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  • 1.
    Andrich, David
    et al.
    The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items2015In: Educational and Psychological Measurement, ISSN 0013-1644, E-ISSN 1552-3888, Vol. 75, no 2, 185-207 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differential item functioning (DIF) for an item between two groups is present if, for the same person location on a variable, persons from different groups have different expected values for their responses. Applying only to dichotomously scored items in the popular Mantel–Haenszel (MH) method for detecting DIF in which persons are classified by their total scores on an instrument, Andrich and Hagquist articulated the concept of artificial DIF and showed that as an artifact of the MH method, real DIF in one item favoring one group inevitably induces artificial DIF favoring the other group in all other items. Using the dichotomous Rasch model in which the total score for a person is a sufficient statistic, and therefore justifies classifying persons by their total scores, Andrich and Hagquist showed that to distinguish between real and artificial DIF in an item identified by the MH method, a sequential procedure for resolving items is implied. Using the polytomous Rasch model, this article generalizes the concept of artificial DIF to polytomous items, in which multiple item parameters play a role. The article shows that the same principle of resolving items sequentially as with dichotomous items applies also to distinguishing between real and artificial DIF with polytomous items. A real example and a small simulated example that parallels the real example are used illustratively.

  • 2.
    Augustsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Kartläggning av studier om nordiska ungdomars psykiska hälsa2011Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying among Swedish Adolescents: Gender differences and associations with mental health2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study the differences between traditional bullying and cyberbullying among adolescents, focusing on gender, psychosomatic problems, and disability, and to gain insight into health staff’s experience of bullying in schools.

    The four studies in this thesis were based on surveys undertaken among 3,800 adolescents in Grades 7, 8 and 9 in Sweden, as well as focus groups of 16 people consisting of school social workers and school nurses.

    While almost no gender differences were found among traditional victims, Study I showed that girls were more likely than boys to be cybervictims. Boys were more likely than girls to be traditional bullies, while girls were equally as likely as boys to be cyberbullies. Study II showed that psychosomatic problems were associated with being a victim, a bully or a bully-victim. Cyberbullying showed no stronger association with psychosomatic problems than traditional bullying. Study III: Three main categories emerged from school health staff’s experience: 1) “Anti-bullying team”; 2) “Working style”; and 3) “Perspectives on bullying”. The last two each comprised two sub-categories: “Team member”/“Single worker”; and “Contextual perspective”/“Individual-oriented perspective”. Study IV showed that, regardless of gender and grade, students with a disability were more likely to be bully-victims and, more particularly, bully-victims involved in both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. No differences between disabled adolescents and others were found with respect to the association between bullying and psychosomatic health.

    The results show that some adolescents are more likely to experience higher levels of psychosomatic health problems than others. They also show that some adolescents are more likely to be involved in bullying, either as victims, bullies or bully-victims. This thesis also discusses contextual and individual approaches adopted by schools in preventing bullying.

  • 4.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Views of Bullying and Antibullying Working Styles Among School Nurses and School Social Workers in Sweden2016In: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 15, no 4, 438-459 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hellström, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying: An analysis of Swedish adolescent data2013In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, Vol. 29, no 5, 1896-1903 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the rapid development of modern IT technology, cyberspace bullying has emerged among adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine gender differences among adolescents involved in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Cross-sectional data from 2989 Swedish students aged 13–15 were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show discrepant gender patterns of involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. First, although there were only minimal gender differences among traditional victims, girls are more likely than boys to be cybervictims when occasional cyberbullying is used as a cut-off point. Second, whereas boys are more likely to be traditional bullies, girls are as likely as boys to be cyberbullies. In conclusion, compared to traditional bullying, girls are generally more involved in cyberbullying relative to boys. We discuss these results in the light of adolescents’ usage of computerized devices.

  • 6.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Hellström, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying - An analysis of Swedish adolescent data (vol 29, pg 1896, 2013)2014In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 34, 353-353 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hellström, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Traditional bullying and cyberbullying2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Stenbeck, Magnus
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Disability in Relation to Different Peer-Victimization Groups and Psychosomatic Problems2016In: Children & Schools, ISSN 1532-8759, E-ISSN 1545-682X, Vol. 38, no 3, 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between disability, victims, perpetrators, and so-called "bully-victims" (someone reporting being both a victim and a perpetrator) of traditional, cyber, or combined victimization or perpetration and psychosomatic health among adolescents. Authors analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,820 Swedish students (ages 13 through 15) using linear and multinomial regression. The results show that students with a disability were more likely to be bully-victims and, more particularly, involved in both traditional and cyber victimization. Authors did not find any differences between adolescents with a disability and others with respect to the association between peer victimization and psychosomatic health. When developing intervention programs, schools may take a comprehensive approach due to the relatively large overlap between traditional and cyber victimization. Targeting groups with known disadvantages may also help reach out to bully-victims.

  • 9.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Chi-Squared Test of Fit and Sample Size-A Comparison between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method2015In: Journal of Applied Measurement, ISSN 1529-7713, Vol. 16, no 2, 204-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chi-square statistics are commonly used for tests of fit of measurement models. Chi-square is also sensitive to sample size, which is why several approaches to handle large samples in test of fit analysis have been developed. One strategy to handle the sample size problem may be to adjust the sample size in the analysis of fit. An alternative is to adopt a random sample approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare these two strategies using simulated data. Given an original sample size of 21,000, for reductions of sample sizes down to the order of 5,000 the adjusted sample size function works as good as the random sample approach. In contrast, when applying adjustments to sample sizes of lower order the adjustment function is less effective at approximating the chi-square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, the fit is exaggerated and misfit under-estimated using the adjusted sample size function. Although there are big differences in chi-square values between the two approaches at lower sample sizes, the inferences based on the p-values may be the same.

  • 10.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Den värmländska skolan2016In: Värmländska utmaningar: Poitik Ekonomi Samhälle  Kultur Medier / [ed] P-O Norell & Lennart Nilsson, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2016, 423-434 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolan är ett område som i högsta grad berör allmänheten. Detta märks både i den allmänna debatten i nyhetsrapportering och i vetenskapliga undersökningar av olika slag. Under de senaste fem valen har exempelvis skolfrågan varit en av de mest centrala frågorna. Enligt SVTs väljarundersökning 2014 var också skolfrågan en av de mest betydelsefulla frågorna för val av parti. Den svenska grundskolan har under senare år även utgjort ett hett debattämne i svensk massmedia. Debatten har hämtat näring från de försämrade resultaten för svenska grundskoleelever vid internationella jämförelser, inte minst utifrån den så kallade PISA-undersökningen och andra internationella men också nationella jämförelser. I detta kapitel analyseras olika aspekter av förtroendet för den värmländska skolan och attityder till några vanliga politiska förslag på skolans område

     

  • 11.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Sample Size and Chi-Squared Test of Fit: A comparison Between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method Using Swedish Adolescent Data2015In: Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS) 2014 Conference Proceedings: Rasch and the Future / [ed] Zhang, Quan., & Yang, Hong. (Eds.), Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, 197-211 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Significance tests are commonly sensitive to sample size, and Chi-Squared statistics is not an exception. Nevertheless, Chi-Squared statistics are commonly used for test of fit of measurement models. Thus, for analysts working with very large (or very small) sample sizes this may require particular attention. However, several different approaches to handle a large sample size in test of fit analysis have been developed. Thus, one strategy may be to adjust the fit statistic to correspond to an equivalent sample of different size. This strategy has been implemented in the RUMM2030 software. Another strategy may be to adopt a random sample approach.

    Aims: The RUMM2030 Chi-Square value adjustment facility has been available for a long time, but still there are few studies describing the empirical consequences of adjusting the sample to correspond to a smaller effective sample size in the statistical analysis of fit. Alternatively a random sample approach could be adopted in order to handle the large sample size problem. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare these two strategies as test of fit approximations, using Swedish adolescent data. 

    Sample:The analysis is based on the survey Young in Värmland which is a paper-and-pencil based survey conducted recurrently since 1988 targeting all adolescent in school year 9 residing the county of Värmland, Sweden. So far, more than 20,000 individuals have participated in the survey. In the analysis presented here, seven items based on the adolescents, experiences of the school environment were subjected to analysis, in total 21,088 individuals.

    Methods: For the purposes of this study, the original sample size was adjusted to several different effective samples using the RUMM2030 adjustment function, in the test of fit analysis. In addition, 10 random samples for each sample size were drawn from the original sample, and averaged Chi-Square values calculated. The Chi-Square values obtained using the two strategies were compared.

    Results: Given the original sample of 21,000, adjusting to samples 5,000 or larger, the RUMM2030 adjustment facility work as well as a random sample approach. In contrast, when adjusting to lower samples the adjustment function is less effective in approximating the Chi-Square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, fit is exaggerated and misfit under estimated using the adjustment function, in particular is that true for fitting but not misfitting items.  

    Conclusion: Even though the inferences based on p-values may be the same despite big Chi-Square value differences between the two approaches, the danger of using fit statistics mechanically cannot be enough stressed. Neither the adjustment function, nor the random sample approach is sufficient in evaluating model fit, instead several complementing methods should be used.

     

  • 12.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sample size and Chi-Squared test of fit: A comparison between a random sample approach and a Chi-Square value adjustment method using Swedish adolescent data2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (1) Background: Significance tests are commonly sensitive to sample size, and Chi-Squared statistics is not an exception. Nevertheless, Chi-Squared statistics are commonly used for test of fit of measurement models. Thus, for analysts working with very large (or very small) sample sizes this may require particular attention. However, several different approaches to handle a large sample size in test of fit analysis have been developed. Thus, one strategy may be to adjust the fit statistic to correspond to an equivalent sample of different size. This strategy has been implemented in the RUMM2030 software. Another strategy may be to adopt a random sample approach.

    (2) Aims: The RUMM2030 Chi-Square value adjustment facility has been available for a long time, but still there seems to a lack of studies describing the empirical consequences of adjusting a sample to a smaller effective sample in the statistical analysis of fit. Alternatively a random sample approach could be adopted in order to handle the large sample size problem. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare these two strategies as test of fit approximations, using Swedish adolescent data.  

    (3) Sample:The analysis is based on the survey Young in Värmland which is a paper-and-pencil based survey conducted recurrently since 1988 targeting all adolescent in school year 9 residing the county of Värmland, Sweden. So far, more than 20,000 individuals have participated in the survey. In the analysis presented here, seven items based on the adolescents, experiences of the psychosocial school environment were subjected to analysis, in total 21,088 individuals.

    (4) Methods: For the purposes of this study, the original sample size was adjusted to several different effective samples using the RUMM2030 adjustment function, in the test of fit analysis. In addition, 10 random samples for each sample size were drawn from the original sample, and averaged Chi-Square values calculated. The Chi-Square values obtained using the two strategies were compared.

    (5) Results: Given the original sample of 21,088, adjusting to samples of 5,000 or larger, the RUMM2030 adjustment facility work as well as a random sample approach. In contrast, when adjusting to lower samples the adjustment function is less effective in approximating the Chi-Square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, fit is exaggerated and misfit under estimated using the adjustment function. However, that is true for fitting but not for misfitting items.   

    (6) Conclusion: Even though the inferences based on p-values may be the same despite big Chi-Square value differences between the two approaches, the danger of using fit statistics mechanically cannot be enough stressed.

  • 13.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Measuring Adolescent Perceptions of the Physical School Environment: An analysis of the psychometric properties of a scale using Swedish adolescent data2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (1) Background: Adolescents spend a considerable amount of their time in the school environment.  Most adolescents are also subjected to compulsory school attendance, implying that they have to deal with the environment on a daily basis. In health research adolescent perceptions about the school environment are often linked to mental and psychosomatic health. However, measurements seems to be focused on psychosocial or psychological aspects of the school environment more often than physical.  

    (2) Aims: The purpose of the present study is to examine the psychometric properties of a scale of Adolescent Perceptions of the Physical School Environment by means of the Rasch model for ordered response categories.  

    (3) Sample: The analysis is based on the survey Young in Värmland which is a paper-and-pencil based survey, conducted recurrently since 1988 targeting all adolescent in school year 9 residing the county of Värmland, Sweden. So far, more than 20,000 individuals have participated in the survey. In the analysis presented here, five items based on adolescents’ perceptions of the physical school environment were subjected to analysis using RUMM2030, in total about 22,000 individuals.

    (4) Methods: A scale consisting of five polytomous items is analysed by means of the polytomous Rasch model. General fit statistics as well as their graphical representations (ICC) are used to evaluate if the scale fit the Rasch model. A particular focus is also directed towards possible Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across sex.

    (5) Results: At a general level of analysis the scale subjected to analysis seems to fit the Rasch model fairly well, with good separation of the individuals, and showing no reversed item thresholds, i.e. the response categories work properly and as expected. Also, at a finer level of analysis focusing on DIF, the scale works fairly well, but with exceptions important in order to understand differences between boys and girls.  

    (6) Conclusions: Although the scale fits the Rasch model fairly well, there is room for improvements. In particular the precision of measurement may be increased by improving the targeting through inclusion of additional items of appropriate severity.             

  • 14.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    The PsychoSomatic Problems Scale: an analysis of the psychometric properties using Australian adolescent data2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Background: The PsychoSomatic problems Scale (PSP-Scale) has frequently been used in the Scandinavian countries in order to monitor adolescent psychosomatic health. According to Psychometric analyses based on the the polytomous Rasch model, the PSP-scale shows good measurement properties (see Hagquist, 2008). However, the properties of the PSP-scale have not been examined for non-European samples and for younger adolescents.

    Aims: The purpose of the present study is to examine the psychometric properties of the PsychoSomatic Problems Scale by means of the polytomous Rasch model using an Australian sample of younger adolescents (school year 3-7).   

    Sample: Using a paper-and-pencil based survey, the data was collected among 758 adolescents enrolled (school year 3-7) in schools in central Perth of Western Australia in 2013.  

    Methods: The PSP-scale consists of eight polytomous items intended to tap information about student experiences of psychosomatic health complaints. The PSP-scale was analysed by means of the polytomous Rasch model. General fit statistics as well as their graphical representations (ICC) are used to evaluate if the data fit the Rasch model. A particular focus is also directed towards possible Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across school year and sex.

    Results: At a general level of analysis, the scale seems to fit the Rasch model fairly well, with good targeting and separation of the individuals. However, some of the items showed reversed item thresholds, indicating that the response categories did not work as expected in the Australian setting. Further there seems to be some tendencies of Differential item functioning by grade.

    Conclusions: In comparing the psychosomatic problems among different age groups, in particular younger and older, the analyst needs to be particularly cautious. Also, cultural and language aspects need to be addressed if an instrument is to be used in a different setting than the one it was developed in.   

    Future directions: There seems to be a lack of instruments useful for invariant measurement of psychosomatic health among adolescents in different age groups. However, in order to achieve invariant measurement across age groups, efforts to develop instruments are required, in particular if older and younger adolescents  are to be compared. 

    Further comments:

    Hagquist, C. (2008). Psychometric Properties of the PsychoSomatic Problems Scale: A Rasch Analysis on Adolescent Data. Social Indicators Research, 86: 511-523.

  • 15.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Measuring Adolescent Perceptions of School Climate: Measuring Adolescent Perceptions of School Climate –An analysis of the Psychometric Properties of a scale using Australian adolescent data2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile: +4673-701 2448

     

    (1) Background: Adolescents spend a considerable amount of their time in the school environment.  Most adolescents are also subjected to compulsory school attendance, implying that they have to deal with the environment on a daily basis. In that sense the school environment is inescapable. There are several different measures on student experiences of the school environment, but School Climate is one of the most prominent. However, there seems to be no agreement upon definition and operationalization of the School Climate concept. Also, it is uncommon to find descriptions of robust psychometric analyses of School Climate measures.    

    (2) Aims: The purpose of the present study is to examine the psychometric properties of a scale of Adolescent Perceptions of School Climate by means of the Rasch model for ordered response categories.  

    (3) Sample: Using a paper-and-pencil based survey, the data was collected among 758 students  enrolled (school year 3-7) in schools located in central Perth of Western Australia in 2013.

    (4) Methods: A scale consisting of seven polytomous items is analysed by means of the polytomous Rasch model. General fit statistics as well as their graphical representations (ICC) are used to evaluate if the data fit the Rasch model. A particular focus is also directed towards possible Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across sex and grade.

    (5) Results: At a general level of analysis the scale seems to fit the Rasch model fairly well, with good separation of the individuals. Some items showed reversed item thresholds, i.e. the response categories did not work properly and as expected. Also, at a finer level of analysis focusing on DIF, the scale works fairly well, but with exceptions important in order to understand differences between younger and older adolescents.  

    (6) Conclusions: Although the scale fits the Rasch model fairly well, there is room for improvements. In particular the precision of measurement may be increased by improving the targeting through inclusion of additional items of appropriate severity.      

    Future directions

    As there seems to be a lack of instruments useful for invariant measurement of School Climate  across age groups and genders, efforts to develop instruments are required.   

  • 16.
    Bergh, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Williamsson, Viktoria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Går det att höja kvaliteten och effektivisera examination i samhällskunskap?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Examination utgör en central del i våra utbildningar, inte desto mindre verkar det vara ovanligt med djupare reflektioner över kvaliteten i dessa.

    Det projekt som vi vill dela med oss av här är ett pågående utvecklingsprojekt som har till syfte att  analysera examinationen i samhällskunskap inom ämneslärarutbildningen. Redovisningen baserar sig på en kvantitativ analys av hur väl en salsskrivning i samhällskunskap 1 på ämneslärarprogrammet tjänar sitt syfte, d.v.s. fungerar tentamen bra som examination betraktat? Hur skulle den kunna göras bättre?

    En central fråga rör om tentamens svårighetsgrad verkar vara anpassad till den studentgrupp som avses. Om några frågor skulle visa sig vara för enkla – alla studenter klarar frågorna - hjälper ju inte dessa oss med att mäta studenternas kunskaper. På motsatt sätt kan man tänka sig att några frågor är alldeles för svåra, d.v.s. inga studenter klarar av frågorna.  Analysen visar bl.a. att:

    • Genom att formulera väl övervägda frågor i förhållande till aktuella lärandemål skulle den insats och tidsåtgång som krävs för bedömning av tentamen kunna göras mer effektiv med ökad kvalitet, och studenter utsätts inte för onödiga frågor.
  • 17.
    Berglund, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Subjective well-being and job satisfaction among self-employed and regular employees: does personality matter differently?2016In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 28, no 1, 55-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the importance of personality traits for subjective well-being

    (SWB) and job satisfaction among self-employed. The aim of this article is to

    investigate if the Big-Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness,

    conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience) have different

    relationships with SWB and job satisfaction among self-employed compared with

    regular employees. Data come from a Swedish survey comprising representative

    samples of self-employed (n D 2483) and regular employees (n D 2642). Personality

    traits are measured using a 10-item personality measure. Our findings show that there

    are only small differences, between self-employed and regular employees, in the

    associations between personality traits and SWB. For job satisfaction, on the other

    hand, we find much stronger relationships for self-employed than the regularly

    employed. For self-employed, every personality trait except ‘openness to experience’

    have a significant positive relationship with job satisfaction. In comparison, only

    ‘extraversion’ and ‘emotional stability’ are significantly correlated to job satisfaction

    among regular employees. The relationship between ‘extraversion’ and job

    satisfaction was furthermore substantially weaker among regular employees.

    Therefore, being self-employed seems to be particularly beneficial for individuals

    scoring high on ‘extraversion,’ ‘agreeableness,’ and ‘conscientiousness.’

  • 18.
    Danielsson, Nanette
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Karlstad University.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Associations between adolescent sleep disturbance and different worry themes: findings from a repeated cross-sectional study from 1988 to 20112016In: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 2, no 3, 194-197 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The objective was to investigate relationships between adolescent sleep disturbance and various worry themes.

    Methods

    Questionnaire data from 8 cross-sectional collections between 1988 and 2011 were used. The sample included more than 20,000 adolescents aged 15-16. Binary logistic regressions were used for the analyses.

    Results

    Sleep disturbance and female sex increased the odds of worrying about all themes. Sleep disturbance shared stronger associations with worry about financial security, accidents/illness, being bullied, and terrorist attacks (odds ratios, 2.65-3.35) compared with worry about environmental destruction or nuclear war (odds ratios, 1.73-2.11). No interactions between sleep and year of investigation were found.

    Conclusions

    Little is known about the association between adolescent worry and sleep, and about sleep disturbance and specific worry content. This study shows that the strength in the relationship between adolescent worry and sleep varies with worry themes. Knowledge of the worry content related to sleep may aid in targeting preventions and interventions.

  • 19.
    Franssen, Gaston
    et al.
    University of Amsterdam.
    van Geelen, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital of the University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Self-management as management of the self: Future directions for healthcare and the promotion of mental health2017In: Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, ISSN 1071-6076, E-ISSN 1086-3303, Vol. 24, no 2, 179-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Grip, Karin K.
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Psychol, S-40530 Gothenburg, Vastergotland, Sweden..
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Axberg, Ulf
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Psychol, S-40530 Gothenburg, Vastergotland, Sweden..
    Broberg, Anders G.
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Psychol, S-40530 Gothenburg, Vastergotland, Sweden..
    Perceived Quality of Life and Health Complaints in Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence2014In: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851, Vol. 29, no 6, 681-692 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children 9 to 13 years old exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) reported on their violence exposure, attachment to both parents, temperament (negative emotionality and emotion regulation), perceived quality of life, and health complaints. Half of the children perceived their quality of life as good and did not have recurrent health complaints. When controlling for socioeconomic status, health complaints were associated with higher IPV exposure and negative emotionality, whereas quality of life was associated with attachment security, higher capacity for emotion regulation, and lower negative emotionality. These results underscore the importance of increasing and supporting the capacity of children exposed to IPV to handle and express their emotions, as well as making school nurses and other primary care practitioners more attentive to IPV as a possible background factor in children's health complaints.

  • 21.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Ungas psykiska hälsa i Sverige - komplexa trender och stora kunskapsluckor2013In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 90, no 5, 671-683 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results in the article are in line with previous studies demonstrating that self-reported mental ill-health has, in a long-term perspective, increased among adolescents in Sweden from age 15 and up, especially among girls. Different studies indicate that the previous upgoing trend has levelled out and turned downwards. Partially separate trends for boys and girls emerge from the Young in Värmland study in grade 9. The academic orientation differentiates the time trend too. Major changes have taken place for girls with a non-theoretical academic orientation. The knowledge gaps are significant for younger adolescents in terms of trends in mental health. Previous studies show no uniform trend pattern for children aged 11, and for children under 10 there are no trend data at all.

  • 22.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Family residency and psychosomatic problems among adolescents in Sweden: The impact of child-parent relations2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 1, 36-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Profound changes in family structure took place in many countries, during the second part of the previous century. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the association between the type of family residency and psychosomatic problems in younger and older adolescents, particularly focusing on alternate residency, and to examine the impact of child-parent relations.

    Methods: We used data collected in 2009 by Statistics Sweden among 172,298 Swedish students in grade 6 and grade 9 (approximate ages 12 and 15 years old); comprising 80% and 86%, respectively, of the entire population of students in those grades. We collected the data with a questionnaire, completed anonymously in school: We used the Psychosomatic Problems (PSP) scale as the outcome measure.

    Results: The type of family residency showed a weaker association with psychosomatic problems than the child-parent relationships did. Living in non-intact families increased the probability of adolescent psychosomatic problems by 0–0.05, compared to intact families. In grade 9, there were no differences in psychosomatic problems between the students in alternate residency and those living with their two parents; and in grade 6, these differences were relatively small. In comparison, a worse relationship with parents increased the probability of psychosomatic problems by 0.11–0.17, depending on the school grade and type of family residency.

    Conclusions:The structure of the family, as well as the child-parent relationships needs to be taken into account, to properly estimate the magnitude of the family situation as a determinant of adolescent psychosomatic problems. Our results justify universal intervention at the policy level.

  • 23.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Skolelevers psykiska hälsa2015Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Centrum för folkhälsoforskning2013In: Vårt liv: En krönika om Landstinget i Värmland 1863–2013 / [ed] Ajaxson, Anders., & Svanqvist, Staffan., Karlstad: Landstinget i Värmland , 2013, 1, 467-470 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Alkohol-, narkotika- och tobaksvanor bland niondeklassare: Resultat från Ung i Värmland 1988-20112012Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Vår bästa tid var då2016In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, Vol. 3, 28-33 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Insatser för en hälsosam lärmiljö2016In: Elevhälsa, ISSN 2000-5296, Vol. 3, 40-43 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Associations between family type and binge drinking among adolescents in Sweden2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Discrepant time trends of mental health across grades and genders among adolescents in Sweden2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Family type, child-parent relations and adolescents’ psychosomatic health: Swedish nationwide study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Reporting logistic regression analysis: Should we focus on probabilities instead of odds ratios?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    The Effects of Targeting on Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Challenges in cross country comparisons of adolescent mental health – Illustrative examples based on Rasch-analysis of HBSC-data.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Paper and pencil versus web. Does the format affect the psychometric properties of a questionnaire measuring adolescent health?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Do 7 items provide as good measurement as 13 items?: A comparison of a short and long version of KIDSCREEN2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Determinants of Artificial DIF: a study based on simulated polytomous data2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Associations of Family Residency and Child-Parent Relations with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Due, Pernille
    University of Copenhagen.
    Torsheim, Torbjørn
    University of Bergen.
    Välimaa, Raili
    University of Jyväskylä.
    Potential threats to Cross Country Comparisons of Adolescent Mental Health – A Rasch analysis based on HBSC-data from four Nordic countries2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hellström, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    The Psychometric Properties of the Early Development Instrument: A Rasch Analysis Based on Swedish Pilot Data2014In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 117, no 1, 301-317 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) is a population measure and an indicator of children’s developmental health before entering the school system. EDI-Sweden was translated and adapted from EDI-Canada. In 2011 a pilot study was conducted, as a first step of the preparations for nationwide implementation of EDI in Sweden. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of EDI-Sweden. Data about 116 5-year-old children were collected at ten preschools in two municipalities. EDI consists of 104 core items in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, language and cognitive development, communication skills and general knowledge. Preschool teachers completed a web based questionnaire for each child. The data were analysed using the unidimensional Rasch model. With exception for the domain of physical health and well-being the Rasch analysis showed satisfying psychometric properties of EDI after removal of some misfitting items. In these four domains no items showed disordered thresholds and the reliability was good, indicated by person separation index values of 0.73 or higher. Tentative analyses of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) showed that some items didn’t work invariantly across genders, suggesting that the DIF-items should be split into gender specific items. Due to the relatively small sample size the results can’t provide definite answers but tentative indications of the psychometric properties of the EDI-Sweden. As a whole the Rasch analysis provides ground for cautious optimism for large scale assessment of EDI-Sweden enabling more thorough and finer level analysis of the instrument.

  • 40.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Rydelius, Per-Anders
    Karolinska institutet.
    Psykisk ohälsa och alkohol har en nära koppling2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 36, no 110, 1547-1550 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between adolescents' alcohol consumption and mental ill-health on an aggregate level is complex, including self-reported mental ill-health as well as suicide, deliberate self-harm and other psychiatric problems. The self-reported mental ill-health among 15-16-year-old girls in Sweden increased considerably from the middle of the 1980s to the middle of the 2000s, while the increase in alcohol consumption was substantially smaller. Among 15-16-year-old boys the alcohol consumption trend curve turned downwards following the turn of the millennium, while the mental ill-health trend levelled out after the end of the 1990s. The gender differences in alcohol consumption have, over time, evened out, while the differences in self-reported mental ill-health remain. The association between alcohol consumption and mental ill-health is, on an individual level, very strong. A high-risk group among adolescents, particularly among boys, are those who do not experience any life satisfaction and who also binge drink alcohol.

  • 41.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Välimaa, Raili
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Simonsen, Nina
    Folkhälsan Research Center and University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Turku, Finland and University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Adolescent Mental Health: Illustrative Examples Using HBSC-data from Finland2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Välimaa, Raili
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Simonsen, Nina
    Folkhälsan Research Center; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Turku, Finland; University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Psychosomatic Problems based on Finnish HBSC-data.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Välimaa, Raili
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Simonsen, Nina
    Folkhälsan Research Center and University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Turku, Finland and University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Adolescent Mental Health: Illustrative Examples Using HBSC-data from Finland2017In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 10, no 3, 673-691 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is an increasing focus on trend analyses of adolescent mental health, yet too little attention is paid to the methodological challenges and pitfalls inherent in this type of analyses. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of a Finnish instrument on psychosomatic problems, with a major focus on Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across time. Questionnaire data collected in 1994, 1998, 2006 and 2014 among Finnish schoolchildren in grade 9 (15-year-olds) as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study were utilised.The polytomous Rasch model was used to examine the psychometric properties of a composite measure of psychosomatic problems. The results clearly indicate that the composite measure on psychosomatic problems consisting of nine items does not work invariantly over time. In particular, the item depressed shows DIF across years ofinvestigations. This item works quite differently at the first year of investigationcompared to the last year showing higher expected values 2014 (=less frequent problems) than 1994. This DIF affects the person measure of change in psychosomatic problems between 1994 and 2014. Resolving the item depressed for year of investigation DIF, or removing it, increases the difference in person mean values between the two years, implying increasing psychosomatic problems over time. Since the DIF affects the trend results, different options to address the problems need to be considered. Removing the item depressed would bring the Finnish measure of psychosomatic problems in better accordance with the content of the questions on psychosomatic problems in the international HBSC protocol in which the item depressed is not included.

  • 44.
    Hellström, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Self-reported peer victimization: Concordance and discordance between measures of bullying and peer aggresion among Swedish adolescents2013In: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 12, no 4, 395-413 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examined concordance and discordance

    between a measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression

    with respect to the number of students identified as victims.

    Swedish adolescents (N

    = 1,760) completed a web-based questionnaire.

    A measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression

    were compared in order to elucidate the unique contribution of

    each measure as well as the overlap: 13% of students who experienced

    peer victimization reported only bullying, 44% reported only

    repeated peer aggression, and 43% reported both. Concordance

    was further elucidated by phi-square coefficient tests revealing that

    18% of the variance in either measure was accounted for by the

    other measure. Given recent research showing similar associations

    with mental health for bullying and peer aggression victimization,

    it is suggested that questions about peer aggression as well

    as bullying should be used simultaneously in order to capture the

    prevalence and full magnitude of peer victimization.

  • 45.
    Hellström, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Does the Strength of the Association Between Peer Victimization and Psychosomatic Health Problems Depend on Whether Bullying or Peer Aggression is Measured?2017In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 10, no 2, 447-459 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to analyze to what extent the strength of the previously established association between peer victimization and psychosomatic problems depends on which of two measures is being used, a measure of bullying and a measure of peer aggression. The study included 2568 Swedish adolescents aged 13–15 years. An Ordinary Least Square regression showed that all regressors representing bullying and peer aggression revealed significant effects on psychosomatic health using no peer victimization as the reference category. An ANOVA showed no significant differences in mean values on the Psychosomatic Problems Scale captured by the two measures. Given that both measures of peer victimization show strong associations with psychosomatic health, using only one of the two measures is therefore likely not just to underestimate the overall prevalence of peer victimization but also the number of children experiencing psychosomatic problems in relation with peer victimization.

  • 46.
    Hellström, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Psychometric properties of the PESOC-PLP scale, a Swedish teacher instrument measuring pedagogical leadership: A Rasch analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Hellström, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Persson, Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Understanding and defining bullying - adolescents' own views2015In: Archives of Public Health, ISSN 0778-7367, Vol. 73, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The negative consequences of peer-victimization on children and adolescents are major public health concerns which have been subjected to extensive research. Given all efforts made to analyze and estimate the social and health consequences of peer-victimization, the adolescents' own experiences and understandings have had surprisingly little impact on the definition of bullying. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore adolescents' definitions of bullying.

    Methods

    A questionnaire study (n = 128) and four focus group interviews (n = 21) were conducted among students aged 13 and 15. First, gender and age differences were analyzed with respect to what behaviors are considered bullying (questionnaire data). Second, analysis of what bullying is (focus group interviews) was conducted using qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    The adolescents own understanding and definition of bullying didn't just include the traditional criteria of repetition and power imbalance, but also a criterion based on the health consequences of bullying. The results showed that a single but hurtful or harmful incident also could be considered bullying irrespective of whether the traditional criteria were fulfilled or not. Further, girls and older students had a more inclusive view of bullying and reported more types of behaviors as bullying compared to boys and younger students.

    Conclusions

    The results of the current study adds to the existing literature by showing that adolescents consider the victim's experience of hurt and harm as a criterion for defining bullying and not only as consequences of bullying. This may be of special relevance for the identification and classification of bullying incidents on the internet where devastating consequences have been reported from single incidents and the use of the traditional criteria of intent, repetition and power imbalance may not be as relevant as for traditional bullying. It implies that the traditional criteria included in most definitions of bullying may not fully reflect adolescents' understanding and definition of bullying. Assessments of bullying behaviors that ask adolescents to strictly adhere to the traditional definition of bullying might not identify all adolescents experiencing peer victimization and therefore not provide estimates of prevalence rates reflecting adolescents' own understanding of bullying.

  • 48.
    Jansson-Frojmark, Markus
    et al.
    Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Ctr Hlth & Med Psychol CHAMP, S-31705 Orebro, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Ctr Hlth & Med Psychol CHAMP, S-31705 Orebro, Sweden.; Stockholm, Sweden..
    Linton, Steven J.
    Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Ctr Hlth & Med Psychol CHAMP, S-31705 Orebro, Sweden..
    The role of emotion dysregulation in insomnia: Longitudinal findings from a large community sample2016In: British Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-107X, E-ISSN 2044-8287, Vol. 21, no 1, 93-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this longitudinal investigation was to examine the association between emotion regulation and future insomnia (incidence and persistence). DesignA longitudinal study in the general population. MethodsA survey was sent out to 5,000 individuals in the community. To those who returned the baseline questionnaire (n=2,333), two follow-up surveys, 6 and 18months later, were sent out and then completed by 1,887 and 1,795 individuals, respectively. The survey contained information about demographic factors, insomnia symptomatology, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, anxiety, and depression. ResultsThe findings suggested that emotion regulation at baseline was not associated with the incidence or persistence of insomnia. Overall, the effect sizes were very small to medium. When examining changes in emotion regulation over time, a different pattern emerged. Partial support was established for the notion that decreases in emotion regulation were related to incident and persistent insomnia, as a decrease in emotion regulation was associated with a higher likelihood of future insomnia. Yet, the effect sizes were very small to small. ConclusionThis study does partly point towards a longitudinal association between emotion dysregulation and insomnia. This might have implications for the conceptualization and management of insomnia as well as for future research.

  • 49.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Vinberg, stig
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Umeå universitet.
    Subjective well-being among the self-employed in Europe:macroeconomy, gender and immigrant status2016In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 46, no 2, 239-253 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that the self-employed generally experience a higher degree of job satisfaction compared to regular employees. However, our knowledge of subjective well-being among the self-employed, the differences between various groups of self-employed and the potential influence of contextual factors is somewhat limited. The purpose of the present paper is to address this gap by taking macroeconomic conditions, gender and immigrant status into consideration. The results show that self-employment is positively related to subjective well-being, but there are also differences between groups of the self-employed; self-employed with employees report a higher level of life satisfaction than the self-employed without employees. Economic growth is more important for the level of life satisfaction among the self-employed than among employees. The analyses also point to different patterns for female and male self-employed without employees: only women experience a higher level of life satisfaction compared to employees. The results also show that the relationship is stronger among immigrants than natives. The results of this study confirm the importance of considering potential heterogeneity when examining subjective well-being among the self-employed.

  • 50.
    Lönnfjord, Victoria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    The Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale: A Rasch Analysis Based on Adolescent Data2017In: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, 1-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-efficacy describes people’s belief in their own ability to perform the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) with an adolescent sample, using Rasch analysis. The scale was examined with a focus on invariant functioning along the latent trait as well as across sample groups. The data were collected 2009 and 2010 among 3764 students aged between 13 and 15 years, in the 7th to 9th grade, in compulsory schools in the municipality of Karlstad, Sweden. The item fit was acceptable, the categorization of the items worked well and the scale worked invariantly between years of investigations. Although the GSES worked well as a whole, there was some evidence of misfit indicating room for improvements. The targeting may be improved by adding more questions of medium difficulty. Also, further attention needs to be paid to the dimensionality of the GSES as well as to whether the psychometric properties of GSES are affected by using more recent data.

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