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  • 851.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Manipulation and Measurement of Mental Workload: An experimental investigation in human computer interaction2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 852.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Evoking Comprehensive Mental Models of Anonymous Credentials2012In: Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP WG 11.4 international conference on Open Problems in Network Security / [ed] Camenisch J., Kesdogan, D., Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7039, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymous credentials are a fundamental technology for preserving end users' privacy by enforcing data minimization for online applications. However, the design of user-friendly interfaces that convey their privacy benefits to users is still a major challenge. Users are still unfamiliar with the new and rather complex concept of anonymous credentials, since no obvious real-world analogies exists that can help them create the correct mental models. In this paper we explore different ways in which suitable mental models of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials can be evoked on end users. To achieve this, we investigate three different approaches in the context of an e-shopping scenario: a card-based approach, an attribute-based approach and an adapted card-based approach. Results show that the adapted card-based approach is a good approach towards evoking the right mental models for anonymous credential applications. However, better design paradigms are still needed to make users understand that attributes can be used to satisfy conditions without revealing the value of the attributes themselves.

  • 853.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Graf, Conny
    Hochleitner, Christina
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Final HCI Research Report: Deliverable D4.1.52011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable provides an overview of recent research results of Activity 4 ‘Usability’ of PrimeLife, where an emphasis is put on those results, which have not been reported in the same detail in other HCI-related PrimeLife deliverables yet. The first part reports about our results in the area of User Interface (UI) Representation of Privacyenhancing Identity Management Concepts and presents research on PET methodologies, mental models for anonymous credentials and the results from the final round of end-user evaluations of the UI prototypes developed during the PrimeLife project. The second part reports about our work in the area of usable privacy policies and presents the final results of Activity 4’s research on policy icons and on a user-friendly management and display of PPL (PrimeLife Policy Language) policies.

  • 854.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Graf, Cornelia
    Hochleitner, Christina
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Angulo, Julio
    Towards Usable Privacy Enhancing Technologies: Lessons Learned from the PrimeLife Project2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this deliverable, we present lessons learnt from the PrimeLife HCI (Human Computer Interaction) Activity by discussing typical HCI challenges and fallacies that we experienced during the PrimeLife project. We also provide guidance on how these issues can be addressed in order to develop usable privacy-enhancing technology solutions.

  • 855.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, SimoneKarlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.Köffel, CWolkerstorfer, Peter
    HCI Research Report: Version 12009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the core activities in the PrimeLife  project is the design and implementation of privacy aware applications that are usable. Therefore it is the main objective of Activity 4 to assure the usability of those applications and advance the research in this area. The First HCI Research Report presents the main research results of the HCI activity within the first year of PrimeLife. The HCI Research Report V1 presents work in progress and will be updated and complemented by a second version, the Final HCI Research Report (D4.1.5), which will be published at the end of the PrimeLife project.

  • 856.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Usability Challenges of Privacy Technologies2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 857.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Zwingelberg, Harald
    UI prototypes: Policy administration and presentation (version 1)2009Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy Policies are an important prerequisite for user control in privacy-enhancing identity management. The transparency of privacy policies can be enhanced if users are informed about mismatches of a site’s policy with the user’s preferences. Investigating understandable and transparent privacy policies as well as simplified and usable privacy preference (data release policy) management "on the fly" are the objectives of the deliverable. For this, it is discussing icons presenting the content of policies and different User Interface (UI) prototypes for policy display and preference administration, which have been partly compared and tested in an Online user study. Finally, legal requirements for policy display in social network sites and how they translate to Human Computer Interaction (HCI) requirements are investigated.

  • 858.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    End User Transparency Tools: UI Prototypes2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Data Track is a user-side transparency-enhancing tool developed in PrimeLife, which provides the users with a history function documenting what personal data the user has revealed to whom under which conditions. Besides, it provides online functions to access the user’s personal data at the remote services side. This deliverable documents PrimeLife work package 4.2’s work on a usable Data Track. After introducing into the Data Track functionalities and the technical background, we will present the results of five iterations of user interface developments and usability testing, which we performed at Karlstad University and at CURE. We also present our initial work on a Data Track for social communities as well as on a Data Track for lifelong privacy.

  • 859.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Users' Mental Models' Effect on their Comprehension of Anonymous Credentials2011In: Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] Camenisch, J.; Fischer-Hübner, S.; Rannenberg, K., Heidelberg: Springer , 2011, p. 233-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymous Credentials are a key technology for enforcing data minimisation for online applications. The design of easily understandable user interfaces for the use of anonymous credentials is however a major challenge, as end users are not yet familiar with this rather new and complex technology and no obvious real-world analogies exist for them. In this chapter, we analyse what effects the users’ mental models have on their understanding of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials in the context of an e-Shopping application scenario. In particular, we have investigated the effects of the mental models of a card-based user interface approach and an attribute-based user interface approach and compared these in terms of errors of omission and addition. The results show that the card-based approach leads to significantly more errors of addition (i.e., users believe that they have disclosed more information than they actually have) whereas the attribute-based approach leads to more errors of omission (i.e., users underestimate the amount of data that they have disclosed).

  • 860.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Graf, C
    Wolkerstorfer, P
    Hochleitner, C
    Tscheligi, M
    HCI for PrimLIfe Prototypes2011In: Primelife - Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] J. Camenisch, S. Fischer-Hübner & K. Rannenberg, Heidelberg: Springer , 2011, p. 217-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 861.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Khandelwal, Nikunj
    Köffel, Christina
    Access Control in Social Networks2009Report (Refereed)
  • 862.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Consumer perception at the Point-of-Purchase: Evaluating proposed package designs in the eye-tracking lab2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 863.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Consumer Perception at Point of Purchase: Evaluating Proposed Package Designs in an Eye-tracking Lab2010In: Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, ISSN 1751-8202, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s retail environment, consumer products are increasingly competing for customers’ attention. Research has shown that 60–80% of purchasing decisions are influenced in-store. Thus, packaging that stands out from competitors gains a competitive advantage. This study investigates the use of eye-tracking as a method to evaluate and design packaging with better Point-of-Purchase qualities. An eye-tracking laboratory was used and shoppers were recruited for three rounds of experiments. In total, 128 participants were recruited in order to assess the potential of eye-tracking. Results show that, when taking some methodological constraints into account, eye-tracking complements traditional methodologies with further insights when investigating the Point-of-Purchase qualities of packaging.

  • 864.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Sponseller, Kay
    Pettersson, Ola
    What You See is Where You Go: Testing a Gaze-Driven Power Wheelchair for Individuals with Severe Multiple Disabilities2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Individuals with severe multiple disabilities have little or no opportunity to express their own wishes, make choices and move independently. Because of this, the objective of this work has been to develop a prototype for a gaze-driven device to maneuver powered wheelchairs or other moving platforms.



    The prototype has the same capabilities as a normal powered wheelchair, with two exceptions. Firstly, the prototype is controlled by eye movements instead of by a normal joystick. Secondly, the prototype is equipped with a sensor that stops all motion when the machine approaches an obstacle.



    The prototype has been evaluated in a preliminary clinical test with two users. Both users clearly communicated that they appreciated and had mastered the ability to control a powered

    wheelchair with their eye movements

  • 865.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Austria.
    PET-USES2011In: Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] Camenisch, Fischer-Hübner, Rannenberg, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 866.
    Yedugundla, Kiran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Probe or Wait: Handling tail losses using Multipath TCP2017In: 2017 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking) and Workshops, IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packet losses are known to affect the performance of latency sensitive Internet applications such as media streaming and gaming. Transport protocols recover from packet loss in order to provide reliable end-to-end communication and improve user experience. The efficiency of loss recovery mechanisms influences the completion time of flows, and thus also the application performance as perceived by the end user. In this paper we focus on state-of-the-art loss recovery mechanisms for TCP and Multipath TCP. We use controlled tail loss scenarios to evaluate the performance of loss recovery mechanisms and, based on the observations, we propose an enhanced tail loss recovery mechanism for Multipath TCP, to improve the loss recovery time. Our experiment results, using the Linux Multipath TCP implementation, show consistent end-to-end latency performance improvement in considered scenarios.

  • 867.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Peer-to-Peer VoIP Communications Using Anonymisation Overlay Networks2010In: Communications and Multimedia Security: Proceedings of the 11th IFIP TC 6/TC 11, CMS2010, international conference on Communications and Multimedia Security / [ed] De Decker, Bart; Schaumüller-Bichl, Ingrid, Berlin: Springer , 2010, p. 130-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) which enables voice conversation remotely over packet switched networks gains much attentions for its low costs and flexible services. However, VoIP calling anonymity, particularly to withhold who called whom, is difficult to achieve since VoIP infrastructures are usually deployed in an open networking environment (e.g., the Internet). Our work studies an anonymisation overlay network (AON) based solution to prevent surveillance from external attackers, who are able to wiretap the communication channels as well as to manipulate voice packets in the channels. However, it has been demonstrated that the VoIP combined with traditional AONs are vulnerable to two attacks, namely watermark attack and complementary matching attack. Taking these two attacks into account, we investigate the defensive dropping method in VoIP: A VoIP user-agent sends packets to an AON in a constant rate, but packets during periods of silence are marked. Then, the AON drops some silence packets and forwards the remaining ones to their destinations. The result of our experiments shows that the dropping rate must be carefully selected to counteract both of the two attacks. Finally, we discuss further threats in terms of this solution

  • 868.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Bezzi, Michele
    Duquenoy, Penny
    Hansen,, Marit
    Privacy and Identity Management for Life: 5th IFIP primelife international summer school revised selected papers2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 869.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Pallares, Jordi Jaen
    Rebahi, Yacine
    SIP Proxies: New Reflectors? Attacks and Defenses2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    To mitigate identity theft in SIP networks, an inter-domain authentication mechanism based on certificates is proposed in RFC 4474 [10]. Unfortunately, the design of the certificate distribution in this mechanism yields some vulnerabilities. In this paper, we investigate an attack which exploits SIP infrastructures as reflectors to bring down a web server. Our experiments demonstrate that the attacks can be easily mounted. Finally, we discuss some potential methods to prevent this vulnerability

  • 870.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Huebner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Detecting Near-Duplicate SPITs in Voice Mailboxes Using Hashes2011In: Proceedings of the 14th international conference on Information security ISC'11, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 152-167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is a threat to the use of Voice of IP (VoIP) systems. One kind of SPIT can make unsolicited bulk calls to victims' voice mailboxes and then send them a prepared audio message. We detect this threat within a collaborative detection framework by comparing unknown VoIP flows with known SPIT samples since the same audio message generates VoIP flows with the same flow patterns (e.g., the sequence of packet sizes). In practice, however, these patterns are not exactly identical: (1) a VoIP flow may be unexpectedly altered by network impairments (e.g., delay jitter and packet loss); and (2) a sophisticated SPITer may dynamically generate each flow. For example, the SPITer employs a Text-To-Speech (TTS) synthesis engine to generate a speech audio instead of using a pre-recorded one. Thus, we measure the similarity among flows using local-sensitive hash algorithms. A close distance between the hash digest of flow x and a known SPIT suggests that flow x probably belongs the same bulk of the known SPIT. Finally, we also experimentally study the detection performance of the hash algorithms

  • 871.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Huebner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Timing Attacks on PIN Input in VoIP Networks: Short paper2011In: Detection of Intrusions and Malware, and Vulnerability Assessment: 8th International Conference, DIMVA 2011 / [ed] Holz, Thorsten; Bos, Herbert, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 75-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To access automated voice services, Voice over IP (VoIP) users sometimes are required to provide their Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for authentication. Therefore when they enter PINs, their user-agents generate packets for each key pressed and send them immediately over the networks. This paper shows that a malicious intermediary can recover the inter-keystroke time delay for each PIN input even if the standard encryption mechanism has been applied. The inter-keystroke delay can leak information of what has been typed: Our experiments show that the average search space of a brute force attack on PIN can be reduced by around 80%.

  • 872. Zola, Enrica
    et al.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Energy Efficient Control of Virtual Machine Consolidation under Uncertain Input Parameters for the Cloud2015In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Engineering and Control for Reliable Cloud Services, Ghent, Belgium, September 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 873.
    Zola, Enrica
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Optimising for Energy or Robustness? Trade-off for VM Consolidation under Uncertainty2016In: Optimization Letters, ISSN 1862-4472, E-ISSN 1862-4480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the energy consumption of virtualized datacenters and the Cloud is very important in order to lower CO2 footprint and operational cost of a Cloud operator. However, there is a trade-off between energy consumption and perceived application performance. In order to save energy, Cloud operators want to consolidate as many Virtual Machines (VM) on the fewest possible physical servers, possibly involving overbooking of resources. However, that may involve SLA violations when many VMs run on peak load. Such consolidation is typically done using VM migration techniques, which stress the network. As a consequence, it is important to find the right balance between the energy consumption and the number of migrations to perform. Unfortunately, the resources that a VM requires are not precisely known in advance, which makes it very difficult to optimise the VM migration schedule. In this paper, we therefore propose a novel approach based on the theory of robust optimisation. We model the VM consolidation problem as a robust Mixed Integer Linear Program and allow to specify bounds for e.g. resource requirements of the VMs. We show that, by using our model, Cloud operators can effectively trade-off uncertainty of resource requirements with total energy consumption. Also, our model allows us to quantify the price of the robustness in terms of energy saving against resource requirement violations.

  • 874. Zola, Enrica
    et al.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kim, Wooseong
    Joint User Association and Energy Aware Routing for Green Small Cell mmWave Backhaul Networks2017In: 2017 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dense deployment of small cells is one of the key characteristics envisioned for future 5G mobile networks in order to provide the required capacity increase. To cut cabling costs, small cells are foreseen to form multihop topologies using high capacity backhaul wireless links in the mmWave bands. Such small cells are deployed within the coverage area of a macro cell (eNB) to provide localized capacity where needed according to the well known Heterogeneous Network concept (HetNet). However, green networking will be very important because powering on unnecessarily a massive amount of small cells may lead to increased OPEX and CO2 emission. In this paper, we propose an optimization model that minimizes the total power consumption of 5G HetNets deployments while providing the required capacity and coverage. Our model jointly optimizes the user association, routing in the multihop backhaul and decides to power on or off the small cells to serve the user demands. Our numerical evaluation show significant power savings over a large range of traffic demand distributions while keeping the blocking probability low.

  • 875.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    7B har ingen webbtidning2005Book (Refereed)
  • 876.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Den vidgade yttrandefriheten1989Report (Other academic)
  • 877.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Eleven som journalist - Publicistiskt arbetssätt2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 878.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Elevers foton i sociala medier från klassrummet: Om skrivandet och lärandet kan stärkas genom elevers egna fotografier och genom användning av sociala medier2011In: Elevers foton i sociala medier från klassrummet: Om skrivandet och lärandet kan stärkas genom elevers egna fotografier och genom användning av sociala medier, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2010/11 genomför jag ett forsknings- och utvecklingsprojekt runt sociala medier ifyra klasser i årskurs 4 (tioåringar) i Karlstad kommun med stöd från Internetfonden,Karlstads universitet och Åbo Akademi i Vasa. Sociala medier i detta sammanhang är enpublik klassblogg i var klass och Skype som direktkommunikationsverktyg mellan olikasvenskspråkiga klasser i flera länder.Den första erfarenheten i detta projekt var att barn i den aktuella åldern behöver egnabilder och framförallt foton för att kunna kommunicera över nätet. Utan bilder blir ocksåbarns berättelser kring skolarbetet ointressanta för andra att läsa; det här vet barnen.Med bilder och inte minst fotografier, skapas nyfikenhet, och fotografierna blir också ettbevis på äkthet; vi har träffat den här personen, det här är den första blåsippan eller detvar just Anna som här vann löpartävlingen. Med kameran som redskap skapas en nyberättarresurs, samtidigt som fotograferandet i sig kräver en egen kompetens.Frågeställningarna i detta forskningsprojekt handlar om hur elever ser på sin egentextproduktion, i vid bemärkelse, när mottagaren finns utanför klassrummet. Genomstödet från Internetfonden kunde kameror köpas in under mars 2011 och på detta sätthoppas jag att den övergripande frågeställningen kan både breddas och fördjupas till attomfatta flera olika yttryckssätt. Projektet är således i ett mycket tidigt stadium och idetta konferensbidrag kommer jag endast att kunna ge några exempel på hurkamerorna använts i klassbloggen. Utifrån dessa exempel för jag teoretiska resonemangkring hur barns egna foton på en publik klassblogg kan påverka undervisningen ochelevernas upplevelse av skolarbetet. Projektet undersöker således hur dessamultimodala uttryckssätt påverkar barns förmåga till berättande och hur dessa estetiskasätt att uttrycka sig på påverkar intresset för läsning och skrivning – och även omvänt.

  • 879.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Internet publishing as a didactic method2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 880.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Publicistiska arbetssätt i skolan2008Book (Refereed)
  • 881.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Pupils motivation to net publishing2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 882.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Social media and the boundless classroom: A multimodal design theoretical perspective on young students’ use of blogs and digital cameras in their school work2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I will, from a multimodal perspective, examine how social media maychange the relationship between students' own-produced texts and the schoolsubject that is studied. I will also discuss some empirical observations from learningsettings and argue that use of photographic practices combined with the publishingof students’ school work in social media stimulates students' written textproduction.With the introduction of user friendly and cheap digital cameras in the classroom,together with computers, the opportunities for students to combine their ownphotos with written text, changes drastically. From multimodal and designtheoretical perspective, school work can be seen as text production (in the widestsense) and a transformation of others texts and students’ own experiences to newforms of text, a process that also involves a performance where the student'sknowledge is reflected. With the class blogs and wikis students are able to showtheir work for an audience that not share all the knowledge and experiencesdescribed in the text; something that otherwise usually is the case in a classroomwhen the text is submitted to the teacher.

  • 883.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Social media in the classroom: Different perspectives on young students’ use of blogs and digital cameras in their school work2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I will, from a multimodal perspective, examine how social media maychange the relationship between students' own-produced texts and the schoolsubject that is studied. I will also discuss some empirical observations from learningsettings and argue that use of photographic practices combined with the publishingof students’ school work in social media stimulates students' written textproduction. This way to create multimodal texts, also changes the language, awayfrom the facts list, and in favour of narrative.With the introduction of user friendly and cheap digital cameras in the classroom,together with computers, the opportunities for students to combine their ownphotos with written text, changes drastically. From multimodal and designtheoretical perspective, school work can be seen as text production (in the widestsense) and a transformation of others texts and students’ own experiences to newforms of text, a process that also involves a performance where the student'sknowledge is reflected. With the class blogs and wikis students are able to showtheir work for an audience that not share all the knowledge and experiencesdescribed in the text; something that otherwise usually is the case in a classroomwhen the text is submitted to the teacher.

  • 884.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Sociala medier och naturvetenskaplig undervisning: Om hur faktatextskrivandet och den naturvetenskaplig undervisning kan stärkas genom elevers egna fotografier och genom användning av sociala medier2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2010/11 genomför jag ett forsknings- och utvecklingsprojekt kring socialamedier i fyra klasser i årskurs 4 (= 10-åringar) i Karlstad; en publik klassblogg i varklass och Skype som direktkommunikationsverktyg mellan olika svenskspråkigaklasser i flera länder. Frågeställningarna i detta projekt kretsar kring hur elever ser påsin egen textproduktion när mottagaren av skolarbetet finns utanför klassrummet;på nätet. Projektet undersöker också hur en kombination av elevers egna fotografieroch skrivna texter påverkar barns berättarförmåga. Till projektet har jag kunnatanskaffa kameror och mikroskop men USB-kamera och avsikten med detta är att geeleverna fler sätt att kommunicera och utveckla sitt berättande på, inte minst inomnaturvetenskap. Frågan som ställs här är om sociala medier, i kombination medfotograferande, kan användas i undervisning om naturvetenskap och vad som i så fallär skillnaden mellan detta sätt att producera texter och redovisa sina kunskaper ijämförelse med den traditionella undervisningen.

  • 885.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Texter från klassrummet och ut på nätet2008In: Svenskläraren nr 2 - 2008Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 886.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Ungas lärande i sociala medier2011In: Unga nätmiljöer: Nya villkor för samarbete och lärande / [ed] Alexandersson, Mikael & Hansson, Thomas, Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 24-42Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 887.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Yttrandefrihet - för alla?1993In: Om medieverkstäder, lokal-TV och annat / [ed] K. Stigbrand, 1993Chapter in book (Other academic)
15161718 851 - 887 of 887
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