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  • 1.
    Abdi Alipour, Seyran
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Copingstrategier och livstillfredsställelse: En kvantitativ studie bland universitetsstudenter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine coping strategies for stress and life satisfaction among students. A further aim was partly to investigate possible differences between men and women regarding the coping strategies used, and differences in the relationship between coping strategies and subjective well-being. The survey was conducted by an electronic poll. The selection was a coincidence sample of women and men aged 18- 47 who studied at a university. Total 128 participants, 44 men and 84 women. The participants answered a questionnaire that consisted of background questions and gauge which measured stress and life satisfaction. The result showed that the most used coping strategies were active coping, planning and acceptance. The conclusion is that men and women differ in terms of coping strategies and that life satisfaction correlates with coping strategies.

     

    Key words: Stress, students, coping strategies, life satisfaction

  • 2.
    Agergård Kareliusson, Charlotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Lärares kunskap om ADHD: Finns det ett samband mellan kunskap, attityder inför och bemötande av elever med diagnosen?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to map out if there were a relation between teachers knowledge about ADHD and their emotionell attitudes towards students with the diagnosis and to map out if there were a relation between teachers knowledge about ADHD and their choice of strategy used in the classroom to meet students with ADHD. The study was conducted as a survey study among teachers in grade 1 – 9. The teachers where to answear knowledge questions and self-rated questions about emotionell attitude and their choice of strategy. A link to a web survey was emailed to 400 principals in Swedish elementary schools. If the principal approved that the school participated in the survey he/she forwarded the email to the teachers. The survey was a remodeled version of the survey used by Kos (2004). The result of the survey was then processed as six linear regression analysis. The result shows a significant relation between teachers knowledge about ADHD, their emotionell attitude towards students with ADHD and their self-rated choice of strategy. 

  • 3.
    Ahlbäck, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hogmalm, Anneli
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Solsken och regnskurar: En kvalitativ studie om upplevelsen av att vara familjehemsförälder2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to figure out how foster parents view their task and the responsibilities that the task entails, what gives foster parents motivation to continue with the mission, as well as what kind of emotional attachment the foster parents experience they get to the placed children.

    This study consists of six interviews, of which five of them were individual and one pair interview. The gathered material was analyzed from content analysis. Three themes emerged in the results which were: The mission as a foster family, why foster family and the everyday of foster families. The results were then analyzed through previous research along with Antonovskys concept sense of coherence, SOC and Bowlbys attachment theory. The results showed that foster families have different views depending on how long they have been foster families, what kind of children they’ve had but above all, what motivated them to start a foster family. 

  • 4.
    Ahlgren, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Upplevelser av arbete med arbetslösa: En fenomenologisk studie av handläggares/handledares upplevelser av arbete med arbetslösa2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to get some insight into how staff experience their work with the unemployed. A Phenomenological method, IPA (Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis), was used to find out. 10 people were interviewed through this method and multiple categories appeared, which give some insight into how they perceive their job; a role, frustration/ambivalence, rewarding work, demands, developing work and commitment. They are people playing a role, an authority. Experiences are also, among other things, that the work is very rewarding, challenging, developing and gives one a chance to make a difference in another person's life. These positive aspects, the meetings with people, participating in their processes, weigh heavier than the negative aspects. These are among other things a larger work-mass than what is bearable, several demands on personality and high demands on legal security and uniformity. If not for the positive aspects they would not have stayed. In conclusion one can say that it is work where they perceive themselves as needed and where they feel like they can evolve and make a difference.

  • 5.
    Ahlgren, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Alliansen oss emellan: - en undersökning om huruvida klienters och terapeuters skattningar av allians stämmer överens2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate whether clients' and therapists' estimation of alliance match, if there is a correlation between alliance and client satisfaction and if there is a difference between client satisfaction and a standard measure. Statistical analysis and a qualitative thematic analysis were used to examine this. Results show no difference between ratings of an alliance total between clients and therapists, except for when examining the different dimensions. There is a correlation between alliance and client satisfaction ratings. Also, there is a difference between client satisfaction questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8) ratings between the participants and a standard measure. Emerging themes about the change of therapy where: Relational establishing interaction, Relief and non-judgmental. Conclusions where made about the fact that alliance ratings did not differ between client and therapist, as well as the fact that there was a correlation between high ratings of alliance with high ratings of client satisfaction. Finally there was support for the conclusion that student therapy has higher, or at least an equally high ratings of satisfaction as other psychiatric care according to comparisons made with the standard measure. The thematic analysis shows that therapy brought on big changes in the clients life, changes that seem connected. They also show how important it is to have a more personal factor in therapy.

  • 6.
    Ahlin, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation: Experienced teachers from different traditions share their insights2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study utilizes the method of Thematic Analysis, TA, to research the question: How do mindfulness and meditation teachers’ describe the prerequisites for effective mindfulness and meditation teaching? It aims at providing deeper insight of the importance of the teachers in this field. In the scientific literature there is a lack of evaluation of mindfulness teachers (Grossman et al 2014) and how to teach mindfulness meditation effectively (Shapiro 2009). The interpretations of what twelve experienced teachers, from different traditions, say in the in-depth interviews of this study results in three main themes and nine subthemes: main theme; Teacher qualification with subthemes; Becoming teacher, Being teacher, Pedagogic skills and Social skills, and main theme; Student qualities with subthemes; Positive for learning and Negative aspects to deal with, and main theme; Context with subthemes; Fields of application, Levels and Supporting factors. The results lead to the argument that anyone can assume the role of mindfulness and meditation teacher, depending on the students and the context. The study shows the interdependence between the teacher, student and other contextual circumstances and gives clear indications in which direction one should go.

  • 7.
    Ahlin, Klas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation: Experienced teachers from different traditions share their insights2016In: Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy, E-ISSN 2157-7595, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Several authors have suggested demands and requirements for teaching mindfulness and meditation. In the scientific literature there is however a lack of evaluation of mindfulness teachers and how to teach mindfulness meditation effectively. This study aims at providing deeper insight of the importance of the teachers in the field of mindfulness and meditation and it investigates how mindfulness and meditation teachers describe the prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation.

    Method: The method of Thematic Analysis, TA, was utilized to analyse the data from semi-structured interviews conducted with twelve experienced teachers, from different mindfulness and meditation traditions. The participants are mindfulness and meditation teachers from either within the Buddhist, secular or both Buddhist and secular contexts.

    Results: The analysis resulted in three main themes and nine subthemes, such as for example the main theme; Teacher qualification with subthemes; Becoming teacher, Being teacher, Pedagogic skills and Social skills. The results suggest a flexible and pragmatic view on how mindfulness and meditation teaching should be provided. Instead of a fixed set of requirements for the teacher and the student, what makes mindfulness and meditation teaching effective has to do with the ability to recognize the potential in every unique situation with an understanding of the impermanent and interdependent relationship between teacher, student and context.

    Conclusion: Being and becoming a teacher is a continuous process and anyone can assume the role of mindfulness and meditation teacher. It is dependent on the students and the context. A formalized education is not a prerequisite but what is required is sufficient compassion and insight. For the teacher’s compassion and insight to ripen and for the student to learn, non-ideal conditions and suffering, is required and it is helpful with supportive fellow practitioners, teachers, especially if they themselves practice what they teach and share what they know.

  • 8.
    Ahlstrand, Roland
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Arvidson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Axelsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Protest, tystnad och partiskhet: Replik på en teori om lojalitet och whistleblowing2017In: Norsk sosiologisk tidsskrift, ISSN 1590-7929, E-ISSN 1936-4660, Vol. 24, no 3, 257-265 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Aiello, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att trivas på jobbet: En kvantitativ studie om trivsel och sociala relationer på ett svenskt callcenter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research have concluded that social relations are an important factor that counteracts stress and increase comfort levels at the workplace. The purpose for this study has been to examine how, and if, different background factors affect the employee’s social relationships and job satisfaction but also if social relationships affect job satisfaction. The survey was conducted as an exploratory survey in which the dependent variables were studied on the basis of gender, age, period of employment and project. It turned out that no statistically significant relationship was found between background variables and job satisfaction. However, a statistically significant relationship was discovered between respondents' social relationships and job satisfaction level. Age and period of employment are factors that affect social relations inside the company.  In summary, the study provides support to theories that strong social support in the workplace improves job satisfaction. Age and period of employment create the conditions for social relationships between its employees and managers. There are also some indications in the data to suggest that age affects the employees job satisfaction.

  • 10.
    Aksell, Marina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    "Det akuta löser jag snabbt, men det är akut hela tiden": En kvalitativ studie om lärares och rektorers hantering av arbetsuppgifter under stress.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Den offentliga sektorn har under de två senaste decennierna förändras genom att New Public Management har implementerats vilket medfört att många reformer har genomförts. Det har inneburit att den offentliga sektorn har effektiviserats och slimmats. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka faktorer de intervjuade lärarna och rektorerna upplever stressande samt hur de hanterar sin arbetssituation vid arbetsrelaterad stress. Mitt intresse för ämnet kommer av att jag själv arbetar som lärare på en gymnasieskola och därmed har ett inifrån perspektiv av hur lärare men även rektorer påverkas av stress.

    Jag valde en kvalitativ metod med en hermeneutisk ansats som innebär tolkning och reflektion. Metoden för att inhämta empiriskt material till min studie skedde genom öppna halvstrukturerade intervjuer som innebär en flexibilitet vid intervjutillfället. Analysen av mitt material gjordes genom att jag kontinuerligt rörde mig mellan delar och helhet i en process.

    Enligt Eriksson och Larsson (2011) innebär socialt stöd att relationerna till kollegor och chefer är mycket betydelsefulla. Detta bekräftar informanterna i studien. Samtidigt visar också studien att positiva interaktionsritualer var grundläggande och viktiga för lärarna och rektorerna. Collins (2004) och Olsson (2008) menar att positiva interaktionsritualer ger emotionell energi som medverkar till att individer och grupper kan hantera stressade situationer lättare. Resultatet visade även att lärarna och rektorerna använder sig av liknande strategier för att hantera sin arbetssituation vid stress och att de inom strategierna gör prioriteringar för vad som är viktigast. Det övergripande som studien visar är att det kontinuerligt råder en tidsbrist i informanternas arbete som de försöker att hantera genom olika strategier. 

  • 11.
    Albertsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Käck, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Alla blir äldre, även du: En studie om biståndshandläggares upplevelser av äldres diskriminering utifrån ett ålderismteoretiskt perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aid administrators meet many elderlies in their professional role. The aim was with an from a theoretical perspective on ageism study aid administrator's experiences of discrimination against older people. In this study, the question was asked how they feel about discrimination of older people in society and what they think can strengthen the position for elderly as a group. In this study five aid administrators were interviewed about their experiences of elderly people’s discrimination. The results were analyzed using an ageism perspective with a qualitative content analysis. The result shows that aid administrators see ageism in society by meeting with older people and through social perception. They stated that discrimination, prejudice and stereotypes in society that cause problems for older people like, exclusion, poor treatment and a contributor to a negative self-image. Older becomes less represented than other groups, overrides and availability in society is not adapted to their needs and abilities. Aid administrators argue that the perception of the elderly is an area for improvement. To succeed aid administrators, see the need for knowledge about ageism and that society listens to what older people want and need. It is society's duty to combat discrimination and protect human equivalence.

  • 12.
    Alestam, Lina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    "Jag behöver någon som förstår mig": En kvalitativ studie om mödrars upplevelse av relationen till handläggaren under kontaktfamiljsprocessen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur mödrar upplevde relationen till handläggarna under hela kontaktfamiljsprocessen på Familjeavdelningen i Karlstad kommun. För att undersöka detta valdes en kvalitativ metod där fem mödrar med minst ett års erfarenhet av kontaktfamiljsinsatsen intervjuades. Frågeställningarna var hur mödrarna upplevde delaktighet, bemötandet och vad de tror kunde påverka relationen med handläggaren. För att djupare kunna undersöka vad som sker i mötet mellan mödrarna och handläggarna analyserades materialet utifrån kommunikationsteori samt begreppet makt. Resultatet i studien visade att mödrarna till stor del kände sig delaktiga och väl bemötta av handläggarna på Familjeavdelningen. Denna känsla uppstod när de kände sig lyssnade på och upplevde tillit till handläggaren. En utmaning i relationen var handläggarbyten eller när mödrarna upplevde att de blivit bemötta alltför rutinmässigt. Mödrarna upplevde då otrygghet, vilket kunde resultera i en sämre relation till handläggarna. Vidare kunde vi även identifiera att det finns en rädsla för socialtjänsten hos mödrar med negativa erfarenheter av socialtjänsten, vilket i vissa fall påverkade deras möjlighet till delaktighet.

  • 13.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att stödja barns behov av närhet, anknytning och omsorg2013In: Ett hem att växa i - familjehemmets bok: Grundutbildning för jour- och familjehem, Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen , 2013, 1, 39-48 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Barns behov och föräldrars omsorgsförmåga2013In: Familjehemsboken: Frågor, fakta och personliga berättelser / [ed] Pipping, Lisbeth, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2013, 2, 46-66 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Effekter av långvarig extrem stress på relationen mellan föräldrar och barn2013In: Från apati till aktivitet: Teori och behandling av flyktingbarn med svår psykisk ohälsa / [ed] Ascher, Henry & Hjern, Anders, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, 61-82 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Feasibility of Evidence Based Interventions  for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in the Health and Welfare System in Sweden.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Draxler, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Project Support: En genomförbarhetsstudie av ett individuellt föräldrastöd i socialtjänsten för våldsutsatta föräldrar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genomförbarheten av Project Support (PS), ett individuellt föräldrastöd för våldsutsatta mammor utvecklat i USA, utvärderas inom ramen för svensk socialtjänst i denna studie. Sammanlagt trettio behandlare har utbildats i metoden, som anpassats till svenska förhållanden i samarbete med upphovsmännen. Tjugonio familjer hade inkluderats i behandling vid sttudiens avslut. Såväl behandlare som mammor uppskattade metoden och bedömde att den var en lämplig insats som förbättrade föräldrarnas samspel med sina barn. Mammornas självskattade föräldraförmåga förbättrades signifikant, och barnens symtomnivåer sänktes. Vissa svårigheter för implementering identifierades, dels metodspecifika, dels relaterade till omständigheter i socialtjänsten.

  • 18.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Georgsson, Anna
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Grip, Karin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Broberg, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Stöd till barn som upplevt att mamma utsätts för våld: Erfarenheter från en studie av barn som deltagit i Bojens grupprogram2012Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Grip, Karin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Broberg, Anders
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Promising but not good enough: Evaluation of communitybased interventions for children in Sweden exposed to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against their mother2012In: Children exposed to Intimate Partner Violence, 2012, 151-151 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Al-rufeye, Taqwa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Division for Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livet efter ett beroende: En kvalitativ studie om vägen från att vara beroende till ett rökfritt liv.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att genom en kvalitativ metod försöka få en djupare förståelse om hur före detta rökare upplever omställningen till ett beroendefritt liv samt hur de undviker att falla tillbaka till beroendet. För att kunna uppfylla syftet så intervjuades före detta rökare. De fick berätta om processen hur de slutade röka och hur de idag lever ett rökfritt liv. Intervjuerna analyserades med en tematisk analys.

                          Utifrån den tematiska analysen framkom gemensamma teman för respondenterna om hur det är att leva som rökfri, dessa teman var Beslutsamheten att bli rökfri och motivationen bakom, Hur man bemästrar ett röksug, Ökad medvetenhet om rökning. Dessa teman ger en bild av hur före detta rökare upplever omställningen till ett beroendefritt liv och hur de undviker att falla tillbaka till beroendet. Studiens slutsats visade bland annat att leva rökfri bidrar till en mycket bättre hälsa och positiv personlig förändring.

     

    Nyckelord: rökfri, beroende, återfall, livsförändring, hälsan 

  • 21.
    Alvinius, Aida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Bridging Boundaries in the Borderland of Bureaucracies: Individual Impact on Organisational Adaption to Demanding Situations in Civil and Military Contexts2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to reach a deeper understanding of how boundary spanners are bridging boundaries between uniformed bureaucratic organisations and their environment, characterised by demanding conditions.

    The main part of this thesis is based upon empirical data gathered through 71 interviews with Swedish civil and military informants from several uniformed organisations. Four articles have been included in this thesis in order to address the overarching aim.

    The results show that boundary spanners are crucial to the adaption of uniformed organisations to demanding conditions. A number of aspects that are included in the process of organisational adaption have been identified. One of the tasks is to balance between structuring and improvisation where much is at stake. The other task is to create confidence among the involved actors and contribute in different ways to create a sense of symmetry between partners. Finally, the third task for boundary spanners is to recognise improvised roles such as spontaneous links in order to maintain stressful conditions and bridge a gap in the bureaucratic organisation. 

    The present thesis contributes to sociological theory of emotions, disaster management and military studies through a common denominator, namely the demanding context. Taken together, the findings increase awareness of how organisations act towards their environments and how individuals, especially boundary spanners, adapt the organisation to its environment. For leaders and managers, it is important to make decisions, provide mandates and authorisation, as well as invest confidence in boundary spanners. The hierarchical chain may remain in existence, but it can be made shorter and more transparent through this kind of knowledge.

     

     

  • 22.
    Alvinius, Aida
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kylin, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Larsson, G.
    Emotional smoothness and confidence building: Boundary spanners in a civil-military collaboration context2014In: International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, ISSN 1740-8938, E-ISSN 1740-8946, Vol. 6, no 3, 223-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Anclair, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Fears, Stress and Burnout in Parents of Children with Chronic Conditions: Treatment with Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Mindfulness2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present research was threefold: to investigate the fears of parents of children with chronic conditions; to evaluate the effectiveness of their treatment with either mindfulness-based therapy or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT); and to assess treatment outcome in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Long-term stress can lead to some form of chronic stress reaction. In study one, fears of future cancer recurrence and of late effects of treatment were most prominent among parents of CNS tumour patients. Study two investigated the effectiveness of two group-based interventions on stress and burnout among parents of children with chronic conditions. Parents were offered either a CBT or a mindfulness programme. Both interventions significantly decreased stress and burnout. Study three focused on the HRQoL and life satisfaction of the parents in study two. The results indicate improvements for participants in both treatment groups regarding certain areas of HRQoL and life satisfaction. To conclude, fears concerning future cancer recurrence and late effects of treatment are most prominent among parents of children with cancer. Another conclusion is that CBT and mindfulness decrease stress and burnout and may have a positive effect on areas of HRQoL and life satisfaction.

  • 24.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Cognitive behavioural therapy for stress-related problems: Two single-case studies of parents of children with disabilities.2014In: Clinical Case Studies, ISSN 1534-6501, E-ISSN 1552-3802, Vol. 13, no 6, 472-486 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many parents who have children suffering from some form of chronic illness or mental disorder may experience chronic stress reactions of various types. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been proved to be effective in reducing stress-related problems, but there seems to be no study to date in which CBT has been tested on this specific parent group. Two case studies were therefore performed. Case 1 centered on a 47-year-old married woman, who has lived in Sweden for 12 months. She described how she had become increasingly exhausted, and she wanted help to find strategies enabling her to cope with everyday life. Case 2 featured a 45-year-old single mother, who had been on part-time sick leave due to depression and stress. She described how she had always been anxious and worried and had had two episodes of depression. Both women had sons diagnosed with autism/Asperger syndrome. One of the women met the criteria for pathological burnout, while the other woman was just below the limit. The focus of the therapy for both women was on exhaustion, depression, and sleeping difficulties. In addition, therapy in Case 1 involved under-stimulation and in Case 2, anxiety. When the therapy ended, genuine improvements were registered for both clients. The results show that CBT can be an effective treatment of symptoms for this group of parents so that they can provide adequate support to their children, thus facilitating everyday life for a child with a chronic illness or disorder.

  • 25.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hiltunen, Arto Juhani
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness for health-related quality of life: Comparing treatments for parents of children with chronic conditions: A pilot feasibility study2017In: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 13, no 1, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on parents of children with chronic conditions has shown that this parent group frequently suffers from psychological problems such as deteriorating life quality and stress-related disorders. Objective: The present feasibility study focuses on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and life satisfaction of parents of children with chronic conditions. Method: The study was conducted using a repeated measures design and applied either group-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT; n = 10) or a group-based mindfulness programme (MF; n = 9). The study participants were wait-listed for six months. Results:The results indicate improvements for participants in both treatment groups regarding certain areas of HRQOL and life satisfaction. After eight group therapy sessions, parents in the two treatment groups significantly improved their Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores as well as their scores on the mental subscales Vitality, Social functioning, Role emotional and Mental health. In addition, some of the physical subscales, Role physical, Bodily pain and General health, showed considerable improvement for the MF group. When testing for clinical significance by comparing the samples with mean values of a norm population, the MCS scores were significantly lower at pre-measurements, but no significant differences were observed post-measurement. For the Physical component summary (PCS) scores, a significantly higher score was observed at post-measurement when compared to the norm population. Moreover, the results indicate improvement in life satisfaction regarding Spare time, Relation to child and Relation to partner. Conclusion: The study concludes that CBT and mindfulness may have a positive effect on areas of HRQOL and life satisfaction.

  • 26.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    University of Jyväskylä, Department of psychology.
    Muotka, Joona
    University of Jyväskylä, Department of psychology.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness for stress and burnout: a waiting list controlled pilot study comparing treatments for parents of children with chronic conditions2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Andersson, Catherine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Inlåst: Häktade personers upplevelser, samt kriminalvårdares erfarenhet av isoleringspåverkan2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study was intended to examine and elucidate detainees' experiences of isolation that detained. The aim was also to elucidate arrested insulation outside prison personnel perspective. This is to get a deeper understanding of the insulation as a social phenomenon. As I was interested in interviewees' experiences in the form of a detailed narrative a qualitative method was chosen in the form of interviews with the narrative character. In the processing of empiricism was coding chosen in combination with the hermeneutic tradition. I was working in several installments with empirical data where coding and analysis was inspired by hermeneutics. This was done to shorten the text and to find interesting and important words and sentences that hermeneutics then helps to explain.Theoretical concepts regards shame/power and also a criminal lifestyleamong other thing.  Results are based on themes related to the arrested existence as locked up and thus isolated and the meaning of prisonguards treatment towards arrested. The study indicates that respondents perceive detention time hardest at the beginning of the stay. The detainees appear to seemingly get into routines and find strategies to adapt to the situation as locked up. Emotions are perceived to be more strongly associated with the lock-in and the detainees can not quite put their finger on why it is this way. Custody staff are trying to interact with detainees through simple phrases in the hallway, supportive conversations with affected individuals and distraction to even try to find the quiet. Even if the arrestee is not responsive and not want to have contact with staff, conducts detention staff still an effort that suits the individual.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Göra kön på bloggen: En studie om framställningar och skapandet av ”kvinnan” på mode- och livsstilsbloggar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the “woman” is depicted and created on fashion and lifestyle blogs. I have done this from a “doing gender” perspective. I have also used Goffman’s theories of identity values and stigma.    

    I been working with an eclectic approach to the choice of method and I have therefore been using different methods in which content coding on text and symbolic interpretation of images has been the most prominent. These codes were created based on my theoretical framework.    

    The result of my analysis is that gender is done on fashion and lifestyle blogs relative to the two categories, sex categorization as well as gender. This doing appears in different forms in which the body´s appearance, its decoration and individuals´ behavior and opinions are of central importance. Identity values and stigma are two phenomena that are manifest on this kind of blogs. These two phenomena occur in relation to both sex categorization and gender.   

  • 29.
    Andersson, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    ”Du är inte tjock, du är ju jättefin!”: En kvalitativ studie om fat-shaming på internet och upprätthållandet av normen kring den smala kvinnokroppen.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har i vårt västerländska samhälle en smalhetsnorm som innebär att smala kroppar premieras på bekostnad av tjocka. Dessa tjocka kroppar stigmatiseras, diskrimineras och förtrycks strukturellt, så kallad fat-shaming. Forskning visar att fat-shaming drabbar tjocka kvinnor allra hårdast. En arena som blir en allt större del av våra liv är internet, och här – precis som i den ”vanliga världen”, är fat-shaming vanligt förekommande. Syftet med studien är att, ur ett genusvetenskapligt perspektiv, undersöka den negativa synen på kvinnor med tjocka kroppar, genom att utforska olika mönster av fat-shaming på internet, samt hur normen om kvinnokroppen som smal återskapas och upprätthålls, genom kommentarerna. Som analysverktyg för normens upprätthållande, användes begreppet performativitet. Studien fann fem kategorier av fat-shaming i kommentarerna, med totalt tolv subkategorier. Kommentarerna innehöll fat-shaming som kretsade kring följande teman: (o)hälsa, samhällsbelastning, fördomar om tjocka, förringning av stigma-problematiken, samt förolämpningar. Genom att med språket peka ut den tjocka kvinnokroppen som mindre duglig och avvikande reproduceras och upprätthålls synen på den smala kvinnokroppen som det önskvärda, som normen. Bara genom att peka ut avvikare kan normen upprätthållas, och kommentarerna i denna studie fungerar som ett verbalt utpekande.

  • 30.
    Andersson K., Pernille
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Changing the servicescape: The influence of music, self-disclosure and eye gaze on service encounter experience and approach-avoidance behavior2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and understand the effect of a servicescape’s ambient and social conditions on consumers’ service encounter experience and their approach/avoidance behavior in a retail context. In three papers, with a total sample of over 1600 participants (including 550 actual consumers) and seven experiments, the author investigates the effect of music (ambient stimuli), employees’ self-disclosure (verbal social stimuli) and employees’ gazing behavior (nonverbal social stimuli) on consumers’ service encounter experience and approach/avoidance behavior in a retail store.

    Paper I comprised two experiments, and the aim was to investigate the influence of music on emotions, approach/avoidance behavior. Paper II comprised two experiments, and the aim was to investigate the effect of frontline employees’ personal self-disclosure on consumers’ reciprocal behavior. Paper III comprised three experiments, and the aim was to investigate the influence of employee’s direct eye gaze/ averted eye gaze on consumer emotions, social impression of the frontline employee and encounter satisfaction in different purchase situations.

    The results in this thesis show that music affects consumers in both positive and negative ways (Paper I). Self-disclosure affects consumers negatively, in such a way that it decreases encounter satisfaction  (Paper II) and, finally, eye gaze affects consumers by regulating both positively – and in some cases also negatively – consumers’ social impression of the frontline employee and their encounter satisfaction (Paper III).

    The conclusions of this thesis are that both ambient and social stimuli in a servicescape affect consumers’ internal responses, which in turn affect their behavior. Depending on the purchase situation, type of retail, and stimuli, the internal and behavioral responses are different.

  • 31.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    The effect of gaze on consumers’ encounter evaluation2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 4, 372-396 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The research concerns the effect of frontline employees’ averted or direct gaze on consumers’ evaluation of the encounter. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in normal interactions, a direct or averted gaze affects people’s evaluation of others. The question was whether this finding would hold true in commercial interactions.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted three experiments using a written scenario with a photograph among a total sample of 612 participants.

    Findings – This research showed that consumers’ social impression of the frontline employees mediated the effect of the employees’ gazing behaviour on consumers’ emotions and satisfaction with the encounters. The findings also showed that averting gaze had a negative effect on consumers’ first impression of the frontline employee, which affected consumers’ satisfaction with the encounter. The findings also showed that a direct gaze had a negative effect on encounter satisfaction when consumers sought to purchase embarrassing products.

    Originality/value – The research demonstrated that the effect of gaze on encounter satisfaction was mediated by the social impression and moderated by consumers’ approach/avoidance motivation.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Maja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Ambulanspersonals upplevelser av patienter med psykisk ohälsa: En explorativ studie av hur ambulanspersonal ser på sitt uppdrag vid utryckningar som gäller psykisk ohälsa.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study aimed at exploratory describe ambulance staff’s perceptions of patients

    with mental illness and how they view their role when attending these cases. Ten employees

    within the ambulance participated in the study and semi-structured interviews were used in

    collecting data. Thematic analysis was used for analyzing data. From the analysis three main

    themes that narrate ambulance staff’s perceptions of patients with mental illness were created.

    The first theme was The challenge in facing patients with mental illness. The theme has three

    sub-themes, Valuable attributes and abilities, The encounter and treatment and Staff’s safety.

    The second main theme, Frustration and feelings of insufficiency, includes two sub-themes,

    The inaccessible care and The need for knowledge. The third main theme The perceptions of

    the assignment and the patient includes no sub-themes but stands on its own.

    In the stories of ambulance staff’s perceptions of patients with mental illness it’s made visible

    how the role of the ambulance staff, when attending these cases, becomes the one of a fellow

    creature before the patient and a negotiator before other organisations. Aspects that cause

    barriers for nursing in these situations are also highlighted, like an inaccessible psychiatric

    care and different approaches within the ambulance.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Ljungberg, Elinor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Adoption – när barn inte är en rättighet utan något du förvaltar: En studie om kontakten mellan handläggare och adoptivföräldrar under adoptionsprocessen2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to try to interpret interactions between social worker and adoptive parents during the adoption process from a power perspective. The study was inspired by a hermeneutic inductive approach because we were interested in the interpretation of the empirical material. The study was conducted using four qualitative interviews with a total of seven people, four adoptive parents and three social workers. The collected material is then analyzed using a content analysis. To interpret the contact between the adoptive parents and social workers, we have used a power perspective. Our study showed that the applicant, generally speaking, was positive to that an investigation was made based on “the child’s interest”, but experienced some of the questions as intrusive. They found that the assessment made was crucial for the decision, and that it easily can vary from case to case for the decision and that the assessment can certainly vary in different cases. The social workers did not feel that they had any noticeable power, because they do not make the final decision. Their assessment was partly based on laws and guidelines that set the context, for example, how old the applicants may be and the requirement that the applicants must be married. Assessments are also made on the social worker’s individual characteristics based on the applicant's personal qualities such as insight and ability to care for a child.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    "Who am I now?" Sense of Gender and Place in Digital Gameplay: Affective Dimensions of gameplay in XCOM: Enemy Within2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay I analyze the ways in which gender and space are shaped and made sense of through digital gameplay. Specifically in the turn based strategy game XCOM: Enemy Within for the MacBook Air with a computer mouse as the primary input device. Using a mixed methods approach consisting of gameplay sessions of XCOM and qualitative interviews with two players regarding their gameplay I argue that earlier research on space within game studies has overlooked the ways in which the shaping of space in gameplay is also gendered. Developing a theoretical framework influenced by gender studies, critical theory, affect theory, assemblage theories of space, and game theory, I argue for how the shaping of space and gender in game-play is interdependent. This in that the shaping of space and gender in digital gameplay is in constant relation and tension with societal norms and the affective capacities of bodies and digital games. In conclusion, I reflect on the possibilities to develop more empirical research based on the the theoretical framework explored in the essay.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Aspects of Substance displacement - from illicit drugs to novel psychoactive substance2016In: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 2155-6105, Vol. 7, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several hundred new synthetic drugs, novel psychoactive substances (NPS) or “legal highs” have in recent years appeared on the drug market. These can effortlessly be obtained from on-line vendors, offering an easy access to a plethora of new and untested substances, often with unknown or dangerous effects. Several different attempts to reduce the availability of NPS and to prevent accidents and fatalities have been applied by governments around the world. Nonetheless this complex and constantly evolving situation provides palpable dilemmas and challenges to legislators and prevention strategists. One unintended consequence from prohibition and current drug policies occurs when possibly more precarious substances are used to substitute older and more well-known illicit drugs; so called “substance displacement”. We have performed extensive research on the use of NPS, by analyzing Internet resources (drug discussion forum, on-line questionnaires), and published several NPS studies. During our research we observed how substance displacement is a common issue, with implications for both clinical practices, drug prevention strategies, as well as for legislators. In the present review we discuss two common themes of substance displacement: 1) Synthetic cannabinoids replace herbal cannabis, and 2) Different attempts for self-medication using NPS. Incitements for substance displacement, that exposes the user to possibly more harmful substances, are founded both in legislation (availability of substances and fear of legal repercussions) as well as from certain policies or cultural perceptions of various medical conditions. We offer no obvious solutions to these complications, but would like to contribute to awareness of how these factors effects drug users and how measures intended to reduce harm in many cases have the opposite effects. Further studies on the divergent motivations and different groups of NPS users are highlighted as imperative to find new and realistic solutions going forward. 

  • 36.
    Andersson, Mona
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    En explorativ studie om synen kring vård och behandling på ett friskinriktat internetforum för personer med symtom på ätstörningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här kvalitativa studien undersöker hur personer med symtom på ätstörningar ser på vård och behandling utifrån diskussioner på ett internetforum. Tidigare forskning visar att motivationen till hjälpsökande bland personer med ätstörningar är låg, och därför behövs det fler studier kring vad denna patientgrupp tycker om vården och vilka behov de har.

    Data har samlats in genom observationer på ett offentligt friskinriktat internetforum för personer med ätstörningar. Datamaterialet analyserades med tematisk analys och resulterade i fem teman; Maktlöshet och skuld, Tvångsvård på gott och ont, Att inte passa in i vården, Behov att få prata om och hantera känslor, samt Hopp.Resultatet visar att det finns rädsla för vilka krav vården ställer på till exempel motivation och viktuppgång, vilket blir hinder för hjälpsökandet. Resultatet visar också besvikelse över att vården är kortsiktig och fokuserar på sjukdomens fysiska symtom. Respondenternas behov är att få hjälp med bakomliggande orsaker till ätstörningen och att det ska finnas mer utrymme för känslomässigt stöd. För att det ska vara möjligt att bli frisk lyfter respondenterna fram trygghet i en terapirelation som det avgörande.Forumet fungerar som en copingstrategi för medlemmarna i form av ökad kunskap och hopp om att det går att bli frisk, samt uppmuntran och stöd till att söka hjälp.Vården för ätstörningspatienter behöver inse vikten av att behandla hela personen och kunna erbjuda långsiktiga terapirelationer. Vården behöver också se brist på motivation till förändring som en del av sjukdomen, och inte ställa orimliga krav redan innan behandlingen påbörjas. 

  • 37.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    När kunden inte ser: En sociologisk studie om tågpersonals emotionella arbete2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in emotional labor has increased due to the development of norms that service workers always should be nice and fond have increased. Research in this area exhibit both negative consequences in form of burnouts and positive in form of an increased understanding in other people. The aim of the study was to create an understanding of how a couple of train conductors experience their work in relation to the feelings, roles and relationships that surround them. The study is based on four qualitative interviews that have been analysed with emotion and interaction oriented theories. The results show that the use of emotions was common in the profession and the respondents of the study claim to act a role which they adapt to the customers’ expectations. These expectations can sometimes end up in a conflict between the professional role and the private role where the own feelings and respect weights more than the adaption to the customers’ expectations. The respondents in the study were found to have created different strategies, open and hidden, that can be used in order to get the customer to be notified of their behavior as well as it works to manage the emotional labor. The results also show how the colleagues and the opportunity to go away and discuss difficult customer meetings are important factors when it comes to relate to the emotional labor. Overall, there is room to affect the emotional labor which also been proven to be beneficial for the job satisfaction.

  • 38.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Profiles: prototyping an online information segregation service2013In: Human-Computer Interaction: Users and Contexts of Use, volume 8006, Proceedings Part III, / [ed] Kurosu, M.,, Springer, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Appell, Petra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Behandlares upplevelser av att arbeta med Child-Parent Psychotherapy. En kvalitativ studie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate therapists’ experiences and thoughts in working with a new method in Sweden for children who have experienced trauma, Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP). The study was done as part of a feasibility study on the basis that the method is tried out in a new context and intends to contribute to the development of a structure that supports the implementation of the CPP if the trial is successful. CPP has good evidence in the United States, but has never been tested in Sweden. Twelve therapists’ participated in the training and practice of CPP; these therapists’ were interviewed based on a semi-structured interview. A qualitative study with inductive approach was considered the most appropriate to answer the studies’ query and capture as much as possible of the therapists’ experiences. The empirical data were analysed thematically, and based on analysis revealed three main themes; Reliance and appreciation, Conditions and challenges and Professional development. The therapists’ descriptions of working with CPP were predominantly positive. They described that the method was applicable, exciting and challenging. Interventions for young children, trauma focus and the dyadic approach were aspects that were considered as highly relevant. The challenges were mainly related to the methods requirements, in terms of their own craftsmanship, support from colleagues and the child's safety. The therapists’ also described that they have developed and acquired new conceptual framework in their therapeutic work. Based on the results of the study it is concluded that CPP is a required and appreciated method that is worthy of further evaluation.

  • 40.
    Ardita, Beqiri
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    En kvantitativ enkätundersökning om könsskillnad i stress, stresshantering ochprokrastinering.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in student stress-management and procrastination at Karlstad University. The study was a quantitative study that used questionaries as an investigative tool. The study had a between group design. The study's dependent variables were procrastination, stress and coping strategies. The study's independent variables were gender and number of semesters completed at the university. An opportunity sampling was used and a total of 328 students participated in the survey, in which 77 per cent were female and 23 per cent male. The participants' average age was 26,18 years. The women's average age was 27.25 years and men's average age was 25 years. Data were collected via an electronic questionnaire that was created using the survey tool Survey & Report. The questionnaire consisted of questions addressing background information of the participant, as well as three instruments that measured the students perceived stress, what the students did to deal with the perceived stress in the past month, and weather the students procrastinated. Data were analyzed by 16 independent t-tests. The results showed that there were no significant difference in terms of procrastination between men and women. Further the results showed that there were no significant difference between the students percieved stress when comparing new students and more experiences students. And finally the results showed that there were a significant difference between the coping strategies used by men and women. Both women and men used these strategies to some extent but women were more likely than men to prefer active coping, deny the stress, seek emotional and social support as well as seeking instrumental social support, experience feelings of despair, ventilate their feelings as well as being more prone to the use of positive reframing of stressful events than men are. 

  • 41.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    From “attitude-behavior”to “agency-structure” in research and policy on sustainable urban transport2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    From “attitude-behavior” to “agency-structure” in research and policy on sustainable urban transport2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Aronson, Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Likhetsteorin: En teoretisk utveckling av Collins interaktionsritualer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of the thesis originates in the discovery of a pattern in Collins’ theory of interaction rituals. The pattern indicates that several important ideas and concepts in Collins’ theory can be conceived as individuals’ experiences of similarity. Based upon the discovery of this pattern, the aim of the thesis is to develop the basic features of a new theory that explains interaction rituals by centering upon individuals’ experiences of similarity. In order to accomplish the aim, the essay discusses four aspects of interaction rituals. In connection to the first aspect, an explanation is presented that reveals why individuals who experience similarity give each other support in their interaction rituals. Discussing the second aspect, the concept of effervescence of similarity is presented, which explains why experiences of similarity are crucial for generating emotional energy in interaction rituals. When developing the third aspect, a complete description of similarity theory is presented. Similarity theory explains interaction rituals by referring to individuals’ experiences of similarity. Finally, in the discussion of the fourth aspect, similarity theory is tested against empirical research. The concluding sections argue for ways in which similarity theory may contribute considerably to the understanding of interaction rituals. Also, suggestions for further research are presented.

  • 44.
    Aronson, Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Symbolic smoking: A quantitative survey of peers’ impressions of a smoking adolescent girl, and a theoretical analysis of the symbolic capital generated by the impressions2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, I analyze adolescent girls’ smoking through a unique combination of a quantitative survey of impressions and a theoretical analysis based on new elaborations of Bourdieu’s concept symbolic capital. The method of the study is three-fold. First, focus-group interviews elicit relevant impressions of adolescents in the eyes of peers. Second, a questionnaire survey distributed to adolescent peers quantitatively investigates how impressions of a girl on a picture differ depending on whether or not she has a cigarette. Third, a theoretical analysis based on elaborations of Bourdieu’s theories scrutinizes the results of the questionnaire survey. The results of the questionnaire survey indicate that smoking adolescent girls generate impressions of being significantly less likable, more popular, more conceited, less kind, less shy, more liable to bully, less funny, more deceitful, and less compassionate than non-smoking adolescent girls. In the elaborations of Bourdieu’s theories, I introduce a division of symbolic capital into two forms: symbolic virtue capital, generated through impressions of virtues, and symbolic power capital, generated through intimidating impressions of destructive power. According to the theoretical analysis of the results, smoking adolescent girls have relatively much symbolic power capital but relatively little symbolic virtue capital compared to adolescent girls that do not smoke.

  • 45.
    Arvidson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Lojalitetens interaktionsformer: En typologi2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Arvidson, Markus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Axelsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Lojalitetens sociala former - Om lojalitet och arbetsliv2014In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 20, no 1, 55-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I följande artikel görs en teoretisk utveckling av begreppet lojalitet. Begreppet används idag på ett common sense-artat sätt och därmed riskerar begreppet att få bristfällig förklaringskraft. Till exempel betonas alltför ofta vertikala relationer med hjälp av begreppet. I artikeln presenteras fyra sociala lojalitetsformer i syfte att frambringa ett skarpare lojalitetsbegrepp som kan användas inom exempelvis arbetslivsforskningen.

  • 47.
    Arvidson, Markus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Axelsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Loyalty to the self: Philosophical and social psychological reflections2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Arvidson, Markus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Axelsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Exploring self-loyalty in the context of social acceleration: theorising loyalties as emotions and resistance2017In: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 10, no 2, 133-148 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Arvidson, Markus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Axelsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
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