansen har även ett nära förhållande till musik, fest och lek. Just glädjen kan sägas vara signifikativt för dansmotivet i stort, som med enbart några få undantag kopplas till lyckliga tilldragelser.

    Egenskapen att kunna dansa förefaller vara något som Gustaf Fröding värderade högt, vilket jag pekat på genom att åskådliggöra hur skalden använder sig av dansen som ett karaktäriserande drag hos hans fiktiva personer. Det är dock inte enbart människor som dansar i Frödings dikter, utan i stort sett allt i universum kan få denna egenskap. Här kläder sig emellanåt naturen i mänsklig gestalt och rör sig som i dans; stjärnor och olika vattendrag lika väl som våren. Hos Fröding tycks allt som rör sig med en bestämd växling kunna dansa, vilket för tanken till den antika idén om den kosmiska dansen.

    Det är vidare vanligt att skalden använder sig av motivet som ett slags sexuellt förspel, eller åtminstone som något som förknippas med erotik, sensualism eller kärlek. Även i detta sammanhang kan motivet kopplas till glädje, men jag har också visat att vissa moraliska synpunkter får komma till uttryck i några av dessa dikter. Det verkar dock inte som om skalden själv skulle ha tillhört den skara som fördömde den ”erotiska dansen”.

    Slutligen har jag gjort en näranalys av två av Frödings dansdikter. I ”Gudarne dansa” har jag betonat hur den byggs upp av antiteser, där dans blir en lösning på de motsättningar som dikten bygger på. Här återfinns influenser från Nietzsche, som också satte dansen högt. Det utmärkande draget kring motivet i denna dikt är annars den glädje i vilken gudarna dansar. I ”Balen” har jag bland annat pekat på det faktum att dikten har ett sådant utmärkande och varierat dansmotiv, där dansbegreppets tre olika former återfinns. En del av analysen har ägnats åt bildspråket som kretsar kring vatten, vilket i likhet med dans kopplas till rörelse. Jag har även redovisat för den danslika rytmen i vissa av diktens partier.

  • 32.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    skriva och samtala om skönlitteratur: två olika upplevelser?2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Malmsjö, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Karlsson, Frida
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Att sälja ett beteende: En undersökning av en social marknadsföringskampanj2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    Communication and information has become a large industry in today’s society. More and more organisations use these means as tools of influence. Non-profit organization’s campaigns, which aim to change a behavior, often have a political responsibility and it is therefore important that these are carefully planned and carried through. The purpose of this essay is to describe how a social marketing campaign should be planned and carried through according to theories in social marketing and campaign planning. Social marketing campaigns are exemplified through the alcohol prevention campaign Festmetoden (a Swedish national effort from Alkoholkommittén) which planning process is related to the theories. The empirical result is based on information gathered via the Internet, publications and personal contacts at instances involved in the work with Festmetoden. The campaign material (which consists of, among other things, a DVD-film) is well suited for the target group and is thoroughly developed. The empirical material has, on the other hand, implied that the planning process hasn’t always followed the theoretical guidelines given in the essay. However, a model for successful campaigns doesn’t exist as campaign planning often involves following one’s intuition.

  • 34.
    Mešinović, Samra
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    "By All the Codes which I Am Acquainted with, I Am a Devilishly Wicked Specimen of the Sex": The Individual/Culture Conflict in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the 19th century, ideas promoting women’s rights were sweeping across America. During that time Kate Chopin’s The Awakening was published, portraying a young woman, Edna Pontellier, who after several years of emotional unfullfilment in her marriage questions her place as a woman in her marriage as well in society. Edna’s Presbyterian Kentuckian upbringing is in opposition to Catholic Creole society that her husband belongs to. Creole society, at that time, was governed by its unwritten social codes, which were especially clear on issues concerning women’s traditional roles in society in connection to marriage and social duties. In this essay I present how Edna’s emotional awakening and her struggle to achieve independence are in conflict with the cultural norms that exist in Creole society. Also, I argue that the reason why Edna fails in her search for individual freedom is because her awakening is emotional and not intellectual; she lacks knowledge and cannot perceive herself beyond the conventions that limit and oppress her. Additionally, Edna cannot find guidance in any of the other women because they all act within the frames of the role they are playing.

  • 35.
    Mincao, Joanna
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Anorexie: Analyse comparative des autobiographies de Vanessa Sarfati et Valérie Valère2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36.
    Monforte, Pernilla
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Upper Secondary Students' Opinions of the Value of Peer Response2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Peer response is a method which is widely used on higher levels of second-language learning in Sweden, such as universities. The approach is not used as much in upper secondary school; and, the aim of this paper is to investigate upper secondary students' opinions of the value of peer response. The aim is also to investigate if the teacher's grading differed between the first version of a text and the final vesrion that had been revised after peer response.

    Research has shown that there seems to be more negotiation of meaning when students are working collaboratively and this can lead to better revisions of written texts, especially in terms of content development. On the other hand, collaborative writing can also create anxiety in some students who therefore dislike peer response. This investigation has shown that students taking part in the investigation are generally positive towards the approach. They also believe that giving and receiving feedback can help them improve their writing. There are, however, a few students who dislike it and want the texts to be read only by the teacher. The investigation has also shown that students mainly focus on formal aspects such as spelling and grammar when giving feedback to each other, whereas content was rarely commented on. Moreover, the results have shown that many of the students' grades improved on the final version compared to the first version. In conclusion, this investigation indicates that peer response could be used as an alternative, or complement, to ordinary teacher-student feedback in upper secondary school.

  • 37.
    Månevik, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Idrott och Kön: En undersökning av attityder på gymnasiet2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 points / 7,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är en kvantitativ attitydundersökning på gymnasieskolan om könsuppdelningen inom idrott och dess koppling till värderingar i såväl skola som övriga samhället.

    Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka hur gymnasieelever och lärare förhåller sig och tänker om idrott och kön och utifrån det formulera didaktiska ställningstaganden i lärarrollen.

    Informationen samlades in med hjälp av en tresidig enkät med 25 ettvalsfrågor och 3 öppna frågor på fyra olika gymnasieskolor i Mellansverige. Totalt svarade 234 personer på enkäten varav 220 elever och 14 lärare.

    Enkätresultatet indikerar att könsuppdelningen inom idrott delvis saknar grund dvs. den är inte bara prestationsmässigt motiverad utan också ett uttryck – och ett starkt fäste – för genussystemet i samhället. Det indikerar också att majoriteten av både män och kvinnor anser att kvinnor och män kan tävla tillsammans i golf, skytte, ridsport, curling, bowling, bordtennis, tennis, biljard, skidor, gymnastik, motorsport, schack, segling, slalom och bågskytte.

    Utifrån detta gör författaren det didaktiska ställningstagandet:

    Det är viktigt att inte glömma bort eller osynliggöra idrotten när man pratar om genus och jämställdhet. Samhället behöver en levande debatt om idrott och kön och den bör inte minst föras i skolan, t.ex. i samband med värdegrundsteman och jämställdhetsdagar men även i klassrummen.

  • 38.
    Nilsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Ridal, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    MEDIA LITERACY: En studie om mediepedagogik i forskning och empiri2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Titel: Media Literacy - En studie om mediepedagogik i forskning och empiri

    Författare: Kristin Nilsson, Sofia Ridal

    Antal sidor: 52

    Abstract: In the society of today we are constantly exposed to media messages, and much research investigate people’s interest in the media. Whatever theory we choose to believe in, the facts remain: today the media is a major part of all people’s lives. During our teacher training we have encountered the concepts Media Literacy and Media Education and as future pedagogues of media we are interested in what research can tell us about them.

    The main aim of this paper was to find out what researchers write about Media Literacy and Media Education and to empirically investigate whether or not teachers in the Swedish secondary school teach about, with and for media. It also aimed to learn what attitudes, thoughts and reflections these teachers have concerning media and learning in school. For these reasons, we decided to begin by conducting a profound research of the state of the art. Secondly, we accomplished qualitative interviews with a total of eight teachers from two secondary schools in a Swedish town.

    The results of the interviews show that a majority of the teachers who were interviewed, the informants, mainly used media technology as a teaching aid – they taught with media. Furthermore, the results reveal that some of the informants saw the media as something quite frightening, unserious and difficult to understand. By contrast, we found an underlying tendency that the informants had a positive attitude towards media education in schools, and that they were somewhat curious (and eager) to learn more about it. Yet, as for today, the informants’ lack of knowledge of the subject, deficient resources and indistinct directive from higher authority effectively seem to obstruct the development of media education in the schools in our investigation.

  • 39.
    Norberg, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Den lokala morgontidningens annonsavdelning idag och för 15 år sedan: En undersökning baserad på intervjuer av representanter vid sex lokala morgontidningar2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last 15 years the Swedish media market has developed a great deal, thanks to the rise of new media. Literature, articles and investigations have contributed to producing the chapter of background of this essay. How the local newspaper and its organization has changed over time is being accounted in this essay. From the newspaper being the only product on the market to now having a spread out product portfolio. By doing the qualitative interview with research representatives of six local newspapers the aimis to answer the following questions: Who were your competitors 15 years ago? Who are your competitiors today? In what way has the increased competition changed your way of working at the division of advertisement and how do you consider the the increase of mediachannels having affected the customer? How do you see the future? The main results show that all six representatives agree on the fact that the competition has increased during the last 15 years. To be able to survive on a tougher market it is necessary to have a product portfolio containing other media apart from the newspaper. All six representatives mention the importance of parallel publication. The result of this research also shows on discrepancies in customers awareness.

  • 40.
    Nordin, Lynn
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    "My Lonely Is Mine": Loss and Identity in Toni Morrison's SulaIndependent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to analyze how loss affects the identity of the main characters in Toni Morrison’s Sula. An examination of the African-American community in Sula reveals a history of collective loss, both material and non-material, which limits the identity formation of the individual. This burden challenges the protagonists of the novel, Sula and Nel, as they come of age in the 1920s and continues to trouble them throughout their lives. By first defining loss and identity and then examining how loss affects identity in the community, family and individual, this paper will argue that although loss can limit the individual, it can also act as a catalyst for personal growth. Furthermore, I will show that despite the fact that Sula and Nel react differently to loss they both gain a sense of selfhood in the end.

  • 41.
    Norling Andersen, Ebba
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Den manliga pedagogen i förskolan2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    This written examination is built upon a case study of a male teacher in preschool. One question that is a burning issue right now is the lack of men in preschool, which implies that a closer study of male versus female teachers is justified. The question is in which way the male teachers behave differently from the female teachers? The purpose with this study is to, with the help of a video recording, analyze a male teacher’s work with children in detail. I am especially interested in which kind of tasks he chooses to do with the children, how he chooses to carry them out and what type of language he uses. The empiric contains mainly of an observation (a video recording) of a male teacher during two days of his work. The observations were supplemented with an interview in order to get a wider picture and to put it into context.

    The study shows in context that the male teacher differs in a lot of ways compared to his female co workers. When he chooses the tasks himself he prioritizes to fuss with the children and to play himself. He participated in the games as an equal, while the female teacher never stopped being a teacher. When it comes to his language, he uses fewer words and also a more direct communication. He regards himself as a complement in the group that is dominated by females. By doing so, he makes sure that he contributes with, according to him, typical male activities and tasks.

    Keywords: male teacher, sex role, male language, preschool.

  • 42.
    Nyholm, Lina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Sandell, Pernilla
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Att planera, genomföra och utforma en föredömlig reklamkampanj2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the field of marketing becomes increasingly competitive, creative tools to reach the intended consumer needs to be utilized. In order to break through the crowded airways and packed ad space, one can choose to direct the message through channels that relate to current

    trends in society, while using innovative artistic concepts. The fundamental purpose behind this report is to provide a roadmap for creating a successful and unique marketing campaign. In addition, we have attempted to identify how visual methods can add valuable attributes to the campaign, ensuring a more progressive and distinct impression. To illustrate our claims, we have chosen to analyze Wasabröd’s latest marketing effort, “Change Bread,” by dividing it into three sections, including planning, execution, and the visual creation. The materials used to support our theories were collected through extensive literature studies and interactions with Wasabröd’s marketing agency via telephone and e-mail. Our findings suggest that effective advertising is reached through the use of a creative concept, which is relevant, credible, and exclusive. An important element not to be ignored is the employment of all aspects of the marketing mix. The relationship between form and content is critical when communicating a visual message to the intended receiver. In our opinion, Wasabröd’s “Change Bread” promotion was created and largely implemented through the use of the

    theoretical guidelines identified as the most recommended in current relevant literature.

  • 43.
    Ohlén, Alexandra
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Talar du LunarStormska?: En undersökning om chattspråk2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Talar du LunarStormska? är en sociolingvistisk C-uppsats av Alexandra Ohlén vid Karlstads universitets lärarprogram med inriktning gymnasiet, höstterminen 2004.

    Uppsatsen beskriver Internet-fenomenet chattande och dess historiska bakgrund, identifierar och definierar olika typer av chattande och beskriver de forum för chattande som är populära bland svenska ungdomar år 2004. Mot bakgrund av de farhågor som i många sammanhang framkommit om att användande av Internet och chattande kan påverka ungdomars skriftspråk negativt diskuteras chattspråket ur ett lingvistiskt perspektiv.

    Med hjälp av en enkätundersökning genomförd i en gymnasieskola under hösten 2004 och en tidigare enkät med delvis samma innehåll från 2002 beskrivs ungdomarnas chattvanor med hänseende till omfattning, syfte etc. Genom att jämföra elevernas resultat vid de senaste nationella proven i svenska med den tid de uppger sig lägga ner på chattande undersöks huruvida chattande påverkar elevernas förmåga att hantera svenska språket.

  • 44.
    Olofsson, Christina
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Leadership and Group Dynamics in Lord of the Flies and Tomorrow, When the War Began2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast the two novels by focusing

    on leadership and group dynamics. First, I explain some general terms like

    primary and secondary groups, leader and leadership, and five different

    leadership styles (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire, task-motivated and

    relationship-motivated leader), and then I apply the terms to the novels. In the

    analysis I examine how some followers and group constellations react to different

    kinds of leadership, and how the three leaders choose to approach their roles and

    why they become successful or not.

    The effect the democratic leadership has on both leaders and followers differs

    between the novels. Homer in Tomorrow, When the War Began trusts his leadership

    skills and gets appreciation from the primary group of friends he leads, while

    Ralph in Lord of the Flies is disobeyed and challenged by his secondary group.

    The group of teenagers grows stronger together, while the island boys disband as a

    result of the power struggle between Ralph and Jack. The latter trusts his charisma

    and threatens and punishes the boys in order to keep them under control. Jack

    seems successful as an autocratic leader, since his followers carry out his orders

    and let him be the unquestioned leader, but he is in the final analysis unsuccessful

    since he fails to put the needs of his followers before his own strong desire for

    power. Both Homer and Jack are strong leaders of their own primary group, and

    one argument why they are more successful than Ralph is the loyalty they receive

    from their followers. However, the reason for their faithfulness differs. In

    Homer’s case it is friendship, and in Jack’s case it is fear of what he will do to

    them if they defy him.

  • 45.
    Rone, Lena
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    The Lord of the Rings in a Jungian Perspective2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Lord of the Rings can be read as an interior journey through the psyche as Jung describes it. There are Jungian concepts like individuation, archetypes like the shadow, the devouring mother, the anima, the hero and the wise old man. The reader also recognizes concepts from Jungian psychoanalysis and several of Jung´s symbols. Evidently Tolkien and Jung have much in common as they both deal with matters that many people can relate to.

  • 46.
    Rydahl, Susanna
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Oral Feedback in the English Classroom: Teachers' Thoughts and Awareness2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this paper was to find out if and how teachers in upper secondary school use oral feedback when they correct their students' oral mistakes. I also wanted to find out which approach the teachers find most useful and if they use different approaches depending on the error made by the student.

    I have found that the majority of the teachers find oral feedback as an important tool to help students achieve a higher proficiency in a second and foreign language. My results also show that feedback is most often used when the student makes errors regarding content and pronunciation. Most of my respondents are aware of the necessity of applying different feedback approaches to different errors made by the students. My investigation shows that teachers chose to give feedback on different occasions, both directly, but more commonly, indirectly, to a single student or later on to a full class. Most teachers also prefer a mix of feedback approaches depending on the specific student and situation.

    My intention with this study has also been to determine what factors influence the students' uptake. My respondents have, among several factors, stressed the importance of comfortable learning situations, students' personal interest and size of group.

  • 47.
    Sahlström, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Upper Secondary Students' Assessment of Four Women Speaking Four Different Varieties of English2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society exhibits a wide variety of different languages with various prominent features. At the same time as we honour diversity, however our civilisation is coloured with prejudice and preconceptions. Even if there is a rather liberal view on language use today, dialects and accents still carry positive and negative connotations for a majority of citizens. Research shows, that we are prejudiced and that we have predetermined ideas when it comes to certain language varieties.

    In this study, I take up four varieties of Standard English: American, English, Australian and Scottish. I focus on the associations Swedish students make when it comes to these four language varieties and how this transforms into attitudes towards the speakers. A language attitude study is carried out by using a modified Matched Guise Test. I explain the difference between dialect and accent, as well as societal attitudes to language varieties and present some prominent linguists and their methods. Finally, I draw some conclusions by comparing my results to previous findings.

  • 48.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Embarrassment as an Interactional Accomplishment2004In: Emotionssociologiska uppsatser: "Papers" från forskarutbildningskurs i emotionernas sociologi / [ed] Starrin, Bengt, Karlstads universitet, 2004, 123-140 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Feeling by Doing: The Social Organization of Everyday Emotions in Academic Talk-in-Interaction2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation is concerned with the social organization of emotions in talk-in-interaction. Conversation analytic procedures were used to uncover the practices through which participants in social interaction convey, understand, enact, and utilize emotions that are made relevant to the interaction. The central aim is to describe such practices and the contexts in which they are deployed, and to link emotions to the social actions that they perform or contribute to performing within situated activities. Conversation analytic work has generally not addressed emotions explicitly for reasons discussed in the dissertation, and a second aim was therefore to test the applicability of conversation analysis to emotion research, to theoretically bring together separate fields of inquiry, and to discuss advantages and limitations of a talk-in-interactional approach to emotions. Furthermore, the analytic approach to emotions is restricted to displays and orientations that are made relevant by participants themselves.

    Data consists of video recordings of six graduate school seminars at a large university in the United States, as well as interviews with all 22 participants. From the analyses, three themes emerged; "frustration", "embarrassment", and "enjoyment", and within each, an assortment of practices for doing emotions were found. Frustration was primarily located in the context of violations of activity-specific turn-taking norms. Embarrassment was found to do multiple interactional work; for example, in contexts of repair, teasing, and culturally delicate matters. Enjoyment was found to be collaboratively pursued between and within institutional activities; for example, through reported speech dramatizations, utilization of activity-transitional environments, and playful 'mock' emotions. Timing of gaze aversion, laughter, and gestures were also found to be key to the display and perception of emotions.

    The findings indicate that emotion displays can be viewed as transforming a situated action, opening up alternative trajectories for a sequences-in-progress, and also function as actions in themselves. Furthermore, it was concluded that conversation analysis is indeed a fruitful empirical route for understanding emotions and their role in social interaction.

  • 50.
    Sandlund, Erica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Linnarud, Moira
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Effects of Stress versus Flotation-REST Relaxation on Creativity and Literacy Skills in Advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) Composition2001In: RASK International Journal of Language and Communication, ISSN 0909-8976, Vol. 15, 95-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
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