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  • 601.
    Vejzovic, Haris
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Automated Dimensioning of Promas MK. II Hub Cap2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The studyis a part of the development of the new dimensioning standard fora hub cap,Hub Cap MK II.A goal with this study wasto obtain a dimensioningtool which willeliminate current issuesand validate its trustworthiness with FEA simulations.This is executed togetherwith the purpose of giving an increased understanding of the hub cap’s structural behavior in its operating environment.The hub cap’s general structural mechanics is studied with Euler-Bernoulli beam theoryand is modeled as a cantilever beam. Ananalysisoffatigue in weldsand how much stress theycan withstandis performed with S-N diagram. The clamping force in the bolted jointholding the hub cap in its positionis studied in this paper. Together, a theoretical maximum length of the hub cap could be calculatedto preventfailing.A total of 12 equations relating the maximum length 𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥and diameter 𝐷of the hub capare constructed. Finally, a material selection process isconducted for the hub cap to propose a cheaper materialwhich is allowed to be used in the same environment.The results of equations havebeen summarized indiagramswhere it is possible to determine how long a hub cap can be made and which failure-mode is closest to occur for a certain hub cap size.These results havethen been compared with FEA forvalidation ofthe model and obtained equations. Errors between calculated values and simulated values are between 12.6%-96.4% with a mean error of 70.7%. The large differences bases, amongst other reasons,isthat the hub cap isnot best modeled as a classical cantilever beam. Furthermore,the section is so thin and weak so that other mechanical phenomena arisesat loading which raises stresses and forces in different way than predicted.A dimensioningtool thatdetermines the dimensioning limits ofthe hub capwas obtained. Correction factors 𝛼couldbe obtained to correct the theory to better conform with the reality. The obtained relations, in their current state,can to a certain extent be used as a guide for dimensions of hub caps and should in these cases be usedwith great caution.

  • 602.
    Verner, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013). -.
    Metod för mätning av dynamiska friktionskrafter i radialpackning2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamical impact of friction in contact areas is of importance when working with sliding surfaces. Parameters like power loss, heat generation and wear are all intimately coupled to the friction behavior. A reliable method for measuring the dynamic friction forces is of great importance in future development of the radial seal.This degree project involves the development of a measuring method of the dynamical friction force in a lubricated contact area between rod and radial seal in a stirling engine. This method uses strain gauges applied to the seat of the seal that is calibrated with a compression test machine. The project involves the process from design and calibration to test and data collection.

  • 603.
    Vestlund, Jimmy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Streamlining tool design and manufacturing process for blancing and function test equipment to a propeller hub assembly2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rolls-Royce AB in Kristinehamn, Sweden, part of Rolls-Royce Marine, is a leading developer and supplier of water jet and propeller based propulsion equipment. Its low volume production series and wide product variety offered to its customers along with an increasingly competitive market has entailed an increased demand on both delivery time and cost reductions. The on-site manufacturing engineering department is responsible for developing all tools and fixtures, and programming required to maintain the on-site production, assembling and quality testing. As part of the departments streamlining efforts this study aimed on evaluating streamlining possibilities related to the existing tool design used for static balancing and function testing controllable pitch propeller assemblies before packaging and shipping, along with the related tool development and manufacturing processes has been conducted.The process evaluation started from the point when a hub assembly design was finalized until when a manufactured tool was delivered for use in production. Work focused on locating inefficient activities and product properties, with respect to tool cost and lead time, followed by setting up an amendment proposal, implementing it and producing an alternate tool design of which the effects on tool cost and manufacturing lead time would be evaluated. Post evaluating the current state of the process and product a set based front loaded product development methodology known as Modular Function Deployment was chosen to be the applied method. This application resulted in a modular tool design that avoided the determined most inefficient manufacturing operation combination of welding and annealing. Modularity increased manufacturing flexibility, enabling more concurrent manufacturing, to reduce the lead time. The tool design also applied integral properties by identifying the common components and features between tool sizes. This led to reducing manufacturing and material costs. Possible lead time reduction for manufacturing was determined to be 35-45%, 3-4weeks, in comparison with the original tool design due to increased parallel manufacturing and avoiding inefficient manufacturing methods. The estimated cost reduction for combined development and manufacturing was determined to be 105K SEK the initial year followed by 175K SEK the second year assuming the current tool manufacturing rate. The combined effects of reduced cost and lead time would be beneficial to Rolls-Royce AB by contributing to an increase in delivery reliability and competitive prices on the market

  • 604.
    Vestlund, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Shatter free shell body for warhead: Concept study2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Future warheads face not only performance-, environmental- and environmental resistance requirements but are also facing requirements to reduce collateral damage on impact. This report is a concept study on the development of shatter free shell bodies for warheads carried out at Saab Dynamics AB. Focus of the concept study was identifying alternative materials for use in the warhead casing, identifying manufacturing processes useable in the production of casings of selected materials, identifying possible suppliers both in Sweden and abroad, as well as calculating an indication of manufacturing cost for both prototype and series manufacturing.

    A pre-study was carried out before initiating the concept study, studying earlier research performed within the field and retrieving basic knowledge of warhead component configuration and functionality, followed by establishing a requirement specification to be used for evaluation purposes during the concept study.

    Concept study material evaluation concluded the use of a fibre strengthened polymer matrix composites to achieve desired final properties of the component. Important factors for alternative materials ability to achieve required mechanical properties were found to be the need for high fibre volume content, long fibre reinforcements as well as the need for possibility of orienting fibre direction in order to accommodate applied stresses.

    An evaluation was executed of applicable manufacturing methods ability to attain good values of selected material factors, derived from the material evaluation; as well as an assessment of set methods repeatability, potential for automation and relative laminate quality. Combined with estimation of prime and sales cost resulted in the recommended use of filament winding using a thermoset polymer matrix.

    Combining process factors of the selected manufacturing method with remaining material alternatives resulted in further delimitation of materials and a final material recommendation.

    Subsequently threading integrity was evaluated for selected concept solution due to that only unfavourable fibre orientation in the section being possible. This resulted in the need of minor dimension changes to avoid stripping of threads during firing sequence. Estimated required dimensional change was assessed as acceptable but would however need be evaluated in future development.

    Final recommendation for future development is to commence testing of shell body composed of filament winded carbon epoxy composite. Estimated required dimensional changes is an increase slipping groove radius from 0,3 mm to 1,5 mm and an increase of thread length by 6 mm.

  • 605.
    Viking, Madeleine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Åberg, Michelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Jag har tid över: En studie om att ta betald arbetstid i anspråk för sig själv.2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har undersökt studenter med erfarenhet av tidsbaserat arbete och huruvida de tar sin betalda arbetstid i anspråk för sig själv dvs. gör saker på sin betalda arbetstid som de inte är tillsagda att göra och/eller sånt som inte ingår i deras arbetsuppgifter. Om så är fallet har vi undersökt hur de tar sin betalda arbetstid i anspråk för sig själv och vad anledningen till att de gör det är. Tidsbaserat arbete innebär att man måste vara på sin arbetsplats under vissa givna tider.

    Att göra andra saker än det man är tillsagd att göra på sin betalda arbetstid kan ses som ett slags motstånd, dvs. handlingar som kan vara öppna eller dolda. Det kan vara att man bryter mot regler eller att man bryter mot t.ex. organisationens normer på olika sätt. Motståndet har förändrats under årens lopp beroende på hur samhället och arbetslivet har utvecklats.

    Vi har i vår undersökning kommit fram till att studenter med erfarenhet av tidsbaserat arbete inte i så stor utsträckning använder sin betalda arbetstid till annat än just arbete. Om arbetstagare ändå gör det är det för att man anser sig ha tid över. Främst använder arbetstagare sig av den nya tekniken i form av Internet, telefoner etc. när de tar den betalda arbetstiden i anspråk för sig själv. Vi kan i våra resultat se att det finns skillnader i hur arbetstagare tar sin betalda arbetstid i anspråk för sig själv beroende på om man är man eller kvinna. Man gör också på olika sätt beroende på om man är äldre eller yngre och dessutom ser vi att storleken på arbetsplatsen spelar roll.

  • 606.
    Viktorsson, Oscar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Justering av tätningsstation2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project is to make the adjustment of the sealing station more userfriendly and less time consuming. The employer Norden Machinery is a manufacturer of tube filling machines. The project is a part of the course degree project for bachelor in mechanical engineer at Karlstad University.

     

    The goal with the project is to investigate different concepts off adjustment of the sealing station. Theoretical investigation will need to be complemented with 3D-model and CAD-model.

     

    The assignment was carried with help of different methods in product development and started with a project plan that is divided into smaller steps. Subsequently, product specification containing a requirement specification clarifies what should be accomplished at the assignment. A concept generation was made in terms of generating as many concepts as possible. In order to choose the right concept, concept evaluation is carried out containing the elimination matrix and relative decision matrix. Finally, the layout design takes place where closer calculations and CAD-modeling in Creo Elements/Direct Modeling are performed.

     

    The result is a construction based on two angled wedges that slide on a slope. By using angles, desired gear can be obtained. Between the wedges is a shaft threaded on each side. Bevel gear wheels were implemented in the construction to enable the 90 degree rotation needed for the linking shafts. With the help of bevel gear, the movement can be started by a hand crank. In this concept, the exchange can be changed in several different ways. A risk analysis on the construction completed the project.

     

    To get a better sense of the constructions movement, a 3D-model has been printed.

  • 607.
    Vänerfors, Alfred
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Andersson, Albin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Att livnära sig på sin idrott: Livet efter de stora arenorna2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 608.
    Wallentin, Mathias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Undersökning av EGR-system i singelcylinder-provcell – med fokus på ökad tillgänglig EGR-mängd2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens förbränningsmotorer ställs inför allt högre krav på att minimera de miljöfarliga restprodukter som förbränningen av luft och bränsle ger upphov till. Efterbehandlingssystem har utvecklats i olika former för detta ändamål, där en utav dessa är EGR: Exhaust gas recirculation som bygger på att en del av motorns avgaser överförs tillbaka in i motorn och minskar bildningen av termiska kvävoxider. I detta examensarbete undersöktes ett EGR-system i AVL:s singelcylinder-provcell, där målsättningen var att kartlägga komponenternas inverkan på EGRflödet samt undersöka EGR-systemets begränsningar med fokus på att öka mängden EGR till motorn. Arbetet utfördes på AVL Motortestcenter AB i Södertälje för Karlstads Universitet i kursen Examensarbete för högskoleingenjörsexamen i maskinteknik MSGC17, fakulteten för natur- och teknikvetenskap under våren 2018. Kända metoder inom statistisk försöksplanering användes för undersökning av komponenterna i EGR-systemets inverkan, där resultaten ur testerna visade att komponenter i EGR-systemet som implementerats med anledning att erhålla högre EGR-flöden inte fungerade som önskat och bör därför uteslutas vid framtida körningar med provcellens EGR-system. Provningen var uppdelad i flera moment, där en utav testomgångarna bestod av att se hur EGR-systemet klarade av att leverera EGR till motorn vid höga laster och laddtryck. Utfallet av dessa tester visade att med dagens komponenter kunde EGR överföras till den grad att singelcylinder-motorn inte klarade av högre EGR-flöden än vad som undersöktes vid provningen.

  • 609.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Thermal fatigue behavior of an iron-based laser sintered material2009In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 513-514, no 15 july, p. 64-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 610.
    Warmland, Eric
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Adamsson, Ola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Mätprocessen kring propelleraxlar2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A discussion regarding the alignment and measuring procedure of propeller shafts has arose due to the competing situation in the industry, and higher standards from the customers. An estimation of the deflection of shafts in different alignment situations has been made with help of FEM-analysis and beam theory. This has been analyzed and compared with the experience from Rolls-Royce AB suppliers of shafts. An evaluation of measuring protocols has been made and the result indicates that there is a correlation between the deflection of the shaft and the run out. Results from a measuring test performed by Balino, Spain, verifies this conclusion. But the main issue is considered to be the type of supports that prevent the shaft from moving in the horizontal plane. The solution to this issue is to use supports along the shaft that only prevents the deflection in the median plane.

     

    A recommendation to the Rolls-Royce AB is to perform changes in their measuring protocols to make them easier to use and to include more information. The sequence of the measuring points in the protocol should be re-arranged and re-named. Information of what type of support that has been used by the supplier and where they been placed should be added to the protocols to increase the traceability when questions arise. To make the measuring protocol unequivocal, the position of the measuring gauge should be marked in the protocol and the point of reference marked on the shaft.

     

    External expertise will participate in a workshop to educate and discuss with Rolls-Royce AB personnel how to change required references in the drawing of the shaft arrangements.

  • 611.
    Wassborg, Pär
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Tribological evaluation of the contact between upper compression ring and cylinder liner with different surface coatings2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The constant pursuit in the automotive industry to increase the engines performance, new solutions are always developed and tested to reduce the friction and increase the efficiency in the engine. One component that contributes to friction losses is the piston ring pack where the top compression stands for up to 40 %. This master thesis collaborated with Scania’s material science department Basic engine and covers the friction and wear of four different materials on the cylinder liner surface against the top compression ring.The four tested materials were grey cast iron with different honing quality and three atmospheric plasma sprayed coatings with titanium oxide, chromium oxide and Metco’s mixture F2071 which is a stainless steel mixed with a ceramic. A martensitic steel piston ring with a chromium coated sliding surface was used for all the testing in the Cameron-Plint TE77 test-rig. This is a pin-on-disc test method and the parameters used for testing is set to replicate the environment the ring is exposed to at the top dead centre.The test-rig has been in Scania’s possession for a long time and has not always given a satisfying result. An uneven contact between the ring and liner has been a problem resulting in only worn edges of the liner specimen. The piston ring holder was therefore redesigned to be able to adjust the radius of the ring. This allowed a good conformability between the ring and liner to be obtained.The tested materials were evaluated according to friction and wear. Friction was measured with the test-rig and the wear was calculated with surface profiles that were measured before and after testing. Worn surfaces were studied in a SEM to verify which wear mechanism that was active. The changes of the surfaces was studied with the use of following surface parameters Ra, Rk, Rpk, Rvk and if there was a connection between these parameters and friction and wear coefficient.Independent of honing quality showed the grey cast iron lowest friction coefficient just under 0.13, the F2071 liner showed a friction coefficient just above 0.13. Both oxide layers showed similar friction where the chromium oxide had a friction just below 0.15 and the titanium oxide lay just above 0.15. Lowest wear coefficient had the chromium oxide followed by F2071, titanium oxide and the bad honed grey cast iron. These three liners showed almost the exact same wear coefficient. Worst wear coefficient had the grey cast iron with a good honing quality. A mild abrasive wear mechanism was active during the wear test and vague wear marks was found on the surface. There is no connection between wear coefficient and friction and the change in surface roughness during the test does not affect the friction.

  • 612.
    Wegner, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Kombinerat system för ventilation och rumsuppvärmning: Parameterundersökning i simuleringsmodell för takvärmesystem2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large amount of our time is spent indoors in an artificial climate. To make the experience pleasant there are requirements on the ventilation and the heating system. At the present time the most common form of heating is a radiator system complemented with a ventilation system. A ceiling heating system with combined heating and ventilation can replace the two separated systems. The benefit with a ceiling heating solution is that it saves space since the radiator system is no longer needed. This report aim to evaluate if it is possible to replace a radiator system with a ceiling heating system and maintain a pleasant indoor climate. The ceiling heating system is designed as a comfort module that blows air in four directions, the module is placed in the centre of the ceiling and is heating the room with warm air. The aim of this report is to evaluate which parameters that affects the indoor climate and how these are to be set to make the climate most pleasant. A comparison between the energy efficiency of a radiator system and a ceiling heating system is made.

    By using the simulation program COMSOL is it possible to evaluate the ceiling heating system and see how the: the angel of which the air enters the room, area of the module that distribute the air in to the room and the temperature of the air entering the room. The climate is evaluated by a number of key numbers which indicates how many of the individuals that feel discomfort for different module set ups. These numbers are plotted with the temperature and different design on the comfort module. The key numbers that will be used is PPD-value, PD-value, radiation asymmetry on a plane and the temperature difference between ankles and head. To be able to compare the ceiling heating systems energy loss through the façade with the radiator systems energy loss a simulation model with a radiator as heating solution were also created. To be able to verify the simulation a lab was executed under similar conditions.

    The simulations shows that a good indoor climate based on PPD-value is achievable for all different designs of the comfort module with a difference of what temperature that was necessary to achieve PPD=5 %. A problem with the ceiling heating system is that the air does not stir as well as it does when using the radiator system and that the PD-value is too high. There’s a very small difference in energy efficiency between the radiator and ceiling heating system.

  • 613. Werme, Fredrik
    Energiförluster orsakade av uppriktningsfel och obalanser i roterande maskiner2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis is the final step in earning a degree in mechanical engineering by Karlstad University, the faculty of health, science and technology. Constituents of the thesis are Maskin och Laserteknik AB, Gothenburg and Bilfinger Industrial Service AS located in Porsgrunn.

    The study objective has been to describe the correlation between loss of energy and amplitudes of vibration in a drive train due to faulty settings. The area of interest was vibrations caused by misalignment and imbalance only. More specifically the change of apparent power to an AC motor when introduced to different settings, was measured and calculated.

    Initially measurements of supplied current to the AC motor that turns the drive train was measured while coupling and balancing settings were ideal, according to recommendations from Prüftechnik and ISO 1940-1:2003. Vibrational spectrums were also collected for different components of the drive train. This was accomplished using a multimeter and equipment used industrially for shaft alignment and balancing of rotating machinery.

    Incorrect settings were thereafter applied to the power train, resulting in various misalignments between the coupling halves. Data was recorded and analyzed with said equipment, for each individual setting.

    The faulty settings that were included was mass unbalance applied to the rotor, vertical angular misalignment and vertical offset between the coupling halves. 

    The results showed that increased unbalance applied to the rotor decreased the supplied current to the AC motor and therefore the apparent power. There was no pattern in the change of apparent power supplied to the AC motor when introduced to large angular misalignment between the coupling halves, nor was there for large vertical offsets. The conclusion was such that there was a correlation between vertical amplitudes of vibration and/or reactional forces in the bearings in the pillow block and apparent power supplied to the AC motor of the power train. In the case of vertical angular misalignment and vertical offset, there were no observed relations between the settings and change of apparent power.

  • 614.
    Westlund, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utveckling av ett aktivt fiskedrag2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fishermen are constantly looking for something new. As a company, specialized in this profession, it is necessary to be able to offer the newest thing within fishing. A new kind of fishing lure that creates attention among the fish is an innovative new and welcomed product among fishermen’s.

    The thesis work is carried out as a project with a project plan containing a time chart, risk management, organization and file management. The phases of the project consist of planning, research, product specification, concept generation, evaluation, construction, design and patent application.

    The concept was developed with a product specification in mind. This specification is a list of the users needs and preferences, as well as requirements from the cooperation partner. The research focused on the users need, to determine what the customer really wants. The result from the research was that the user wants something innovative and easy to use.

    Idea generation utilized tools like 6-3-5, generating entire concepts as well as brainstorming. These tools were used in concept generation, but also during the work with the patent applications. The first mentioned tool was used to generate possibilities for how and what the product will do. The second mentioned tool was used to identify what those within this profession think would be a successful fishing lure. The third tool was used to find potential solutions for a specific issue. Evaluation of the ideas resulted in nine different kinds of concepts.

    The final concept consists of a fishing lure head (jig head) with implemented module that illuminates when in contact with water. This final decision was made after presentation and discussion with the partner.

    With a patent application, the project plan and the report were corrected to version 2.0.

    Sketches were frequently used to through the project to test ideas and combinations. Prototypes of the chosen concept were made to obtain additional information on design and function.

  • 615.
    Westlund, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Kontrollerad interaktion för kreativare möten: Summit Flexiwall2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the spring semester 2012 Robin Westlund has accomplished “Controlled interaction for more creative meetings - Summit Flexiwall” with the individual focus on social communication based on visual interaction in future office. The project was a part of the course Degree Project for degree of Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design Engineering (MSGC12) which includes 22,5 ECTS Credits. The course is a part in the program Innovation and Design Engineering program within the Faculty of Technology and Science at Karlstad University.

    Assigner of the project was Moelven Eurowand AB with their head office in Örebro. The company manufactures and assembles entire room solutions for offices. Supervisor at the company was Pernilla Irewhärn. Supervisor at Karlstads University was adjunct and program holder Monica Jakobsson. Examiner has been professor at the Faculty of Technology and Science at Karlstad University, Fredrik Thuvander.

    Moelven Eurowand is the market leading company and intends to maintain that position. To keep that position the company needs to take the lead of developing new room solutions. With that in mind this project was initiated.

    In the beginning of the project the main focus was to identify the needs on future offices. These were analyzed and summarized. The summary resulted in a vision which was visualized as an adjustable dimmer for fully control of the environment on the individual workplace. The dimmer was vital for further development of a realizable   product and operated as a symbol through the entire project.

     

    Summit Flexiwall is a product developed to satisfy the needs of an office worker in terms of privacy and social interaction. Summit Flexiwall is a flexible panel wall who operates as a screen wall when necessary. The product is designed to encourage spontaneous meetings because these kinds of meetings are the ones who are the most creative and leading the work forward. Summit Flexiwall creates room in a room and because of this very suitable for Moelven Eurowand AB product range.

  • 616.
    Widell, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Frihängande kylbaffel för Swegon: Freely suspended chilled beam for Swegon2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 617.
    Wiegandt, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Konditionering av sågspån vid tillverkning av pellets: Ersättning av överhettad ånga med förvärmning av sågspån med bibehållen pelletskvalité2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fuel pellets is made of sawdust, which is a byproduct from sawmills. The production process is energy-intense and a large part of the energy is used in drying the moist sawdust from about 50 % to 11 % moisture content. Initially, the drying process is quite efficient, but when the sawdust reaches a moisture-content below 20 %, the efficiency of the process drops. The dried sawdust is grinded before superheated steam conditions it. The superheated steam warms the sawdust, which results in a more durable pellet, but also adds moisture to it. By warming the sawdust, without adding moisture, and producing pellets at 15 % moisture content, superheated steam production and inefficient drying can be avoided.

    In this study, the temperature and moisture content of the sawdust in the pellet plant Stora Enso Timber AB in Grums was measured with the aim to study the moisture and energy supply in the conditioning process. The aim is also to analyse how the mechanical durability of the pellet is affected if the superheated steam conditioning is replaced by preheating the sawdust and adding lignin.

    The results from the conditioning process shows that the energy use is 48 kWh per ton produced pellets. About 10 % of the steam did not condense in the sawdust and only half of the energy content of superheated steam is absorbed by the pellets. Therefore, heating sawdust with superheated steam can be questioned.

    Pellet production with pre-heated sawdust took place in a production unit at Karlstad's university. 7 tests were made with different concentration of lignin and settings for the pre-heater and steam supply. The result showed that pre-heating the sawdust before the pellet press gave a higher durability than only superheated steam conditioning. Pre-heating and high moisture content of the sawdust combined, gave higher pellet durability. Adding lignin did not increase the durability of the pellets, which previous research has shown.

  • 618.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Karli, Verghese
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rafael, Auras
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Olsson, Annika
    Lund University, Lund.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Wever, Renee
    Linköping University.
    Grönman, Kaisa
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Kvalvåg Pettersen, Marit
    Nofima AS,Ås, Norway.
    Møller, Hanne
    Ostfold Research, Kråkeröy, Norway.
    Risto, Soukka
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Packaging Strategies That Save Food: A Research Agenda for 20302019In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 532-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Thoroughly considering and optimizing packaging systems can avoid food loss and waste. We suggest a number of issues that must be explored and review the associated challenges. Five main issues were recognized through the extensive experience of the authors and engagement of multiple stakeholders. The issues promoted are classified as follows: (1) identify and obtain specific data of packaging functions that influence food waste; (2) understand the total environmental burden of product/package by considering the trade‐off between product protection and preservation and environmental footprint; (3) develop understanding of how these functions should be treated in environmental footprint evaluations; (4) improve packaging design processes to also consider reducing food waste; and (5) analyze stakeholder incentives to reduce food loss and waste. Packaging measures that save food will be important to fulfill the United Nations Sustainable Development goal to halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and to reduce food losses along production and supply chains.

  • 619.
    Wille, Bengtsson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Krycktestare: Ett produktutvecklingsprojekt2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This assignment includes a development of a crutch approver that will test the physical strength of crutches. The project is assign by Johan Ljunger at Camatec Industriteknik AB located in Karlstad and is a bachelor thesis at Karlstad University and is performed during the spring term of 2017.

    Today several counties in Sweden reject returned crutches that have been used by patients, because they can’t ensure the patients safety if the crutches were to be reused. The used crutches might be defective because of bad handling by former user and therefor lost its physical properties. It is because of this the counties want a safe method that could test these properties and declare if the crutches still is reusable.

    These crutches are approved by ISO Standard 11334-1:2007 and if they were to be reused they have to be approved by this standard once again. This standard was studied and parts that are relative to this project are being presented in this report, as much as possible. Although it is necessary to obtain this standard to fully understand this report, because some content can only be obtained from the standard and not from this report.

    Delimitations were made or else the project would have been too big to handle with the time that was available. It has been limited to only use one model of crutches, which is the most commonly used by the counties. It’s also limited to only preform this sort of test on crutches that are still within their lifetime, which is two years for the model that is used.

    A construction that will test these crutches has been created by following the steps of product development. This machine will perform a static strength test on the crutches according to the standard, but it is not fully completed on certain parts. But it shows how a machine like this can be constructed and how it works. More ideas for further development on this machine are presented in this report.

  • 620.
    Willersjö Nyfelt, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Förbättring av snabbkoppling för högtryckshydraulik: Förhindrande av förslitning och oavsiktlig urkoppling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En snabbkopplingstyp för högtryckshydraulik (1000 Bar = 100 MPa) förbättrades med avseende på kulavtryck och låsmekanism. Kopplingen tenderade att ställa sig i halvlåst läge och kopplas ur oavsiktligt. Arbetet inkluderade minskning av kulavtryck i snabbkopplingens nippel samt förhindrande av oavsiktlig urkoppling och halvlåst läge. Geometriska förändringar och materialbyte ledde till dessa förbättringar. Snabbkopplingen är nu optimerad för hertzkontakter och sannolikheten för oavsiktlig urkoppling är mycket låg. Kopplingen är nu säkrare att hantera och är bättre lämpad att ta upp höga kultryck som orsakade kulavtrycken.

  • 621. Wulff, Felix
    Förbättring av flöde och ökad produktion: Förändringar med syfte att möta en tillväxt2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis has been performed on AnVa Polytech AB, which mainly produces injection molded rubber parts. The thesis has been divided into two main headings, as required by the company's production in order to meet a desired growth and how the company can create efficient flows of production.

    AnVa Polytech AB has a growth target of 10% per year. This thesis has studied the difference it does in production volume. Since then, the equipment in the production surveyed by the current capacity and future capacity have been investigated. The result is that changes in the form of equipment and especially injection molding machines that are required.

    The company works for lean as a stated business strategy. Flow Efficiency Flow is a central part of Lean. The second part of the thesis has therefore addressed the AnVa Polytech AB may go further in combating the efficiency flow. It includes a value stream analysis with accompanying spaghetti diagram and PICK-chart. An analysis of the optimal flow principle, the company has implemented. The work efficiency against flow, together with the analysis of the equipment in the production resulted in a factory layout.

    The thesis explains what AnVa Polytech AB should do next five years.

  • 622.
    Yaghoubi, Saba Tahaei
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Mousavi, Mahmoud
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Aalto University, Finland.
    Paavola, Juha
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Size effects on centrosymmetric anisotropic shear deformable beam structures2017In: Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, ISSN 0044-2267, E-ISSN 1521-4001, Vol. 97, no 5, p. 586-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the size effect on beam structures with centrosymmetric anisotropy is studied within strain gradient elasticity theory. Applying dimension reduction to the three dimensional anisotropic gradient elasticity, the third-order shear deformable (TSD) beam is analysed. A variational approach is used to determine the equilibrium equations of TSD beam together with consistent (classical and non-classical) boundary conditions. The TSD beam theory which is suitable for deep beam structures can be replaced by (less complicated) Euler-Bernoulli beam model for thin beam structures. The anisotropic Euler-Bernoulli beam model is also formulated within the framework of strain gradient theory. This anisotropic beam theory can be used to study size effects for any types of centrosymmetric anisotropy. To address the more practical cases of composite structures, the formulation is simplified for orthotropic and transversely isotropic materials. Finally, the analytical solutions are provided for bending of simply supported (TSD and Euler-Bernoulli) beams as well as clamped Euler-Bernoulli beams. The effect of the crystal orientation with respect to the beam geometry is investigated in these examples.

  • 623.
    Yaghoubi, Saba Tahaei
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Mousavi, Mahmoud
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Paavola, Juha
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Strain and velocity gradient theory for higher-order shear deformable beams2015In: Archive of applied mechanics (1991), ISSN 0939-1533, E-ISSN 1432-0681, Vol. 85, no 7, p. 877-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strain and velocity gradient framework is formulated for the third-order shear deformable beam theory. A variational approach is applied to determine the governing equations together with initial and boundary conditions. Within the gradient framework, the strain energy is generalized to include strain as well as strain gradient. Furthermore, the kinetic energy is also generalized to include velocity and the velocity gradient. Such approach results in the introduction of the static and kinetic internal length scales. For dynamic analysis of beams, most of the gradient theories do not take the velocity gradient into account. The model developed in this paper depicts the influence of the velocity gradient on the governing equations and initial and boundary conditions of the third-order shear deformable theory. Through the assumption of the velocity gradients, kinematic quantities are distinguished on the microscale and on the macroscale. Finally, Timoshenko and Euler–Bernoulli beam theories are also presented by simplifying the third-order theory.

  • 624.
    Yaghoubi, SabaTahaei
    et al.
    Aalto university, Finland.
    Mousavi, Mahmoud
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Aalto university, Finland.
    Paavola, Juha
    Aalto university, Finland.
    Buckling of centrosymmetric anisotropic beam structures within strain gradient elasticity2017In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 109, p. 84-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buckling of centrosymmetric anisotropic beams is studied within strain gradient theory. First, the three dimensional anisotropic gradient elasticity theory is outlined. Then the dimension of the three dimensional theory is reduced, resulting in Timoshenko beam as well as Euler–Bernoulli beam theories. The governing differential equations together with the consistent (classical and non-classical) boundary conditions are derived for centrosymmetric anisotropic beams through a variational approach. By considering von Kármán nonlinear strains, the geometric nonlinearity is taken into account. The obtained nonlinear formulation can be used to study the postbuckling configuration. The analysis of size effect on anisotropic beam structures is missing in the literature so far, while the present model allows one to characterize the size effect on the buckling of the centrosymmetric anisotropic micro- and nano-scale beam structures such as micropillars. As a specific case, the governing buckling equation is obtained for the more practical case of orthotropic beams. Finally, the buckling loads for orthotropic simply supported Timoshenko and Euler–Bernoulli beams as well as a clamped Euler–Bernoulli beam are obtained analytically and the effect of the internal length scale parameters on the buckling load is depicted.

  • 625.
    Yohan, Noh
    et al.
    Waseda University.
    Wang, C.
    Waseda University.
    Tokumoto, M.
    Waseda University.
    Solis, Jorge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Ishii, H.
    Waseda University.
    Takanishi, Atsuo
    Waseda University.
    Development of Airway Management Training System WKA-4: Provide Useful Feedback of Trainee Performance to Trainee during Airway Management2012In: Complex Medical Engineering (CME), 2012 ICME International Conference on, IEEE Press, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 626. Zakariasson, Andreas
    Framtagning av OptimalInfästningsmetod av OGV mot Stag för Engine Product Systems Sweden: Development of optimum method of attachment of OGV to brace for Engine Product Systems Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    GKN Aerospace Sweden (GAS) utvecklar och tillverkar motorkomponenter för både den civila och militära flyg-och rymdindustrin. En av produkterna som GKN tillverkar är en outlet guide vane(OGV), vars funktion är att omdirigera det axiella luftflödet från fläkten. OGVn är den mekaniska länken mellan kärnstrukturen och fläkthuset. Ett viktigt mål är att minska vikten på motorn samtidigt som dess diameter ökar när motorerna blivit allt större.

    For att lösa detta krävs ett material med hög hållfasthet i förhallande till vikten. Ett examensarbete som föregår detta har utvecklat ett koncept som innefattar en OGV i en viss GKN-utvecklad tekonologi. Detta examensarbete gjordes för att utveckla ett koncept for den metod som anvönds för att foga OGVn till stagen som ansluter till den inre och yttre kärnan. Detta gjordes genom en konceptstudie som inkluderade konceptgenerering, konceptutvärdering och konceptval.

    Detta resulterade i två möjliga koncept, ett där OGVn och en aluminium-fot monteras med bultning och en där OGVn och en titan-fot svetsades samman. Titanfoten hade fairings i aluminium for att spara lite extra vikt och kostnad.

    Det är tydligt att om integrationen mellan OGV och svets-gränssnittet ska bli en industriell lösning, sa kommer GAS att behöva investera i utveckling för de metoder som används. Det bultade Aluminium-konceptet är att föredra ur leverantörsbas-synpunkt på grund av sin låga tillverknings-och materialkostnad. Trots att kravuppfyllelsen för hållfastheten är tveksam så bör det andå betraktas som en potentiell ersättning for en del av de OGVer i fläkthuset som inte är tungt belastade.

  • 627.
    Zakariasson, Anton
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Control functions based on brake actuators in combination with other actuators in new vehicles.2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s automotive industry evolves very quickly and new technology is integrated into vehicles every day. This technology creates many new actuator-controlled functions and sub-functions having different names and use in every car maker’s program. The thesis has been performed at ÅF Industry chassis department in Trollhättan, Sweden.  To get a clear overview and understanding, a benchmarking process have been made for a classic station wagon to sort out and categorize functions for five different car makers. The same process for another car model was also made parallel to this thesis by another student for wider results, while this thesis covers brake actuators and brake actuators in combination with other actuators that student covers other types of actuators. These benchmarking results were then put together and a screening was done to eliminate functions not relevant for my thesis. The remaining functions were analyzed more in depth and a datasheet was created for each function covering basics such as its functions, how it works, pros and cons, parameters and an estimated cost. This will be used for clarifying the functions for ÅF’s engineers when needed.   Evaluation of the function Electronic Stability Programme (ESP) was also done through testing at NEVS test track in Trollhättan with advanced and accurate test equipment. The ESP evaluated by a standardized test method SS-ISO 3888-2, Severe lane-change maneuver – Part 2: Obstacle avoidance where the track was completed in various speeds with ESP activated and ESP deactivated. By having ESP activated, control of the vehicle was gained and skidding was repealed. The results did not show off a great difference but there were clear signs and data that the ESP affected the vehicle in a positive way.

  • 628.
    Zetterman, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Division for Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics. Karlstad University, Division for Ingesund College of Music.
    Studio utan väggar: Projektering av musikstudio utan bestämd lokal2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this degree work is to help Strömkullegymnasiet in Bengtsfors to get a recording studio. It involves both the acoustics and the equipment because both parts are important to the outcome of a recording. Teachers and students from other music high schools have told how their studios works and their experience have been a good help for this report. The biggest challenge with this project is that it doesn’t exist a location where a studio can be built so a new moveable studio concept has to be developt that does not affect the new location.

    The project couldn’t be completed because the decision where to locate the studio has not been taken. Some other locations is under investigation and they are a lot different from the original locations.

  • 629.
    Zimmerman, Linus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utveckling och validering av propellermodell baserat på rörelsemängdskälla för ett friströmningsfall2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Propeller simulation by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is more and more used in an early design stage of marine propulsion. Rolls-Royce Hydrodynamic Research Centre has long experience with propeller design and analysis through both model testing and numerical simulations, and CFD is today used in a wide range of applications and purposes.

    Utilizing a time efficient and simple simulation approach is a valuable strategy, and time against accuracy is a trade off a designer need to do all the time. In this case the study will concern a modelling approach where the propeller is represented by a cylindrical volume with the same diameter and proportions as an actual propeller. This volume, called an actuator disc volume zone is implemented with the propulsive forces as local source terms into the model and thereby provides momentum into the fluid. Work will be concentrated on developing this simulation model and evaluate its performance by comparison with a more complex propeller geometry model.

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the result from a simplified propeller model in regard to the induced velocity field for a propeller operating in a homogeneous inflow field. Analysis of the induced velocity profile is an important step in the design process of propeller-rudder configuration and a computationally efficient method in doing this is highly desirable.

    Results from the simulations show that the modelling approach enables simple employment of different propeller types and improves computational efficiency with a third of required time amount compared to the complex propeller model. The induced velocity profiles also demonstrate a relatively accurate behaviour and the model provide useful tools in altering their appearance. Further work need to be considered in optimizing the discretization method and thereby possibly improve solution efficiency, together with examining of a non-uniform inflow velocity condition inspired by the wake created behind a ship hull.

  • 630.
    Åberg, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Tjänstemötet: Interaktionens kommersiella, byråkratiska och social logik2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is interaction in the service encounter. The aim is to describe and explain the service encounter interaction with a special focus on the social and organisational context. The contextual focus is related to two overriding questions: What significance does the human interaction have for the service encounter? What significance does the organisational context have for the service encounter?

    The result show that even though the communication consists of four discerned phases – salutation, the subject of the call, concluding the subject, and rounding off the call, each phase also displays contradictions. Consequently, there are both relational and instrumental utterances, as well as symmetrical and asymmetrical aspects of the conversations.

    These contradictory results of the relational-instrumental and symmetrical-asymmetrical features are explained when interaction is viewed in terms of three different sets of logic – the commercial, the bureaucratic, and the social. Every logic is constituted by a number of characteristics, each contributing to the shape of the interaction and to the relationship between the customer and the employee.

    Analytically speaking, the three forms of logic can be described in terms of their respective field of action and rationality, that is, what the actors talk about and what the purpose of the talk is. It is shown that the actors must prioritise between economic, administrative and personal areas within a limited time of action. It is also clear that the disparate rationalities, that is, economic, executive and recognition, all exercise influence over the service encounter, which means that acts aiming at a specific goal are restricted by the objectives of the other logics. Therefore there is a certain self-regulating function in the antagonism between the logics. The positions of the employee in relation to the customer, the organisation and the so-called collective customer mean that there are demands made from three qualitatively different directions. There is, in other words, a three-bosses dilemma for employees. The different positions of the employee also entail three different asymmetrical relationships in which either the customer or the employee has the advantage. This position constructs the hierarchy of dominance between employee and customer.

    To conclude, the interaction constitutes a complex relationship between the characteristics of the logics and when these combine the interaction of the service encounter is shaped. The fact that the service encounter involves human interaction means that there is a counter balance against the organisational ascendancy.

  • 631. Åberg, Carl
    Provrigg för kontroll vid CE-märkning av lyftverktyg: Produktutveckling av provrigg för CE-märkning av lyftverktyg2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report treats a bachelor thesis in mechanical engineering at Karlstads university and comprises 22.5 hp. This thesis revolves around the product development process and each phase in the project is based on theories and methods that have been central to the educational program.

    The employer for this bachelor thesis has been Forshaga Svets Och Smide in Forshaga. The goal for this project has been to develop a testing rig to enable testing of lifting tools for CEmarking. The solution should be robust and flexible allowing several different lifting tools to be tested.

    At present time Forshaga Svets Och Smide are using traverses, a welding table and a lifting loop firmly screwed to floor. The plan is to be able with this testing rig to abandon the current method for CE-marking and move towards using the testing rig as a standard tool when performing their CE-markings.

    The project resultet in the development of a testing rig which allows great variation in the lifting tools which it can support for CE-marking and increases the maximal loading capability and measuring ability on the lifting tools significantly and allows for a more standardized work regarding their CE-marking.

  • 632.
    Åberg Eriksson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Utveckling av ny produktfamilj med handskar för användare inom street- outdoor segmentet.: En liten bit av naturen till staden, en liten bit av staden till naturen2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 633.
    Åkerman Markgren, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utveckling av lastutrymme för ett konceptfordon: Utvecklingsprojekt för den designmässiga utformningen av ett måttdefinerat lastutrymme2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers a development project which goal is to produce one or more layout concepts of a measure defined boot compartment. This project is conducted as Bachelor of Science thesis within the bachelor engineering program of innovation technics and design in Karlstad University, Sweden.

    The assignment was supplied by Martin Larsson, managing director at Precer Autotech, a company that is developing a new type of hybrid vehicle that runs on solid fuels. This vehicle owns the dimensions of an average sized car, though is technically defined as a larger sized quad or ATV. Because of this, the vehicle in question is subject to several special factors regarding, for example, the ratio between weight and size.

    The project is going to provide part of the foundation on which this concept vehicle will be developed.

    The process of industrial design has pervaded this project, with methods and techniques originated from said process riddling the entirety of the project. Methods such as the use of a full scale mock-up have nuanced this project. From sessions of brainstorming to the development of concepts, this project has been using techniques and ways which has been a defining part of the university studies.

    The project resulted in one concept for totality of the measure defined boot compartment, which has shown to fulfill the demands of the project. The final concept solution has also been implemented in a full scale mock-up, which was a part of the project’s goals.

  • 634.
    Åstrand, Leon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Plan för implementering av strukturerat underhållsarbete på Valmet ABs gjuteri i Karlstad2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report is about setting up an Implementation plan for a structured maintenance work on Valmet ABs foundry in Karlstad. This work is the final part for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering and takes place at Karlstad University in the spring of 2014.

    Valmet has recently bought the foundry at Lamberget in Karlstad. The maintenance work is much neglected and in the current state there is no good structure. The maintenance work is in need of systemization and integration into Valmets other maintenance organization.

    The purpose of the project is to develop a plan Implementation plan for a structured maintenance work on Valmet ABs foundry in Karlstad.

    The project is divided into three phases.

    - Situational analysis through both interviews of maintenance personnel and identifying the current equipment

    - Create a vision of how they want to work with maintenance through benchmarking against other similar businesses, and literature studies

    - Establishment of a plan for how to get there. What activities to be performed and in what order

    The work is based on the methodology TPM (total productive maintenance). However it is not about an implementation of TPM, but limited to certain parts.

    From interviews with the maintenance staff at the foundry, observational studies and an identification study of the machinery, a situational analysis has been made. This situation analysis has shown the problems and challenges that exist in the maintenance department at the foundry.

    A vision of how they want to work with maintenance on the foundry has been drawn, based on study visits and interviews with management staff. It is most vital that emerged in this phase is the importance of management commitment to implement a process of change. A good communication both between the different departments and within the group is also vital.

    Using the two phases above, together with the theory processed during the project, a plan has been established for a more structured maintenance. The plan includes 12 stages that addresses the activities that should be implemented, and in what order, in order to get a better structure on maintenance work at the foundry at Valmet.

    The two single most important elements of the plan are, in my mind, to hire a person who is responsible for the daily operations of the maintenance work. As well as to implement the maintenance system AM-underhåll, so you can get a better structure to the maintenance work in the form of work orders, metrics and history.

  • 635.
    Öhrn Sten, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Design and development of a new invented doctor blade: Design och utveckling av nyuppfunnet kräppningsblad2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains the development and construction of a new patented doctor blade. A doctor blade is used when creping soft paper from a large rotating Yankee cylinder. At the current state the doctor blade are in use for four to six hours before it needs to be switch due to wearing, stopping the production of soft paper. The new idea is to have a very long and small blade that will slide into a fixed blade and be continuously pulled when creping paper. The company CS Production had a concept of the fixed blade but wanted to further develop it since the blade was too wide.

     

    Measurements where done with the old blade and with the old testing device to measure the pull force required to pull the blade. New concepts where made by the method of brainstorming and evaluated with an elimination matrix. Rivet joints where selected as the joining technique for the new design. The new concept contains one dominant blade that smaller parts were assembled to form the final blade. The material selected for the dominant blade and the section blade was a cold rolled stainless spring steel strip and for the middle disc the material was aluminum bronze string casted. Test on the pull force required where done with the new doctor blade in the new test rig.  FEM simulation where done on a small part of the blade to see where stresses are occurring in the blade. The FEM result showed that no stresses where on the middle discs, rivets or section blades. This is not reliable results because the small doctor blade is pushing down onto the middle discs and stresses should be occurring on the discs.  Further testing is needed to see if the blade can withstand the forces applied to it.

  • 636.
    Örtegren, Viola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Water jet steering concept: - evaluation of an environmental design, Part 12014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current hydraulic system that function as the power source for operating the water jet steering device, need to be located inside of the hull to avoid possible environmental damage. This will cause a height difference from where the power supply will be located and where the output is needed. The research of literature and the limitations given by Rolls-Royce laid the basis for the simulation work. The lever concept is a development of the original layout from Rolls-Royce. The current lever concept was formed by simulation of the individual parts it consists of. The modeling work is a starting point for further design changes and improved solutions depending on what results are achieved when simulation is performed on the parts. The modeling work is not part of this report but can be seen in the other master thesis “Water jet steering concept - evaluation of an environmental design, Part 2” which is not yet done but it will be soon. All simulations made are simplified and they are a solid starting point for further work with dimensioning, material selection and calculations. The results of the simulation show that further development is required before a theoretically functioning concept is achieved.

  • 637.
    Östberg, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Energieffektivare torkning i diskmaskiner genom ny torkmetod: Utvärdering genom praktiska försök och simuleringar2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy consumption is constantly increasing. The results are major environmental issues in which climate change is one of the biggest problems. Household energy consumption currently account for a significant share of the total energy consumption. Therefore it is important to improve household energy consumption to reduce household environmental impact. Appliances, which accounts for a large portion of household energy use, have a great potential for energy improvement. One example of an appliance where much energy can be saved is dishwashers.

    Dishwashers wash, rinse and dry dirty dishes. The dishwashers produced today uses less energy and water than before, when this work was done by hand. There are still more actions that can be taken to reduce the dishwasher's energy consumption. A lot of efforts are made among other things to reduce the energy consumption during the heating of the water inside the dishwasher and to reduce the energy consumed during the drying phase.

    A dishwasher where the heating occurs by a heat pump is developed by Asko Appliances AB. The heat pump takes the heat that is needed for the dishwasher from a water tank, causing the water to freeze. The drying of the dishes in this dishwasher will be done by letting the humid air inside the dishwasher out, using a fan. The air is then driven past the ice stock by making it go through an air gap, where the moisture condenses from the air on the cold surface created by the ice. The air then returns back into the dishwasher.

    In this thesis, this drying method is evaluated and compared with the technology used by Asko Appliances AB today, where the humid air is leaving the dishwasher and is brought into the room where dishwasher stands while air from the room is entering. Experiments will be performed on a dishwasher with an external ice stock. The evaluation of the drying process experiment was done using inspection. A mathematical model with an energy balance over the drying phase was built. Simulations were performed on the model and the results were verified by the experiments. With the model, the amount of water that evaporates inside the dishwasher during the drying phase was calculated.

    Results from the inspection showed that the drying method using the ice stock better performs than the drying method used by Asko Appliances AB today. High temperatures and air flow rates were found to provide a better result according to the experiments and the model. The drying is according to the model most energy efficient when the starting temperature is 70 °C, but since so much water located on the dishwasher walls is dried at that starting temperature, the in reality most efficient starting temperature is 60 °C. Then the dish is dried just as well and the energy consumption is 0.5 MJ less than when the starting temperature is 70 °C.

  • 638.
    Östberg, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Industrialisering av konsumentprodukt: Från inkommande material till färdigvarulager2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines the industrialization of a newly developed household machine on behalf of Technogarden Engineering Resources in Karlstad, Sweden. The report is a part of the final course in the Bachelor Program in Mechanical Engineering at Karlstad University and takes place in spring 2014.

    An innovator, an investor and a engineering consultant firm have through collaboration developed a new type of gruel machine. The product is in its final stage of construction and is planned to be manufactured in a production located in Sweden, autumn of 2014.

    To compete against today’s trend in outsourcing manufacturing to low cost countries for better profitability, the industrialization of the gruel machine must be done with a minimum amount of resources in order to become successful, which also describes the problem of this study. Using pre-study material in form of Lean production literature, visiting a successful production site and gathering data from involved engineers a specification was developed which describes what this industrialization must achieve and which requests can be accomplished. The specification involves the main questions such as capacity in number of gruel machines produced in a certain amount of time, ergonomics and how to achieve equal product quality.

    A comprehensive product study has been done to identify how the machine is meant to be assembled where the focus was to analyze timing, identifying item groups and assembly sequence. Six concepts on different factory layouts were created using two dimensional sketches of the actual plant chosen for the machine. The sketches show visual layouts of how the production equipment can be physically arranged in order to assemble the machine. The concepts are then assessed according to a valuation schedule in which the main factors are arranged and an engineering assessment is made of how well the different concepts satisfy these factors. From the valuation schedule the concepts obtain a score and the concept with the highest score wins.The winning concept was worked further on by developing a detailed layout using software Google Sketchup. Using the detailed layout a cost-estimation was made on the manufacturing equipment needed.

    The results of the study show that the gruel machine best is assembled together in a continuous production in form of a line layout. The assembly process is done by operators manually distributed among four stations equipped with materials via rack of items. Two of these layouts are required to meet the market demand at 20 000 gruel machines a year. An exact sizing of commodity and finished inventories could not be determined because of underdetermined suppliers and deliveries.

  • 639.
    Östby Jansson, Freja
    Karlstad University.
    Att inte vilja riskera det riskfyllda: En kvalitativ studie om att arbeta med riskfyllda arbeten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 640.
    Österberg, Hannah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Samverkan, det kan betyda så mycket: En studie om ett projekt i Klarälvens samordningsförbund2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen behandlar finansiell samordning ur ett samverkansperspektiv. Finansiell samordning går ut på att landstinget, försäkringskassan, arbetsförmedlingen och kommunen lägger samman pengar i ett förbund. Detta förbund förkortas Finsam. Målet med sammanläggningen är att uppnå ett mera effektivt sätt att använda resurserna, samt att det ska bli lättare att samverka för människor som är i behov av insatser från mer än en myndighet. Förbundet ska underlätta samverkan och leda till att myndigheterna på längre sikt kan komma fram till bättre metoder att hantera sina klienter. Effektivare metoder på ett sådant sätt att antalet personer som hamnar mellan stolarna och bara slussas runt i systemet kan minimeras.

    Två värmländska kommuner har gått samman och startat ett sådant förbund år 2007, Forshaga och Munkfors. Förbundet heter Klarälvens samordningsförbund och det är med utgångspunkt där som uppsatsen är skriven. Förbundet är nytt och de har under senare halvan av år 2007 påbörjat sitt första projekt, projektet de kallar Dirigo. Projektet är till för individer i behov av insatser från fler än en myndighet. Det är personer som har arbetat i projektet som har varit en källa till information i den här uppsatsen. En del av syftet med uppsatsen är att placera Finsam och Dirigo på en kartbild över samverkan, finna vilka typer av samverkan som kan sammankopplas med förbundets sätt att arbeta och hur man arbetar i projektet. Den andra delen av syftet är att få fram hur arbetet har gått till mera konkret i projektet; vad har varit coachernas roll i projektet. De är anställda för att driva verksamheten med deltagarna. Det jag vill besvara är vad deras roll har varit i projektet i förhållande till samverkan mellan de inblandade aktörerna. Det jag kommer fram till är att de har haft en mera extensiv roll än coacher, när man ser till samverkan. de har fungerat både som projektledare och haft en roll som länk och tolk mellan myndigheter och deltagare i projektet.

    Metoden i uppsatsen är kvalitativ. Jag har intervjuat handläggare och representanter för de olika myndigheterna som är representerade i samordningsförbundet, samt en av coacherna anställd i projektjet. Ett av resultaten jag har fått fram i undersökningen är att Dirigo i många avseenden inte är i behov av samverkan för att fungera. Det är ett samverkansprojekt, men coacherna fungerar som en buffert för samverkan. Så länge coacherna driver projektet behöver inte handläggarna på de olika myndigheterna komma överens och samarbeta. Det är dock viktigt att ha i åtanke att uppsatsen är skriven under projektets gång; efter avslutat projekt skulle intervjusvaren och därmed analysen kunna se mycket annorlunda ut.

  • 641.
    Özkayalar, Merdan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Designförslag på framdrivning i nytt hybridfordon2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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