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  • 1.
    Achberger, Christine
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Chen, Deliang
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Persson, Gunn
    SMHI.
    Future rainfall and flooding in Sweden: an integrative project to support climate-adaptation actions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Kartering av översvämningsrisker vid Vänern2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie genomfördes en översvämningskartering och -analys som utgick från fyra

    extrema vattennivåer i Vänern. Baserat på höjddata från den Nya Nationella Höjdmodellen

    (NNH) generades utbredningspolygoner med hjälp av GIS för de fyra översvämningsnivåerna.

    Överlagringsanalyser gjordes sedan med kartskikt för väg, mark och byggnader

    samt för vissa kommuner även befolkning för att urskilja vägsträckor, markområden,

    byggnader och boende inom översvämningsutbredningen vid de fyra nivåerna.

    Översvämningskartor togs fram i pdf-format och Google Earth-format. GIS-analysen har

    genererat kvantitativa data för översvämmade vägsträckor, markytor antal byggnader etc.

    Vidare har en objektsbaserad analys genomförts utifrån kartmaterial och kommunala data

    över sårbara anläggningar och funktioner. Resultaten har sammanställts kommunvis och

    för Vänerområdet i sin helhet i form av text, tabeller och diagram.

    Det som drabbas först vid en översvämning i Vänern är dels objekt som utifrån sina

    funktioner ligger vattennära t.ex. fritidsanläggningar, men även viktiga vägar som E18 och

    E45. Järnvägsträckan Göteborg-Karlstad-Stockholm översvämmas redan vid 100-årsnivån.

    Med stigande vattennivå drabbas allt fler objekt och samhällsviktiga funktioner. De städer

    som påverkas mest är Karlstad, Kristinehamn, Mariestad, Lidköping och Vänersborg.

    De direkta skadekostnaderna för en 100-årsnivå i Vänern har beräknats till 100-240 Mkr,

    där en möjlig vindeffekt kan ge ytterligare upp till 120 Mkr i skadekostnader. För en

    dimensionerande nivå skulle skadekostnaderna bli av en helt annan storleksordning och

    uppgå till ca 9,8 miljarder kr. Vid denna nivå skulle stora indirekta skador uppstå som vi

    inte har haft möjlighet att värdera ekonomiskt. De största kostnaderna kan kopplas till

    översvämmade byggnader.

    I en absolut jämförelse med Mälaren av kvantitativa data för översvämmade vägar,

    markområden och antal byggnader är konsekvenserna vid Vänern något lägre.

    Studien genomfördes på uppdrag av och i samarbete med

    Vänerkommunerna i samverkan om

    Vänerns reglering.

     

  • 3.
    Andersson-Skold, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, S-40278 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Effective and Sustainable Flood and Landslide Risk Reduction Measures: An Investigation of Two Assessment Frameworks2016In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, ISSN 2095-0055, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 374-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural events such as floods and landslides can have severe consequences. The risks are expected to increase, both as a consequence of climate change and due to increased vulnerabilities, especially in urban areas. Although preventive measures are often cost-effective, some measures are beneficial to certain values, while some may have negative impacts on other values. The aim of the study presented here was to investigate two frameworks used for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of physical and nonphysical flood and landslide risk reduction measures. The study is based on literature, available information from authorities and municipalities, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder views and values. The results indicate that the risks for suboptimization or maladaptation are reduced if many aspects are included and a broad spectrum of stakeholders are involved. The sustainability assessment tools applied here can contribute to a more transparent and sustainable risk management process by assessing strategies and interventions with respect to both short- and long-term perspectives, including local impacts and wider environmental impacts caused by climate change, for example. The tools can also cover social and economic aspects. The assessment tools provide checklists that can support decision processes, thus allowing for more transparent decisions.

  • 4.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg; COWI AB, Gothenburg.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rayner, David
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Janhäll, Sara
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Gothenburg.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University.
    Moback, Ulf
    City of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Bergman, Ramona
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Gothenburg.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas2015In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 7, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from -3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings. © 2015 The Authors.

  • 5.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Nederbördsintensitet och andra faktorer som påverkar skyfallsskador2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige inträffar många skyfall och intensiva regn under sommarmånaderna. Det finns inga uppenbara geografiska mönster, vilket är en skillnad gentemot älv- eller sjööversvämningar där det vanligtvis är känt vilka områden som kan komma att översvämmas vid en viss vattennivå eller ett visst vattenflöde. För individer och samhällsaktörer innebär en skyfallshändelse i många fall en stor överraskning då skyfall utvecklas snabbt och dagens meteorologiska prognossystem i stort inte lyckas att prognosticera extrema regn korrekt med avseende på mängd, tid och plats. Vädervarningar kommer med kort varsel eller uteblir helt. Konsekvenserna av intensiv nederbörd och skyfall är främst översvämningar och erosionsskador på byggnader och infrastruktur, men även störningar och avbrott i olika samhällsfunktioner som kan påverka samhället och individer utanför det drabbade området.

    I denna avhandling har 15 år av försäkringsskadedata använts för att undersöka samband mellan nederbördsintensitet och skyfallsskador. Även påverkan av andra faktorer som topografi, bebyggelse och socioekonomiska aspekter har undersökts. Resultaten visar att regnintensitet under ett 60 minuters intervall i kombination med korta perioder av extrem intensitet, tillsammans med topografiska faktorer spelar en betydande roll vid uppkomsten av skador.

  • 6.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    A GIS-based multivariate approach to identify flood damage affecting factorsIn: Natural hazards and earth system sciences, ISSN 1561-8633, E-ISSN 1684-9981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates causal factors leading to pluvial flood damages, beside rainfall amount and intensity, in two Swedish cities. Observed flood damage data from a Swedish insurance database, collected under 13 years, and a set of spatial data, describing topography, demography, land cover and building type were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA). The topographic wetness index (TWI) is the only investigated variable that indicates a significant relationship with to the number and amount of insurance damage. The Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.68 for the number of insurance damages and 0.63 for amount of insurance damages. With a linear regression model TWI explained 41% of the variance of the number of insurance flood damages and 34% of variance of amount of insurance flood damage.

    Future studies on this topic should consider implementing TWI as a potential measure in urban flood risk analyses.

  • 7.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The impact of intense rainfall on insurance losses in two Swedish cities2018In: Journal of Flood Risk Management, ISSN 1753-318X, E-ISSN 1753-318XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While a major part of previous research in the field of flood damage has focused on water depth as the most important causal factor, little attention has been paid to the role of rainfall intensity. As a test, this paper used correlation and regression analyses to investigate rainfall intensity as a factor affecting flood damage. For a time period of 15 years, the relationship between insurance losses caused by floods and rainfall intensity data from rain gauges were examined in two Swedish cities. Another objective was to find an approach for damage functions based on rainfall intensity as explanatory variable. Using linear regression, two approaches with considerable high degrees of explanation were found – one based on an exponential function and one on a power function. Using a lower limit for rainfall intensity, the approaches reached degrees of explanation between 30 and 78 %. From this study it was concluded that rainfall intensity during the summer months and the occurrence of insurance damages per day caused by floods were correlated and further that rainfall intensity has a great potential to explain urban flood damages. In the future, additional studies are needed to validate the proposed methods and integrate other flood damage affecting factors in the approach.

  • 8.
    Davies, Jessica
    et al.
    Lancaster University.
    Beven, Keith
    Lancaster University.
    Rodhe, Allan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet.
    Integrated modeling of flow and residence times at the catchment scale with multiple interacting pathways2013In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 4738-4750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is still a need for catchment hydrological and transport models that properly integrate the effects of preferential flows while accounting for differences in velocities and celerities. A modeling methodology is presented here which uses particle tracking methods to simulate both flow and transport in multiple pathways in a single consistent solution. Water fluxes and storages are determined by the volume and density of particles and transport is attained by labeling the particles with information that may be tracked throughout the lifetime of that particle in the catchment. The methodology allows representation of preferential flows through the use of particle velocity distributions, and mixing between pathways can be achieved with pathway transition probabilities. A transferable 3-D modeling methodology is presented for the first time and applied to a unique step-shift isotope experiment that was carried out at the 0.63 ha G1 catchment in Gårdsjön, Sweden. This application highlights the importance of combining flow and transport in hydrological representations, and the importance of pathway velocity distributions and interactions in obtaining a satisfactory representation of the observations.

  • 9.
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    et al.
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden & IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Nohrstedt, Daniel
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden & Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mård, Johanna
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden & Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Burchardt, Steffi
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden & Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden & Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bondesson, Sara
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden, Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden & Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Breinl, Korbinian
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden & Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deegan, Frances
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden & Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fuentes, Diana
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden & Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Girons Lopez, Marc
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden & Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden.
    Rydstedt Nyman, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden.
    Rhodes, Emma
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden & Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Troll, Valentin
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden & Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Young, Stephanie
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden & Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Walch, Colin
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden & Department of Political Science, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Parker, Charles F
    Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (CNDS), Sweden & Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    An integrative research framework to unravel the interplay of natural hazards and vulnerabilities2018In: Earth's Future, ISSN 1384-5160, E-ISSN 2328-4277Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Evers, Mariele
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Bonn University.
    Participation in Flood risk Management: An introduction and recommendations for implementation2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Involving interested parties in Flood Risk Management is a crucial and challenging issue. The implementation of the European Flood Directive requires the active participation of stakeholders. But how can this be achieved successfully? This publication gives a brief overview of participation issues in Flood Risk Management in order to prepare for and to assist participatory processes. It provides a synopsis of key issues, findings of literature research and project results in (public) participation in the field of water and flood risk management. 

    The focus here is on general aspects of (public) participation. This publication describes an understanding of what participation is and gives some definitions of relevant terms. Furthermore the question “why is participation important?” is considered and reasons for and against participation and potential barriers are described. Guidelines for the key questions that should be addressed before a participation process is started are offered and different working steps are explained. Finally, some examples of methods and tools for participation are described.

    However, this short description can only give an overview and orientation of this broad field. In fact, each project and process has to be adapted to the respective situation and conditions. Nevertheless, this brochure might contribute to the participatory process in Flood Risk Management and help to involve interested parties as required by the EU Floods Directive.

  • 11.
    Evers, Mariele
    et al.
    University of Bonn , Germany.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Coherence and inconsistency of European instruments for integrated river basin management2013In: International Journal of River Basin Management, ISSN 1571-5124, E-ISSN 1814-2060, Vol. 11, p. 139-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large rivers are particularly under pressure due to multiple uses which often have severe impacts on ecosystems, or water quality and flow. Conflicting aims and a lack of integration and cooperation in planning and management are not beneficial to sustainable management. Important elements of integrated river basin management (IRBM) include both water quality aspects and floodplain and flood risk management. On the other hand, land use and land use planning are also both of great importance for sustainable river management. However, water management and land use planning are generally treated as two distinct issues in planning procedures and decision-making processes. Even water quality and flood risk issues are often handled by different authorities. Integrated management of transnational river basins is even more complicated and difficult. In Europe, there is a range of relevant Directives such as the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive and Habitat Directive. This paper illustrates how these legal and planning instruments influence the IRBM of large rivers. It analyses the potential synergies of the goals outlined in the directives and various related measures. Coherent but also inconsistent aspects of IRBM are identified against six different dimensions: political intention, legal, geographical, management, socio-economic and sustainability. The analysis shows potentials for synergies but also potential inconsistencies. We show that directives must be carefully coordinated to ensure coherent management and that synergies and site-specific goals, such as target areas, are important for sustainable management. Possible methodologies are described. IRBM can be considered as one possible approach towards sustainable development by coordinating different policies.

  • 12.
    Evers, Mariele
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, CNDS, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Transnational education for integrated flood risk management - the master course IFRM: [Transnationale bildung für integriertes hochwasserrisikomanagement - Der masterkurs "integrated flood risk management"]2013In: Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung, ISSN 1439-1783, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 100-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flood Risk Management (FRM) is a topic of growing importance. This is signiicantly illustrated by the European Directive on Flood Risk Management, which entered into force in 2007. FRM in general but also the Directive require integrated and interdisciplinary approaches and skills. Against this background the International Master Course "Integrated lood risk management" was developed and implemented under the EU project "Strategic Alliance for Water Management Actions" (SAWA). Six universities and 12 non-academic partners from ive European countries participated in the course. The paper describes the background and requirements of such an education ofer as well as its content and its pedagogical and organizational format. Furthermore, the implementation of the course and evaluation results are presented.

  • 13.
    Evers, Mariele
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Bonn University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Svedung, Inge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Reducing flood risk by integrative land use planning2012In: Proceedings of the 43rd ESReDA seminar on land use planning and risk-informed decision making. Saint-Étienne-du Rouvray, France, Oct 22-23, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Insured flood losses in Sweden, 1987-2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Assessment of data availability for the development of landslide fatality curves2017In: Landslides: Journal of the International Consortium on Landslides, ISSN 1612-510X, E-ISSN 1612-5118, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 1113-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quick clay landslides are a special feature of Norwegian and Swedish geologies. Vibrations or small initial landslides can cause a quick clay layer to collapse and liquefy, resulting in rapid landslides with little or no time for evacuation, making them a real threat to human life. Research concentrating on damages due to landslides is scarce, and analyses of loss of human lives caused by quick clay landslides in the scientific literature are, to our knowledge, non-existing. Fatality quantification can complement landslide risk assessments and serves as guidance for policy choices when evaluating efficient risk-reducing measures. The objectives of this study were to assess and analyze available damage information in an existing data set of 66 historical landslide events that occurred in Norway and Sweden between 1848 and 2009, and access its applicability for quantifying loss of human life caused by quick clay landslides. Fatality curves were estimated as functions of the number of exposed persons per landslide. Monte Carlo simulations were used to account for the uncertainties in the number of people actually exposed. The results of the study imply that the quick clay fatality curves are non-linear, indicating that the probability of losing lives increases exponentially when the number of exposed persons increases. Potential factors affecting human susceptibility to landslides (e.g., landslide-, area-, or individual-specific characteristics) could not be satisfyingly quantified based on available historical records. Future research should concentrate on quantifying susceptibility factors that can further explain human vulnerability to quick clay landslides.

  • 16.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, CNDS, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Assessment of pluvial flood exposure and vulnerability of residential areas2017In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 21, p. 367-375Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Analys av översvämningsskador - En kunskapsöversikt2013Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyberg, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Damage assessment of lake floods: Insured damage to private property during two lake floods in Sweden 2000/20012014In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 10, p. 305-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses empirical data on the direct damage impact of lake floods using insurance claims for 195 private buildings. A relationship between lake water levels and insurance payments is established, but the estimated economic effects are small. Building damage also occurs in fringe areas that are not reached by surface water, which indicates a complex interplay between several factors influencing the degree of damage. Large lake floods occur over an extended time span (months). Their duration, as well as possible wind effects, should be taken into account in flood risk assessment. The slow onset of lake floods facilitates implementation of private damage-reducing measures in addition to public mitigation efforts. Private damage-reducing measures decrease the risk of structural damage to buildings, easing recovery for homeowners and society as a whole. Insurance companies can gain from investing in public flood awareness programmes and by providing information to their insurance holders on how to reduce property vulnerability in emergency situations.

  • 19.
    Grahn, Tonje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Olsson, Jonas
    SMHI.
    Insured flood damage in Sweden, 1987-20132018In: Journal of Flood Risk Management, ISSN 1753-318X, E-ISSN 1753-318XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses insurance claims as a proxy for property damage to analyse flood damage in Sweden between the years 1987 and 2013. The number of compensated insurance claims per year has risen rapidly during this period. As much as 70% of the claims are caused by flood damage occurring during the summer months June, July, and August, when intense rain with low predictability is common. To explore the damage trend a time series cross sectional analysis using four different fixed effect models was applied to the data set. Due to data scarcity, the time series had to be limited to 16years and contain a total of 304 damage observations. The potentially explanatory climate related factor extreme rain, defined as >6 mm/15min, and the socioeconomic factors gross regional product (GRP) per capita and housing stock were tested as explanatory factors. The GRP per capita and housing stock were found to be significant in two regression models. The estimated effect of extreme rainfall events exceeded the effects of GRP per capita and housing stock in the models. Extreme rain was robust to model specification and was found to have a highly significant impact on Swedish flood damage.

  • 20.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Strong local government moving to the market?: The case of low carbon futures in the city of Örebro, Sweden2018In: Rethinking Urban Transitions: Politics in the Low Carbon City / [ed] Andrés Luque-Ayala, Simon Marvin and Harriet Bulkeley, Taylor & Francis, 2018, p. 129-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy and practice at the local level is central in relating global standards and knowledge, national and regional climate change scenarios and policy decisions into particular climate action in a specific context (Bulkeley and Betsill, 2003; Elander et al., 2003; Lundqvist and Biel, 2007; Storbjörk, 2007; Storbjörk, 2010; Castán Broto and Bulkeley, 2012; van den Berg and Coenen, 2012; Romero-Lankao, 2012; Bulkeley et al., 2015). This means that cities, and their local governments, are central to understanding the implementation of international agreements (regimes), national and regional climate change policy. It needs to be stressed, however, that local governments are not just implementers of policy decision taken at higher levels of government. Local governments can, and perhaps have to, be forerunners in climate change policy and practice, as the sources and impacts of climate change are always local, national policy and international negotiations are not always successful, and national governments are not necessarily taking the lead (Gore and Robinson, 2009; Bulkeley et al., 2015; Bulkeley and Betsill, 2003). Local government action on climate change takes place in a specific local setting. It also takes place in a policy environment characterized by cross-cutting issues and cross pressure from government actors on international, national and regional levels, unfolding public sector reform, continuous policy development, and demands from businesses and citizens (Granberg et al., 2016). Accordingly, why and how cities act on climate change challenges is by no means a straightforward matter (Bulkeley et al., 2015) but, certainly, one that warrants critical research. This chapter focuses on local government low carbon action within the field of alternative energy production, zooming in on the organizational modes and on intermediary functions and actors in efforts aiming at low carbon transitions (cf. Bulkeley and Betsill, 2013; Hodson et al., 2013). In the Swedish context, low carbon transitions are of course connected to the ecological need to reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, mitigating future risks and impacts. But they are also increasingly connected to the more economic arguments connected to the concept of a carbon or fossil bubble (Schoenmaker et al., 2015; Rubin, 2015). That is, the idea that any investments made in fossil fuel-based companies are investments that will add to GHC emissions and, perhaps even more important from this perspective, fail to produce any long-term economic profits. According to this perspective, all viable investments need to be directed towards no-carbon solutions, businesses and markets or there will be serious negative economic impacts when the carbon bubble eventually bursts. The central questions of this chapter are how capacity-building for low carbon transitions evolves at the interface between state and market and what specific role local governments take in this interface. As already indicated above, this perspective is guided by the concept of intermediation through institutional experimentation (cf. Luque-Ayala et al., Chapter 2, this volume; also, Hodson and Marvin, 2009, 2012; Hodson et al., 2013). Intermediaries here are defined as entities that connect, translate and facilitate flows between different parties. The focus of the chapter is, more precisely, on systemic intermediation on a network level involving more than two parties (Hodson and Marvin, 2009). The intermediary role can be divided into facilitating, configuring and brokering (Stewart and Hyysalo, 2008). Accordingly, the aim of this chapter is to study local government efforts to build low carbon capacity by describing, critically examining and analysing local government climate action. In the case studied here, we can see the local government organization intermediating indirectly by trying to facilitate flows of both experience and capital between public and private actors but also directly as a market actor through a boundary hybrid organization facilitating connections between local government and market actors. A hybrid organization (cf. Koppell, 2006) is an organization that mixes value systems and logics of various spheres such as the state and the market (cf. Erlingsson et al., 2014; Montin, 2016). More precisely, the local government uses a 'green' investment fund, facilitating public-private networking and a municipal company in their efforts to advance a low carbon transition. The case studied follows the development of local government climate change action over the last decade in the Swedish city of Örebro. The city profiles itself as a forerunner in environmental issues and has formulated ambitious reduction targets. Sweden is often considered a pioneer in environmental governance (Lidskog and Elander, 2012), combining high ambitions at a national level, strong local government and robust policy guided by ecological modernization (Lundqvist, 2000; Zannakis, 2015). It has been stated that if Sweden still holds on to a leading international position in environmental governance it is probably due to activities at the local level (Granberg and Elander, 2007; Uggla and Elander, 2009; Hjerpe et al., 2014). Accordingly, Sweden provides an interesting context for studies of local government climate change action via market mechanisms, given its combination of strong local government with high (national and local) environmental ambitions. Arguably, drawing from this, if Sweden is to be perceived as a 'least likely' case for utilizing market mechanisms due to its strong and resourceful local government (cf. Flyvbjerg, 2006), then local government action in Sweden becomes a critical case worthy of critical inquiry. In the sections that follow, this chapter elaborates aspects integral to the case studied. First, it briefiy presents the Swedish local government system and its development, highlighting the presence of strong local governments and their central role in the Swedish government system. This is followed by a presentation of Swedish policy development within the fields of climate change, energy generation and GHG mitigation, again highlighting the central role given to Swedish local government. The chapter ends with a set of conclusions aimed at an integrated analysis of the Swedish government system, national policy developments and the local component of the case study showing how these three components are, in fact, one integrated multilevel case. It is clear that the local government uses a form of institutional experimentation that mixes value systems and logics of both state and market in its strive to becoming a 'climate smart' city.

  • 21.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, CNDS, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Climate change adaptation, city competitiveness and urban planning in the city of Karlstad, Sweden2018In: Local Action on Climate Change / [ed] Moloney, Susie, Fünfgeld, Hartmut och Granberg, Mikael, Abingdon & New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 111-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Granberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Modh, Lars-Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Understanding the local policy context of risk management: Competitiveness and adaptation to climate risks in the city of Karlstad, Sweden2016In: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 26-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the situation of climate risk management we need to understand the priorities and politics of the wider policy context. The framing of potentially incompatible policy issues is important to take into account when analysing policy processes. In this article, we focus on two policy issues aiming at local adaptation to global forces: facilitating city competiveness and adapting to the impacts of global climate change. Global climate change always manifests itself in the local arena, which thus becomes a crucial site for adaptation to the risks connected to climate change. Adaptation has to correspond with the city policy agenda to build the attractive city through waterfront housing as a means to strengthen its competitiveness in a globalised economy. This article focuses on the relationship between pursuing competitiveness through waterfront housing and the needs to adapt to climate change in terms of contemporary and future flood risks.

  • 23.
    Gray, Steven
    et al.
    Michigan State Univ USA.
    Voinov, Alexey
    Univ Technol Sydney, Australia.
    Paolisso, Michael
    Univ Maryland, USA.
    Jordan, Rebecca
    Rutgers State Univ, USA.
    BenDor, Todd
    Univ N Carolina, USA.
    Bommel, Pierre
    CIRAD, Green Res Unit, Frankrike, Univ Costa Rica.
    Glynn, Pierre
    US Geol Survey, 432 Natl Ctr, Reston, VA 20191 USA.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Hubacek, Klaus
    Univ Maryland, Dept Geog Sci, College Pk, USA.
    Introne, Josh
    Michigan State Univ, USA.
    Kolagani, Nagesh
    Indian Inst Informat Technol IIIT Chittoor, Sri City, India.
    Laursen, Bethany
    Michigan State Univ, USA.
    Prell, Christina
    Univ Maryland, USA.
    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt
    Michigan State Univ, USA.
    Singer, Alison
    Michigan State Univ, USA.
    Sterling, Eleanor
    Amer Museum Nat Hist, Ctr Biodivers & Conservat, 200 Cent Pk West, New Yor.
    Zellner, Moira
    Univ Illinois, USA.
    Purpose, processes, partnerships, and products: four Ps to advance participatory socio-environmental modeling2018In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 46-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Including stakeholders in environmental model building and analysis is an increasingly popular approach to understanding ecological change. This is because stakeholders often hold valuable knowledge about socio-environmental dynamics and collaborative forms of modeling produce important boundary objects used to collectively reason about environmental problems. Although the number of participatory modeling (PM) case studies and the number of researchers adopting these approaches has grown in recent years, the lack of standardized reporting and limited reproducibility have prevented PM's establishment and advancement as a cohesive field of study. We suggest a four-dimensional framework (4P) that includes reporting on dimensions of (1) the Purpose for selecting a PM approach (the why); (2) the Process by which the public was involved in model building or evaluation (the how); (3) the Partnerships formed (the who); and (4) the Products that resulted from these efforts (the what). We highlight four case studies that use common PM software-based approaches (fuzzy cognitive mapping, agent-based modeling, system dynamics, and participatory geospatial modeling) to understand human-environment interactions and the consequences of ecological changes, including bushmeat hunting in Tanzania and Cameroon, agricultural production and deforestation in Zambia, and groundwater management in India. We demonstrate how standardizing communication about PM case studies can lead to innovation and new insights about model-based reasoning in support of ecological policy development. We suggest that our 4P framework and reporting approach provides a way for new hypotheses to be identified and tested in the growing field of PM.

  • 24.
    Guinea Barrientos, Hector E.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ San Carlos, Facultad Agron, Guatemala City, Guatemala..
    Swain, Ashok
    Uppsala Univ, Ctr Sustainable Dev, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Ecol & Genet Limnol, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Disaster management cooperation in central america: The case of rainfall-induced natural disasters2015In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rainfall-induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. Due to the geographical conditions of the Central American region, it is common that two or more countries are struck by the same rainfall event, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region, killing more than 18000 people. As a consequence, Central American countries have started to promote regional policies and programs that aim for better preparation and response to these events, including disaster management cooperation. However, cooperation poses several challenges that may hinder its goals. In order to analyse these challenges, we present analysis in this paper of the current policy and legal institutions as well as the main challenges that may hinder international disaster management cooperation in Central America.

  • 25.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    The Sustainable Procedure Framework for Disaster Risk Management: Illustrated by the Case of the EU Floods Directive in Sweden2016In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, ISSN 2095-0055, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 151-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can the concrete meaning of the ambiguous and theoretical concept of sustainable development (SD) be defined and implemented, without losing sight of its fundamental principles? This study introduces a theoretical framework that supports studies of SD implementation in the context of strategic disaster risk management, by defining what SD implies with regard to planning procedures. The framework is based on the procedural SD principles of participation and integration. It was originally developed for, and has shown great value in, the field of water resource management. In-depth interviews with senior risk management researchers indicate that the framework is also applicable to and valuable for disaster risk management studies. To illustrate the application of the framework, a study of the EU Floods Directive in Sweden is summarized with the framework as the basis for the analysis.

  • 26.
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Evers, Mariele
    Bonn University, Germany.
    Alkan-Olsson, Johanna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Participatory modelling for sustainable development: Key issues derived from five cases of natural resource and disaster risk management2017In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 76, p. 185-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholder participation is considered a key principle for sustainable development in the context of natural resource and disaster risk management. Participatory modelling (PM) is an interactive and iterative process in which stakeholder involvement is supported by modelling and communication tools. Planning and decision making for sustainable development (SD)integrate three substantive dimensions social, ecological and economic. The procedural dimension of SD, however, is equally important, and here we see great potential for PM. In this study, we evaluate five PM research projects against criteria for the procedural dimension of SD. This provides a basis for identifying key issues and needs for further research into PM for SD. While the cases show great potential, especially for supporting knowledge integration, learning and transparent handling of values and perspectives, they indicate a particular need to develop PM in respect of organizational integration. This issue is closely connected to the possibility of effectively implementing PM in practice.

  • 27.
    Hogen, Joakim
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Linn, Ekholm
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Rolig lek eller blodigt allvar?: En kvalitativ studie av lekplatssäkerhetsarbete på kommunala lekplatser i Sverige2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Injuries due to accidents are an underlying cause for a large proportion of the number of health care visits in Sweden every year. According to statistics from the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden (socialstyrelsen.se) between 1308,25 and 1405,66 health care visits per 100.000 residents are generated each year for the period 2001-2014 due to accidents, and falling is the largest underlying category. Falling can in turn be studied through a number of subcategories, where fall from equipment on playground is one of them, and this is the subcategory studied in this paper. Statistics from the National Board of Health and Welfare show an increase of the number of health care visits per 100.000 residents in Sweden due to this category during the period 2001-2014, despite the fact that since 1999 there are European standards with the purpose of raising the safety of playgrounds. The statistics also show that in Sweden there are large regional differences in injury prevalence for this category of accidents, which is the reason why this became the focus of this study.

     

    One of the reasons this is an important area for injury prevention work is that it’s a shared societal responsibility, another reason is that the studied population has the largest statistical life expectancy left, so injuries that affect their health can also affect the future wellbeing of the society.  The municipalities’ work regarding this area is dictated by European Standards to ensure the safety of playgrounds. Beyond the specifications for the equipment itself, the standards dictate that a series of inspections of varying degrees are preformed throughout the year to ensure the standards are met.

     

    Aim: The aim of this study is to examine if there are any identifiable and differing factors in the way that municipalities work with playgrounds and playground safety, both practically and theoretically, based on if they are located in a region with high injury prevalence or in a region with low injury prevalence of this type of injury.

     

    Method: The study was designed as a qualitative interview study where representatives of 11 different municipalities were interviewed with the purpose to map out how they worked with playgrounds and playground safety within their municipality. The data collected was then analysed using thematically/ phenomenological content analysis to see if any differing factors between the two groups could be detected.

     

    Results: No major unambiguous differences were discovered between the two compared groups included in the study, but certain tendencies could be found in the material. Four themes were uncovered, enabling factors for the practical work, hindering factors for the practical work, enabling factors for the theoretical work and hindering factors for the theoretical work. These themes in turn produce a number of categories and subcategories. The results show a wider range of both hindering and enabling factors of both the practical and theoretical work in the municipalities from regions with high injury prevalence, compared to the municipalities from regions with low injury prevalence.

     

    Conclusion: The result indicates that there are differences in how the municipalities from regions with low injury prevalence work regarding playground safety compared to municipalities from regions with high injury prevalence. However, further research will be required to fully uncover and explore which these factors are.

  • 28.
    Jager, Nicolas W.
    et al.
    Univ Luneburg, Res Grp Governance Participat & Sustainabil, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Challies, Edward
    Univ Luneburg, Res Grp Governance Participat & Sustainabil, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Kochskaemper, Elisa
    Univ Luneburg, Res Grp Governance Participat & Sustainabil, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Newig, Jens
    Univ Luneburg, Res Grp Governance Participat & Sustainabil, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Benson, David
    Univ Exeter, Environm & Sustainabil Inst, Penryn TR10 9FE, Cornwall, England..
    Blackstock, Kirsty
    James Hutton Inst, Social Econ & Geog Sci Grp, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, Scotland..
    Collins, Kevin
    Open Univ, Appl Syst Thinking Practice Res Grp, Engn & Innovat Dept, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Ernst, Anna
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energy & Climate Res Syst Anal & Technol, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Evers, Mariele
    Univ Bonn, Inst Geog, D-53113 Bonn, Germany..
    Feichtinger, Judith
    CSI, A-1150 Vienna, Austria..
    Fritsch, Oliver
    Univ Leeds, Sch Geog & Water Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Gooch, Geoffrey
    DelPar Environm, S-58752 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Grund, Wiebke
    Univ Luneburg, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Hedelin, Beatrice
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Hernandez-Mora, Nuria
    Univ Seville, Dept Geog Humana, Seville 41004, Spain..
    Hueesker, Frank
    TU Kaiserslautern, Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany..
    Huitema, Dave
    Open Univ Netherlands, Fac Management Sci & Technol, NL-6419 AT Heerlen, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Inst Environm Studies IVM, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Irvine, Kenneth
    Univ Dublin, Trinity Coll, Sch Nat Sci, Dublin 2, Ireland.;UNESCO Inst Water Educ, NL-2611 AX Delft, Netherlands..
    Klinke, Andreas
    Mem Univ Newfoundland, Environm Policy Inst, Corner Brook, NF A2H 5G4, Canada..
    Lange, Leonie
    Univ Luneburg, D-21335 Luneburg, Germany..
    Loupsans, Delphine
    French Natl Agcy Water & Aquat Environm, ONEMA, F-94300 Vincennes, France..
    Lubell, Mark
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Environm Sci & Policy, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Maganda, Carmen
    AC INECOL, Inst Ecol, Xalapa Enriquez 91070, Ver, Mexico..
    Matczak, Piotr
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Inst Sociol, PL-61712 Poznan, Poland..
    Pares, Marc
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Inst Govern &Polit Publ, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Saarikoski, Heli
    Environm Policy Ctr, Finnish Environm Inst, POB 140, Helsinki 00251, Finland..
    Slavikova, Lenka
    Univ Jana Evangelisty Purkyne & Usti nad Labem, IEEP, Usti Nad Labem Mesto 40096, Czech Republic..
    van der Arend, Sonja
    SenF Serious Fict, NL-6703 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    von Korff, Yorck
    Flow Ing, F-34980 Montferrier Sur Lez, France..
    Transforming European Water Governance?: Participation and River Basin Management under the EU Water Framework Directive in 13 Member States2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires EU member states to produce and implement river basin management plans, which are to be designed and updated via participatory processes that inform, consult with, and actively involve all interested stakeholders. The assumption of the European Commission is that stakeholder participation, and institutional adaptation and procedural innovation to facilitate it, are essential to the effectiveness of river basin planning and, ultimately, the environmental impact of the Directive. We analyzed official documents and the WFD literature to compare implementation of the Directive in EU member states in the initial WFD planning phase (2000-2009). Examining the development of participatory approaches to river basin management planning, we consider the extent of transformation in EU water governance over the period. Employing a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach, we map the implementation "trajectories" of 13 member states, and then provide a detailed examination of shifts in river basin planning and participation in four member states (Germany, Sweden, Poland and France) to illustrate the diversity of institutional approaches observed. We identify a general tendency towards increased, yet circumscribed, stakeholder participation in river basin management in the member states examined, alongside clear continuities in terms of their respective pre-WFD institutional and procedural arrangements. Overall, the WFD has driven a highly uneven shift to river basin-level planning among the member states, and instigated a range of efforts to institutionalize stakeholder involvement-often through the establishment of advisory groups to bring organized stakeholders into the planning process.

  • 29.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Data sources on small-scale disaster losses and response: A Swedish case study of extreme rainfalls 2000–20122015In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 12, p. 93-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal interest to evaluate and learn from disasters is scale dependent. Low frequent hazards with small impacts are often invisible at national level from an evaluation point of view and limited possibilities exist to compile publicly available data on losses and management in the aftermath. This study presents an inventory of possible data sources for 14 extreme rainfall events in Sweden 2000-2012. The sources, such as official sectorial institutions and media, and their content are analyzed in relation to reliability and verification opportunities. The use of free-text fields in official reporting systems and questionnaires, primarily designed for basic data capture from daily occurring accidents, is highlighted as important to achieve enhanced data that can be used to verify information from other sources, especially media archives.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Experience of data collection in support of the assessment of global progress in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030-A Swedish pilot study2017In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 24, p. 144-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most countries collect loss and damage data after disasters for learning purposes and in support of future preventive work. The lack of international standards and sharing principles implies heterogeneous data sets, thus presenting a challenge to the development of indicators intended to assess progress within the UN agreement Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR). In this study, data on mortality, affected people and direct economic losses are extracted from two national databases in Sweden for the years 1996-2015. Pre-SFDRR terminology, definitions and different inclusion criteria are used to exemplify and identify challenges when global "proxy" data inquiry clashes with sub-national demands for data quality. Different test methods on how to estimate affected people are used and in comparison with the term 'directly affected people', as proposed in the SFDRR indicator establishment process, it is concluded that methods for more disaggregated data are needed. In a Swedish context, the SFDRR call for a reference period 2005-2015 is found to be a time too short for providing a fair picture of disaster risks within Sweden's borders. The nationally developed strategy in Sweden, as in many other countries, to learn in-depth after each new disaster and use the experience to remedy weaknesses in safety systems, generates solid data supporting the development of SFDRR indicators, but the national benefits and the relevance of statistics from disasters re-occurring on longer time scales are limited.

  • 31.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Manuskript: Identifying sociodemographic risk factors associated with residential fire-related fatalities: a matched case control studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Lundqvist, Marie
    Gell, Thomas
    MSB.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Identifying schools at risk of fire-setting2017In: Security Journal, ISSN 0955-1662, E-ISSN 1743-4645, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Jönsson, Morgan
    et al.
    Myndigheten för samhällskydd och beredskap.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    "Har man kanelbullens dag så kan man väl ha en dag för individanpassat brandskydd också?": En kvalitativ kartläggning av individanpassat brandskyddsarbete i Skåne och Värmland2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Inledning: Sverige strävar sedan 2010 mot en nollvision där ingen ska omkomma eller skadas allvarligt till följd av brand (MSB, 2009). Detta till trots omkommer varje år drygt 100 människor som ett resultat av just bränder, där framförallt äldre och personer med funktionsnedsättning är särskilt riskutsatta. För att främja arbetet mot nollvisionen publicerade MSB vägledningen Brandsäker bostad för alla, under 2013. Vägledningens tilltänkta syfte är att fungera som en metodhandbok för hur en individanpassad brandskyddsverksamhet kan bedrivas på kommunnivå. I vilken utsträckning som ett sådant arbete bedrivs samt vilket genomslagskraft vägledningen har fått är emellertid oklart. Avsikten med denna studie är därmed att undersöka just detta.  

    Metod: Studien har en kvalitativ ansats där sammanlagt tio semistrukturerade intervjuer har utförts i Skåne och Värmland. Därefter har data analyserats med hjälp av en manifest innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Totalt har följande tre kategorier genererats: Den första kategorin, Individanpassat brandskydd är utmanande, konkretiserar problematiken kring individanpassat brandskydd och identifierar riskgrupper och huvudaktörer. Andra kategorin, Kommunerna antar utmaningen, presenterar hur de utvalda kommunerna arbetar med individanpassat brandskydd, och vilka aktörer som är verksamhetsutövare. Avslutningsvis beskriver Saker och ting kan förbättras hur MSBs roll i sammanhanget ser ut samt hur vägledningen har tagits emot på kommunnivå.

    Slutsats: Sammantaget visar resultatet att de granskade kommunerna arbetar med individanpassat brandskydd, om än i olika utsträckning. Det påtalas även att det uteslutande är vård- och omsorgsförvaltningen samt räddningstjänsten som är verksamhetsutövare på lokal nivå. Detta medför att identifieringsprocessen av riskindivider är begränsad till ovan nämnda förvaltningars verksamheter. Det nuvarande individanpassade brandskyddsarbetet är därmed initierat, men har ännu inte uppnått sin fulla potential. Ett antal övriga aktörer, däribland socialförvaltningen, har identifierats som nödvändiga för att verksamheten ska kunna utvecklas och bli mer effektiv, men de tycks inte inbegripas i den nuvarande arbetsprocessen.  

  • 34.
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    A Stakeholder Analysis of the Disaster Risk Reduction Policy Subsystem in Mozambique2014In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 38-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and magnitude of climate related hazards inmany countries. Due to this, disaster risk reduction (DRR) policy has gained a lot of attention inrecent years. DRR policies address complex problems that require inputs from a variety ofstakeholders and hence a multi-stakeholder approach has been advocated widely. However, thepractice of DRR policymaking is challenging and therefore new tools are needed to better understandthe political context of DRR policymaking. This article utilizes an Advocacy Coalition Framework(ACF) approach to describe the political context of the DRR policy subsystem in Mozambique.Through a stakeholder analysis, the article seeks to empirically define subsystem boundaries and toidentify belief systems and key actors therein. The results indicate that the actors can be divided intotwo advocacy coalitions, formed around extant approaches to DRR: disaster management anddevelopment. The article concludes with reflections on the applicability of an ACF approach tostakeholder analysis and as a tool for understanding policy disputes and coordination challenges incomplex settings, such as DRR governance.

  • 35.
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Disasters as drivers for policy changes in the context of recurrent hazards?: The case of disaster risk management in Mozambique2014In: Proceedings of the 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference: Integrative Risk Management - The Role of Science, Technology and Practice, IDRC Davos 2014, p. 384-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of disaster risk management (DRM) policies has gained attention in recent years but the processes leading to changes in DRM policies is still rather under-researched topic. One country where DRM has gained momentum over the last few years is Mozambique where recurrent natural disasters negatively impacts on the country’s development efforts. Drawing on policy process literature this paper scrutinises the DRM policy changes in Mozambique and the role of disasters in this process. The data for this qualitative case study was collected in early 2013 in Maputo, Mozambique mainly by interviewing a number of actors actively participating in DRM policy process. The results reveal that while disasters can play a role policy process, they alone do not explain any policy changes. While international agreements and cooperation where seen as the main drivers for change, disasters have made incremental changes possible by serving as "wake-up calls", through lessons learned and by keeping the issue high in agenda. The short return period of natural disasters directs focus and resources on disaster response and recovery, thereby overshadowing DRM, although its importance is well acknowledged in the country. The findings suggest that the Post 2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction could be a useful tool for Mozambique, in particular if it provides platforms for information exchange between the countries.

  • 36.
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science.
    Navigating in the Midst of Uncertainties: Challenges in Disaster Risk Governance in Mozambique2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters cause heavy losses for societies and may quickly erode any development efforts. Consequently, disaster risk reduction (DRR) is an integral part of development work that should be addressed at multiple levels. Global DRR frameworks, scholars and practitioners all advocate disaster risk governance (DRG) strategies that are multi-stakeholder, polycentric and multisectoral. While various substantive knowledge gaps and questions arising from multiple risks and the crosscutting nature of DRR have been relatively well addressed, uncertainties relating to multiple DRR actors operating and collaborating at different scales have gained less attention in previous studies.

    This thesis investigates the uncertainties in DRG in Mozambique, a low-income country that regularly faces natural hazards. These hazards often cause heavy loss of life and livelihoods and economic damage. The four articles that together constitute this thesis focus on different sets of uncertainties and factors that have constrained or allowed Mozambique to take major steps in this policy area. By exploring strategic and institutional uncertainties related to stakeholder involvement, coordination and policy disputes, this thesis reveals different challenges and opportunities that affect DRR policymaking in Mozambique.

    This thesis concludes that Mozambique has managed to take important steps in DRR. However, as a consequence of the different challenges to DRR practice in Mozambique, policymaking can be short-sighted and makes slow progress, thus increasing the disconnect between theory, policies and practice. This thesis thus argues that DRG research and practice need to better take into account power-relations; coordination and capacity issues; and responsibilities and transparency across scales, both in Mozambique and elsewhere.

  • 37.
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, CNDS.
    Round and Round We Go: the effects of staff turnover on disaster risk governanceManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, CNDS.
    Whose Voice Do We Hear?: Obstacles to multi-stakeholder and multi-level disaster risk governance in MozambiqueManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Koivisto, Jenni
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Centre for natural Disaster Science.
    Nohrstedt, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Department of Government, Centre for natural Disaster Science.
    A policymaking perspective on disaster risk reduction in Mozambique2017In: Environmental hazards, ISSN 1464-2867, E-ISSN 1878-5697, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 210-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academics and practitioners alike emphasise that public policy plays a key role to support efforts to reduce disaster risks and to buffer the impacts of natural hazards when they occur. This involves developing public policies to promote disaster risk reduction (DRR). However, the public policy dimension has only recently begun to receive attention in empirical research on DRR. Processes of policy change are discussed, yet less often studied, and more empirical research is needed to advance the understanding of the conditions for DRR policy change. Combining insights from adaptation research and public policy theory, this study investigates the long-term development of DRR policy in Mozambique as perceived by multiple stakeholders. The study identifies barriers and enabling factors influencing the DRR policy process over time. Using data from 37 semi-structured interviews, the study finds six main enabling factors supporting DRR policy change. Among the most important enabling factors are past disasters and broad stakeholder involvement. The study also unveils several barriers to DRR policy change, including resource insufficiency and lack of coordination among stakeholders. The study concludes with suggestions for integrating DRR and policy process research and lessons for policymaking in support of DRR over time.

  • 40.
    Linnea, Olsson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Fotgängares och cyklisters skadeutfall i vägtrafiken med fokus på tid och veckodag: En beskrivande epidemiologisk studie av STRADA 2016–20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att ta reda på vilka dagar samt vilken tid på dygnet som fotgängare och cyklister har det största skadeutfallet under 2016–2017. Utifrån underlag från STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) sjukvård, är information framtagen för åren 2016 och 2017.

    I Sverige är fotgängare och cyklister två utsatta grupper på vägarna, där flera omkommer och skadas allvarligt varje år. Detta är ett oförändrat mönster som måste få en vändning på Sveriges vägar. Totalt sett under 2016–2017 skadades 47 789 oskyddade trafikanter allvarligt i svensk vägtrafik. Fördelningen mellan antalet skadade fotgängare och cyklister var relativt jämn, det var dock lite fler skadade fotgängare än cyklister. Under 2016–2017 skadades totalt sett 27 796 fotgängare och 19 993 cyklister.

    Generellt under 2016–2017 är det under eftermiddagen kl.16-17 som det är högst risk för oskyddade trafikanter att utsättas för en trafikolycka. Det är relativt jämt fördelat vilken dag på veckan som har det största skadeutfallet när det gäller fotgängare eller cyklister. Den dagen som sticker ut mest totalt sett är onsdagar. Tydligare är det dock när det gäller vilken dag det sker minst allvarliga olyckor där cyklister eller fotgängare är inblandade. Den dag med minst antal olyckor är söndagar.

    Vissa tider sticker ut mer när det gäller antalet olyckor med oskyddade trafikanter. Därför skulle det eventuellt vara lämpligt att under dessa tider införa lägre hastighetsbegränsningar och fler trafikkontroller.

  • 41.
    Magnusson, Monika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Wik, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Information Systems for Disaster Management Training: Investigating User Needs with a Design Science Research Approach2018In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management ISCRAM2018 / [ed] F.K. Boersma & B. Tomaszewski, ISCRAM , 2018, p. 841-850Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal threats such as global warming and terror attacks make crisis preparedness and crisis training a major priority in governments worldwide. Unfortunately, training is limited, partly due to complex and resource-demanding planning of traditional exercises. Several crisis training software have been developed as a complement. However, reports in research on their usage are rare, which indicates that the diffusion is limited. A potential explanation is that the systems fail to meet important needs in the organizations and/or sound information systems (IS) design principles. This paper describes the first phase of a design science research (DSR) project aiming at developing information systems for disaster management (ISDM) training, and accompanying training methods in local and regional governments. The purpose of this paper is to investigate perceived problems in current crisis training and identify opportunities for ISDM training in the application domain. Another purpose is to outline expected artifacts in the project.

  • 42.
    Nohrstedt, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Govt, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, CNDS, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Do floods drive hazard mitigation policy?: Evidence from swedish municipalities2015In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 109-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that continuous development of local-level mitigation policy plans and actions increases the chances of effective responses to natural hazards. What is less well known is how and why policy development, including the scope and pace of changes in municipality crisis mitigation programs, varies across local-level crisis mitigation systems. Using survey data on municipality hazard mitigation policy in Sweden, this study documents patterns of policy development and explores candidate explanations. Special attention is devoted to floods, which present local managers with opportunities to learn and adjust local mitigation policies. To investigate floods along with other hazards as potential drivers for local mitigation policy, the study examines three approaches to policy development: external shocks, transformation without disruption, and regional diffusion. Overall, in this case, the transformation without disruption model and the regional diffusion model do better than the external shocks model. Important precursors of policy development include collaboration, learning and diffusion effects from events and policy adoption in nearby municipalities. The study demonstrates the value of a broader analytical approach to policy development, which takes into account the interplay between events, collaborative management, and learning.

  • 43.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Vad innebär det att hantera översvämningsrisker?: Från sårbarhet till hållbarhet2016In: Katastrofriskreducering: Perspektiv, praktik, potential / [ed] Baez Ullberg S & Becker P, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 1, p. 123-143Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Evers, Mariele
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety. Bonn University.
    Dahlström, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Pettersson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Sustainability aspects of water regulation and flood risk reduction in Lake Vänern2014In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, ISSN 1463-4988, E-ISSN 1539-4077, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 331-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modern feature of flood risk management is to integrate ecological, economic and social aspects in risk prevention and mitigation. Risk-reducing measures can be in conflict with ecosystem functions and complicate upstream/downstream relations. Flood risks are also influenced by processes in the catchment, such as changes in climate and land-use, or increases of vulnerable urban areas. Lake Vänern in Sweden has high ecological and social values but is also flood-prone, which in this article has been analyzed from a perspective of sustainable development. Lake Vänern and the Göta älv River are used for drinking water supply, shipping, hydropower production, fishing, tourism, as a recipient for industries and wastewater plants, etc. The flood risks are connected to landslide and industrial risks. One interest at stake is the drinking water supply for 800,000 persons in the Gothenburg region. According to climate scenarios, flood risks will increase in the 21st century due to increased precipitation. Recent studies in the region were used to identify relevant interests and values connected to Lake Vänern. The study reveals differing interests in relation to water level regimes. From a flood protection perspective (risks around the lake and downstream to Gothenburg) a low and stable water level is beneficial. For shipping and hydropower, a stable medium-high water level is wanted, whereas from an ecosystem and landscape development perspective larger water level amplitudes are optimal. One out of a few reasons for this is the need to prevent a massive increase in vegetation in coastal areas. There are good reasons to have a broad decision-support, representing different values and interests, when the permanent water regulation scheme will be decided. This study also addresses the potential to reconcile the concept of flood risk management with that of a sustainable development.

  • 45.
    Nyberg, Moa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Risk- och sårbarhetsanalyser ur ett resiliensperspektiv: En analys av regionala risk- och sårbarhetsanalyser2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is an essay that analyses risk and vulnerability assessments from four different counties in Sweden based on Béné et al. (2012) theory of resilience and the abilities to absorb, adapt and transform. The theory also describes the concept vulnerability in relation to resilience and is included in the thematic analysis of the risk and vulnerability assessments. The work concerns the disputed concept of resilience, its meaning and application in risk and crisis management. The study shows how different risk and vulnerability assessments can describe these abilities and that the design of risk and vulnerability assessments affects how visible these abilities are in the description. The comparison of the counties shows that there are different abilities based on the descriptions, partly due to the design of risk and vulnerability assessment, the conditions and experiences that the counties have. The counties also distinguished themself in the descriptions of vulnerability and how citizens were taken into account in relation to risks and threats within the county. Conclusions that could be drawn from this work is for instance that the abilities to absorb, adapt and transform can be found in the risk and vulnerability assessment and that the principles in the theory and framework that Béné et al. (2012) describes also can be found in various parts of the risk and vulnerability assessments.

  • 46.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Flood response using complementary early warning information2016In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this comparative case study was to investigate and compare how Swedish municipalities gather and use warning information from official and unofficial sources at the municipal level, as well as the circumstances under which that process has a chance to succeed. The overall conclusions of the study are that official and unofficial warnings have the potential to play complementary roles for municipalities making decisions about flood response, giving the municipalities a wider perspective and better opportunity to assess risk and to act appropriately. The required resources for using official warnings and getting access to unofficial warning sources are not evenly distributed among municipalities, and a lack of systematization of access to warning information hinders the flood response potential.

  • 47.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Flood Warnings in a Risk Management Context: A Case of Swedish Municipalities2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the United Nations’ International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (1990-2000), and recent high profile disasters, disaster risk reduction has climbed high on the international political agenda. There has been a paradigm shift from reacting to disasters towards preparing for and mitigating effects of disasters. Among the measures that have been highlighted on the disaster risk reduction agenda are early warning systems. In a Swedish context, there are needs for early warnings for various flood risk types. Municipalities carry big responsibilities for managing flood risks, and early warnings have a potential to facilitate decision-making and ultimately reduce flood losses.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe how a variety of flood warning signals are used in the risk management process of Swedish municipalities, how they can contribute to the flood risk reducing process, and which factors influence the success of this. The thesis is based on two papers.

    Paper I is based on interviews with three respondents from Swedish municipalities that have invested in and established local early warning systems. The paper shows that the possible effects from a local early warning system are not only reduced flood losses but also potential spinoff, the occurrence of which is dependent on the well-being of the organisation and its risk management processes.

    Paper II is based on interviews with 23 respondents at 18 Swedish municipalities, who have responsibilities related to flood risk management, and one respondent who works at SMHI with hydrological warning. The paper shows that municipalities can use a variety of complementary flood warning signals to facilitate decision-making for a proactive flood response. This is however not systematically the case, and is dependent on available resources.

    The theoretical contribution of this thesis is a development of existing conceptual models of early warning systems with respect to risk management and system contexts, and the use of complementary warning signals.

  • 48.
    Persson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Svedung, Inge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Flood Warning in a Swedish Local Risk Management Context2015In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 383-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to explore how local early warning systems (EWS) for floods are established at the municipality level in Sweden. The study also aims to analyse the role of EWSs in a risk management context. The overall purpose of this study is to elucidate how and to what extent the adoption of local EWSs can generate value added benefits throughout the wider risk management process.

    Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with supervisors at each municipality in order to depict how local EWS are established at the municipality level in Sweden. The interviews went through a content analysis with respect to theory on EWS and theory on the risk management process.

    The possible effects from an EWS is not only reduced flood losses but also potential spinoff. The possibility of spinoff effects from the system, but also the mitigating effectiveness in case of a flood is largely dependent on the well-being of the organization and its risk management processes.

    This study widens the understanding of the value of an EWS and that the organizational culture and state of risk management system has influence on the availability of such value. Identifying the potential added value from EWSs is important from a more general disaster risk reduction perspective, as it helps to further motivate implementation of proactive risk management measures. This knowledge can be of help to others who investigate the possibilities of investing in EWSs.

  • 49.
    Petersson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Klimatanpassning inom svensk dricksvattenhantering: En analys av existerande arbetsmetoder med hjälp av 4-E strategier2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to highlight the problem of low groundwater levels and water shortage by analyzing how Sweden's management and adaptability capabilities work in comparison with risk management strategies. The collected result was analyzed against the so-called 4-E Strategies (Enforcement, Engineering, Education, and Economic) as the main framework. In addition, the study aimed at investigating how the ability can be created through these strategies and which of these the municipalities consider to be most effective. The data collection took place through individual semi-structured interviews with representatives from 5 municipalities. The answers from the interviews were then analyzed with qualitative content analysis, where responses generated from the qualitative content analysis were set against the 4-E strategies. The result shows that the interviewees believe that all prevention strategies may be useful depending on the context and when it is used. In addition, they must also be adapted to the local conditions in the current geographic area. The result also shows that all 4-E strategies are needed to create efficient handling and adaptability for drinking water management. The study's results show that the Swedish municipalities' management and adaptability to these strategies is satisfactory.

    Keywords Risk management, 4-E strategies, 3-E strategies, Drinking water management, Sweden

  • 50.
    Rydstedt Nyman, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Trafikverket.
    Collective Learning in Organizations – Opportunities and Constraints: Case Study of an Avalanche Blocking a Railway Line2018In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, article id RHC312159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Damaged infrastructures cause costly delays and losses. In this study, a collective learning framework and the theory of loops of learning are applied to a case study to develop a conceptual model on how lessons learned may be put to more effective use. Structures for systematic learning from events may serve as important tools in proactive adaptation for a more resilient infrastructure in future. This article studies an avalanche blocking a railway and an adjacent road in northern Sweden, which involves several interdependencies of critical infrastructures and actors. To enhance resilience future risk assessment and SWOT analyses should include the effects from a changing climate on the vulnerabilities of interdependence among multiple stakeholders and infrastructures. Knowledge-sharing foremost resulted in single-loop learning, leading to incremental changes. Respondents expressed an understanding of the importance of double-loops feedback but sensed that they lacked incentives from top levels in the organization for future reporting of experiences. This lack of incentives may impede establishing collective memory. The findings of this study can be used to improve policy recommendations, and support building resilience through products of learning.

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