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  • 1.
    Achberger, Christine
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Chen, Deliang
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Persson, Gunn
    SMHI.
    Future rainfall and flooding in Sweden: an integrative project to support climate-adaptation actions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Kartering av översvämningsrisker vid Vänern2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie genomfördes en översvämningskartering och -analys som utgick från fyra

    extrema vattennivåer i Vänern. Baserat på höjddata från den Nya Nationella Höjdmodellen

    (NNH) generades utbredningspolygoner med hjälp av GIS för de fyra översvämningsnivåerna.

    Överlagringsanalyser gjordes sedan med kartskikt för väg, mark och byggnader

    samt för vissa kommuner även befolkning för att urskilja vägsträckor, markområden,

    byggnader och boende inom översvämningsutbredningen vid de fyra nivåerna.

    Översvämningskartor togs fram i pdf-format och Google Earth-format. GIS-analysen har

    genererat kvantitativa data för översvämmade vägsträckor, markytor antal byggnader etc.

    Vidare har en objektsbaserad analys genomförts utifrån kartmaterial och kommunala data

    över sårbara anläggningar och funktioner. Resultaten har sammanställts kommunvis och

    för Vänerområdet i sin helhet i form av text, tabeller och diagram.

    Det som drabbas först vid en översvämning i Vänern är dels objekt som utifrån sina

    funktioner ligger vattennära t.ex. fritidsanläggningar, men även viktiga vägar som E18 och

    E45. Järnvägsträckan Göteborg-Karlstad-Stockholm översvämmas redan vid 100-årsnivån.

    Med stigande vattennivå drabbas allt fler objekt och samhällsviktiga funktioner. De städer

    som påverkas mest är Karlstad, Kristinehamn, Mariestad, Lidköping och Vänersborg.

    De direkta skadekostnaderna för en 100-årsnivå i Vänern har beräknats till 100-240 Mkr,

    där en möjlig vindeffekt kan ge ytterligare upp till 120 Mkr i skadekostnader. För en

    dimensionerande nivå skulle skadekostnaderna bli av en helt annan storleksordning och

    uppgå till ca 9,8 miljarder kr. Vid denna nivå skulle stora indirekta skador uppstå som vi

    inte har haft möjlighet att värdera ekonomiskt. De största kostnaderna kan kopplas till

    översvämmade byggnader.

    I en absolut jämförelse med Mälaren av kvantitativa data för översvämmade vägar,

    markområden och antal byggnader är konsekvenserna vid Vänern något lägre.

    Studien genomfördes på uppdrag av och i samarbete med

    Vänerkommunerna i samverkan om

    Vänerns reglering.

     

  • 3.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg; COWI AB, Gothenburg.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rayner, David
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Janhäll, Sara
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Gothenburg.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University.
    Moback, Ulf
    City of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Bergman, Ramona
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Gothenburg.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas2015In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 7, 31-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from -3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings. © 2015 The Authors.

  • 4.
    Davies, Jessica
    et al.
    Lancaster University.
    Beven, Keith
    Lancaster University.
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet.
    Integrated modeling of flow and residence times at the catchment scale with multiple interacting pathways2013In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 49, no 8, 4738-4750 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is still a need for catchment hydrological and transport models that properly integrate the effects of preferential flows while accounting for differences in velocities and celerities. A modeling methodology is presented here which uses particle tracking methods to simulate both flow and transport in multiple pathways in a single consistent solution. Water fluxes and storages are determined by the volume and density of particles and transport is attained by labeling the particles with information that may be tracked throughout the lifetime of that particle in the catchment. The methodology allows representation of preferential flows through the use of particle velocity distributions, and mixing between pathways can be achieved with pathway transition probabilities. A transferable 3-D modeling methodology is presented for the first time and applied to a unique step-shift isotope experiment that was carried out at the 0.63 ha G1 catchment in Gårdsjön, Sweden. This application highlights the importance of combining flow and transport in hydrological representations, and the importance of pathway velocity distributions and interactions in obtaining a satisfactory representation of the observations.

  • 5.
    Evers, Mariele
    et al.
    Department of Geography , University of Bonn , Bonn , Germany.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Coherence and inconsistency of European instruments for integrated river basin management2013In: International Journal of River Basin Management, ISSN 1571-5124, E-ISSN 1814-2060, Vol. 11, 139-152 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large rivers are particularly under pressure due to multiple uses which often have severe impacts on ecosystems, or water quality and flow. Conflicting aims and a lack of integration and cooperation in planning and management are not beneficial to sustainable management. Important elements of integrated river basin management (IRBM) include both water quality aspects and floodplain and flood risk management. On the other hand, land use and land use planning are also both of great importance for sustainable river management. However, water management and land use planning are generally treated as two distinct issues in planning procedures and decision-making processes. Even water quality and flood risk issues are often handled by different authorities. Integrated management of transnational river basins is even more complicated and difficult. In Europe, there is a range of relevant Directives such as the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive and Habitat Directive. This paper illustrates how these legal and planning instruments influence the IRBM of large rivers. It analyses the potential synergies of the goals outlined in the directives and various related measures. Coherent but also inconsistent aspects of IRBM are identified against six different dimensions: political intention, legal, geographical, management, socio-economic and sustainability. The analysis shows potentials for synergies but also potential inconsistencies. We show that directives must be carefully coordinated to ensure coherent management and that synergies and site-specific goals, such as target areas, are important for sustainable management. Possible methodologies are described. IRBM can be considered as one possible approach towards sustainable development by coordinating different policies.

  • 6.
    Evers, Mariele
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Transnational education for integrated flood risk management - the master course IFRM: [Transnationale bildung für integriertes hochwasserrisikomanagement - Der masterkurs "integrated flood risk management"]2013In: Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung, ISSN 1439-1783, Vol. 57, no 3, 100-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flood Risk Management (FRM) is a topic of growing importance. This is signiicantly illustrated by the European Directive on Flood Risk Management, which entered into force in 2007. FRM in general but also the Directive require integrated and interdisciplinary approaches and skills. Against this background the International Master Course "Integrated lood risk management" was developed and implemented under the EU project "Strategic Alliance for Water Management Actions" (SAWA). Six universities and 12 non-academic partners from ive European countries participated in the course. The paper describes the background and requirements of such an education ofer as well as its content and its pedagogical and organizational format. Furthermore, the implementation of the course and evaluation results are presented.

  • 7.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Assessment of data availability for the development of landslide fatality curves2016In: Landslides: Journal of the International Consortium on Landslides, ISSN 1612-510X, E-ISSN 1612-5118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quick clay landslides are a special feature of Norwegian and Swedish geologies. Vibrations or small initial landslides can cause a quick clay layer to collapse and liquefy, resulting in rapid landslides with little or no time for evacuation, making them a real threat to human life. Research concentrating on damages due to landslides is scarce, and analyses of loss of human lives caused by quick clay landslides in the scientific literature are, to our knowledge, non-existing. Fatality quantification can complement landslide risk assessments and serves as guidance for policy choices when evaluating efficient risk-reducing measures. The objectives of this study were to assess and analyze available damage information in an existing data set of 66 historical landslide events that occurred in Norway and Sweden between 1848 and 2009, and access its applicability for quantifying loss of human life caused by quick clay landslides. Fatality curves were estimated as functions of the number of exposed persons per landslide. Monte Carlo simulations were used to account for the uncertainties in the number of people actually exposed. The results of the study imply that the quick clay fatality curves are non-linear, indicating that the probability of losing lives increases exponentially when the number of exposed persons increases. Potential factors affecting human susceptibility to landslides (e.g., landslide-, area-, or individual-specific characteristics) could not be satisfyingly quantified based on available historical records. Future research should concentrate on quantifying susceptibility factors that can further explain human vulnerability to quick clay landslides.

  • 8.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Analys av översvämningsskador - En kunskapsöversikt2013Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyberg, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Damage assessment of lake floods: Insured damage to private property during two lake floods in Sweden 2000/20012014In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 10, 305-314 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses empirical data on the direct damage impact of lake floods using insurance claims for 195 private buildings. A relationship between lake water levels and insurance payments is established, but the estimated economic effects are small. Building damage also occurs in fringe areas that are not reached by surface water, which indicates a complex interplay between several factors influencing the degree of damage. Large lake floods occur over an extended time span (months). Their duration, as well as possible wind effects, should be taken into account in flood risk assessment. The slow onset of lake floods facilitates implementation of private damage-reducing measures in addition to public mitigation efforts. Private damage-reducing measures decrease the risk of structural damage to buildings, easing recovery for homeowners and society as a whole. Insurance companies can gain from investing in public flood awareness programmes and by providing information to their insurance holders on how to reduce property vulnerability in emergency situations.

  • 10.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Modh, Lars-Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Understanding the local policy context of risk management: Competitiveness and adaptation to climate risks in the city of Karlstad, Sweden2016In: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, Vol. 18, no 1, 26-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the situation of climate risk management we need to understand the priorities and politics of the wider policy context. The framing of potentially incompatible policy issues is important to take into account when analysing policy processes. In this article, we focus on two policy issues aiming at local adaptation to global forces: facilitating city competiveness and adapting to the impacts of global climate change. Global climate change always manifests itself in the local arena, which thus becomes a crucial site for adaptation to the risks connected to climate change. Adaptation has to correspond with the city policy agenda to build the attractive city through waterfront housing as a means to strengthen its competitiveness in a globalised economy. This article focuses on the relationship between pursuing competitiveness through waterfront housing and the needs to adapt to climate change in terms of contemporary and future flood risks.

  • 11.
    Guinea Barrientos, Hector E.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ San Carlos, Facultad Agron, Guatemala City, Guatemala..
    Swain, Ashok
    Uppsala Univ, Ctr Sustainable Dev, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Ecol & Genet Limnol, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Disaster management cooperation in central america: The case of rainfall-induced natural disasters2015In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, 85-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rainfall-induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. Due to the geographical conditions of the Central American region, it is common that two or more countries are struck by the same rainfall event, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region, killing more than 18000 people. As a consequence, Central American countries have started to promote regional policies and programs that aim for better preparation and response to these events, including disaster management cooperation. However, cooperation poses several challenges that may hinder its goals. In order to analyse these challenges, we present analysis in this paper of the current policy and legal institutions as well as the main challenges that may hinder international disaster management cooperation in Central America.

  • 12.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    The Sustainable Procedure Framework for Disaster Risk Management: Illustrated by the Case of the EU Floods Directive in Sweden2016In: International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation, ISSN 2095-0055, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 7, no 2, 151-162 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can the concrete meaning of the ambiguous and theoretical concept of sustainable development (SD) be defined and implemented, without losing sight of its fundamental principles? This study introduces a theoretical framework that supports studies of SD implementation in the context of strategic disaster risk management, by defining what SD implies with regard to planning procedures. The framework is based on the procedural SD principles of participation and integration. It was originally developed for, and has shown great value in, the field of water resource management. In-depth interviews with senior risk management researchers indicate that the framework is also applicable to and valuable for disaster risk management studies. To illustrate the application of the framework, a study of the EU Floods Directive in Sweden is summarized with the framework as the basis for the analysis.

  • 13.
    Jager, Nicolas W.
    et al.
    Univ Luneburg, Res Grp Governance Participat & Sustainabil, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Challies, Edward
    Univ Luneburg, Res Grp Governance Participat & Sustainabil, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Kochskaemper, Elisa
    Univ Luneburg, Res Grp Governance Participat & Sustainabil, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Newig, Jens
    Univ Luneburg, Res Grp Governance Participat & Sustainabil, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Benson, David
    Univ Exeter, Environm & Sustainabil Inst, Penryn TR10 9FE, Cornwall, England..
    Blackstock, Kirsty
    James Hutton Inst, Social Econ & Geog Sci Grp, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, Scotland..
    Collins, Kevin
    Open Univ, Appl Syst Thinking Practice Res Grp, Engn & Innovat Dept, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Ernst, Anna
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energy & Climate Res Syst Anal & Technol, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Evers, Mariele
    Univ Bonn, Inst Geog, D-53113 Bonn, Germany..
    Feichtinger, Judith
    CSI, A-1150 Vienna, Austria..
    Fritsch, Oliver
    Univ Leeds, Sch Geog & Water Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Gooch, Geoffrey
    DelPar Environm, S-58752 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Grund, Wiebke
    Univ Luneburg, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Hernandez-Mora, Nuria
    Univ Seville, Dept Geog Humana, Seville 41004, Spain..
    Hueesker, Frank
    TU Kaiserslautern, Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany..
    Huitema, Dave
    Open Univ Netherlands, Fac Management Sci & Technol, NL-6419 AT Heerlen, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Inst Environm Studies IVM, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Irvine, Kenneth
    Univ Dublin, Trinity Coll, Sch Nat Sci, Dublin 2, Ireland.;UNESCO Inst Water Educ, NL-2611 AX Delft, Netherlands..
    Klinke, Andreas
    Mem Univ Newfoundland, Environm Policy Inst, Corner Brook, NF A2H 5G4, Canada..
    Lange, Leonie
    Univ Luneburg, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Loupsans, Delphine
    French Natl Agcy Water & Aquat Environm, ONEMA, F-94300 Vincennes, France..
    Lubell, Mark
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Environm Sci & Policy, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Maganda, Carmen
    AC INECOL, Inst Ecol, Xalapa Enriquez 91070, Ver, Mexico..
    Matczak, Piotr
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Inst Sociol, PL-61712 Poznan, Poland..
    Pares, Marc
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Inst Govern &Polit Publ, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Saarikoski, Heli
    Environm Policy Ctr, Finnish Environm Inst, POB 140, Helsinki 00251, Finland..
    Slavikova, Lenka
    Univ Jana Evangelisty Purkyne & Usti nad Labem, IEEP, Usti Nad Labem Mesto 40096, Czech Republic..
    van der Arend, Sonja
    SenF Serious Fict, NL-6703 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    von Korff, Yorck
    Flow Ing, F-34980 Montferrier Sur Lez, France..
    Transforming European Water Governance?: Participation and River Basin Management under the EU Water Framework Directive in 13 Member States2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 4, 156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires EU member states to produce and implement river basin management plans, which are to be designed and updated via participatory processes that inform, consult with, and actively involve all interested stakeholders. The assumption of the European Commission is that stakeholder participation, and institutional adaptation and procedural innovation to facilitate it, are essential to the effectiveness of river basin planning and, ultimately, the environmental impact of the Directive. We analyzed official documents and the WFD literature to compare implementation of the Directive in EU member states in the initial WFD planning phase (2000-2009). Examining the development of participatory approaches to river basin management planning, we consider the extent of transformation in EU water governance over the period. Employing a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach, we map the implementation "trajectories" of 13 member states, and then provide a detailed examination of shifts in river basin planning and participation in four member states (Germany, Sweden, Poland and France) to illustrate the diversity of institutional approaches observed. We identify a general tendency towards increased, yet circumscribed, stakeholder participation in river basin management in the member states examined, alongside clear continuities in terms of their respective pre-WFD institutional and procedural arrangements. Overall, the WFD has driven a highly uneven shift to river basin-level planning among the member states, and instigated a range of efforts to institutionalize stakeholder involvement-often through the establishment of advisory groups to bring organized stakeholders into the planning process.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Data sources on small-scale disaster losses and response: A Swedish case study of extreme rainfalls 2000–20122015In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 12, 93-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal interest to evaluate and learn from disasters is scale dependent. Low frequent hazards with small impacts are often invisible at national level from an evaluation point of view and limited possibilities exist to compile publicly available data on losses and management in the aftermath. This study presents an inventory of possible data sources for 14 extreme rainfall events in Sweden 2000-2012. The sources, such as official sectorial institutions and media, and their content are analyzed in relation to reliability and verification opportunities. The use of free-text fields in official reporting systems and questionnaires, primarily designed for basic data capture from daily occurring accidents, is highlighted as important to achieve enhanced data that can be used to verify information from other sources, especially media archives.

  • 15.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Lundqvist, Marie
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Identifying schools at risk of fire-setting2014In: Security Journal, ISSN 0955-1662Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Jönsson, Morgan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    "Har man kanelbullens dag så kan man väl ha en dag för individanpassat brandskydd också?": En kvalitativ kartläggning av individanpassat brandskyddsarbete i Skåne och Värmland2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Inledning: Sverige strävar sedan 2010 mot en nollvision där ingen ska omkomma eller skadas allvarligt till följd av brand (MSB, 2009). Detta till trots omkommer varje år drygt 100 människor som ett resultat av just bränder, där framförallt äldre och personer med funktionsnedsättning är särskilt riskutsatta. För att främja arbetet mot nollvisionen publicerade MSB vägledningen Brandsäker bostad för alla, under 2013. Vägledningens tilltänkta syfte är att fungera som en metodhandbok för hur en individanpassad brandskyddsverksamhet kan bedrivas på kommunnivå. I vilken utsträckning som ett sådant arbete bedrivs samt vilket genomslagskraft vägledningen har fått är emellertid oklart. Avsikten med denna studie är därmed att undersöka just detta.  

    Metod: Studien har en kvalitativ ansats där sammanlagt tio semistrukturerade intervjuer har utförts i Skåne och Värmland. Därefter har data analyserats med hjälp av en manifest innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Totalt har följande tre kategorier genererats: Den första kategorin, Individanpassat brandskydd är utmanande, konkretiserar problematiken kring individanpassat brandskydd och identifierar riskgrupper och huvudaktörer. Andra kategorin, Kommunerna antar utmaningen, presenterar hur de utvalda kommunerna arbetar med individanpassat brandskydd, och vilka aktörer som är verksamhetsutövare. Avslutningsvis beskriver Saker och ting kan förbättras hur MSBs roll i sammanhanget ser ut samt hur vägledningen har tagits emot på kommunnivå.

    Slutsats: Sammantaget visar resultatet att de granskade kommunerna arbetar med individanpassat brandskydd, om än i olika utsträckning. Det påtalas även att det uteslutande är vård- och omsorgsförvaltningen samt räddningstjänsten som är verksamhetsutövare på lokal nivå. Detta medför att identifieringsprocessen av riskindivider är begränsad till ovan nämnda förvaltningars verksamheter. Det nuvarande individanpassade brandskyddsarbetet är därmed initierat, men har ännu inte uppnått sin fulla potential. Ett antal övriga aktörer, däribland socialförvaltningen, har identifierats som nödvändiga för att verksamheten ska kunna utvecklas och bli mer effektiv, men de tycks inte inbegripas i den nuvarande arbetsprocessen.  

  • 17.
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    A Stakeholder Analysis of the Disaster Risk ReductionPolicy Subsystem in Mozambique2014In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 5, no 1, 38-58 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Disasters as drivers for policy changes in the context of recurrent hazards?: The case of disaster risk management in Mozambique2014In: Proceedings of the 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference: Integrative Risk Management - The Role of Science, Technology and Practice, IDRC Davos 2014, 384-387 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of disaster risk management (DRM) policies has gained attention in recent years but the processes leading to changes in DRM policies is still rather under-researched topic. One country where DRM has gained momentum over the last few years is Mozambique where recurrent natural disasters negatively impacts on the country’s development efforts. Drawing on policy process literature this paper scrutinises the DRM policy changes in Mozambique and the role of disasters in this process. The data for this qualitative case study was collected in early 2013 in Maputo, Mozambique mainly by interviewing a number of actors actively participating in DRM policy process. The results reveal that while disasters can play a role policy process, they alone do not explain any policy changes. While international agreements and cooperation where seen as the main drivers for change, disasters have made incremental changes possible by serving as "wake-up calls", through lessons learned and by keeping the issue high in agenda. The short return period of natural disasters directs focus and resources on disaster response and recovery, thereby overshadowing DRM, although its importance is well acknowledged in the country. The findings suggest that the Post 2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction could be a useful tool for Mozambique, in particular if it provides platforms for information exchange between the countries.

  • 19.
    Nohrstedt, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Govt, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, CNDS, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Do floods drive hazard mitigation policy?: Evidence from swedish municipalities2015In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, 109-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that continuous development of local-level mitigation policy plans and actions increases the chances of effective responses to natural hazards. What is less well known is how and why policy development, including the scope and pace of changes in municipality crisis mitigation programs, varies across local-level crisis mitigation systems. Using survey data on municipality hazard mitigation policy in Sweden, this study documents patterns of policy development and explores candidate explanations. Special attention is devoted to floods, which present local managers with opportunities to learn and adjust local mitigation policies. To investigate floods along with other hazards as potential drivers for local mitigation policy, the study examines three approaches to policy development: external shocks, transformation without disruption, and regional diffusion. Overall, in this case, the transformation without disruption model and the regional diffusion model do better than the external shocks model. Important precursors of policy development include collaboration, learning and diffusion effects from events and policy adoption in nearby municipalities. The study demonstrates the value of a broader analytical approach to policy development, which takes into account the interplay between events, collaborative management, and learning.

  • 20.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Evers, Mariele
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Bonn University.
    Dahlström, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Pettersson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Sustainability aspects of water regulation and flood risk reduction in Lake Vänern2014In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, ISSN 1463-4988, E-ISSN 1539-4077, Vol. 17, no 4, 331-340 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modern feature of flood risk management is to integrate ecological, economic and social aspects in risk prevention and mitigation. Risk-reducing measures can be in conflict with ecosystem functions and complicate upstream/downstream relations. Flood risks are also influenced by processes in the catchment, such as changes in climate and land-use, or increases of vulnerable urban areas. Lake Vänern in Sweden has high ecological and social values but is also flood-prone, which in this article has been analyzed from a perspective of sustainable development. Lake Vänern and the Göta älv River are used for drinking water supply, shipping, hydropower production, fishing, tourism, as a recipient for industries and wastewater plants, etc. The flood risks are connected to landslide and industrial risks. One interest at stake is the drinking water supply for 800,000 persons in the Gothenburg region. According to climate scenarios, flood risks will increase in the 21st century due to increased precipitation. Recent studies in the region were used to identify relevant interests and values connected to Lake Vänern. The study reveals differing interests in relation to water level regimes. From a flood protection perspective (risks around the lake and downstream to Gothenburg) a low and stable water level is beneficial. For shipping and hydropower, a stable medium-high water level is wanted, whereas from an ecosystem and landscape development perspective larger water level amplitudes are optimal. One out of a few reasons for this is the need to prevent a massive increase in vegetation in coastal areas. There are good reasons to have a broad decision-support, representing different values and interests, when the permanent water regulation scheme will be decided. This study also addresses the potential to reconcile the concept of flood risk management with that of a sustainable development.

  • 21.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Flood response using complementary early warning information2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 4, 1- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this comparative case study was to investigate and compare how Swedish municipalities gather and use warning information from official and unofficial sources at the municipal level, as well as the circumstances under which that process has a chance to succeed. The overall conclusions of the study are that official and unofficial warnings have the potential to play complementary roles for municipalities making decisions about flood response, giving the municipalities a wider perspective and better opportunity to assess risk and to act appropriately. The required resources for using official warnings and getting access to unofficial warning sources are not evenly distributed among municipalities, and a lack of systematization of access to warning information hinders the flood response potential.

  • 22.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Flood Warnings in a Risk Management Context: A Case of Swedish Municipalities2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the United Nations’ International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (1990-2000), and recent high profile disasters, disaster risk reduction has climbed high on the international political agenda. There has been a paradigm shift from reacting to disasters towards preparing for and mitigating effects of disasters. Among the measures that have been highlighted on the disaster risk reduction agenda are early warning systems. In a Swedish context, there are needs for early warnings for various flood risk types. Municipalities carry big responsibilities for managing flood risks, and early warnings have a potential to facilitate decision-making and ultimately reduce flood losses.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe how a variety of flood warning signals are used in the risk management process of Swedish municipalities, how they can contribute to the flood risk reducing process, and which factors influence the success of this. The thesis is based on two papers.

    Paper I is based on interviews with three respondents from Swedish municipalities that have invested in and established local early warning systems. The paper shows that the possible effects from a local early warning system are not only reduced flood losses but also potential spinoff, the occurrence of which is dependent on the well-being of the organisation and its risk management processes.

    Paper II is based on interviews with 23 respondents at 18 Swedish municipalities, who have responsibilities related to flood risk management, and one respondent who works at SMHI with hydrological warning. The paper shows that municipalities can use a variety of complementary flood warning signals to facilitate decision-making for a proactive flood response. This is however not systematically the case, and is dependent on available resources.

    The theoretical contribution of this thesis is a development of existing conceptual models of early warning systems with respect to risk management and system contexts, and the use of complementary warning signals.

  • 23.
    Persson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Svedung, Inge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Flood Warning in a Swedish Local Risk Management Context2015In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, Vol. 24, no 3, 383-396 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to explore how local early warning systems (EWS) for floods are established at the municipality level in Sweden. The study also aims to analyse the role of EWSs in a risk management context. The overall purpose of this study is to elucidate how and to what extent the adoption of local EWSs can generate value added benefits throughout the wider risk management process.

    Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with supervisors at each municipality in order to depict how local EWS are established at the municipality level in Sweden. The interviews went through a content analysis with respect to theory on EWS and theory on the risk management process.

    The possible effects from an EWS is not only reduced flood losses but also potential spinoff. The possibility of spinoff effects from the system, but also the mitigating effectiveness in case of a flood is largely dependent on the well-being of the organization and its risk management processes.

    This study widens the understanding of the value of an EWS and that the organizational culture and state of risk management system has influence on the availability of such value. Identifying the potential added value from EWSs is important from a more general disaster risk reduction perspective, as it helps to further motivate implementation of proactive risk management measures. This knowledge can be of help to others who investigate the possibilities of investing in EWSs.

  • 24.
    Rydstedt Nyman, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Trafikverket.
    Systematic knowledge sharing of natural hazard damages in contracted road maintenance in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a dynamic society and with expected climate change, it is important, in a resilient perspective, for road authorities to make use of experiences and build knowledge from extreme weather events damaging the infrastructure. The Swedish Transport Administration (STA) is responsible for the state-owned infrastructure but contractors carry out all maintenance of the state road network in Sweden. The tendering process stipulates that the stakeholders should enable knowledge transfer and the flow of information that is inevitably required for the future handling of adverse weather extremes. In this case study of the STA practice, semi-structured interviews with project leaders from the STA and respondents from two tendering contractors of maintenance were used to investigate attitudes to and the understanding of sharing experiences and knowledge of weather extremes.  The aim is to contribute to better risk management through lessons learned in a complex public-private management. The quantitative content analysis shows patterns of sharing experiences from adverse events between organizations, at an individual level. The experiences of weather extremes and damages caused are not fed back through the existing formal template, leading to partial feedback through narrative exchange to the project leaders at the STA. The analysis of the results from a sociotechnical system perspective shows a complex and interrelated inter- and intra-organizational pattern for feedback paths. Furthermore, a picture of parallels emerges, as each organization has its own goals and processes to reach their goals.

  • 25.
    Rydstedt Nyman, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Trafikverket.
    Managing knowledge sharing of extreme weather induced impacts on land transport infrastructure: Case study of the Swedish Transport Administration2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme weather events and effects of climate change are threats to the transport sector’s functionality and safety. Risk management in this context implies a necessity to focus on the connection between near-term experiences and coping strategies on one hand, and long-term adaptation analyses on the other. How learning from past events and subsequent knowledge sharing can be adopted is a question that needs to be explored, discussed and tested. A systematic approach to lessons learned calls for measures of investigation, reporting, planning, implementation and evaluation. A qualitative case study approach was used in this thesis. In the first paper the practices of accident investigation in operation and maintenance were inventoried within the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). Three accident investigation methods were applied and tested on a cloudburst event, causing flooding in a railway tunnel in Sweden. In the second paper, semi-structured interviews, documents, and archival records were used as means for penetrating deeper into the attitudes and understanding of lessons learned concerning extreme weather events within a procured public-private partnership. The results of the two studies showed weak signals of feedback on lessons learned. Partly, these weak signals could be traced back to weak steering signals. Various obstacles impeded learning curves from lessons learned. The obstacles were of both hard and soft values, e.g. resources in time and equipment, systematic investigation methods, incentives for lessons learned, education and knowledge, values, norms and attitudes towards how and why identified problems should be solved. Successful knowledge sharing requires that close attention is paid to such obstacles and that an adaptive approach is adopted.

  • 26.
    Rydstedt Nyman, Monika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Merits of using a socio-technical system perspective and different industrial accident investigation methods on accidents following natural hazards: A case study on pluvial flooding of a Swedish railway tunnel 20132015In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 13, 189-199 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Temnerud, J.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden.;Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, Res Dept, S-60176 Norrkoping, Sweden..
    von Bromssen, C.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Unit Appl Stat & Math, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Folster, J.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Buffam, I.
    Univ Cincinnati, Dept Biol Sci, Cincinnati, OH USA.;Univ Cincinnati, Dept Geog, Cincinnati, OH USA..
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Bishop, K.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Map-based prediction of organic carbon in headwater streams improved by downstream observations from the river outlet2016In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 13, no 2, 399-413 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the great abundance and ecological importance of headwater streams, managers are usually limited by a lack of information about water chemistry in these headwaters. In this study we test whether river outlet chemistry can be used as an additional source of information to improve the prediction of the chemistry of upstream headwaters (size < 2 km(2)), relative to models based on map information alone. We use the concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), an important stream ecosystem parameter, as the target for our study. Between 2000 and 2008, we carried out 17 synoptic surveys in 9 mesoscale catchments (size 32-235 km(2)). Over 900 water samples were collected in total, primarily from headwater streams but also including each catchment's river outlet during every survey. First we used partial least square regression (PLS) to model the distribution (median, interquartile range (IQR)) of headwater stream TOC for a given catchment, based on a large number of candidate variables including sub-catchment characteristics from GIS, and measured river chemistry at the catchment outlet. The best candidate variables from the PLS models were then used in hierarchical linear mixed models (MM) to model TOC in individual headwater streams. Three predictor variables were consistently selected for the MM calibration sets: (1) proportion of forested wetlands in the sub-catchment (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC), (2) proportion of lake surface cover in the sub-catchment (negatively correlated with headwater stream TOC), and (3) river outlet TOC (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC). Including river outlet TOC improved predictions, with 5-15% lower prediction errors than when using map information alone. Thus, data on water chemistry measured at river outlets offer information which can complement GIS-based modelling of headwater stream chemistry.

  • 28.
    van der Velde, Ype
    et al.
    Netherlands.
    Heidbuechel, Ingo
    Germany.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala University.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University.
    Troch, Peter A.
    USA.
    Consequences of mixing assumptions for time-variable travel time distributions2015In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 29, no 16, 3460-3474 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current generation of catchment travel time distribution (TTD) research, integrating nearly three decades of work since publication of Water's Journey from Rain to Stream, seeks to represent the full distribution in catchment travel times and its temporal variability. Here, we compare conceptualizations of increasing complexity with regards to mixing of water storages and evaluate how these assumptions influence time-variable TTD estimates for two catchments with contrasting climates: the Gardsjon catchment in Sweden and the Marshall Gulch catchment in Arizona, USA. Our results highlight that, as long as catchment TTDs cannot be measured directly but need to be inferred from input-output signals of catchments, the inferred catchment TTDs depend strongly on the underlying assumptions of mixing within a catchment. Furthermore, we found that the conceptualization of the evapotranspiration flux strongly influences the inferred travel times of stream discharge. For the wet and forested Gardsjon catchment in Sweden, we inferred that evapotranspiration most likely resembles a completely mixed sample of the water stored in the catchment; however, for the drier Marshall Gulch catchment in Arizona, evapotranspiration predominantly contained the younger water stored in the catchment. For the Marshall Gulch catchment, this higher probability for young water in evapotranspiration resulted in older water in the stream compared to travel times inferred with assumptions of complete mixing. New observations that focus on the TTD of the evapotranspiration flux and the actual travel time of water through a catchment are necessary to improve identification of mixing and consequently travel times of stream water. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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