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  • 551.
    Akil, Mahdi
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Mancini, L. V.
    Universita di Roma Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Venturi, D.
    Universita di Roma Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Multi-covert channel attack in the cloud2019In: 2019 6th International Conference on Software Defined Systems, SDS 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 160-165Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequently, it is believed that the adoption of encryption is adequate to ensure the safety of the message. However, encryption only restricts unapproved individuals from decoding the message. Whereas in many circumstances, the mere presence of communication or variations in communication patterns, such as an increase in message rate, is sufficient to raise doubt and initiate alerts. One of the best ways to bypass that is by using covert channels. In this paper, we create innovative protocols that use multiple covert channels working in parallel to exfiltrate data from a remote-controlled machine to our server. The provided protocols guarantee the completeness and unforgeability of the exfiltrated data. We analyze the difference in performance between the created protocols and provide mathematical equations to evaluate them.

  • 552.
    Akin, Serdar
    Karlstad University.
    Aggregerad konsumtion: En ekonometrisk studie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the real aggregated consumption and empirically determine its exogenous variables. A multiplicative analysis is done in the context of government stabilization policy to find out how policymakers can execute a stimulus package that will bring the best multiplicative effect to the economy The conclusion of the study is that real income, net financial assets and real-estate price index are all statistically significant. An effective expansive fiscal policy is a public-financed investment in the private sector. Coordination is going to be crucial when stimulus package is developed due to the fact that leakage in the form of imports will prevent the expected multiplicative effect.

  • 553.
    Akintola, Abayomi
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Hiring Discrimination in Racially Diverse Labour Markets:A Cross Country Study2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis is to determine if hiring managers are sensitive to racial background ofapplicants during hiring process. The author determined hiring discrimination using twoperspectives, first what did the hiring managers know about hiring discrimination? Second,correspondence testing was conducted to quantitatively determine if employers discriminateagainst certain names during resume screening. A cross country study was done betweenSweden and Canada. The results revealed that hiring managers in both countries are wellaware of negative impact of hiring discrimination on a firm or an organisation and all therespondents condemned it. However, correspondence testing showed that hiringdiscriminations occur in both countries. 1009 jobs were applied in Sweden while 1326 jobswere applied in Canada. The aggregate results for Sweden shows that applicants with foreignnames receive a call back rate of 66.3% while applicants with Swedish names receive a callback rate of 77.2%. The results for Canada show that applicants with foreign names receiveda call back rate of 73.5% while applicants with English names receive a call back rate of74.6%. Probit estimation was used to estimate the probability of applicants being invited forinterview. The results indicate that hiring discrimination against foreign names is morepronounced in Sweden compared to Canada.

  • 554.
    Aknooni, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT. Karlstad University.
    Carlsson, Charlotte
    Karlstad University. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Vilken bank väljer du?  : - en nyckeltalsanalys av de fyra storbankerna i  Sverige 2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Which bank do you choose? – A ratio analysis of the four major banks in Sweden 

     

    Background and problem: In 2008 the world was hit by an economic crisis. The crisis 

    has affected the major Swedish banks, mainly through increased credit losses. The 

    increase in credit losses incurred due to various factors but mainly due to banks' 

    exposures in the Baltic’s. The study should be considered whether any bank fared better 

    than the others, but even if some deterioration due to the economic crisis. This should be 

    investigated by using various financial ratios selected for this study. 

     

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the four main banks in Sweden, 

    Handelsbanken, Nordea, SEB and Swedbank, based on some selected indicators. We also 

    want to study how they influenced by the current economic crisis by studying a five-year 

    period between 2004 and 2008. 

     

    Methodology: For the collection of information, we mainly rely on banks' annual 

    reports, literature in finance and business valuation, and external information.  

    By studying the ratios for the years concerned, we shall compare the banks with each 

    other and study the extent of the crisis. 

     

    Results and conclusions: The results of the study's indicators show deterioration in 

    values for all of the banks in 2008 and the first quarter of 2009. The reason for these 

    declines is based in the current economic crisis. The most obvious change that is visible is 

    the increased credit losses that affect net income, which in turn affect many of the 

    selected ratios. The key figure shows the most visible changes is the credit loss rate, return 

    on equity and earnings per share. Furthermore, the economies of the banks are expected 

    to decrease further in 2009. 

     

    Proposal for further study: Our proposal for a further study is to follow the banks of 

    the current crisis and to study further about the indicators to get a deeper understanding 

    of what influenced the banks. A further proposal is to study how the banks are recovering 

    after the crisis during 2008. 

  • 555.
    Akrawi, Alberz
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Petersson, Samuel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Resurshantering av personer i multiprojektmiljöer2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An important task for project managers in multi-project environments is to effectively choose the right people to the project team. For organizations, it means being able to prioritize and plan human resources among the various projects running in parallel. The purpose of this paper is to describe how a project manager in multi-project environments looks at the allocation of people in their projects. We did our research through literature reviews and interviews with seven project managers.

    The research shows that the studied organizations highlight both the expertise and the personal factors in an election. They do not use any specific personality test to identify their staff. The most important thing for them is instead the area of competence, although personality is seen as something important to complete the project. Why then don´t the different personality models have any impact in the selection? The organizations believe that they are already satisfied and think that the choice of simple manageable methods work well. One obstacle may be that they perceive the instep too high in the form of courses, training, purchasing models, etc., and the investment is perceived as being more costly than the estimated profit.

    A follow-up question to our main research question was how the project managers perceived the need for IT support system for resource management to help the business improve and streamline their processes of allocation of resources. We have, through our literature studies looked at the importance of using a more advanced IT support system for resource management in large organizations, but in the businesses we studied, they are not used. For example, it may be that IT support can mean large economic costs, large rearrangements and extensive training for staff.

    It turned out that those simpler IT support systems as MS Excel in combination with active internal communication is perceived as a sufficiently effective method of resource management particularly for the smaller businesses. Especially in these businesses, it is easier to get background information about potential project members' skills and personal qualities.

  • 556. Akre, Ida
    Pedagogers sätt att bemöta barnens initiativ i förskolan2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to develop a better understanding of how preschool-teachers respond to children in preschool, when they show that they want to have some influence. I have concentrated this study on how the preschool-teachers respond to the children in the gatherings and when the children are playing freely indoors, where the questions at issue are:

    How do the preschool-teachers respond to the children’s initiative for participation in the gathering and while playing freely?

    There have been four preschool-teachers and 14 children who have taken part in this study. The children who took part are in the ages of three to five. The study was done at a section in a preschool in middle Sweden.

    The method used in this study is unstructured observations. The collecting of material has been concentrated on how the preschool-teachers respond to children while they are playing freely and during the gatherings. Is the response positive or negative, and if there are any obstacles that might have caused the preschool-teachers’ choice of response. The result shows that the preschool-teachers are more eager to a positive response towards the children’s initiative for participation while the children are playing freely compared to the gatherings. It shows that the preschool-teachers have more control and are stricter with the content in the gatherings. During the daily routines (e.g. cleaning), at the morning gatherings and when the preschool-teachers are occupied with something else, the children tend to receive either a negative response or the word “wait” as an answer.

    Keywords: Preschool, preschool-teachers, response, participation

     

  • 557. Akrin, Catrine
    Asfaltsblomma: En studie om vilka barn som omplacerades på barnhem och i fosterhem i Karlskoga under åren 1918-19252014Student paper second term, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 558.
    Akrin, Catrine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Varför ökar förskrivningen av antidepressiva till barn och ungdomar?: En litteraturstudie om farmakologisk behandling för barn och ungdomar med psykisk ohälsa2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 559.
    Aksell, Marina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    "Det akuta löser jag snabbt, men det är akut hela tiden": En kvalitativ studie om lärares och rektorers hantering av arbetsuppgifter under stress.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Den offentliga sektorn har under de två senaste decennierna förändras genom att New Public Management har implementerats vilket medfört att många reformer har genomförts. Det har inneburit att den offentliga sektorn har effektiviserats och slimmats. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka faktorer de intervjuade lärarna och rektorerna upplever stressande samt hur de hanterar sin arbetssituation vid arbetsrelaterad stress. Mitt intresse för ämnet kommer av att jag själv arbetar som lärare på en gymnasieskola och därmed har ett inifrån perspektiv av hur lärare men även rektorer påverkas av stress.

    Jag valde en kvalitativ metod med en hermeneutisk ansats som innebär tolkning och reflektion. Metoden för att inhämta empiriskt material till min studie skedde genom öppna halvstrukturerade intervjuer som innebär en flexibilitet vid intervjutillfället. Analysen av mitt material gjordes genom att jag kontinuerligt rörde mig mellan delar och helhet i en process.

    Enligt Eriksson och Larsson (2011) innebär socialt stöd att relationerna till kollegor och chefer är mycket betydelsefulla. Detta bekräftar informanterna i studien. Samtidigt visar också studien att positiva interaktionsritualer var grundläggande och viktiga för lärarna och rektorerna. Collins (2004) och Olsson (2008) menar att positiva interaktionsritualer ger emotionell energi som medverkar till att individer och grupper kan hantera stressade situationer lättare. Resultatet visade även att lärarna och rektorerna använder sig av liknande strategier för att hantera sin arbetssituation vid stress och att de inom strategierna gör prioriteringar för vad som är viktigast. Det övergripande som studien visar är att det kontinuerligt råder en tidsbrist i informanternas arbete som de försöker att hantera genom olika strategier. 

  • 560.
    Akselsen Andersson, Carmitha
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Lekens betydelse för barns utveckling: En studie om hur skolgårdsmiljöns utformning påverkar barns leklust2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the impact on children's development around playing and how significance the formation of the schoolyards is focusing on how it inspire and calls to play within the children's. The study will also show how the youth workers experience the schoolyards and how they can incorporate the playground in their work to inspire the children's play and activities. The methods used in this study is based on both real conversations and by mail with educated youth workers and observations. The results shows that the schoolyard environment is very important for the children's play and development. The study reveals the importance of having nature like forest nearby and that the environment should be suited for everyone. The children need spaces on the schoolyard and in the nature to evolve their ways of free playing, and also their needs for suited playground equipment.

  • 561.
    Aksoy, Can Aksoy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Fuel consumption measurements and fuelconditioning in high-pressure fuel systemfor single cylinder test cell2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is part of a bigger project issued by AVL with the purpose to design a high pressure compression ignition fuel system for their single cylinder test cell at their facility in Södertälje. Typically compression-ignition fuel tests are being run within an operating pressure range of 500-2400 bar, but this system has to be able to run with pressures up to 3500 bar. The project was intended to be carried out by two participants where this master thesis covers the evaluation of how fuel consumption rates shall be measured in the system described above as well as how the fuel shall be conditioned.

    The selected concept for measuring fuel consumption rate was based on measuring the mass flow on the low-pressure side of the system with a Coriolis flowmeter. The chosen temperature sensor for monitoring the temperature on the high-pressure side was a K-type thermocouple which would be directly connected to the fuel rail in the system. A bleeder was selected on the basis that it had been used in one of AVL's old test cells. A heat exchanger could not be chosen. However a rough estimation of the capacity needed for a heat exchanger was calculated for future reference.

    The methodology used to develop a concept was based on the engineering project process taught to students at Karlstad University. First a project plan was made followed by a solution-independently expressed product specification including a specification of requirements and QFD-matrix. Several concepts were generated for measuring the fuel consumption by evaluating different measuring principles, available components, possible positions of the components within the system and combinations with different fuel supply concepts. Less extensive methods were used for the remaining tasks in the detailed engineering phase of the project. The concepts were compared using Pugh's analysis and a concept was selected in collaboration with AVL.

    The majority of the objectives for this master thesis could be successfully carried out. The documentation and drawings requested by the client, manufacturing of the system, implementation and validation into the test cell could not be done due to lack of time. This, along with the selection of a heat exchanger and low-pressure thermocouple was left for future work.

  • 562.
    Aktas, Burcu
    Karlstad University.
    Språkstimulering: Hur stimulerar pedagoger språkinlärning när barn har ett annat modersmål än svenska?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 563.
    Akyol, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Khalid, Labar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Segregation och dess inverkan på Akalla, Spånga och Tensta: En fallstudie om inkludering kring ungdomar i förorten2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka och jämföra om segregationen har någon inverkan på ungdomar i kranskommunerna Akalla, Spånga och Tensta. En kvalitativ undersökning utfördes och fem informanter från Akalla, Tensta och Spånga intervjuades. Segregationen finns mer eller mindre i dessa områden och det bekräftades genom intervjuerna, där en närmare bild på verkligheten målades fram. Ungdomarna känner ett utanförskap och som att de ignoreras av staten. Denna studie är baserad på teorierna “Vi och dem” och “Diskriminering” eftersom de var mest lämpliga i denna fallstudie, samt två tidigare forskningar som är skrivna av Jon Loit och Hörnqvist & De los Reyes.

    Materialet och resultatet sammanställdes och korrelerades vilket resulterade i en diskussion. I diskussionen diskuterar författarna resultaten av intervjuerna samtidigt som de kopplas till teorierna. Det som vi kan se som påverkar effekten av segregation på ungdomarna är att de inte känner sig inkluderade i samhället samt att de inte blir bemötta på samma sätt som en person från innerstaden blir. Slutsatsen besvarar vår frågeställning förenklad med en sammanfattning om hur samhällsplaneringen kan åstadkomma med.

  • 564.
    Al Amin, Jasin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Statuskod 451 ur ett IT-organisationsperspektiv: En explorative kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att internetinfrastrukturen växer har internet fått en allt större betydelse för människors liv och vardag. Vilket har orsakat ett problem för brottsförebyggande myndigheter och IT-organisationer att justera vad som är lagligt och olagligt på Internet då det inte existera rätt verktyg för justeringar. Tidigare forskning är framtagna ur ett allmänt perspektiv. Detta har medfört att blockera webbsidor i dagsläget är en utmaning då det inte finns något tekniskt stöd i form av http kod i Sverige, utan bara lagar och regler som ger anvisningar för ITorganisationerna. Med detta i åtanke blev det intressant att undersöka hur det allmänna perspektivet kan stödja Sveriges kamp mot illegala webbsidor. Frågeställningarna för denna studie är: Hur kan Sverige motverka och förebygga illegala webbsidor med och utan statuskod 451 och vilken arbetsgång/besultsprocess kan rekommenderas för svenska förhållanden för att motverka illegala webbsidor? Framtagningen av empiri har gjorts med hjälp av att intervjua berörda aktörer som rör området internet, det vill säga en internetleverantör, en expert om statuskoden 451 samt en person som har nyckel till .Se och .Nu. Det studien har kommit fram till är att det kommer vara en utmaning för Sveriges kamp mot illegala webbsidor, tills man har åtgärdat de juridiska grunderna för statuskod 451. Då de juridiska grunderna ligger i grunden till hur beslutsprocessen ska gå till när man ska geoblockera webbsidor, därefter kan man fördela rollerna i processen för ISP och webbhotellen samt brottsförebyggande myndigheterna. Skulle Sverige inte använda sig av statuskoden 451, kan man använda sig av tre olika metoder. Den första metoden är att varje land i världen samarbetar så att man förhindrar att webbsidorna dyker på Internet igen. Den andra metoden är att det bör finnas starkare samband och förklaring mellan brottsförebyggande myndigheterna om ISP och webbhotellens om deras roller. Sista metoden är att enbart webbhotellen och ISP är noga med att se till att varje kund verkligen följer upp villkoren. När d

  • 565.
    Al- Askery, Akram
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Förskrivningen av antineoplastiska monoklonala antikroppar i Sverige: En registerstudie över förskrivningsskillnaden mellan de olika delarna av landet mellan åren 2000–20162018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 566.
    AL RADAIDEH, PERNILLA
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    En resa i turismen: Jämförande text- och bildtolkning av två värmländska turistbroschyrer2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Swedish essay deals with a study of two tourist brochures of Värmland from two different years, 2005 and 2007. The purpose is to examine what their differences and similarities are through a comparison. My focus is put on what tourist categories the brochures mainly turn to. I want to se if they turn to all tourists or if they lean towards a special group of people.

    To guide me I have used both textual and picture interpretation.

    I have created my own tourist categorization as a tool for my study, named The matter tourist-related categorization. It contains six categories which all have some common denominator where tourists will fit in.

    The result shows that all tourist categories are mentioned even if some are more frequently mentioned than others.

    Key words: Tourism, brochures, categorization, interpretation, nature and culture.

  • 567. Al Rawi, Mohammed
    Developement of a power spectrum based method for Doppler estimation in mobile radoi communications2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The design of efficient mobile radio receivers requires knowledge of statistical parameters of the transmission channel, such as signal-to-noise ratio and Doppler spread, associated with multipath fading. In this work, a spectrum based Doppler spread estimator is proposed and evaluated. The work is conducted in Matlab. The objectives: 1. Estimate the power spectrum of the multipath channel by using a periodogram based method, either Bartlett or Welch and relate the power interval/bandwidth to an estimate of the Doppler spread. The variance of the noise is assumed to be known. 2. Compare the performance of the power spectrum based Doppler spread estimator with covariance based methods. 3. Estimation accuracy of ±10 Hz within 95% confidence interval, for signal-to-noise ratios (SNR’s) between 0 to 15 dB and maximum Doppler frequencies up to 200 Hz. 4. Study the impact of a frequency deviation and a line-of-sight (LOS) parameter on the performance of the evaluated Doppler spread estimator.

  • 568.
    Al- Robeyi, Zainab
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Att uppleva naturen med alla sina sinnen: Hur undersöker och upplever förskolebarnen naturen?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This project discusses various aspects of children's way to explore nature with their senses. Therefore I conducted a study in two preschools, one nature-oriented and another preschool. This study was carriedout usien the three metods, interviews, observations and surveys. Interview four children from each preschool, observations of each group outdoors during four different occasions and question forms to teachers.

     

    The result of the study showed that both teachers and children have a great interest in being outdoors in nature, but it is not always possible to take out all children's groups. The reason is large groups and inadequate staff. When you are out in the forest according to teachers, it is important to be attentive, present, and meet the children’s interests. They need to be stimulated with questions and inspire them about what is happening and what might happen in nature plus take natural materials as help in the creative activities of the preschool.

     

    Keywords: Biology, children's perceptions, exploring, outdoor environment

  • 569.
    AL Salti, Rawan
    Karlstad University.
    Politeness strategies in the film North and South2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Politeness theory, developed by Brown and Levinson, has been applied to literature in linguistic research for in-depth analysis of discourse, whether written or spoken. Based on my understanding of politeness and the different politeness strategies suggested in the literature, this paper analyzes the different strategies mostly used by the main characters of the televised version of the novel North and South (1855), written by Elizabeth Gaskell, by focusing on some parts of the conversations in the televised version (2004), in terms of gender, social class and situation. The result shows that the film characters mostly resort to on-record and positive politeness strategies, while negative politeness and off-record strategies are less used in the conversations, which supports the story ambition to bridge gender and social gaps. The analysis demonstrates that much of our understanding of character motives in a novel/film relies on the way politeness strategies credibly reflect our experience and how strategies in interaction commonly work as theoretically described.

  • 570.
    Al Ubeidi, Dina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Effekter av lignin och cellulosa som additiv vid pelletering av träpellets2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using renewable energy sources, such as wood fuel pellets, can create conditions for sustainable development. Wood pellet production is increasing globally and the increase is expected to continue in the future. This means that the pellets industry must start to increase their raw material base, for an example by using by-products as bark. In order to improve the pellet properties and the pelleting process, additive can be used. The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge of how lignin and cellulose as additives affect pelleting properties on pellets produced from spruce-and birch sawdust and aspen bark. The aim was to find out what effects lignin and cellulose have on the density of the pellets, hardness, moisture absorption, and energy for compression and friction.

    Lignin and cellulose were tested as additives in the amount of 0, 1, 2.5 and 4% for pelletizing spruce-and birch sawdust as well as aspen bark in a single pellet press. The pellets were produced at a die temperature of 120, 100oC and 100, and a moisture content of 12, 10 and 14%.

    For pellets produced by spurce sawdust and aspen bark, the addition of lignin resulted in improved pellets, without the compression and friction energy changing. In the case of pellets produced by birch sawdust, the addition of lignin and cellulose did not change the pellet properties, on the other hand, it increased the energy for compression and friction. Both lignin and cellulose reduced the moisture absorption capacity of pellets. 

  • 571.
    Al-abuhalje, Afrah
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Al-abuhalje, Sanaa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Översikt och tillämpning av XML2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    HTML is not powerful enough to handle the increasing demands on Internet applications of today, which is one of the reasons to why a new markup language called XML has been introduced. In this report we describe the basics as well as more advanced parts of XML like DTD, XML Schema and XSLT.

    XML combines the simplicity of HTML and the possibilties of SGML. One of the premier strengths of XML is that it may be used to store any type of data without any considerations to how it will be presented later. The content and the presentation are separated completely. Another important property is that XML documents are stored as

    ordinary text files, which means that XML is system and platform independent.

    In this report our aim consists of two goals. One goal is to create a suitable format for storing configuration data using XML. The configuration data is to be used by a network emulator. In order to emulate the conditions present in a real network the emulator is

    capable of emulating things as bit errors, packet losses, bandwidth limitation and delay, all of which are examples of configuration data. The other goal is to describe the basics as well as more advanced parts of XML in general. As we describe XML, we continuously show how we apply this knowledge to our application. In this way, the reader achieves a good insight into how XML works.

  • 572.
    Alaeddine, Ahmed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Law.
    Varumärkesintrång på internet och regeln om forum delicti2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The trademarks are territorially limited. The trademarks legal protection applies only within the territory of the state. The consequence of the principle of territoriality is that there may be multiple trademarks owner for the same brand but in different countries. In the analog world, the coexistence of the same brands in different countries hasn’t caused any significant problems. Internet's increasing use as a commercial marketplace has resulted that a brand has becomes more widely on the Internet than in the analog world. It has become increasingly difficult to control the spread of their brands on the Internet, and the explanation is that the Internet lacks the natural geographic boundaries as in the analog world. For that reason the probability that a Swedish brand may come into collision with a similar mark in another country will increase. Therefore, cross-border disputes concerning trademark infringement has grown more and more.

     

    A trademark violation could only have happened if the brand use can be linked to the territory in which the trademarks rights exist. The location of where an infringement has taken place is difficult to establish on the Internet. The same problem arises in the international private and procedural law. In order for a court to have jurisdiction over a claim, there must be a connection to the forum. Therefore it’s necessary that action can be linked to the territory in which the trademark right is registered. The aim of this paper was to analyze the rules of the jurisdiction of the Brussels I Regulation, and how these rules shall apply to trademark infringement on the Internet.

     

    In my paper, I have concluded that the rules of jurisdiction must be given a stricter application, due to the risk that the jurisdiction rules can be abused. In the essay, I have suggested that a requirement on commercial effect must be demanded if the court should have jurisdiction to hear a proceedings for trademark violation. By requiring commercial effect it be can determined if there is an enough connection with the forum state. The positive aspect of a stricter requirement is that the defendant shouldn’t have to face proceedings in foreign countries. A stricter application is in line with the requirement of legal certainty and that there must be a close link between the court and the proceedings.

  • 573.
    Ala-Häivälä, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Batch-digitalisering och GIS-anpassning av analoga enkätdata2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the work with utilizing and adapting data from a visitor poll for use in a GIS. The poll was performed by the Municipality of Karlstad and the Swedish Forest Agency to survey peoples visit patterns in the I2-Forest, a former military training field which is now used as a recreation area. The poll consists of a number of questions about the visitor’s activities, age, opinions etc, and a map on which the visitor has drawn his or her path through the forest. Source data is a database containing poll answers, and the original maps with the drawn information. The task is partly to investigate if the maps can be batch-digitalized through scanning and vectorization, and partly to normalize the database.

    A method for digitalizing has been developed and tested on a selection of the maps. The method consists of a number of steps, including image processing, classification and vectorization. According to lack of batch-possibilities in the used GIS software, macros have been created by programming in VBA. The method works well on the selected maps and the conclusion is that it is possible to digitalize the drawn lines automatically. However, there are some shortages regarding accuracy and usability. Furthermore, the selection is relatively small and some adjustments on the settings for classification and vectorization might be necessary when applying the method on a larger part of the data.

    The database has been normalized as far as reasonable with consideration of performance and usability. To enable reliable searches, several attributes has been interpreted and modified through categorization and classification.

    The result is a geodatabase consisting of all poll answers, and the selected data from the digitalization test. To show how the database can be used, two simple examples of analyses have been made.

  • 574.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linköping University.
    Hartvig, Per
    Copenhagen University.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Gothenburg University.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Serotonin Synthesis Rate and the Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 G-703T Polymorphism in Social Anxiety Disorder2014In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 75, no 9, p. 357S-357SArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 575. Alakangas, Linda
    Minskning av suspenderade ämnen i lakvatten2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
  • 576.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Nääs, Ola
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Sommarjobb, arbetslivserfarenhet och framtida arbetsinkomst2015In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 26-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    De flesta kommuner erbjuder sommarjobb till gymnasieungdomar. Vi har undersökt om denna arbetslivserfarenhet påverkar flickors framtida arbetsinkomster. Vi följde 1 447 flickor i fem till tolv år efter avslutat gymnasium. Flickorna hade under sitt första gymnasieår ansökt och slumpmässigt tilldelats sommarjobb av Falu kommun. Effekten av sommarjobbserfarenheten på arbetsinkomsten var positiv och betydande för dem.

  • 577. Alamdar, Ambreen
    et al.
    Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Syed
    Waqar Ali, Saeed
    Sohail, Mohammad
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    Cincinelli, Alessandra
    Subhani, Marghoob
    Ghaffar, Bushra
    Ullah, Rizwan
    Huang, Qingyu
    Shen, Heqing
    Human Arsenic exposure via dust across the different ecological zones of Pakistan2016In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 126, p. 219-227Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 578. Al-Ameri, Ali
    A general LC/MS method for cleaning verification2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
  • 579.
    Al-Ameri, Leyth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Oil And The Macroeconomy: Empirical evidence from 10 OECD countries2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the oil price-macro economy relationship by means of analyzing the impact ofoil price on Industrial production, real effective exchange rate, long term interest rate and inflation rate for a sample of ten OECD countries using quarterly data for the period 1970q1-2011q1.The impact of oil price shock on industrial production is negative and occurs with a lag of one year. However, the impact has weakened considerably compared to the 1970s. The impact on real effective exchange rate is negative/positive for a net importer/exporter, and the magnitude of the shock depends on the county´s share of net import/export of total world demand/supply. Interest rates are affected negatively, through increase in inflation rates following the oil price shock. The effect tends to die out after 5-8 quarters following the shock for most of the variables and countries. This paper also applies alternative methods to test for unit root and cointegration, which takes into account for structural breaks in the data. The weakness of Phillips-Peron test is clearly demonstrated in the case of inflation rates and interest rates, where the test falsely considered the series to be non-stationary when they in fact are stationary around a structural break. There is also strong evidence of cointegration between oil price and inflation rates and between oil price and interest rates, especially when taking account for structural breaks.

  • 580. Alanko, Eira
    et al.
    Holmberg, Karin
    Sjuksköterskans preventiva arbete med HIV - en systematisk litteraturstudie2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nyckelord: Prevention, HIV, sjuksköterska Att investera i prevention av humant immunbristvirus (HIV) förhindrar oändligt mänskligt lidande och därför är sjuksköterskans preventiva arbete med HIV av stor vikt. Syftet var att beskriva hur sjuksköterskan kan arbeta preventivt med HIV. Metoden utgjordes av en systematisk litteraturstudie och 15 vetenskapliga artiklar ligger till grund för studiens resultat. Samtliga artiklar har kvalitetsgranskats. Resultatet utgörs av fyra teman med tillhörande kategorier: Prevention genom personlig kompetens innebär att sjuksköterskan ger ett bra bemötande, använder sin kunskap samt är trygg i sig själv och sin yrkesroll. Prevention med fokus på riskreduktion utför sjuksköterskan genom att informera, ge råd, stödja och utbilda klienten. Det tredje temat identifiera individer som löper risk att smittas av HIV innebär riskbedömning, HIV-test och uppföljning. Det sista temat riskreduktion och hälsobefrämjande inriktat mot drogmissbrukare belyser hur sjuksköterskan hjälper till att reducera smittöverföring och öka klientens hälsa samt hänvisar klienten vidare och förmedlar kontakter.

  • 581.
    Alaqra, Ala Sarah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    The Wicked Problem of Privacy: Design Challenge for Crypto-based Solutions2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data privacy has been growing in importance in recent years, especially with the continuous increase of online activity. Researchers study, design, and develop solutions aimed at enhancing users’ data privacy. The wicked problem of data privacy is a continuous challenge that defies straightforward solutions. Since there are many factors involved in data privacy, such as technological, legal, and human aspects, we can only aim at mitigating rather than solving this wicked problem. Our aim was to focus on human aspects for designing usable crypto-based privacy-enhancing solutions.  In this thesis, we followed a user centered design method by using empirical qualitative means for investigating user’s perceptions and opinions of our solutions. Most of our work has focused on redactable signatures in the cloud context within the eHealth use-case. Redactable signatures are  a privacy enhancing scheme allowing to remove parts of a signed document by a specified party for achieving data minimization without invalidating the respective signature.

    We mainly used semi-structures interviews and focus groups in our investigations. Our results yielded key HCI considerations as well as guidelines of different means for supporting the design of future solutions.

  • 582.
    Alaqra, Ala Sarah
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kane, Bridget
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Analysis on Encrypted Medical Data In The Cloud, Should We Be Worried?: A Qualitative Study of Stakeholders' PerspectivesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 583.
    Alaqra, Ala Sarah
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Reciprocities or Incentives?: Understanding Privacy Intrusion Perspectives and Sharing Behaviors2019In: HCI for Cybersecurity, Privacy and Trust: First International Conference, HCI-CPT 2019, Held as Part of the 21st HCI International Conference, HCII 2019, Orlando, FL, USA, July 26–31, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Abbas Moallem, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, p. 355-370Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance and perception of privacy varies from one context to the other. However, everyone values his or her privacy to a certain extent. The subjectivity of that value, attitudes, and behaviors would depend on different entangling factors. It is important to understand the motivation that influences human behavior, whether to protect or share their information. In this paper, we aim at understanding the boundaries of privacy, factors influencing information sharing behavior including experiences (reciprocities of privacy), and efforts taken to protect one’s data. We collected data using quantitative (survey/quiz) and qualitative means (focus groups). In the survey/quiz, our results showed that intrusion experience and awareness have a significant correlation between sharing of data. Furthermore, our focus groups results yielded details on influencing factors for privacy reciprocities and tradeoffs. We discuss our results in terms of privacy incentives and factors influencing the sharing behavior of their information. Finally, we highlight the complexity of behavior where intrinsic and extrinsic motivations could clash and result in a dilemma such as the privacy paradox phenomenon. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-06-12 08:00
  • 584.
    Alaqra, Alaa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Tinkering the Wicked Problem of Privacy: Design Challenges and Opportunities for Crypto-based Services2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data privacy has been growing in importance in recent years, especially with the constant increase of online activity. Consequently, researchers study, design, and develop solutions aimed at enhancing users' data privacy. The wicked problem of data privacy is a dynamic challenge that defies straightforward solutions. Since there are many factors involved in data privacy, such as technological, legal, and human aspects, we can only aim at mitigating rather than solving this wicked problem.

    Our aim was to explore challenges and opportunities with a focus on human aspects for designing usable crypto-based privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs). Mainly, there were three PETs in the cloud context included in our studies: malleable signatures, secret sharing, and homomorphic encryption. Based on the three PETs, services were developed within European research projects that were the scope of our user studies. We followed a user-centered design approach by using empirical qualitative and quantitative means for collecting study data. Our results and tinkering conveyed (i) analysis of different categories of user's perspectives, mental models, and trade-offs, (ii) user requirements for PET services, and (iii) user interface design guidelines for PET services. In our contributions, we highlight considerations and guidelines for supporting the design of future solutions.

  • 585.
    Alaqra, Alaa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Framner, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Enhancing Privacy Controls for Patients via a Selective Authentic Electronic Health Record Exchange Service: Qualitative Study of Perspectives by Medical Professionals and Patients2018In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 20, no 12, article id e10954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients' privacy is regarded as essential for the patient-doctor relationship. One example of a privacy-enhancing technology for user-controlled data minimization on content level is a redactable signature. It enables users to redact personal information from signed documents while preserving the validity of the signature, and thus the authenticity of the document. In this study, we present end users' evaluations of a Cloud-based selective authentic electronic health record (EHR) exchange service (SAE-service) in an electronic health use case. In the use case scenario, patients were given control to redact specified information fields in their EHR, which were signed by their doctors with a redactable signature and transferred to them into a Cloud platform. They can then selectively disclose the remaining information in the EHR, which still bears the valid digital signature, to third parties of their choice. Objective: This study aimed to explore the perceptions, attitudes, and mental models concerning the SAE-service of 2 user roles: signers (medical professionals) and redactors (patients with different technical knowledge) in Germany and Sweden. Another objective was to elicit usability requirements for this service based on the analysis of our investigation. Methods: We chose empirical qualitative methods to address our research objective. Designs of mock-ups for the service were used as part of our user-centered design approach in our studies with test participants from Germany and Sweden. A total of 13 individual walk-throughs or interviews were conducted with medical staff to investigate the EHR signers' perspectives. Moreover, 5 group walk-throughs in focus groups sessions with (N=32) prospective patients with different technical knowledge to investigate redactor's perspective of EHR data redaction control were used. Results: We found that our study participants had correct mental models with regard to the redaction process. Users with some technical models lacked trust in the validity of the doctor's signature on the redacted documents. Main results to be considered are the requirements concerning the accountability of the patients' redactions and the design of redaction templates for guidance and control. Conclusions: For the SAE-service to be means for enhancing patient control and privacy, the diverse usability and trust factors of different user groups should be considered.

  • 586.
    Alaqra, Ala(a)
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Groß, Thomas
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Lorünser, Thomas
    Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Slamanig, Daniel
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Signatures for Privacy, Trust and Accountability in the Cloud: Applications and Requirements2015In: Privacy and Identity Management. Time for a Revolution?: 10th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.5, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6/SIG 9.2.2 International Summer School, Edinburgh, UK, August 16-21, 2015, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] David Aspinall, Jan Camenisch, Marit Hansen, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Charles Raab, Springer Publishing Company, 2015, Vol. 476, p. 79-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarises the results of a workshop at the IFIP Summer School 2015 introducing the EU Horizon 2020 project PRISMACLOUD, that is, Privacy and Security Maintaining Services in the Cloud. The contributions of this summary are three-fold. Firstly, it provides an overview to the PRISMACLOUD cryptographic tools and use-case scenarios that were presented as part of this workshop. Secondly, it distills the discussion results of parallel focus groups. Thirdly, it summarises a ``Deep Dive on Crypto'' session that offered technical information on the new tools. Overall, the workshop aimed at outlining application scenarios and eliciting end-user requirements for PRISMACLOUD.

  • 587.
    Alaqra, Alaa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Pettersson, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Malleable Signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth Scenario2016In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security & Assurance / [ed] Nathan Clarke & Steven Furnell, 2016, p. 220-230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss end user requirements that we elicited for the use of malleable signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth scenario. The concept of a malleable signature, which is a privacy enhancing cryptographic scheme that enables the redaction of personal information from signed documents while preserving the validity of the signature, might be counter- intuitive to end users as its functionality does not correspond to the one of a traditional signature scheme. A qualitative study via a series of semi-structured interviews and focus groups has been conducted to understand stakeholders’ opinions and concerns in regards to the possible applications of malleable signatures in the eHealth area, where a medical record is first digitally signed by a doctor and later redacted by the patient in the cloud. Results from this study yielded user requirements such as the need for suitable metaphors and guidelines, usable templates, and clear redaction policies. 

  • 588.
    Alastair, Henry
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Korp, Helena
    Högskolan Väst.
    Elevers möten med engelska i och utanför skolan : Upprop till deltagande i forskningsprojektet Bridging the Gap2014In: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, no 4, p. 22-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 589.
    Alavian-Ghavanini, Ali
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lin, Ping-I
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University.
    Rimfors, Sabina Risen
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lejonklou, Margareta Halin
    Uppsala University.
    Dunder, Linda
    Uppsala University.
    Tang, Mandy
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindh, Christian
    Lund University.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Icahn School of Medicine Mt Sinai, New York, USA.
    Rueegg, Joelle
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure is Linked to Epigenetic Changes in Glutamate Receptor Subunit Gene Grin2b in Female Rats and Humans2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 11315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and to effects on epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation, at genes involved in brain function. High doses of BPA have been shown to change expression and regulation of one such gene, Grin2b, in mice. Yet, if such changes occur at relevant doses in animals and humans has not been addressed. We investigated if low-dose developmental BPA exposure affects DNA methylation and expression of Grin2b in brains of adult rats. Furthermore, we assessed associations between prenatal BPA exposure and Grin2b methylation in 7-year old children. We found that Grin2b mRNA expression was increased and DNA methylation decreased in female, but not in male rats. In humans, prenatal BPA exposure was associated with increased methylation levels in girls. Additionally, Iow APGAR scores, a predictor for increased risk for neurodevelopmental diseases, were associated with higher Grin2b methylation levels in girls. Thus, we could link developmental BPA exposure and Iow APGAR scores to changes in the epigenetic regulation of Grin2b, a gene important for neuronal function, in a sexual dimorphic fashion. Discrepancies in exact locations and directions of the DNA methylation change might reflect differences between species, analysed tissues, exposure level and/or timing.

  • 590.
    Alay, Özgü
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Lutu, Andra
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    García, Rafael
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Peón Quirós, Miguel
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Mancuso, Vincenzo
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Hirsch, Thomas
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Dely, Tobias
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Werme, Jonas
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Evensen, Kristian
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Hansen, Audun
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Safari Khatouni, Ali
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Mellia, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Ajmone Marsan, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Monno, Roberto
    Nextworks, Italy.
    Lønsethagen, Håkon
    Telenor R&D, Norway.
    MONROE, a distributed platform to measure and assess mobile broadband networks: demo2016In: Proceedings of the Tenth ACM International Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental Evaluation, and Characterization, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 85-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This demo presents the MONROE distributed platform and how it can be used to implement measurement and assessment experiments with operational mobile broadband networks (MBBs). MONROE provides registered experimenters with open access to hundreds of nodes, distributed over several European countries and equipped with multiple MBB connections, and a backend system that collects the measurement results. Experiments are scheduled through a user-friendly web client, with no need to directly access the nodes. The platform further embeds tools for real-time traffic flow analysis and a powerful visualization tool.

  • 591.
    Alay, Özgü
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Lutu, Andra
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Peón-Quirós, Miguel
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Mancuso, Vincenzo
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Hirsch, Thomas
    Celerway Communications, Norway.
    Evensen, Kristian
    Celerway Communications, Norway.
    Hansen, Audun
    Celerway Communications, Norway.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Safari Khatouni, Ali
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Mellia, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Ajmone Marsan, Marco
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain and Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Experience: An open platform for experimentation with commercial mobile broadband networks2017In: MobiCom '17 Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 70-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open experimentation with operational Mobile Broadband (MBB) networks in the wild is currently a fundamental requirement of the research community in its endeavor to address the need of innovative solutions for mobile communications. Even more, there is a strong need for objective data about stability and performance of MBB (e.g., 3G/4G) networks, and for tools that rigorously and scientifically assess their status. In this paper, we introduce the MONROE measurement platform: an open access and flexible hardware-based platform for measurements and custom experimentation on operational MBB networks. The MONROE platform enables accurate, realistic and meaningful assessment of the performance and reliability of 11 MBB networks in Europe. We report on our experience designing, implementing and testing the solution we propose for the platform. We detail the challenges we overcame while building and testing the MONROE testbed and argue our design and implementation choices accordingly. We describe and exemplify the capabilities of the platform and the wide variety of experiments that external users already perform using the system

  • 592.
    Alay, Özgü
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Lutu, Andra
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Rafael, García
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Peón Quirós, Miguel
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Mancuso, Vincenzo
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Hirsch, Thomas
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Tobias, Dély
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Werme, Jonas
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Evensen, Kristian
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Fosselie Hansen, Audun
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Safari Khatouni, Ali
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Mellia, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Ajmone Marsan, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino & IMDEA Networks, Italy.
    Monno, Roberto
    Nextworks, Italy.
    Lønsethagen, Håkon
    Telenor R&D, Norway.
    Measuring and Assessing Mobile Broadband Networks with MONROE2016In: 2016 IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile, and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), Red Hook: IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile broadband (MBB) networks underpin numerous vital operations of the society and are arguably becoming the most important piece of the communications infrastructure. In this demo paper, our goal is to showcase the potential of a novel multi-homed MBB platform for measuring, monitoring and assessing the performance of MBB services in an objective manner. Our platform, MONROE, is composed of hundreds of nodes scattered over four European countries and a backend system that collects the measurement results. Through a user-friendly web client, the experimenters can schedule and deploy their experiments. The platform further embeds traffic analysis tools for real-time traffic flow analysis and a powerful visualization tool.

  • 593.
    Al-Azzawi, Tahreer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    En undersökning av antibiotikaförskrivning till patienter med okomplicerad faryngotonsillit inom primärvården.: En enkätundersökning på en vårdcentral i Värmland.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 594. Albansson, Sofia
    Barn med särskilda behov - en studie i Sydafrika2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag fick möjligheten att resa till Sydafrika och kåkstaden Lingelihle i fyra veckor. Syftet med resan var att insamla material till mitt examensarbete och ta del av en ny kultur och skolmiljö. Innan jag reste bestämde jag mig för att skriva om elever med särskilda behov och frågeställningen jag hade var: Hur kan man arbeta med elever med särskilda behov i en skola i Sydafrika? För att svara på mina frågeställningar har jag använt mig av relevant litteratur, Internet, intervjuer och observationer. De jag intervjuade var två lärare och en rektor på skolan jag besökte. Resultatet av intervjuerna visar hur man i en annan kultur kan ta hand om barn med särskilda behov. Det jag kommit fram till genom intervjuerna är att skolan har mycket begränsade resurser när det gäller dessa barn, men de tar tillvara på de resurser de har och hjälper dem så gott de kan utifrån deras förutsättningar.

  • 595.
    Albemo, Rebecca
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Wilhelmsson, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Låt oss diskutera näthat!: Hur en interaktiv produkt kan engagera unga gällande näthat på sociala medier.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many benefits with social media but nevertheless several downsides. The downsides within this context includes violations, harassment and threats. Online hate speech as a concept is difficult to define, which makes the question even more relevant to discuss. In order to highlight the discussion about online hate speech on social media, this project will design a prototype for an interactive product adapted for youngsters. The interactive product shall work as an engaging complement when teaching youngsters about online hate speech.

    To create an interactive product who engage youngsters regarding online hate speech on social media we deemed experts and potential users as relevant to examine. The project therefore implemented a qualitative research approach through individual interviews and focus groups. The individual interviews were implemented with experts within the field of online hate speech and the focus groups with potential users, 13–19-year-olds. The results of the examination were analyzed based on the project’s theoretical framework, in the form of counter-strategies on social media, interaction design and serious games. The most prominent themes and the ones of the highest relevance for the project were subsequently highlighted.

    The empirical material was used to identify the requirements and needs that the interactive product should meet. The project shows that the interactive product should be able to be used regularly and be of game character. Three prominent categories were identified as extra important to include in our prototype; counter strategies, the definition of online hate speech and gender issues. Following the results from the project, a prototype was created for an interactive game in the form of a mobile application with integrated discussion in the classroom.

  • 596.
    Albemo, Rebecca
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Wilhelmsson, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Forsberg, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Sanning eller sensation?: En kvalitativ jämförelse av SVT Nyheter och Aftonbladets rapportering av mordfall2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how reporting of murder cases differs from SVT Nyheter and Aftonbladet's web reporting. To answer our question, we have conducted a qualitative text analysis with elements of critical discourse analysis and framing theory, on two articles from each news service. The texts of the articles have been examined with focus on word choice and linguistic actions. We have analyzed the underlying meanings of the text, how emotive words are used and how victims, perpetrators and potential secondary actors have been framed in the reporting.

    We have chosen the Kim Wall case as our empirical material. It contains several spectacular details, and both the perpetrator and the victim are known in the past. This helps the reporting to be formed in a variety of ways, making our research particularly interesting.

    Previous research shows that journalism tends to become more entertaining and dramatized, because sensationalism has a prominent role in journalism. At the same time, crime and journalism are considered to be an inseparable couple, which together form a separate area of coverage in journalism.

    The result of our analysis shows that there are clear differences in the reporting between public service and commercial evening paper. SVT Nyheter is more factual in their reporting, and relates only to facts, while Aftonbladet builds their articles more like a story with connections to popular culture. The analysis also suggests that both news services assign a significantly greater focus to the perpetrator than the victim.

  • 597.
    Alberg, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Utredningsarbete och åtgärdsprogram: En gruppintervjustudie baserad på tre pedagogers tankar och känslor kring processen att utföra utredningsarbete och formulera åtgärdsprogram2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 598. Albert, Lars
    et al.
    Fredriksson, Odd
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Effektivisering av golvbranschen. En studie av struktur och lönsamhet samt några idéer till förändringar1986Report (Refereed)
  • 599. Albertsson, A.
    et al.
    Johansson-Hidén, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Värmlandskliniken. Utvecklingsansvar åt alla1991Report (Other academic)
  • 600. Albertsson, Anders
    et al.
    Dackell, David
    Olika intressegruppers attityd till revisionsberättelsen och hur denna är utformad2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I det kunskapsintensiva samhälle vi lever i blir informationen en allt mer betydelsefull faktor. Intressenter ställer olika krav på vilken information som ska kunna utläsas från årsredovisningen. Till följd av intressenternas olika informationsbehov har ett standardiseringskrav uppstått på hur årsredovisningen ska utformas. Innan ett företags årsredovisning offentliggörs ska den granskas av en oberoende revisor. Syftet med revisionen är i första hand att se om ett företags affärshändelser har redovisats rätt och om de redovisade siffrorna ger en riktig bild av företaget. Utöver det ska även revisorn granska hur styrelse och verkställande direktör har skött förvaltningen av företaget. Målet för revisionen är att den ska utmynna och presenteras i en revisionsberättelse. Uppsatsen behandlar olika intressegruppers attityd till revisionsberättelsen och hur denna är utformad. Denna problemställning besvaras med hjälp av tre valda intressegrupper; investerare, långivare och skattemyndigheten. Den ansats som väljs är av kvalitativ karaktär. Uppsatsen byggs upp från enskilda intervjuer med respektive respondent från varje intressegrupp. Tre intervjuer genomförs utifrån ett s.k. strategiskt urval. Samtliga intervjuer genomförs och systematiseras inom loppet av sex dagar. Vi lyfter ut de resonemang som de intervjuade anknyter till temat i fråga. Med utgångspunkt från vad varje person svarar inom respektive tema jämförs svaren. Anledningen till detta är att göra en tolkning av hur de intervjuade förhåller sig till ett tema. De tre sammanställningarna med de olika intressenterna kommer att brytas ned till en komprimerad sammanställning. I uppsatsens analysdel kopplar vi samman tolkning av intervjuer med den framtagna teorin. Med utgångspunkt från empiriskt material och relevanta teorier görs paralleller och analyser. Uppsatsen rundas av med ett slutsatskapitel. I slutsatskapitlet redovisar vi slutsatser som vi har kommit fram till under uppsatsens period. Här återknyts problemformulering och syfte med resultatet av studien.

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