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  • 1. Affonso, Igor de Paiva
    et al.
    Karling, Leticia Cucolo
    Takemoto, Ricardo Massato
    Gomes, Luiz Carlos
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Light-induced eye-fluke behavior enhances parasite life cycle2017In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 340-341Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ahlström, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Riskhantering i kommuner och landsting: ISO 31000, riskbegreppet och organisationsövergripande riskhantering2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 the first ISO-standard focused exclusively on risk management was adopted, ISO 31000:2009. It is supposed to be possible to use it in any societal sector. There is currently little information on how widely the standard has been used, regarding both public and private sector. The study at hand aims to collect information on how it is used in Swedish municipalities and county councils (i.e. local and regional level).  Furthermore, it aims to study how these actors’ risk management relates to some certain aspects of the standard. These are how risk is defined and enterprise risk management.

    A survey has been conducted. All county councils and 48 municipalities were contacted. Sampling regarding municipalities was made by using a categorization made by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions combined with random choices.

    The results of the study reveal that the use of ISO 31000 is very limited. It is used by two municipalities and not one of the county councils. Some of the latter are however considering using it.  It seems to be the ambition of both municipalities and county councils to apply enterprise risk management in a way that is principally in line with ISO 31000.  

    Furthermore, the results show that municipalities and county councils define risk in different ways. The majority of these organizations say that they use a defined definition of risk in the whole organization. Approximately half of the municipalities use the definition of risk being used by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, i.e. risk is the product of probability * consequence. Amongst county councils only a quarter use this definition. To a larger extent they use definitions that take into account the objectives of their organizations.

    It is hard to judge which consequences this might have. It might be good to know though, e.g. when future governmental controls are being developed.

    The results also show that there are differences between municipalities and county councils when it comes to enterprise risk management, where the latter use it more extensively. There is a gap however between how much enterprise risk management is used and how much municipalities and county councils would like to use it. 

  • 3.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    et al.
    Archcrea Institute.
    Almssad, AsaadKarlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Insulation Materials in Context of Sustainability2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Catch and effort from a recreational trolling fishery in a large lake2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent decades recreational fisheries have grown substantially throughout the world. Despite this increase, catches from recreational fisheries have often been ignored in fisheries management, although this is now being remedied. Monitoring recreational fisheries can be expensive, and the primary means used for monitoring is angler (creel) surveys, typically funded from sales of fishing licences. The studies presented in this thesis examine different approaches to monitoring recreational trolling fisheries’ catch and effort, where fishing licenses are not required and there are no reporting requirements. I present results from a complemented roving/mail-in survey undertaken during 2013-2014 to estimate recreational effort and catch of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) in the largest lake in the European Union, Lake Vänern, Sweden. I also evaluate different angler catch reporting methods (mail-in, tournament reports and face-to-face interviews) and compare catch rates within and among spring and fall fishing periods. In addition, mail-in survey data are examined for recall bias.

     

    I estimate that 28.7 tonnes of salmon and trout combined were harvested by the recreational trolling fishery in 2014, more than the commercial and subsistence fisheries combined. Seasonal differences in both recreational effort and catch were observed. Effort, in boat hours, was significantly higher in spring than in fall. Catch rates of trout were higher in fall than in spring, but there were no seasonal differences in catches of salmon. Harvest per boat day did not differ significantly among catch reporting methods, indicating that all three methods could be useful for managers interested in harvest rates. In contrast, total and released catch per boat day differed among reporting methods, with tournament anglers catching more fish in total. Finally, there was little evidence for recall bias in mail-in surveys, indicating that mail-in surveys are useful for collecting unbiased catch data. My study is the most comprehensive angler survey to date for Lake Vänern, and my results should be of immediate use to local fisheries managers and should also be of interest to researchers and managers interested in estimating catch and effort for fisheries at large spatial scales.

  • 5. Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Comparing mail-in, interview and tournament catch rates for a recreational salmonid fisheryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6. Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Su, Zhenming
    Andersson, Magnus
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Estimating effort and catch of a recreational trolling fishery in one of Europe’s largest lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7. Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Ersgård, Lars
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Outland use in preindustrial Europe1998Book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Flodpärlmusslans (Margaritifera margaritifera) påverkan på öringens (Salmo trutta) tillväxt, konditionsfaktor och habitatval.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The freshwater mussel family Unionoida lives a complex life with its host animals and the freshwater mussel family’s existence is threatened worldwide. One of these species, the pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera), is a “responsibility species” for Scandinavia and a lot of work is ongoing to save the species. In Scandinavia there are still existing populations, but in many waters recruitment of juvenile mussels is completely lacking or insufficient. To support recruitment and also reintroduce the mussel into suitable watercourses, more knowledge about its complex life cycle and how it affects its host brown trout (Salmo trutta), is required. Attempts have been made to introduce gravid mussels or already infected trout in order to try to rejuvenate or to reintroduce mussels in some rivers. In this study, 293 trout individuals were captured from three watercourses in western Sweden with no or inadequate recruitment of juvenile pearl mussels. The brown trout were treated with mussel infection by being kept in containers with the presence of gravid mussels and compared to a control group where no mussels were present. Growth, condition factor and habitat selection were investigated and checked after treatment by scanning the trout with a mobile scanner and recaptured for control. The analyzes showed a significantly lower growth on those trout treated with mussel infection during the time they were stored in the containers. After a month in freedom in the streams, there was no differences in growth or condition factor. Habitat choice studies showed that trout with a higher degree of infection chose calmer water with a bottom layer of finer sediment. The study showed that this method could be a simple way of increasing the reproduction success of pearl mussel. The method requires relatively little work effort and small disturbance to host fish or the aquatic environment.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nilsen, PerDepartment of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH) / Division of Community Medicine (SAM).
    Personsäkerhet – teori och praktik2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH) / Division of Community Medicine (SAM).
    Säkerhetsfrämjande arbete i samhället2015In: Personsäkerhet - teori och praktik, Karlstad: Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap (MSB) , 2015, 1, p. 167-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Pellet production of Sicklebush, Pigeon Pea, and Pine in Zambia: Pilot Study and Full Scale Tests to Evaluate Pellet Quality and Press Configurations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More deaths are caused every year by indoor air pollution than malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined. Cooking with traditional fuels such as charcoal and fuelwood with poor ventilation causes the single most important environmental health risk factor worldwide. It also contributes to environmental issues such as deforestation as traditional biomass fuels and cooking stoves are inefficient and requires large quantities of wood. This is especially critical in Africa where the largest regional population growth in the world is expected to occur.

    A solution to these issues was realized through fuel pellets and modern cooking stoves by Emerging Cooking Solutions, a company started by two Swedes and based in Zambia. The production of fuel pellets in Zambia is dependent on pine sawdust from small sawmills and is a declining source of raw material. However, other sources of biomass are available in Zambia such as pigeon pea stalk, an agricultural waste product, and sicklebush, an invasive tree species. If these species are viable for pelletization, the production of pellets can increase while reducing issues with sicklebush and promoting cultivation of pigeon pea. The aim of this work is to evaluate if pigeon pea stalk and sicklebush are viable to pelletize in Zambia and how the press is affected by the different raw materials.

    A pilot study is done at Karlstad University with a single unit press, hardness tester and soxhlet extractor to evaluate how the material constituents correlate to friction in the press channel and hardness of the pellets. The results of the pilot study provide support for full scale tests done in a pellet plant in Zambia. The normal production of pellets from pine sawdust is used as quality and production reference for the tests with pigeon pea stalk, sicklebush, and different mixes of the raw materials. The properties used to evaluate the quality of the pellets are hardness, durability, moisture content, bulk density, and fines. The press configuration is evaluated by logging the electricity consumption by the press motor, calculating the power and specific energy consumption from the logs, and observations during the tests.

    The results show that sicklebush, and mixes of sicklebush with pigeon pea stalk can produce pellets with better quality than the reference pine pellets. An interesting composition is a mix of 80% pigeon pea and 20% sicklebush that produces pellets with the best quality of all the tests. However, pellets produced from sicklebush and pigeon pea show a larger variation in hardness as compared to the reference pellets from pine sawdust. Mixing pigeon pea with pine reduces these variations but reduces the hardness of the pellets below the reference. The press struggles to process sicklebush and pigeon pea stalk with fluctuating power consumption that causes the motor to trip. The inhomogeneity of the materials in sicklebush and pigeon pea are identified to cause the issues in the press. Production improvements are discussed to facilitate the production of pigeon pea stalk and sicklebush pellets.

  • 12. Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Skramle - historien om en gård och en arkeologisk undersökning: Projektet Skramle 1990-19941995Report (Other academic)
  • 13. Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Svensson, EvaKarlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Skramle. The true story of a deserted medieval farmstead2002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 14. Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    The local and regional arena of a Middle Age Swedish farm1997In: / [ed] de Boe, Guy & Verhaege, Frans, Zellik, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Andersson, Tonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Öppna JavaScript-bibliotek för webbkartor i kommunal tjänst: En jämförelse mellan OpenLayers 3 och Leaflet2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of web-based mapping applications is constantly increasing. In particular, an increase can be observed in the mobile use of such applications. Karlstad municipality is experiencing an increased number of mobile users of its web map. For that reason, the municipality aims to improve their web map in order to provide a more mobile-friendly service. The municipality intends to replace the technology of their existing web map with a more modern alternative and is currently looking at two different JavaScript-based open source APIs for web-based mapping applications – OpenLayers 3 and Leaflet.In this thesis, OpenLayers 3 and Leaflet are compared in terms of compatibility, functionality and performance. Compatibility and functionality are examined primarily through analysis of available documentation. Assessments are made based on requirements set forth by Karlstad municipality, regarding compatibility with existing server architecture and functionality equivalent to the municipality’s current web mapping service.Performance is assessed for WMS and WFS functions, and functions for file based vector data rendering. In addition, differences in performance with various web browsers are evaluated. The performance tests are carried out in environments set up as basic mapping applications. Given functions are tested with simple script methods for timing, together with Firebug, a Firefox web browser plugin.Test results show that both OpenLayers 3 and Leaflet meet all requirements regarding compatibility, even though Leaflet lacks support for certain formats. OpenLayers 3 shows, furthermore, a broader native support for different functions. Leaflet is more limited, natively, but can be extended through various plugins to achieve the same level of functionality as OpenLayers 3.Performance tests consistently show that OpenLayers 3 is the faster API. The results are particularly clear concerning vector data handling, where Leaflet is significantly slower. Despite distinct and measurable differences in performance, the perceived differences are not always as obvious. For this reason, practical user-focused tests are recommended for future studies of the subject.In conclusion, OpenLayers 3 is the recommended API for use in applications of larger scale and with richer functionality, while Leaflet is proposed as a more flexible alternative, suitable for simpler applications.

  • 16.
    Andrén, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Tillförlitligheten hos översvämningskartering: Utbredningsjämförelse med översvämningen i Hallsberg 20152016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Balk, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagerroth, Per-Ake
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Hanna
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sigg, Lisa
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ruiz Munoz, Yolanda
    Univ Vigo, Dept Biochem, Genet & Immunol, Lagoas Marcosende, ES-36310 Vigo, Spain.
    Honeyfield, Dale C.
    Leetown Sci Ctr, No Appalachian Res Lab, S Geol Survey USGS, Wellsboro, PA 16901 USA.
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Kenneth
    Univ Massachusetts Dartmouth, Dept Biol, Dartmouth, MA 02747 USA.
    Strom, Karin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna & Ctr Mol Med, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    McCormick, Stephen D.
    Leetown Sci Ctr, Conte Anadromous Fish Res Lab, S Geol Survey USGS, Turners Falls, MA 01376 USA.
    Karlsson, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Inst Freshwater Res, Dept Aquat Resources, SE-17893 Drottningholm, Sweden..
    Ström, Marika
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    van Manen, Mathijs
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Utrecht, Inst Risk Assessment Sci IRAS, NL-3508 TD Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Berg, Anna-Lena
    Med Prod Agcy, Box 26, SE-75103 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Halldorsson, Halldor P.
    Univ Icelands Res Ctr Sudurnes, IS-245 Sandgerdi, Iceland..
    Strömquist, Jennie
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Inst Freshwater Res, Dept Aquat Resources, SE-17893 Drottningholm, Sweden..
    Collier, Tracy K.
    NW Fisheries Sci Ctr, NOAA Fisheries, Seattle, WA 98112 USA..
    Börjeson, Hans
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Fisheries Res Stn, 13Department Aquat Resources, Brobacken, SE-81494 lvkarleby, Sweden..
    Morner, Torsten
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Dis Control & Epidemiol, SE-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 38821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B-1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiaminedependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  • 18.
    Bauner, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Insamling av geografisk information med UAV över området Stomsjö i Värnamo kommun: En effektiv arbetsmetod för kartering i 2D och 3D samt dokumentation av arbetsgång och kvalitetssäkring av geografisk information2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this project the area Stomsjö in Värnamo municipality was mapped using a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Since 1972 Stomsjö landfill is a part of the municipality. The municipality´s technical department needed a calculation and modelling of mass in a landfill, comprising an area of 15hectares. The purpose of the project is to develop an effective mapping method in 2D and 3D with UAV data, and to document the process to ensure geographical information quality. The flight performed in the study constitutes a basis for further upcoming flights within the municipality.

    The acquisition of geographical data was made at four different altitudes 50, 75, 100 and 120 meters using a DJI Phantom 4 quadcopter. Four 3D models, orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were created with the software Agisoft PhotoScan. A total of 6 Ground Control Points (GCP) and a control surface on asphalt (5x5 points) were used for evaluation of the models accuracy. A comparison between measured GPS points and raster values from each flight were made on a control surface. The resolution for each generated orthophoto was less than 3 cm/pix. The resolution of the DEMs was less than 6 cm/pix.

    Lantmäteriet (The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority) conducted aerial photograph acquisition at 2 500 m altitude over the area in 2015. A comparison between altitude data from Lantmäteriet and altitude data from UAV was made through random points generation. The acquisition at 100 meters altitude showed the lowest deviation forms the data derived by Lantmäteriet. Volume and area measurements were performed at the southern part of the landfill. The selected area is about 34 300 m2 in size and the volume amounts to 290 000 m3.

  • 19.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Univ Gatan 2, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    von Kobyletzki, Laura B.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Univ Gatan 2, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Jan Waldenstroms Gatan 16, S-21428 Malmo, Sweden..
    Svensson, Mikael
    Sahlgrenska Univ, Hlth Metr Unit, Box 414, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Determinants of Antidepressants Use and Economic Costs: A Population Based Study2017In: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, Vol. 20, no Suppl.1, p. S2-S2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Bengtsson, Peder
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). ASKO Appliances AB, Lidköping, Sweden.
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Concept Study of a New Method for Drying Dishware in a Heat Pump Dishwater2017In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a heat pump dishwasher, the whole dishwasher with the cabinet, dishware and process water is the heat sink, while a water tank, whose contents will freeze, is the heat source. The aim of the experimental concept study presented here was to evaluate a new drying method for a heat pump dishwasher. In this method, the drying of the dishware occurs as a fan circulates humid air in a closed system in which the water on the dishware evaporates inside the warm dishwasher cabinet and then condenses on a cold surface of the frozen water tank. The evaluation of drying performance was based on the European standard EN50242, which considers visible water drops left on the dishware after a completed dishwashing cycle. The results showed that this new closed drying method was more energy efficient compared to an existing open drying method, and that the drying start temperature and the drying time had a significant effect on the drying performance. Its lower electricity consumption and the fact that it does not vent humid air into the kitchen gives this heat pump dishwasher a competitive advantage over dishwashers using an open drying method.

  • 21.
    Bergelin, Rebecca
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Trädsäkring av järnvägen som ett verktyg i Sveriges klimatanpassning: En kvalitativ undersökning av trädsäkring som anpassningsåtgärd2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability indicate that climate change may result in an increased average wind speed and the risk of extreme storms may increase in intensity and number. Functions important to society such as road and rail networks must therefore adapt to a changing climate.

    In 2005, Sweden was hit by the storm Gudrun. During this storm fell equivalent to 90 percent of the annual felling of timber and infrastructure was severely affected. Two years later the storm Per occurred, the storm showed once again that the railroad was still very vulnerable and that many of the problems of withstanding severe storms persisted. These two events, particularly Hurricane Gudrun laid the foundation for the Swedish Transport administration to adapt the railways by the felling of trees close to the railways.

    The theoretical premises of the essay is comprised of sustainable development and climate adaptation from a risk perspective.

    This study is conducted based on a qualitative survey with an inductive approach. Data collection methods consisted primarily of interviews whose material then was analyzed through a content analysis.

    The overall aim is to shed light on if Tree removal program is an effective climate adaptation measure, and study the social, economic and ecological consequences of tree management has on the Swedish society.

    The survey results show that both direct and indirect costs which arise from fallen trees may be reduced by the Tree removal program. Tree removal program is a safety measure which may impact both the economy and the environment. The Tree removal program make for example that less priority forest areas become managed in a better way and then get more developed. At the same time the plants that are in need of shadow may be negatively affected by increased sunlight. Based on the changing conditions of the animal and plant life that is created by the security measure it is the common perception among survey respondents that trees management could lead to an increased occurrence of wild animal collisions. The measure also affects the work environment which forest workers are exposed to during harvesting work. In the ongoing Tree removal program it is important that the ruling safety regulations are complied with. The survey results show that there is an increased risk of heat distortion which is both unexpected and an undesirable consequence. Interviews indicate that the tree management could lead to a reduced occurrence of events related to suicide on the railway, this is an unexpected but positive consequence.

  • 22.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Student 'sustainability consciousness' and decision making on sustainability dilemmas: Investigating effects of implementing education for sustainable development in Swedish upper secondary schools2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The central role of education for sustainable development (SD) has been emphasized since the 1990s. SD involves the three areas of environment, economy and society, with a focus on the relationships between environmental protection and human development. Education for sustainable development (ESD) takes a holistic view on the environmental, economic and social dimensions of SD and aims to empower students to engage in the democratic development of society in a more sustainable direction. Policy-level and research community discussions have addressed the ways in which ESD has been implemented internationally. This study focuses on upper secondary students, and investigates their views on sustainability and the ways they make decisions related to SD. The study aims to address the interdisciplinary and multidimensional content embraced in the concept of SD and the development of competences often associated with ESD. A survey investigating students’ (n=638) sustainability consciousness (SC) and their decision-making in a number of SD related contexts was conducted in 15 Swedish upper secondary schools. The results show that students attending schools with an ESD profile are characterized by stronger SC than students attending regular schools; however the difference is small and mostly related to the economic dimension of SD. Furthermore, students who prioritize environmental decisions in SD dilemmas show stronger SC than students giving priority to economic reasons. When environmental, economic and social dimensions are introduced separately, social aspects are given the highest priority by the students. In contrast, environmental aspects are up-graded when the dimensions are introduced in an integrated manner. However, different dimensions are prioritized in different contexts. The study provides empirical support for using multiple contexts and including both harmonious and conflict-based perspectives on SD in education. It also contributes knowledge to the discussion about the implementation of ESD in Sweden in terms of outcomes among students.

  • 23.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    An explorative study of student understandings of the relationships between the environment and the economy2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Exploring studentunderstandings of economic perspectives in sustainable development2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Exploring the Role of the Economy in Young Adults’ Understanding of Sustainable Development2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1-17, article id 2738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theeconomicdimensionisoneofthecentralperspectivesinbothsustainabledevelopment and education for sustainable development. The role of the economy in sustainable development has been discussed extensively over the years and different views exist about how economic activities affect other sustainability dimensions. How young people view the relationships among economic perspectives and sustainable development seems to be an underemphasized perspective in sustainability education and underexplored in the field of sustainability education research. This study uses cluster analysis, which is an explorative approach, to identify and analyze young peoples’viewsoftherelationshipsbetweeneconomicgrowth,economicdevelopmentandsustainable development. Six hundred and thirty eight students (age 18–19) from 15 schools across Sweden responded to a questionnaire probing (1) views on these relationships, and (2) their environmental consciousness. Four clusters of students differing in their views on the economy in sustainable development were identified in the analysis: un-differentiating positive, nuanced ambivalent, two-way convinced, and critical. Further analysis indicated that some groups differed in their perception of the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Implications of these findings are discussed from the perspective of education for sustainable development.

  • 26.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Separated and integrated perspectives on environmental, economic, and social dimensions: an investigation of student views on sustainable development2016In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1115-1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable development (SD) concept is based on the idea that economic and social development should be linked to the environment. However, controversies about various associated issues often arise due to the differences in protagonists’ viewpoints, depending partly on whether they focus mainly on environmental, economic, or social dimensions and partly on ideological stances related (for instance) to the optimal ways of promoting economic growth and social justice. This study investigates views of 638 Swedish upper secondary students who responded to a questionnaire probing their views of SD from two perspectives. In the first, the dimensions were separately introduced, so the respondents only had to consider one dimension at a time. In the second, the dimensions were introduced in an integrated fashion, so the respondents had to consider effects related to all three dimensions. The results strongly indicate that the students’ views and priorities concerning the dimensions depend on both the perspective and the context. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed. 

  • 27.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Separated andintegrated approaches to investigate student views on dimensions of sustainable development2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Student Decision-making on Sustainability Dilemmas and its Relationship to Sustainability Consciousness2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Student views on the dimensions of sustainable development: A matter of context, congruence and conflictManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Chang-Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Investigating Swedish upper secondary students’ integrated understanding of sustainable development2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Chang-Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The implementation of education for sustainable development in Sweden: Investigating the sustainability consciousness among upper secondary students2014In: Research in Science & Technological Education, ISSN 0263-5143, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 318-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sustainable development (SD) is a complex idea, based on environmental, economic and social dimensions. In line with SD, education for sustainable development (ESD) is an approach to teaching that combines cognitive and affective domains and aims to build empowerment abilities.

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate effects of the implementation of ESD in Sweden, in terms of developing students’ sustainability consciousness (SC). Two groups of students were included: one was from schools with a profile of ESD and the other one was from comparable schools without explicit ESD-profile.

    Sample: A total of 638 students from upper secondary schools (grade 12) in science-related or social science-related programs participated in the study.

    Design and methods: A procedure was created for the selection of schools considered to be the most active in using an ESD approach as well as comparable schools with no explicit ESD approach. During spring 2013, the students responded to a questionnaire based on sustainability knowingness, attitudes and behaviors within the environmental, economic and social dimensions of SD that together constitute the concept of SC. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.

    Results: The results indicate that there are significant differences in SC between students from schools that teach with an ESD approach compared to students from regular schools. Furthermore, a significant difference between the two groups of students was found in the underlying economic dimension of SC. No significant differences were found in the environmental and social dimensions of SC.

    Conclusions: Although the results show that ESD-profiled schools have effect on students' SC, the effects are relatively small. Therefore, the effects and nature of the implementation of ESD are discussed.

  • 32.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Migrationof Atlantic salmon – conservation of a landlocked population in Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations of migratory salmon and trout have worldwide shown a decline due to human activities. Over the years numerous measures have been undertaken to maintain these populations, and conservation of migratory salmonids requires understanding of their ecology at multiple scales, combined with assessing anthropogenic impacts. The regulated River Klarälven and Lake Vänern host endemic populations of landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta). The historically high abundances of the salmonids in the River Klarälven in the early 1800s have decreased dramatically, reaching all-time lows after the completion of all nine Swedish hydroelectric power stations in the 1960s. After an extensive stocking program and transportation of wild and hatchery-raised spawners past eight hydroelectric plants, catches from commercial, maintenance and sport fishing have again increased. Recently, increases in the proportion of wild salmon returning to the River Klarälven have generated interests in establishment of wild salmon inhabiting the entire River Klarälven, including upstream of the Norwegian border. To obtain information needed to produce a management plan for the salmon, we conducted a number of studies of upstream-migrating spawners and downstream-migrating smolts. For upstream migration, we compared migration behaviour of wild and hatchery reared salmon and found that wild fish swam directly to the spawning grounds and presumably spawned, whereas few salmon of hatchery-origin arrived at the spawning grounds, and if they did so they swam considerably more before settling down at the spawning grounds. Studies of smolt showed that only 16% of the salmon passed all eight dams, and that losses in the dam-free lower 25 km of the river, before the salmon enter the lake, were higher for hatchery-raised smolts than for wild smolt. These differences between wild and hatchery-reared salmon underline the importance of increasing the number of wild salmon in the system and indicate that remedial measures are needed to improve passage success.

  • 33.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Evolutionsbiologiskt centrum, Uppsala universitet.
    Lax och öring i Klarälven - möjligheter för vild fisk och kvalité på odlad fisk: Slutrapport 2008-20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Data från 1800-talet visar att fångsterna av lax och öring i både älv och sjö varit mycket högre än idag. Storskaliga dämmen, kraftigt fiske i Dejeforsen, nio kraftverk i den svenska delen av Klarälvens huvudfåra, och användandet av älven för timmerflottning har bidragit till detta. Efter att utsättning av kompensationsodlad fisk startade ökade fångsten igen, även om den fortfarande är låg.

    Fältundersökningar av vild laxsmolt visade att 16 % av smolten klarade sig hela vägen förbi de åtta kraftverken mellan Edebäck och Forshaga. Under studien var vattenföringen, och därmed spillet, lågt, vilket troligen bidragit till de höga förlusterna. Normalt spills det inte under hela smoltvandringsperioden, vilket är olyckligt.

    Lax och öring uppfödda under normala odlingsförhållanden är oftast större och fetare än vild fisk. Vi födde upp lax med olika fodertyper och fodermängder. Mängden föda påverkade laxens tillväxt och smoltmognad, och lax som fått fettfattigt foder var mest ”naturlik”. Den klarade också vandringen bäst, 80 % tog sig till Vänern medan 55 % av laxen som fått normalt eller lite foder. Bara 20 % av tidigt könsmogna hanar tog sig till Vänern.

    Rapporten avslutas med implikationer och förslag till åtgärder och fortsatta studier.

  • 34.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Norrgård, Johnny R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Lax och öring i Klarälven - möjligheter för vild fisk och kvalité på utsatt fisk: Rapport av aktiviteter och uppnådda resultat under 2010-20112011Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Länstyrelsen i Västra Göralands län.
    Hart, Paul
    University of Leicester.
    Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Lake Vänern: A proposal for a co-management system2014In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, ISSN 1463-4988, E-ISSN 1539-4077, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 365-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-management is of increasing interest for fisheries management. We explore possibilities for, and barriers to, developing a co-management system, using threatened populations of landlocked Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout as examples. Good management of natural resources requires not only knowledge about the resource but also suitable tools to collect information and make decisions. In large ecosystems this can be difficult because many actors are involved, and various societal borders and traditions become barriers. Vänern is the largest lake in the EU and it holds several distinct populations of large-bodied landlocked Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout. The lake is used for commercial, subsistence, and sport fishing as well as for other recreational activities, and in Klarälven, the largest river entering Vänern, sport fishing is popular. These salmonid populations were at critically low levels during the 1960s, but a stocking program since then has maintained the fishery, and at least one wild stock appears to be recovering since being protected in 1993. Ecosystem users all have different needs: in the lake, sport fishermen say that catches of hatchery fish have declined, and commercial fishermen have focused on other species. In the river, wild salmon may be recovering: sport fishing is popular and an ongoing project investigates the possibilities for salmon to be able to circumvent hydro-electrical plants and reach historical Norwegian spawning areas. Not only do we lack information about the salmonids’ different life stages, we also lack a suitable socio-political organization to find sustainable solutions to the different needs of diverse user groups. We argue that a co-management system that enfranchises user groups in the Vänern-Klarälven ecosystem will improve sustainable management of wild and hatchery fish.

  • 36.
    Bergman, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Är människor också djur?: Djurvälfärd betraktat från två olika ideologiska perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Djurhållning inom livsmedelsindustrin är ett stort problem, både ur miljösynpunkt men även när det kommer till djurvälfärd. I den här studien undersöks hur ekologisk djurhållning och djurrättsaktivism kan fungera tillsammans för att nå en god djurvälfärd utifrån de ideologier som ligger till grund för dessa inriktningar. För att ta reda på detta valdes två organisationer ut för att representera vardera sida, KRAV och Djurens Rätt, och sedan identifierades de bakomliggande ideologierna. Det utvalda materialet, som består av publikationer från respektive organisation, bearbetades med hjälp av en diskursanalys, som ger utrymme för egna tolkningar och reflektioner. Målet för studien har inte varit att nå en definitiv sanning, utan att presentera nya synsätt och bidra med nya perspektiv i frågan. I diskussionen framkommer att det är antropocentriska ideologier somligger till grund för KRAV och icke-antropocentriska ideologier som ligger bakom Djurens Rätt. Dessa kombineras sedan med ett feministiskt perspektiv för att utveckla diskussionen ytterligare. Slutsatser som dras är att KRAV och Djurens Rätt strävar efter samma sak, nämligen en god djurvälfärd, problematiken ligger i de bakomliggande ideologierna. En icke-antropocentrisk ideologi kan inte godta att djur dödas för mänskliga syften, men enligt antropocentrismen finns djuren till för människans nytta och rättfärdigar detta, vilket starkt antyder att de inte kan kombineras. Genom att lägga till det feministiska perspektivet finns dock möjligheten att sträva efter samexistens, där djur och människor lever jämte varandra på samma villkor. Det är inte en lösning, men det kan öppna upp för nya sätt att betrakta hur människor kan göra djurvälfärd till en naturlig del av att vara vid liv.

  • 37.
    Bergqvist, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Lars
    Strömgren, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Säkerhetsutredningar av bränder: Fallstudie av lägenhetsbrand med dödlig utgång2013Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Bergstrand, Sebastian
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Max, Blick
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Jämförelseanalys av höjdmätning med två olika GNSS – mottagare.: . En komparativ studie av höjdmätning mellan olika GNSS – mottagare.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Bienau, Miriam J
    et al.
    University Giessen.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. University Giessen.
    Otte, Annette
    University Giessen.
    Durka, Walter
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research- UFZ, Department of Community Ecology.
    Clonality increases with snow depth in the arctic dwarf shrub Empetrum hermaphroditum.2016In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 103, no 12, p. 2105-2114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Vegetative reproduction and spread through clonal growth plays an important role in arctic-alpine ecosystems with short cool growing seasons. Local variation in winter snow accumulation leads to discrete habitat types that may provide divergent conditions for sexual and vegetative reproduction. Therefore, we studied variation in clonal structure of a dominant, evergreen, dwarf shrub (Empetrum nigrum s.l. with the two taxa E. nigrum L. s.s. and E. hermaphroditum Hagerup) along a snow cover gradient and compared clonal diversity and spatial genetic structure between habitats.

    METHODS: We studied 374 individual shoots using 105 polymorphic AFLP markers and analyses based on hierarchical clustering, clonal diversity indices, and small-scale spatial genetic structure with pairwise kinship coefficient. We used two approaches to define a threshold of genotypic distance between two samples that are considered the same clone. Clonality was examined among three habitats (exposed ridges, sheltered depressions, birch forest) differing in snow conditions replicated in four study regions in Norway and Sweden.

    KEY RESULTS: Clonality of E. hermaphroditum differed between habitats with an increase in clonal diversity with decreasing snow depth. Small-scale spatial genetic structure increased with decreasing clonal diversity and increasing clone size. In three study regions, E. hermaphroditum was the only species, whereas in one region E. nigrum also occurred, largely confined to exposed ridges.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that snow cover in conjunction with associated habitat conditions plays an important role for the mode of propagation of the dwarf shrub E. hermaphroditum.

  • 40.
    Bienau, Miriam J.
    et al.
    Germany.
    Kröncke, Michael
    Germany.
    Eiserhardt, Wolfgang
    Norway.
    Otte, Annette
    Germany.
    Graae, Bente
    Norway.
    Hagen, Dagmar
    Norway.
    Milbau, Ann
    Umeå University.
    Durka, Walter
    Germany.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Synchronous flowering despite differences in snowmelt timing among habitats of Empetrum hermaphroditum2015In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 69, p. 129-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The topography within arctic-alpine landscapes is very heterogeneous, resulting in diverse snow distribution patterns, with different snowmelt timing in spring. This may influence the phenological development of arctic and alpine plant species and asynchronous flowering may promote adaptation of plants to their local environments.We studied how flowering phenology of the dominant dwarf shrub Empetrum hermaphroditum varied among three habitats (exposed ridges, sheltered depressions and birch forest) differing in winter snow depth and thus snowmelt timing in spring, and whether the observed patterns were consistent across three different study areas.Despite significant differences in snowmelt timing between habitats, full flowering of E. hermaphroditum was nearly synchronous between the habitats, and implies a high flowering overlap. Our data show that exposed ridges, which had a long lag phase between snowmelt and flowering, experienced different temperature and light conditions than the two late melting habitats between snowmelt and flowering.Our study demonstrates that small scale variation seems matter less to flowering of Empetrum than interannual differences in snowmelt timing.

  • 41.
    Bilker, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Föräldrars syn på barns säkerhet: En kvalitativ studie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A paradigm shift is proposed in the literature regarding child safety, from keeping the children as safe as possible to keeping the children as safe as necessary. This could be a way to satisfy children’s need of challenges in order to thrive and their need for safety. In relation to such an ongoing change it is of value to investigate how parents, as guardians, perceive child safety at home and in preschool. The purpose of this study is to research parental perception of child safety in the home environment and childcare. The study is also concerned with how parents perceive their influence over the risks and risk assessments surrounding the children at home and in preschool. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of preschool children and a qualitative content analysis was used. The results show that safety to a big extent is sees as protective measures to safeguard children from risk. Risks in the physical environment were discussed in relation to the home environment and preschool and psychological and social risks were discussed in relation to preschool, relationships amongst peers and the society. The parents see themselves as having a significant influence over risks in the home environment and to a lesser degree in relation to peers and preschool. Parents voice a constant need for balancing between safety, risks and other factors such as development, independence, and social acceptance. Adults constantly analyze risk to make appropriate decisions to safeguard the children. The informants describe supervision as crucial to keep children safe. To conclude, the results indicate a need for improved communication between parents and preschool staff regarding evaluations between safety and other factors, like development and positive challenges that help children to thrive. Suggestions for future research are given.

  • 42.
    Birgersson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Det moderna risksamhället: En studie om klimatrisker inom kommunal krisberedskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is now a phenomenon we cannot ignore. It is happening here and now and there is more or less common scientific consensus that so is the case. With climate change come risks that are difficult to predict and to relate to and this affects the integration of these risks in the municipal emergency preparedness. The purpose of the study is to examine the factors that are affecting the integration of climate risks in the municipal emergency preparedness. The result is based on a number of interviews conducted with people working with municipal activities and a Municipal Council. The responses have been more or less clear that the largest factors affecting the integration of climate risks in the municipal emergency preparedness is scientific uncertainty and how this is mediated by international organizations, the fact that there is a common lack of knowledge about the effects that may arise from climate change and that there is also a lower awareness of many of the risks in general. In addition, different effects are differently prioritized which affects the integration of all risks associated with climate change. I have also conducted a document analysis to give further substance to the results I found.

  • 43.
    Björling, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Ny konsumtion av gamla kläder: – En studie om konsumenters miljömedvetenhet och motiv till att köpa second hand kläder på Myrorna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s consumption is increasing at an accelerating rate and it´s produced and consumed more goods and services than ever before. A large part of people's consumption consists of clothing that is bought and discarded increasingly leading to a number of environmental problems such as global warming, pollution, loss of biodiversity and the depletion of natural assets. One way to save the earth's resources is to buy used clothing, so called second hand, instead of new ones. The store chain “The Ants” (in Swedish “Myrorna”) has specializing in second-hand goods and sells, among other things, clothes. This study examined consumers' motive for shopping second-hand clothing on The Ants and examined whether this is related to consumers' environmental awareness and their choice to buy second hand clothes on The Ants. The shop staffs experience of the customer's environmental awareness was also examined. The methods that were chosen were surveys that The Ants customers filled out and interviews with store employees.

    The results showed that consumer´s motive to buy second-hand clothing on The Ants was mainly due to the cheap price and then because of their environmental awareness, customers were relatively environmentally aware and knew that the clothing industry contribute to environmental problems. The consumers felt that they received too little information about the problems and they would like to know more. The result also showed that consumers don´t act according to this awareness as very few of them asked questions to the staff about their clothing production or work with sustainable consumption and the environment. The Ants shop staff experienced the same thing since they rarely or never received any questions from customers about clothing and its environmental problems. Customers also bought more new clothes than second-hand clothing.

  • 44.
    Björn, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Sambandet mellan vattenflöde och täthet av lax- och öringsyngel i Gullspångsälven: Vilka åtgärder med avseende på vattenflödet kan stärka populationen?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower is a renewable energy source that can be regulated when needed, but it creates barriers in rivers and causes hydrological changes in water flow. This reduces biodiversity and prevents migratory fish from completing their lifecycle. This threat from humans has reduced salmon populations worldwide. The rate of water flow can affect smolt production, and this will be investigated in this report for Atlantic salmon and Borwn trout in the river Gullspångsälven. In addition, I will suggesting which measures should be prioritized to sstabilize the population. The flow in the river Gullspångsälven is regulated by the hydropower plant at Gullspång. A correlation between the density of salmon and trout and water flow in januari, when waterflow is high, May, when the salmonids swim up from their spawning gravel and august, when waterflow is low. I found no distinct trend between the waterflow and density in the river. There were significant differences for salmon in January and May. This result may be due to species-specific properties that are influenced different by water flow or in Gullspångsälven there is a short-term regulation that probably affects salmon and trout populations negatively.

  • 45.
    Björndotter, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Effekt av berikad vs standard odlingsmiljö på beteende och tillväxt hos lax2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     ABSTRACT

    The farming of salmon in hatcheries has been used to compensate for the decline of many wild populations due to human activity. Recent evidence has indicated that standard farmed salmon have a  higher mortality than wild fish, leading to the question of whether hatchery conditions can be altered to improve survival of stocked salmon. The purpose of this study was to compare the behavior and growth of hatchery-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) raised under standard conditions vs varied (enriched) hatchery conditions. The hypothesis was that fish from enriched rearing would grow faster, presumably due to more efficient foraging, resulting in less total movement, In addition, I predicted that salmon from enriched conditions would  have a higher biomass of food in their stomachs than fish reared under standard conditions. Salmon from the two different groups, enriched and standard, were held separate during their first 12 months of life. The following nine months the fish were raised together in semi-natural outdoor tanks. Behavior and growth of the fish were measured during this latter period. The results showed no support for my hypotheses. Biomass of food contents and summer and winter growth did not differ between treatments. I did find, however, that fish farmed in enriched environments were more active during the summer than fish raised under standard conditions. This suggests that early rearing conditions affect the behavior of the fish, but it is unclear if this effect has any bearing on survival of the fish when stocked in rivers.

  • 46.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Myrdal-Runebjer, Eva
    Pettersson, Susanne
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gammelvallen i Södra Finnskoga. Rapport 11992Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Blake, Chelsea A.
    et al.
    Lund University; Lewis and Clark Community College, USA.
    Andersson, Matilda L.
    Lund University.
    Hulthén, Kaj
    Lund University; North Carolina State University, USA.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University.
    Conspecific boldness and predator species determine predation-risk consequences of prey personality2018In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 1-7, article id 133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Individual variation in the behavior of prey can influence predation risk in complex ways. We ran individual roach (Rutilus rutilus), a common freshwater fish, through a standard refuge emergence protocol to characterize their boldness, a key animal personality trait. We then paired a bold and a shy roach and exposed the pair to one of two predator species that have contrasting hunting modes to ascertain how personality traits shaped their survival during predator encounters. When a paired bold and shy prey fish interacted with a perch predator (active foraging mode), bold and shy prey were consumed in almost equal numbers. However, pike predators (ambush foraging mode) selectively consumed more shy prey, and prey body size and boldness score both contributed significantly to which prey fish was eaten. Our findings support the idea that multiple predators with different foraging modes, and hence differential selection on prey personality, could contribute to maintaining variation in personality in prey populations. Furthermore, for social species, including shoaling fish, the ultimate consequences of an individual’s personality may depend upon the personality of its nearby conspecifics. Significance statement: Animals of the same species often look similar, but individuals show differences in their behavior that can have important consequences, for instance when these individuals interact with predators. The common roach is a freshwater fish that shows inter-individual variation in its propensity to take risks, a key personality trait often termed boldness. Variation in boldness may affect the outcome when roach interact with predators, i.e., if they get eaten or survive. However, we found the impact of roachs’ personality type depends on what species of predatory fish they face. When we put a shy and a bold roach together with predatory perch, the roachs’ personality did not significantly affect which individual was eaten. But when the predator was a pike, the predators selectively ate more shy roach, and the likelihood an individual would be eaten depended on their body size.

  • 48.
    Blomqvist, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Effekter av osmotisk potential, samt salteffekter på några vägkantsväxter.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of lowered osmotic potential and osmotic agents on seedling germination and mean germination time (MGT) of some common roadside plants. Seeds of Prunella vulgaris, Anthyllis vulneraria, Puccinella distans, Stellaria graminea and Viscaria vulgaris were distributed in petri dishes and exposed to mannitol and sodium chloride solutions with osmotic potential of -0.3, - 0.6 and -0.9 MPa. Mannitol was used to distinguish osmotic effects from ionic effects caused by sodium chloride. Controls with distilled water showed germination in the absence of osmotic and ionic effects. The percentage of emerged seedlings were highest in controls for all species and decreased with a lower osmotic potential. Viscaria vulgaris had the highest percentage of emerged seedlings across all treatments. The lowest percentage of emerged seedlings had Puccinella distans and Stellaria graminea. It took longer time for all species to germinate under a lower osmotic potential. Viscaria vulgaris and Anthyllis vulneraria turned out to be most sensitive to abiotic changes and grew slowest in relation to controls. There was no difference in the impact of the osmotic agent on percentage germination and MGT, indicating that it is mainly the osmotic effect that affects the seed germination.

  • 49.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    A GIS-based multivariate approach to identify flood damage affecting factorsIn: Natural hazards and earth system sciences, ISSN 1561-8633, E-ISSN 1684-9981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates causal factors leading to pluvial flood damages, beside rainfall amount and intensity, in two Swedish cities. Observed flood damage data from a Swedish insurance database, collected under 13 years, and a set of spatial data, describing topography, demography, land cover and building type were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA). The topographic wetness index (TWI) is the only investigated variable that indicates a significant relationship with to the number and amount of insurance damage. The Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.68 for the number of insurance damages and 0.63 for amount of insurance damages. With a linear regression model TWI explained 41% of the variance of the number of insurance flood damages and 34% of variance of amount of insurance flood damage.

    Future studies on this topic should consider implementing TWI as a potential measure in urban flood risk analyses.

  • 50.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The impact of intense rainfall on insurance losses in two Swedish cities2018In: Journal of Flood Risk Management, ISSN 1753-318X, E-ISSN 1753-318XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While a major part of previous research in the field of flood damage has focused on water depth as the most important causal factor, little attention has been paid to the role of rainfall intensity. As a test, this paper used correlation and regression analyses to investigate rainfall intensity as a factor affecting flood damage. For a time period of 15 years, the relationship between insurance losses caused by floods and rainfall intensity data from rain gauges were examined in two Swedish cities. Another objective was to find an approach for damage functions based on rainfall intensity as explanatory variable. Using linear regression, two approaches with considerable high degrees of explanation were found – one based on an exponential function and one on a power function. Using a lower limit for rainfall intensity, the approaches reached degrees of explanation between 30 and 78 %. From this study it was concluded that rainfall intensity during the summer months and the occurrence of insurance damages per day caused by floods were correlated and further that rainfall intensity has a great potential to explain urban flood damages. In the future, additional studies are needed to validate the proposed methods and integrate other flood damage affecting factors in the approach.

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