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  • 1.
    Aadalen, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Anpassning och differentiering av undervisning i ett klassrum för alla: Strategier för anpassning av undervisning i teori och praktik och dess effekter på elevers delaktighet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate if and how instruction is adjusted or differentiated based on the conception that learners are diverse and how teacher practices are connected to contemporary research in the field. It further examines whether specific adjustments are connected to a higher rate of student participation.

    The method of the essay is an observation survey with a phenomenological approach. It includes the practices of 30 different teachers during thirty lessons at an upper secondary school in Sweden, where the majority of the students are diagnosed within the neuropsychiatric spectra. The outcome was quantitatively analyzed in SPSS.

    The study indicates that the connection between specific adjustments and student participation is a complex issue affected by several aspects and preconditions. It appears that teachers use certain forms of adjustments at a higher rate while some are less salient in instruction. More frequently used adjustments are; praise, providing alternatives for perception, activating previous knowledge and highlighting critical features. Less frequent are differentiation of tasks, visible agendas, formative feedback, collaborative peer-learning and self-assessment.

    This essay will furthermore be a basis for collaborative learning among the staff since a deeper knowledge of how instruction can be adjusted and differentiated will impact the outcome of student learning.

     

  • 2.
    Aasen, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Vi har sett och hört den, men var då?: En enkätundersökning om barns och vuxnas relation till instrumentet trumpet2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study's purpose is to investigate whether children and parents know the instrument trumpet and the beliefs they have about this instrument.  

     

    My questions are:

     

    • What do 6 and 7-year-olds and their parents know of the instrument trumpet? 
    • What are their beliefs concerning the trumpet and what does the trumpet mean to them? 

     

    To find out about these questions, I have conducted a survey study in Arvika with children in first grade and their parents. 33 adults and 34 children from three schools took part in the survey.

     

    The results showed that knowledge of the trumpet are quite good among 6 and 7-year-olds and their parents. All the respondents in this survey know what the trumpet is, and over one-third of the 67 respondents know about someone who plays the trumpet. Among the children exist no big "celebrity" trumpet player. Instead they mention friends or acquaintances that play the instrument. There were some well-known musicians among adults but it was often aging jazz trumpeters. 6 and 7-year-olds are pretty open-minded about trumpet. They seem to consider both that young, old, men and women could be playing the trumpet. The parents, however, think that men dominate playing the trumpet. Otherwise are the parents also pretty open-minded. The music school appears to have a strong name in Arvika. Many respondents stated that it´s possible to contact the music school if you want to start playing the trumpet. The results also showed that the trumpet is not considered as boring. Most people put it midway between boring and fun to play.

     

    Based on the findings in this study, the trumpet seems to be a well-known and somewhat appreciated instrument among the respondents. At the same time it seems to be a bit out of range from a satisfying reputation.

     

  • 3.
    Abdi Alipour, Seyran
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Copingstrategier och livstillfredsställelse: En kvantitativ studie bland universitetsstudenter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine coping strategies for stress and life satisfaction among students. A further aim was partly to investigate possible differences between men and women regarding the coping strategies used, and differences in the relationship between coping strategies and subjective well-being. The survey was conducted by an electronic poll. The selection was a coincidence sample of women and men aged 18- 47 who studied at a university. Total 128 participants, 44 men and 84 women. The participants answered a questionnaire that consisted of background questions and gauge which measured stress and life satisfaction. The result showed that the most used coping strategies were active coping, planning and acceptance. The conclusion is that men and women differ in terms of coping strategies and that life satisfaction correlates with coping strategies.

     

    Key words: Stress, students, coping strategies, life satisfaction

  • 4.
    Abdul Basheer, Abdul Naeem
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Teachers’ perceptions about constructivist learning in Afghan Schools.: Mathematics teachers’ perceptions and usage of question-answer, individual and group work methods considering constructivism.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A special attention has been given to education system in Afghanistan after new government established in 2001.Initially in 2001, the ways of teaching and learning were mainly based on behaviorist approaches. This behaviorist approach to learning and teaching is gradually changed to cognitive and constructivist approaches which are mostly used in advanced education systems. These approaches to learning and teaching are mainly focused on learners themselves. Therefore, student-centered and active learning became the buzzwords in education system in Afghanistan. This study investigates constructivist learning in Afghan secondary schools. It is vast to investigate each and every aspect of constructivist learning. So, I have selected to investigate the mostly used methods (question-answer, individual and group-work) considering constructivism in Afghan secondary schools. The mentioned methods are investigated in the light of constructivism. I have investigated the methods considering four criteria of constructivist method given by Baviskar et.al, (2009). The criteria are: assessing student’s prior knowledge, differentiating what is already known and what should be learnt, changing students pre-concept in the context of new knowledge and reflection on learning. Teachers’ perceptions were found through questionnaires and their use of these methods was observed from classroom observation.

    Findings show that, around half of the teachers perceive the mentioned methods in line with constructivism while remaining teachers still perceive to use these methods as a traditional way of teaching. Furthermore, teachers perception based on their answers is not similar to their teaching practices considering constructivism. It means teachers’ responses in the questionnaires did not conform to their teaching practices from classroom observations. Moreover, generally teachers seem to be more constructivists in perception and applying individual work method as compared to group-work activities. In some cases, teachers who participated in pedagogical workshops answered questionnaire more in line with constructivism as compare to the teachers who did not participate in pedagogical workshops in the past.

  • 5.
    Abdul Hamid, Nahed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Lean-koncept i praktiken: En studie om implementeringen av Lean-koncept i en statlig organisation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om implementering av Lean-konceptet i praktiken. Syftet är att utreda vilka faktorer som kan påverka personal inom en organisation, att trots vetskap, inte implementera ett koncept i praktiken. Här har studien valt att se närmare på Migrationsverket, som är en statlig organisation som har infört ett Lean-koncept. 

    En kvalitativ undersökning har gjorts i form av intervjuer med handläggare vid en mottagningsenhet inom Migrationsverket. Sammanfattningsvis, trots införandet av Lean koncept i receptionen på den svenska Migrationsverket, är det svårt för tjänstemän att använda det på grund av olika faktorer såsom: stress, utmaningen att arbeta smidigare, hög arbetsbelastning, hög grad av administrativt arbete.

  • 6.
    Abdul Majid, Soran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Brandt-Hansen, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Mäklare tjugofyrasju: En studie om hur mäklare lyckas kombinera arbete och familjeliv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Yrket som fastighetsmäklare kräver en hel del tid, ansträngning och framför allt tillgänglighet, av individen. Yrkets flexibilitet och gränslöshet, som med dagens tekniska utveckling ökat, leder till att arbetet inkräktar på det övriga livet. Att framgångsrikt kunna balansera kraven från arbetet med det privata livet, utan att låta en sfär undertrycka den andra, kan anses vara problematiskt för en fastighetsmäklare. Frågan är då hur de klarar av att kombinera det krävande arbetet med ett familjeliv? Syftet med studien är att öka förståelsen för hur mäklare lyckas kombinera arbetsliv med familjeliv. Vi ville därmed ta reda på hur och om fastighetsmäklare lyckas uppnå balans, vilka konflikter de upplever, samt hur de hanterar kraven från arbete och från familj. Detta gjordes med teorier relaterade till Work-Life Balance och genus. En kvalitativ undersökningsmetod användes i studien för att besvara frågeställningarna där vi använde oss av intervjuer för att samla in data. Vi genomförde nio intervjuer, varav fyra var män och fem kvinnor. Dessa valdes utifrån vissa kriterier; de skulle arbeta som fastighetsmäklare på heltid och ha barn. Dock intervjuades även fastighetsmäklare i form av franchisetagare. Resultatet visar att det beror på individuella faktorer och förutsättningar, för hur väl fastighetsmäklarna lyckas uppnå balans. Fastighetsmäklaryrket innebär obekväma arbetstider, stora krav på tillgänglighet och en gränslöshet, som kan försvåra balansen för individen. Faktorer som främjar balansen och underlättar kraven visar sig vara: flexibilitet i arbetet, stöd från omgivningen (framför allt stöd från en partner), att sätta gränser för sig själv och mot kunder, samt att ha passion för arbetet. De visar sig även i undersökningen att det finns vissa könskillnader. De kvinnliga mäklarna var mer familjeorienterade och tog ett större ansvar för sysslorna i hemmet medan de manliga mäklarna var mer arbetsorienterade och tog ett mindre ansvar i hemmet. Däremot kan vi utifrån resultatet inte se att kvinnliga mäklare har större svårigheter att kombinera sfärerna arbete och familj, trots skillnaden i prioriteringar mellan könen. Detta beror till stor del på att mäklarna har egna tillvägagångssätt för att klara av kraven från familj och arbete, samt starkt stöd från partnern. En viktig del i att uppnå balans för mäklarna var just samarbetet med partnern samt en ansvarsdelning båda var nöjda med.

  • 7.
    Aberg, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Voting by income: Political culture of two swedish municipalities 1860-19302012In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 132, no 2, 288-294 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln belyser Erik Nydahls avhandling I fyrkens tid som tar avstamp i en omdiskuterad, om än relativt väl utforskad, fråga: hur formades svensk politisk kultur i övergången från jordbrukarsamhället till det moderna industrisamhället? Viktiga faktorer i det sammanhanget var att svensk industrialisering i många avseenden ägde rum utanför de framväxande storstadsregionerna, att jordbruksnäringen samtidigt spelade en fortsatt viktig roll under lång tid och att urbaniseringsprocessen internationellt sett var mera utdragen.

  • 8.
    Abraham, Getahun Yacob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Democratic Values in the Comprehensive Schools Curricula of the Nordic Countries.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Democratic values in the comprehensive schools curricula of the Nordic countries.

     

    The major focus of this paper is to find out which aspects of democratic values are emphasised in the comprehensive schools curricula of the five Nordic countries. It is also an intention of the paper to find out similarities and differences in emphasis and if available data allows to further investigate the reasons for differences and similarities.

    Major sources for the work were curricula of comprehensive schools from the different Nordic countries. Each countries current curriculum was closely read to understand their contents and to undertake comparative analysis. Text analysis was used as a major tool to look closely at the text and context. For further knowledge journals on curriculum studies and other relevant materials were consulted.

    A preliminary review of the general section of comprehensive schools curricula of these countries show:

    In the Danish curriculum participation, responsibility and understanding rights and duties are emphasised.

    The Finnish curriculum raises issues on human rights, equality, natural diversity, preservation of environment and multiculturalism. Responsibility, a sense of community and respect for the right and freedom of the individual are emphasised. General diversity and gender equality are given significant attention.

    In the Icelandic curriculum the major focus is human rights, collective responsibility, participation, influencing, and respect. Concern for people, animal and the environment are included in the curriculum. Critical thinking and reflection, active cooperation & collective responsibility are also emphasised.

    The Norwegian curriculum mentions understanding, cooperation, independence, individual freedom and tolerance as important issues.

    Swedish curriculum raises issues on respect for human rights, respect for persons and the environment. It considers inviolability of human life, individual freedom and integrity, equality between women and men, solidarity with the weak and vulnerable as crucial points. Sense of justice, generosity of spirit, tolerance and responsibility, well-being and development of the individual, no discrimination and personal responsibility were among the areas the curriculum lifted up.

    The curricula in these five countries give room for democratic values. There are some variations on emphasises on specific issues. But all the curricula include issues of rights and responsibilities.

    Keywords: curricula, democratic values, Nordic countries

  • 9.
    Abraham, Getahun Yacob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Life Orientation: Lessons on leadership qualities and voting in grade three classes in South African schools2013In: Online Educational Research Journal, ISSN 2044-0294, E-ISSN 2044-0294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life Orientation: lessons on leadership qualities and voting in grade three classes

    Abstract

    The focus of this study was lessons on leadership qualities and voting in grade three classes in four Eastern Cape schools. Frame factor theory and theory of pedagogical devices were used. The study employed text analysis, classroom observation in four 3rd grade classes and interviews with 14 third grade teachers as sources of data. The results of the study indicated there were differences among teachers when it came to understanding and interpreting the theme. The teachers interviewed have general qualifications but lacked training to teach this theme. Between the schools there were differences in manpower, material and financial resources. There were similar teaching procedures although there were differences in teachers’ approaches. Learners’ understanding was influenced by family background. In general, teachers dominated and controlled the whole procedure by proposing candidates and vote counters. Findings from this study could be relevant for teachers and other school personnel for their future commitment to teaching democracy by practising it. Keywords: Classroom, democracy, differences, leadership qualities, learners, life orientation, participation, South Africa, teachers, voting

  • 10.
    Abraham, Getahun Yacob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Nukruma’s and nyerere’s educational visions: what could contemporary africa learns from them?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NUKRUMA’S AND NYERERE’S EDUCATIONAL VISIONS – WHAT COULD CONTEMPORARY AFRICA LEARNS FROM THEM?

     

    Getahun Yacob Abraham

    Senior Lecturer

    Institution for Pedagogical Studies

    Karlstad University  

     

     

    This study tries to assess the educational visions of two post independent African leaders, Kwame Nkrumah and Julius Nyerere. The focus is on, what could contemporary Africa learn from their visions on developing the welfare of society through education? To answer this question a literature review of their own works and other writers was conducted. The review shows that they emphasised on the need for education for further development in their own and other countries in the continent. They also focused on relating education with the local reality with due concern on the relevance of knowledge of the global reality. The instrumentality of education to change the life of the masses was given a vital place. For them  education should aim at including all sectors of society and on creating equality among the population instead of contributing to evolving an elite class that selfishly prioritize its own interest than the society at large. They stressed that education should not be too theoretical in the expense of the practical activities. According to them the purpose of education should go beyond individual gains and take into consideration the welfare of the whole society. In line with their visions information technology and welfare development in the continent should be assumed in a way that benefits the broad masses.  

     

     

    Key words: contemporary Africa, Education, Nkrumah, Nyerere, visions

  • 11.
    Abraham, Getahun Yacob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Critical Pedagogy: Origin, Vision, Action & Consequences2014In: KAPET, ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 10, no 1, 90-98 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical pedagogy is a transformation-based approach to education. The aim of this article is to introduce the origin, vision, action and consequences of critical pedagogy. It also aims on finding out about educators’ possibility of actualising it in their practice. As a source materials articles, book chapters and books are used. The literature shows that critical pedagogy has its origin in the tradition of critical theory of the Frankfurt School and the work of the Brazilian pedagog Paulo Freire. According to the literature, its major theses is that education should go beyond transfer of knowledge and training the future labour force; to help developing critical consciousness, which leads to transformation of the individual, learning environment and society at large. Critical pedagogy is criticised for a focus on macro level system, for not having a model for classroom implementation and for being abstract. Despite some critics, I argue that critical pedagogy has still the potential to empower those in the field of education to increase their consciousness about the injustice in their society and to involve in transforming it.

     

    Keywords: Critical pedagogy, critical thinking, critical theory, dialogue, Frankfurt School, transformation.

  • 12.
    Abraham, Getahun Yacob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    What are the aims of the lessons on role models?: Teachers and pupils’ understanding of the theme in South African comprehensive school classes.2015In: Online Educational Research Journal, ISSN 2044-0294, E-ISSN 2044-0294, Online Educational Research Journal, ISSN 2044-0294, Vol. 5, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Role models was one of the themes for lessons in the Foundation Phase in the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement of 2002 (RNCS; Department of Education, 2002). The focus of the article is to discuss how teachers understood, interpreted and presented the theme to their pupils and how their pupils responded to it. The study is based on policy texts, observation of lessons and textbooks. Foucault’s concepts of normalisation and normalising judgment and Connell’s concepts of masculinity and sex roles are used to analyse results. The results of the study show similarities and differences in understanding and preferences of role models by teachers and pupils. While teachers emphasised officially known people as role models, some pupils considered family members and other people in their neighbourhood.Mandela was a favoured role model in most classes. Even if the theme of the lessons was role models, I argue that the covert agenda is normalising pupils to the existing dominant social norms of the society.

     

     

  • 13.
    Abraham, Getahun Yacob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Vägen från antagonism till agonism i Sydafrika, utbildningsreformer och läroplaner efter apartheid2014Other (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Abraham, Getahun Yacob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    New Public Management in the Swedish Higher Education2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is to find out about the neoliberal New Public Management entry into the Swedish higher education institutions, its effect and the possible alternative to it. The study is based on articles in academic journals, policy documents and government sponsored reports. The result of the study shows that the Swedish higher education institutions are influenced by New Public Management. This is visible as market characters such as efficiency, competition, quality control, customer satisfaction is highly valued at present in the higher education. There is also emphasis on manpower training for the labour market. Easily measurable knowledge for immediate use of economic growth are prioritized at the expense of critical and analytical knowledge. Higher education’s autonomy is to some extent violated, collegial leadership is replaced by appointee leadership, staff are under pressure to follow instructions instead of exercising their academic freedom. Based on these findings I will argue against these trends and emphasis on the importance of all partners in higher education to review the present condition in order to facilitate the possibility for keeping higher education (universities) as public autonomous institution, to keep academic freedom intact, to assure that higher education should have both professional and democratic contents, and that higher education should continue to undertake basic long term and short term research for immediate use.

  • 15.
    Abraham, Getahun Yacob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    von Brömssen, Kerstin
    Learning through short field studies, Swedish students voice on field studies in schools in South Africa.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The focus of this study is to explore in what way a short term field study can contribute to teacher students intercultural learning and professional development. The role that firsthand experience plays in culture learning has invariably been discussed to be a critical part in intercultural learning (Quezada 2012, 8). The empirical material for the study consists of interviews before, during and after a two week field study conducted with six Swedish teacher students in South Africa. Observations during the field visits were also part of the used methods. The students specifically reflects on the observed language barriers for children who are attending education with other languages than their mother tongue, strong discipline in classrooms and resource differences between schools. According to the students diversity in the culture and seeing pupils with diverse backgrounds in the same context will be helpful for their future carriers. They believe in particular that the field study experience will help them to meet pupils with diverse backgrounds in their own school classes. They also believe the field study helped them to gain an understanding of the Swedish education system in comparison to others. Thus, we argue that a short term field study can contribute to intercultural learning and professional development, although findings also suggest that the tutoring in the field plays a crucial role.

  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Elise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Pratbubblan: den röda tråden: En studie av Karlstads Stadsnäts visuella kommunikation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Karlstad City Fiber Network visual elements in the form of a pair of speech bubbles fit into the organization's holistic external communication and branding. The study examines whether Karlstad City Fiber Network image of the organization and the speech bubbles match the stakeholders view and how the visual elements are perceived and recognized by stakeholders. The theory associated with the study is theories of corporate visual identity, image, identity and branding and visual communication. These three elements are important to be aware of when a generation of an effective external communications. Qualitative interviews with employees at Karlstad City Fiber Network and Karlstad municipality has undertaken to give an idea of ​​what the organization wants to achieve and what their opinions are. Karlstad City Fiber Network wants stakeholders to perceive the brand building marketing records as playful, with a twinkle in his eye and inviting to dialogue while the direct information shall be straight and free of jargon. The organization wishes that stakeholders see them as a safe choice as well as local and accessible for inhabitants of Karlstad. Karlstad City Fiber Network sees it as a great advantage to be taken of Karlstad Municipality, which also welcomes the urban network is municipal. Through focus group interviews with Karlstad City Fiber Network stakeholders, the inhabitants of Karlstad, it has emerged that the speech bubbles is not recognized, but it is only when the speech bubbles is put into a context, such as newspaper or newsletter that it can be linked to anything that advocates the municipality of Karlstad and dialogue. It is concluded that corporate visual identity is the link between the visual and the context of an organization's marketing. Stakeholders see Karlstad City Fiber Network as a credible organization that is simple yet eye-catching newsletters, but believe that their marketing is somewhat vague and confusing.

  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Emilia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Persson, Ebba
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Riskhantering i evenemangsprojekt: Wooops!2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was aimed to find answers how the event industry is working with risk management and which secondary effects risk management generates. The study was also aimed to find answers whether the event managers think risk management is profitable. The reason we decided to study this subject is because the event industry is one of the largest growing markets. Event of different category attracts a lot of people and the risks increases when masses gather at the same spot. Theory and previous research shows that not every event project implements an appropriate risk management, even though risks are many and its consequences can be devastating.

    We have done qualitative interviews with persons working with event projects to get a perception of how they work and their opinion of risk management. We have concluded that the studied event firms are working with risk management in every event projects but generally event managers use different risk management techniques. The study revealed that all the studied event firms focus on security during event projects implementation, rather than risk affecting the projects planning phase. Secondary effects of risk management are many and a recurrent effect is the awareness among project staff. All the informants are convinced that risk management always is profitable.

  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Joffrey Levi
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Elizabeth Bennet's Intelligence: A Reading of Class and Gender Conventions And Transgressions in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, gender roles and gender expectations relate to class differences in a system of social convention which operates to delimit all of the characters - men and women, rich people and less privileged people - to a greater or lesser extent, in a way which reflects actual class and gender structures in England around 1800. The most important strain of social commentary on gender and class in the novel is constituted by the characterisation of Elizabeth Bennet. She is associated with intelligence in a way which is vital to her successful breach of gender and class conventions. This essay starts out from Susan Morgan’s ”Intelligence in Pride and Prejudice” and will extend her arguments in my reading of the novel to prove that Elizabeth’s intelligence allows her to transgress social conventions related to gender and class more successfully than other characters and arrive at a happy ending despite having defied social convention. A number of other characters also represent a breach of class and gender conventions. Lydia Bennet elopes with Mr. Wickham, which at the time was considered scandalous. Mr. Darcy tries to ignore his affection for Elizabeth but fails to do so. In comparison to the unconventionality of Elizabeth, who manages to overcome every obstacle by relying on her intelligence in a way which also benefits Darcy and secures a happy ending for him as well, their transgressions are not as successful.



  • 19.
    Adamsson, Sophie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Kan jag låta sådär?: En observationsstudie med fokus på "edge" i sångmetoden "komplett sångteknik"2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to get a deeper insight of what it means to develop a new singing technique. To study this I have practiced edge ten minutes per day during a period of four weeks, five times a week. Three of these exercices have been videotaped. I have also used a logbook to document new experiences during the process. I have a socio-cultural perspective as a theoretical base in this study. In the result the different tools that were selected show how these were handled and how the process in learning has developed. The results show that the most central tools that were used were the body, the method book, the piano chair, the wall and a song. In the discussion I describe, from a socio-cultural perspective, what the conditions have been, and which tools I have used. 

  • 20.
    Adamsson, Tim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Kravrekommendation: En undersökning för kravrekommendationer för Nya Intranätets forum på Karlstad Universitet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Adler, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Från forskningsresultat om god undervisning till lärarens praktik: En kvantitativ studie om lärares uppfattning av god undervisning.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka lärares uppfattning om gynnsamma faktorer för elevers kunskapsutveckling med särskild tonvikt vid formativ bedömning och processer av skolutveckling som behöver initieras inom verksamheten.

    Undersökningens resultat kan utgöra grund för ett arbete på skolor där man önskar sträva efter att stärka lärares insikter och medvetenhet om det forskningen pekar ut som faktorer för framgångsrik undervisning.

    Undersökningen har genomförts som en kvantitativ enkätundersökning med lärarpersonalen på tre grundskolor i en och samma kommun i Västra Götaland. Enkäten undersöker lärares åsikter om faktorer som är viktiga för framgångsrik undervisning, samt hur samma lärare beskriver sin egen undervisning i förhållande till dessa faktorer.

    Undersökningen visar att det finns en stor samstämmighet mellan faktorer som utpekats som viktiga för elevers kunskapsutveckling och de beskrivningar som anges kännetecknande för den egna undervisningen i de allra flesta fall. Samstämmigheten är köns-, stadie-  och åldersöverskridande. De tre faktorer som lärargrupperna anser har mest betydelse för elevernas kunskapsutveckling är att ge feedback som har fokus på möjliga förbättringar, att undervisningen har ett tydligt syfte, samt att regelbundet följa upp att eleverna förstår innehållet.

    På ett område gäller inte samstämmigheten inom lärarkollektivet. Undersökningen visar en markant skillnad mellan lärare med få år i yrket respektive många år i yrket när det gäller beskrivningen av hur man använder sig av formativ bedömning i det egna undervisningsarbetet. Lärare med mer än 15 år i yrket anger i hög utsträckning att man använder sig av formativ bedömning, medan lärare med färre år i yrket i liten utsträckning anger detta.

  • 22.
    Adolfi, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Lekens betydelse för lärandet av matematik i förskolan: Pedagogers syn på vilken betydelse lek har för barns tidiga matematiska utveckling2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how five teachers in a selected preschool work with play and mathematics. Also, this study examines how teachers believe that preschool affects children's mathematical learning today and in the future. The methods I have used are relevant research and literature on the subject. I have made qualitative interviews with five teachers. The study shows that the teachers think play is important for children when it comes to learn   mathematics, and they also think mathematics is everywhere in children’s play. All teachers believe that it is important that children get a basic ground for mathematical thinking in preschool, so it becomes a habit and a natural thing for them. It is also important that they get the basic concepts with them before they start elementary school. Many of the teachers mention that they want their children to look upon mathematics as something fun and exciting.

  • 23.
    Adolfsson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Uppföljning av affärsnytta inom IT-projekt: En kvalitativ studie om möjliggörande av uppföljning.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    IT-projekt har ofta ett bakomliggande syfte att bidra med ökad affärsnytta, ökad flexibilitet, effektivare arbetssätt, eller ökad kundnöjdhet. Uppföljning av affärsnytta förpassas ofta till förmån för klassiskt definierade framgångsparametrar inom projektledning, tid, budget och resultat. Mycket fokus hamnar på tekniska aspekter kring införande av system och affärsnyttan glöms bort. Vissa anledningar till att uppföljning av affärsnytta bortprioriteras anses vara att det är för svårt, råder oklarhet kring ansvar, och att affärsnyttor är av övervägande ogreppbar karaktär. Affärsnyttorna berör ofta flera olika verksamhetsområden vilket medför svårigheter gällande identifikation och hög kostnad för att involvera berörda resurser. IT-projekt initieras däremot grundat på explicita greppbara värden med tillhörande kostnadskalkyl som visar hur verksamheten kommer få igen investerat kapital. När affärsnytta inte är explicit uttryckt, utan har en ogreppbar karaktär leder det till låg prioritet, då kunskap kring mätning och styrning saknas. IT-projekt innebär en stor investering i tid, pengar, personal och den förväntade affärsnyttan har stor genomslagskraft. Uppfyllelse av affärsnytta kan påverka hela företagets lönsamhet. Teorier gällande Benefits Management Process (BMP) utgör basen för denvetenskapliga plattformen och har kompletterats medrelevant forskning vid behov.

    Syftet med undersökning är att se vilka aktiviteter som behöver föregå för att möjliggöra framgångsrik uppföljning av affärsnytta inom IT-projekt så att måluppfyllelse kan säkerställas.Även undersöka om utformning av projektmål kan bidra till att underlätta uppföljnings aktivitet.Undersökningen genomförs som en kvalitativ studie där en verksamhet inom små och mellanstora företagssegmentet (SMF), undersökts då de bedriver ett aktivt IT-projekt gällande byte av affärssystem. Undersökningen resulterade i fem konkreta slutsatser som är av en förklarande och upplysande karaktär.

     

    Undersökningen visar att:

    • BMP möjliggör uppföljning av affärsnytta inom IT-projekt, men är inte en förutsättning.
    • BMP kräver ett omfattande åtagande för att bidra till ökat värde för en verksamhet.
    • En genomarbetad målformulering enligt akronymen SMART kan öka en verksamhets möjlighet till styrning och kontroll av dess projektmål.
    • Tydligare koppling till identifiering och mätningsmetoder krävs för att maximera värdet av att ta sig an BMP.
    • Systemleverantörs och kundrelationen behöver belysas inom BMP i takt med färre egna utvecklingsprojekt inom affärssystem initieras.

     

    Brister i teorin rör konkreta metoder för att mäta affärsnytta och hur Key Peformance Indictors (KPI) kan användas på ett effektivt sätt. Tillsammans med att forskningen inte redogör för hur en verksamhet kan arbeta med uppföljning av affärsnytta i en kund- och systemleverantörsrelation. Explicit uttryckt när en verksamhet genomför upphandling av affärssystem ifrån en systemleverantör. Detta rekommenderas ligga till grund för framtida undersökningar.

  • 24.
    Adolfsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Omplaceringsskyldigheten: Vid uppsägning av personliga skäl relaterat till sjukdom2015Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25.
    Adolfsson, Monica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Lärares arbetssätt och material som kan hjälpa elever med dyslexi2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    af Kleen, Suzanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    ”Det kan inte vila på mig att klara allting själv” Några elevers erfarenheter av att använda alternativa verktyg i sitt lärande: Några elevers erfarenheter av att använda alternativa verktyg i sitt lärande2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att bidra med en fördjupad förståelse för erfarenheter av att använda alternativa verktyg hos elever med dyslexi. Studien som är en kvalitativ undersökning bygger på intervjuer av tre elever. Utifrån deras berättade erfarenheter har berättelser skapats. De har sedan analyserats med utgångspunkt i den sociokulturella teorin och resultatet har avslutningsvis diskuterats i relation till tidigare forskning.

    Resultatet av studien visar att elever, med hjälp av alternativa verktyg, artefakter, kan klara av det som ligger utanför deras förmåga. Verktygen används när eleverna behöver stöd i sitt lärande när det gäller att läsa och skriva. För att kunna använda verktygen på bästa sätt är både eleverna och lärarna i behov av handledning och tid för implementering.

    Elevens självbild spelar stor roll för deras villighet att använda alternativa verktyg. Eleverna menar att det skulle kännas bättre att använda verktygen om lärarna informerar alla elever i klassen om dyslexi och hur de alternativa verktygen kan stödja elever med funktionsnedsättning i deras lärande.

    Denna studie kan bidra med förståelse för hur viktig lärarens samtal- och handledningsroll är när det gäller elevens användande av alternativa verktyg. 

  • 27.
    Aflaki, Inga Narbutaite
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Petridou, Evangelia
    Mid-Sweden University.
    Miles, Lee
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies. UK.
    Entrepreneurship in the polis: Understanding political entrepreneurship2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamics of entrepreneurship have attracted growing attention from scholars of political science, policy studies, public administration and planning, as well as more recently, from the realms of international relations and foreign policy analysis. Under the banner of political entrepreneurship, this volume considers and maps out conceptual approaches to the study of entrepreneurship drawn from these fields, discusses synergies, envisages new analytical tools and offers contemporary empirical case studies, illustrating the diverse political contexts in which entrepreneurship takes place in the polis. Drawing upon an international cast of senior academics and cutting edge young researchers, the volume takes a closer look at key aspects of political entrepreneurship, such as, defining political entrepreneurs, how it relates to change, decision-making and strategies, organizational arrangements, institutional rules, varying contexts and future research agendas. By highlighting the political aspects of entrepreneurship, the volume presents new exciting opportunities for understanding entrepreneurial activities at regional, national and international levels. The volume will be of particular relevance to scholars and students of political science, policy studies, public administration, planning, international relations and business studies as well as practitioners interested in the nexus and utility of entrepreneurship in the modern-day political world.

  • 28.
    Afrasiabi, Soran
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    The River as a Symbol of Liberty: An analysis regarding the Significance of the Mississippi River in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the extensive research on slavery during the antebellum, few authors have investigated the connection between the Mississippi river and its importance and status as a symbol of freedom throughout The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, written by Mark Twain. Therefore, this essay attempts to analyze just how much the river actually meant for Huck and Jim during their journey towards freedom. The methodology of this analysis is based on a qualitative content analysis where categories are created and put it in relation to the historical and political landscape the novel presents. By investigating how the river functioned as an optional escape route that would lead the slaves far away from the notoriously bad treatment on the cotton fields, as well as the dangerous riverside settings which involved several risks for both Huck and Jim, this essay concludes that the river does not only work as an escape route away from captivity and civilization, it also provided the characters with a comfortable and safe home which alone could symbolize liberty.

  • 29.
    Agergård Kareliusson, Charlotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Lärares kunskap om ADHD: Finns det ett samband mellan kunskap, attityder inför och bemötande av elever med diagnosen?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to map out if there were a relation between teachers knowledge about ADHD and their emotionell attitudes towards students with the diagnosis and to map out if there were a relation between teachers knowledge about ADHD and their choice of strategy used in the classroom to meet students with ADHD. The study was conducted as a survey study among teachers in grade 1 – 9. The teachers where to answear knowledge questions and self-rated questions about emotionell attitude and their choice of strategy. A link to a web survey was emailed to 400 principals in Swedish elementary schools. If the principal approved that the school participated in the survey he/she forwarded the email to the teachers. The survey was a remodeled version of the survey used by Kos (2004). The result of the survey was then processed as six linear regression analysis. The result shows a significant relation between teachers knowledge about ADHD, their emotionell attitude towards students with ADHD and their self-rated choice of strategy. 

  • 30.
    Agin, Sol
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Communication without borders: A quantitative study on how mobility and a cosmopolitan self-identity affect Swedish expatriates communication patterns with friends.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out how Swedish voluntary migrants communicate with friends in three different groups: friends that resides in the same country as the respondent currently lives in, friends in Sweden, friends in other countries around the globe and whether or not individual mobility, demographic factors or a sense of global citizenship affect the chosen mean of communication. The reason behind the study is to introduce a previously unstudied area into the field of geographically based media studies and hopefully contribute to a deeper understanding of the role played by different means of communication in shaping the dynamics of global friendship. The theoretical approach in this study will be from three different outlooks, migration, polymedia (including the second-level digital divide) and cosmopolitanism.

    The study is based on data from the Institute for Society, Opinion and Media (SOM) and their survey questionnaire sent out to Swedish expatriates during fall 2014 / winter 2015, also known as Utlands-SOM. The total number of respondents are 2268. The study starts with basic frequencies to find out which media that are the most prominent, then binary logistic regressions have been made. The total number of dependent variables are 21 and these have then been analysed from seven independent variables; age, gender, education, travel patterns, years spent abroad, number of countries lived in and whether or not the respondent consider himself/herself being a cosmopolitan. This generates a total of seven tables (one for each media) with three models in each (contact with friends in current country of residency, contact with friends in Sweden and contact with friends in other parts of the world).

    Amongst Swedish expatriates, e-mail and Facebook are the two most popular media for keeping in touch with friends, regardless of the friends location. The most significant demographic variable is age. Usage of video call, text message, chat, Facebook and other social media tend to decrease with age. Every year spent abroad decreases the communication with friends in Sweden, but increases the communication in the current country of residency. The number of countries lived in have a positive effect on communication with friends in other parts of the world. Cosmopolitan self-identity is found to be most significant when communicating with friends in other parts of the world, and it also affects e-mail the most. Level of education, which in previous studies have been found closely linked to a cosmopolitan identity, is found to have no significant correlation. Arguably, this is explained by the other means of communications negative relationship with the variable.

  • 31.
    Ahl, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Lika förutsättningar för lärande: En studie om trumundervisning på musik- och kulturskola ur ett genusperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to, from a gender perspectice, explore how the drum kit lessons in three music and culture schools are performed. To investigate this, three qualitative interviews and six participant video observations have been implemented. Previous studies show that music teachers expect a feminine and masculine style of their students, that it is difficult as a girl to position themselves in a way that challenges the local gender regime while it is difficult to be traditionally feminine - moderate and controlled – when playing instruments such as electric bass and drum kit. In the present studies results, drum teachers’ views on drum teaching are shown but also how they conduct their teaching, and how boy- and girl students are handled in teaching. It emerges that teachers largely adapt teaching to students’ personalities and individual circumstances and not to gender, but the drum teachers express certain prejudices which may indicate that they expect to see a feminine and masculine style of their students. There is a discussion about the problems of instruments and professions being gender-coded, which can affect students’ learning conditions, and teacher prejudices and that teachers have to adapt to the students and not vice versa.

  • 32.
    Ahlberg, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Naturvetenskap i förskolan: En intervjustudie om förskollärares tankar och arbetssätt2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how preschool teachers think about preschool

    science, what they consider science to be and how they deal with specific curricular objectives

    related to science.

    Science is a part of our everyday life, it is a prerequisite for understanding everyday

    phenomena and how the world is working. Nevertheless it is often dropped in favour of other

    subjects in Swedish preschools.

    The eight preschool teachers participating in this study are all working in the same

    municipality in the western part of Sweden with children aged 1- 5 years. The method used in

    this study was interviews. The interviews were recorded to facilitate the transcriptions.

    The results show that preschool teachers find that science is an important subject that should

    be introduced to the children early on in life. They also show that preschool teachers consider

    science to have a preventive effect on the learning to the children, and it is needed for them to

    understand everyday processes and phenomena. When working with the curricular objectives

    linked to science, the result show that preschool teachers perceive nature as an asset to

    develop the children’s knowledge and interest for scientific concepts. Factors that impact the

    work with science in preschool could, according to the educators, be lack of knowledge, the

    children’s age or their attitude towards the subject.

    Conclusions that can be drawn from this study are that preschool teachers draw on the

    children’s interests when teaching science. They also find it important to use the correct terms

    at an early stage.

  • 33.
    Ahlbäck, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hogmalm, Anneli
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Solsken och regnskurar: En kvalitativ studie om upplevelsen av att vara familjehemsförälder2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to figure out how foster parents view their task and the responsibilities that the task entails, what gives foster parents motivation to continue with the mission, as well as what kind of emotional attachment the foster parents experience they get to the placed children.

    This study consists of six interviews, of which five of them were individual and one pair interview. The gathered material was analyzed from content analysis. Three themes emerged in the results which were: The mission as a foster family, why foster family and the everyday of foster families. The results were then analyzed through previous research along with Antonovskys concept sense of coherence, SOC and Bowlbys attachment theory. The results showed that foster families have different views depending on how long they have been foster families, what kind of children they’ve had but above all, what motivated them to start a foster family. 

  • 34.
    Ahlgren, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Upplevelser av arbete med arbetslösa: En fenomenologisk studie av handläggares/handledares upplevelser av arbete med arbetslösa2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to get some insight into how staff experience their work with the unemployed. A Phenomenological method, IPA (Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis), was used to find out. 10 people were interviewed through this method and multiple categories appeared, which give some insight into how they perceive their job; a role, frustration/ambivalence, rewarding work, demands, developing work and commitment. They are people playing a role, an authority. Experiences are also, among other things, that the work is very rewarding, challenging, developing and gives one a chance to make a difference in another person's life. These positive aspects, the meetings with people, participating in their processes, weigh heavier than the negative aspects. These are among other things a larger work-mass than what is bearable, several demands on personality and high demands on legal security and uniformity. If not for the positive aspects they would not have stayed. In conclusion one can say that it is work where they perceive themselves as needed and where they feel like they can evolve and make a difference.

  • 35.
    Ahlgren, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Alliansen oss emellan: - en undersökning om huruvida klienters och terapeuters skattningar av allians stämmer överens2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate whether clients' and therapists' estimation of alliance match, if there is a correlation between alliance and client satisfaction and if there is a difference between client satisfaction and a standard measure. Statistical analysis and a qualitative thematic analysis were used to examine this. Results show no difference between ratings of an alliance total between clients and therapists, except for when examining the different dimensions. There is a correlation between alliance and client satisfaction ratings. Also, there is a difference between client satisfaction questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8) ratings between the participants and a standard measure. Emerging themes about the change of therapy where: Relational establishing interaction, Relief and non-judgmental. Conclusions where made about the fact that alliance ratings did not differ between client and therapist, as well as the fact that there was a correlation between high ratings of alliance with high ratings of client satisfaction. Finally there was support for the conclusion that student therapy has higher, or at least an equally high ratings of satisfaction as other psychiatric care according to comparisons made with the standard measure. The thematic analysis shows that therapy brought on big changes in the clients life, changes that seem connected. They also show how important it is to have a more personal factor in therapy.

  • 36.
    Ahlin, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation: Experienced teachers from different traditions share their insights2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study utilizes the method of Thematic Analysis, TA, to research the question: How do mindfulness and meditation teachers’ describe the prerequisites for effective mindfulness and meditation teaching? It aims at providing deeper insight of the importance of the teachers in this field. In the scientific literature there is a lack of evaluation of mindfulness teachers (Grossman et al 2014) and how to teach mindfulness meditation effectively (Shapiro 2009). The interpretations of what twelve experienced teachers, from different traditions, say in the in-depth interviews of this study results in three main themes and nine subthemes: main theme; Teacher qualification with subthemes; Becoming teacher, Being teacher, Pedagogic skills and Social skills, and main theme; Student qualities with subthemes; Positive for learning and Negative aspects to deal with, and main theme; Context with subthemes; Fields of application, Levels and Supporting factors. The results lead to the argument that anyone can assume the role of mindfulness and meditation teacher, depending on the students and the context. The study shows the interdependence between the teacher, student and other contextual circumstances and gives clear indications in which direction one should go.

  • 37.
    Ahlin, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Lärares erfarenheter av arbete med läsförståelse på gymnasiesärskolans nationella program2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore teachers’ experience of teaching reading comprehension at upper secondary special school national programs.

    To find out the answers to the purpose and research issues a written interview via the Internet where fourteen teachers answered   a questionnaire with open questions. I have analyzed the responses using the concepts scaffolding and artefacts taken from the sociocultural perspective.

    The summarized result show that teachers work with teaching strategies for pupils to assimilate text with understanding. The teachers have a central role in this form of co- learning and acts as a support in the students reading comprehension learning. Teachers are also working to support students learning by making adjustments such as easy- to-read texts and support of speech and images. In the teaching teachers use artefacts as well as they scaffold the pupils in the learning of reading comprehension.

  • 38.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Besvär!: Om motståndet hos två tvångssammanslagna kommuner i samband med kommunblocksreformen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate why the two Swedish municipalities of Frykerud and Östmark were the only municipalities in Värmland that were forcibly merged by the state during the ”Municipality block reform” of 1971, and whether local identities played a role in the resistance against this reform. 

        The study is designed as a comparative case study and builds on both history and political science to analyze the topic from a broader perspective. Based on the research situation three theoretical theses have been formulated, the durability of which will be tested in the analysis part of the essay.

        The study notes that Frykeruds resistance against the ”Municipality block reform” started when the reform prevented a planned retirement home construction in the municipality. In the analytical part of the essay, the author discusses how the discontent can be interpreted as symptomatic of bourgeois centralization resistance, as well as being due to the fact that traditional, local self-government as a political subject was perceived as threatened. In Östmark, the "Municipality block reform" developed into a political struggle between the reformist Social Democrats and the "reform-skeptical" conservative parties. The battle started with disagreements over the completions of investments in the municipality.

        In the analysis section, the hypotheses previously formulated have been tested, and the author also formulates a new hypothesis regarding the local communities and local identities' political role in the resistance against the "Municipality block reform".

  • 39.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Den lyssnande kommunen: Om medborgardialog ur förtroendevaldas, tjänstemäns och medborgares perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    For the last decades, the party memberships in Sweden have decreased from 600.000 to 300.000, although the general interest in politics have been stable during the same period. This situation can be percieved as a threat to swedish democracy; if the political parties are loosing contact with the citizens, the parties will also face the risk of not being able to canalize the views of the citizens. If that’s the case, the represenative democracy might loose legitimacy. These conclusions have triggered local municipalities in Sweden to launch ”civil dialogue”, innovative ways to include the citizens in public projects and welfare services, with the purpose to re-establish connection and trust between the public and civil sector. However, political studies suggest that civil dialogue rarely have succeeded to strenghtened democracy. In some cases, civil dialogue seemed to hurt trust and legitimacy in local municipalities. That makes the civil dialogue phenomenon interesting – how can attempts to reinforce trust and democracy result in a backfire? What in the core of civil dialogue might catalyze this backlash?

       The nature of civil dialogue suggest that cooperation between the public and civil sphere is becoming more acceptable, even desirable, in swedish politics. This development breaks with the traditional ways of public administration and bureaucracy in Sweden. However, the cooperation between the public and civil sphere is also the core of a new broad trend in public administration and governing, namely ”governace”. Governance refers to a way of adminstrating public affairs by the logic of networks, including the civil society in the public affairs with the purpose of making the public administration more effective and to find creative solutions on new problems. The first aim of this study is to recieve a new understanding how the subjective experiences of civil dialogue participants can affect legitimacy and trust, by analyzing the experiences of participants in a failed dialogue. The second aim is to explore wether civil dialogue is better understood as a part of a new broad trend in public buraucracy, governance, rather than more traditional bureaucracy. These aims are fulfilled using a case study, which has a swedish local municipality, Sunne, in focus.

       The results of the study suggests that none of the participants of the civil dialogue in Sunne experienced that they had ”been listened to”, which seems to be an important cause behind the negative result of the specific dialogue. The innovativeand failed attempt to strengthen the legitimacy of local democracy resulted in a negative reaction through the traditional channels of political participation. The study also suggests that civil dialogue and governace have some similarities regarding their main principles of value and general logic, but since the municipality of Sunne didn’t implement the steering logics of civil dialogue in its full practice, it’s hard to judge wether it should be perceived as governance or not.

  • 40.
    Ahlqvist, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Demokrati i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie om pedagogers arbetssätt och syn på barns inflytande2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of my study is to identify which approach that the teachers believe that they use in their work with children's influence. The aim is also to investigate whether or not the teachers experience any consequences when giving the children a chance to influence and if so, what kind of consequences.

    I have used qualitative interviews to answer the questions of my thesis. My conclusion, based on the result of the interviews, indicates that teachers believe children experience limited influence in routine situations. The results also indicates that teachers who demonstrates a conscious democratic approach while teaching, believed they helped children get a better understanding of the concept of democracy already at an early age.

  • 41.
    Ahlström, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Beteende eller sinnessjukdom?: Psykiatri och behandling vid Mariebergs sjukhus mellan 1930-19502015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is interested in Swedish psychiatry during the period between 1930-1950,localized to Mariebergs hospital in Sweden. The purpose of this paper has been to testSjöstroms evidence of the pattern that he used to create three analytical concepts, roughlytranslated to; morally educative discipline-treatment, the production process and the idealinstitution citizen. Sjöström motivates that his concepts gives insight into one aspect of thepsychiatric expansion between 1860-1960 as well as creates an understanding of psychiatryas an institution. The source material for this paper has been patients' medical notes writtenby the chief physician of the institution. Via a method which mainly different from Sjöstromin its selection, categorization and more thorough presentation, this paper has seen the samepatterns which Sjöström has created his three concepts from. The ideal institution citizen,defined by its well behaved and calm behaviour emerges also in this papers quantitativecompilation of qualitative data as the clear majority. The morally educative disciplinetreatment,treatments and punishments that focuses on creating an acceptable behaviourrather than the treatment of insanity itself, can be seen in the adjective behaviouraldescriptions of the type well-behaved / badly-behaved which are dominant. The focus in thejournals is behaviour rather than mental decease symptoms such as hallucinations andtreatment is based on unaccepted behaviour rather than symptoms. Also, the sequential orderthat exists between badly-behaved behaviour and treatments, and well-behaved behaviourand rewards shows the focus on behaviour which the concept is based on. The previous tworesults together is the two parts of Sjöströms production process, that trough the morallyeducative discipline-treatment the institution creates an acceptable, quiet and well behavedideal institution citizen were the mental decease becomes secondary.

  • 42.
    Ahlénius, Emma
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Öst, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Att ge eller att inte ge: En studie om projektledares arbete med återkoppling2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of our paper is that feedback is needed as a tool on during work to make the individuals feel comfortable. This is basically related to our need of feeling accepted and to feel affinity. Research has demonstrated that the confirmation from the outside world is an important part of the individual's selfimage. In a project based environment, feedback is important, as project groups often consist of new constellations of people who quickly must learn to work together. If feed-back could be used successfully, this can have positive effects on work perfor-mance. The problem of providing feedback is how to give it in a constructive way so the receiver to take in the information and accept it. By examining past research, we examined why there is a need for feedback in project teams, what the research says that the giver should consider when it comes to feedback, and what consequences and results of feedback could be. Our purpose is, based on existing research, to examine how feedback is used in practice for five project managers. We asked ourselves following questions: Do project managers provide feedback? In what ways? How do they work with feedback? Do they know how the theory looks about the topic? How do they work to become better at giving feedback? To examine the issues, we used a qualitative approach in the form of semi-structured interviews. The interview subjects were all working in the same indus-try, the real estate industry. Our interview data were processed by transcribing and coding by predetermined themes. In our analysis we compared the theoretical background of the empirical data we collected. A matrix with a compilation of the collected data is presented in appendix 2. Our conclusion is that project managers mostly work with positive feedback and that giving negative feedback is perceived problematic. We also discovered that the project managers lacked a theo-retical knowledge about the subject and that the skills they possessed, had they learned through experience.

  • 43.
    Ahmad, Ramjar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Den hållbara urbanplaneringens paradoxer: The paradoxes of unsustainable urban planning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract  This paper has investigated two urban planning ideals that emerges in the planning process. The study's starting point has been sustainable development to study the two existing urban planning ideals today. This means that the compact city and the green city has been the main focus of this study, but sustainability has large space with many of the aspects that is expected to lead to sustainable development. A case study was used to investigate how Karlstad is working on the issue and how the paradox appears in the municipal planning. Karlstad is currently developing a new green structure plan. The study's empirical evidence is based on two interviews with Karlstad municipality officials. The municipal documents Karlstad municipality's comprehensive plan (2012) and Olmårs densification study (2007) has been used. The municipal documents and the interview material was analyzed through meaning content. The study's analysis is based on the study's empirical and theoretical background which shows that there is a paradox in Karlstad municipality's urban planning. It also shows a trend in which cities aim to achieve the sustainable city. As the concept of sustainability is a diffuse concept, the compact city and the green city has become a complex strategy to achieve the sustainable city. This means that the green and compact city can be viewed from several different angles. Karlstad municipality's vision of the compact city is to have a compact city especially in the central parts of the city. These areas are green areas today. A planning dilemma between the aspirations of the planning arises, in which these must be weighed against each other. This means that if the green structure is prioritized then another aspect must be weighed out. In other words; there is a paradox in Karlstad municipal´s urban planning, and this means that if the green structure priority needs another aspect weighed out. This means that there is a paradox in municipal urban planning, and this is shown in this paper.

  • 44.
    Ahmadzai, Abdullah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ EDUCATION IN AFGHANISTAN: A study of students’ drop   out and retention rates of boys and girls of primary schools in Maidan Wardak   Province - Afghanistan2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    School access and staying in school is one the most important issue for the Ministry of Education in Afghanistan particularly for girls. According to the Ministry of Education (MoE), nearly seven million children have access to school in Afghanistan, 37 per cent of whom are girls.

    Students drop out of schools before completing their education cycle, to know who drops out and to what extent; this study describes some of factors that influence students to drop out of school in grade 4 and grade 6.

    To find out some factors that may influence girls and boys to drop out of schools in grade 4 and 6 six, structured interviews were conducted in 10 schools – 5 in rural area and 5 in urban area of Maidan Wardak province of Afghanistan. Data was collected by random sample from 32 girls and 48 boys who left schools. 20 teachers and 20 parents were also interviewed to know what their opinions are on drop out of students.

    After data collection, several factors were found to cause students drop out of schools; some of the most prominent causes were Poverty, lack of security, long distance to school and socio- culture factors.

    By looking to the current educational situation of the Ministry of Education in Afghanistan, there is a need of research almost in all areas particularly in the area of girls’ education.

  • 45.
    Aho, Erika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Henriksson Persson, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Larsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Skolnära – ett skolnära begrepp?2016In: Kapet, Vol. 12, no 1, 116-134 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolnära kan beskrivas som ett relativt nytt begrepp inom utbildning och forskning med skolanknytning. Det förekommer ofta i sammanhang där det tycks finnas en ambition att knyta skola och forskning närmare varandra. Det kan till exempel handla om olika forskarskolor, skolforskning och skolutvecklingsprojekt. Dock finns ingen enhetlig definition av begreppet utan det används parallellt med och i vissa fall synonymt med begreppen praktiknära och praxisnära. Syftet med denna artikel är att bidra till en problematisering av begreppet skolnära med fokus på såväl innebörder som användningsområden. Utifrån studier av olika typer av texter belyses hur begreppet skolnära används inom skolforskning och i andra utbildningsvetenskapliga sammanhang idag. Begreppet skolnära ser ut att uppkomma i samband med framväxten av forskarutbildningsämnet pedagogiskt arbete men återfinns idag även inom andra forskarutbildningsämnen. Till exempel kan en ”skolnära avhandling” vara skriven inom pedagogik eller något ämnesdidaktiskt ämne. Vad det innebär att forskningen är skolnära tycks ha skiftande innebörd och avgränsning i olika sammanhang. Det kan till exempel handla om huruvida forskningen bedrivs av eller för lärare. Begreppet används också inom skolvärlden i ett vidare perspektiv.

  • 46.
    Aichigui, Victor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linköpings universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Servitization in SME manufacturing firms: A one-way road2015In: Proceedings of QUIS 14: The 14th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence inManagement 2015, 2015, Vol. 14, 965-968 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance for manufacturing firms to add services to their offerings has been asserted over and over again (Neu and Brown 2005). Adding services to product sales require manufacturing firms to develop other types of offerings such as maintenance services, hybrid offerings or integrated solutions. This implies using new and often unknown practices to be able to provide services. Previous research has focused on the benefits of servitization (Gebauer, Gustafsson, and Witell 2011), albeit in larger firms. Hence, similar research on Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME) has been scarce. Furthermore, servitization as a unidirectional transition process can be questioned as researchers argue that manufacturing firms might offer different types of services simultaneously and might not have the intention to take the next step that a transition process suggests (Kowalkowski et al. 2015). Moreover, previous research shows that the step from offering after-sales services and repair to offering more advanced services, e.g. process-related services, is rather big. For those services different mindsets are required within the organization; more advanced services would require a service oriented mindset, whereas after-sales services only requires the firm to have a product oriented mindset (Löfberg 2014).

  • 47.
    Aiello, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att trivas på jobbet: En kvantitativ studie om trivsel och sociala relationer på ett svenskt callcenter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research have concluded that social relations are an important factor that counteracts stress and increase comfort levels at the workplace. The purpose for this study has been to examine how, and if, different background factors affect the employee’s social relationships and job satisfaction but also if social relationships affect job satisfaction. The survey was conducted as an exploratory survey in which the dependent variables were studied on the basis of gender, age, period of employment and project. It turned out that no statistically significant relationship was found between background variables and job satisfaction. However, a statistically significant relationship was discovered between respondents' social relationships and job satisfaction level. Age and period of employment are factors that affect social relations inside the company.  In summary, the study provides support to theories that strong social support in the workplace improves job satisfaction. Age and period of employment create the conditions for social relationships between its employees and managers. There are also some indications in the data to suggest that age affects the employees job satisfaction.

  • 48.
    Aksell, Marina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    "Det akuta löser jag snabbt, men det är akut hela tiden": En kvalitativ studie om lärares och rektorers hantering av arbetsuppgifter under stress.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Den offentliga sektorn har under de två senaste decennierna förändras genom att New Public Management har implementerats vilket medfört att många reformer har genomförts. Det har inneburit att den offentliga sektorn har effektiviserats och slimmats. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka faktorer de intervjuade lärarna och rektorerna upplever stressande samt hur de hanterar sin arbetssituation vid arbetsrelaterad stress. Mitt intresse för ämnet kommer av att jag själv arbetar som lärare på en gymnasieskola och därmed har ett inifrån perspektiv av hur lärare men även rektorer påverkas av stress.

    Jag valde en kvalitativ metod med en hermeneutisk ansats som innebär tolkning och reflektion. Metoden för att inhämta empiriskt material till min studie skedde genom öppna halvstrukturerade intervjuer som innebär en flexibilitet vid intervjutillfället. Analysen av mitt material gjordes genom att jag kontinuerligt rörde mig mellan delar och helhet i en process.

    Enligt Eriksson och Larsson (2011) innebär socialt stöd att relationerna till kollegor och chefer är mycket betydelsefulla. Detta bekräftar informanterna i studien. Samtidigt visar också studien att positiva interaktionsritualer var grundläggande och viktiga för lärarna och rektorerna. Collins (2004) och Olsson (2008) menar att positiva interaktionsritualer ger emotionell energi som medverkar till att individer och grupper kan hantera stressade situationer lättare. Resultatet visade även att lärarna och rektorerna använder sig av liknande strategier för att hantera sin arbetssituation vid stress och att de inom strategierna gör prioriteringar för vad som är viktigast. Det övergripande som studien visar är att det kontinuerligt råder en tidsbrist i informanternas arbete som de försöker att hantera genom olika strategier. 

  • 49.
    Akselsen Andersson, Carmitha
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Lekens betydelse för barns utveckling: En studie om hur skolgårdsmiljöns utformning påverkar barns leklust2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the impact on children's development around playing and how significance the formation of the schoolyards is focusing on how it inspire and calls to play within the children's. The study will also show how the youth workers experience the schoolyards and how they can incorporate the playground in their work to inspire the children's play and activities. The methods used in this study is based on both real conversations and by mail with educated youth workers and observations. The results shows that the schoolyard environment is very important for the children's play and development. The study reveals the importance of having nature like forest nearby and that the environment should be suited for everyone. The children need spaces on the schoolyard and in the nature to evolve their ways of free playing, and also their needs for suited playground equipment.

  • 50.
    Alaqra, Alaa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Pettersson, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Malleable Signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth Scenario2016In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security & Assurance, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss end user requirements that we elicited for the use of malleable signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth scenario. The concept of a malleable signature, which is a privacy enhancing cryptographic scheme that enables the redaction of personal information from signed documents while preserving the validity of the signature, might be counter- intuitive to end users as its functionality does not correspond to the one of a traditional signature scheme. A qualitative study via a series of semi-structured interviews and focus groups has been conducted to understand stakeholders’ opinions and concerns in regards to the possible applications of malleable signatures in the eHealth area, where a medical record is first digitally signed by a doctor and later redacted by the patient in the cloud. Results from this study yielded user requirements such as the need for suitable metaphors and guidelines, usable templates, and clear redaction policies. 

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