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  • 5101.
    Åhs, Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Samuelsson, Viktor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Certifieringswebb2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the work performed to develop a web application, ranging from producing a requirements specification to the implementation and a demonstration of a prototype. The availability of a web application may come with various restrictions. The restriction in this case is that access is only given to employees at Sogeti Karlstad listed on the company's server. Access to the application by other offices in Sweden is not yet implemented.

    The goal of the development of this particular web application is to simplify the management of certificates currently using Excel spreadsheets and improve accessibility of the information for Sogeti employees.An important requirement was to create a sense of competition among employees in order to increase the number of certificates taken, which results in increased value for Sogeti as well as for those employees.

    In the last two chapters of the report, the project's technical and non-technical parts are evaluated both in their entirety and in some detail of different parts of the project. This information can be useful for future students about what to take into consideration before committing to a new project. All of the essential requirements in the requirement specification were fulfilled which led to a successful project.

  • 5102.
    Åkerberg, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Grützelius, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Munhygienvanor och intagsfrekvens av kariogen kost hos en grupp universitetsstudenter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Att ha goda munhygienvanor är viktigt för att hålla munsjukdomar som karies och parodontit borta. För att undvika att få karies är det också viktigt med goda kostvanor och att intagsfrekvens av kariogen kost inte sker för ofta.Syfte: Att undersöka munhygien- och kostvanor samt intagsfrekvensen av kariogen kost hos en grupp universitetsstudenter.Metod: En tvärsnittsstudie som genomfördes på 85 studenter vid ett universitet i Mellansverige med hjälp av ett frågeformulär innehållande 14 frågor.Resultat: Totalt deltog 85 studenter och fördelningen mellan könen var jämn. Svarsfrekvensen var låg då 43 procent svarade av de 199 tillfrågade. Av deltagarna var det 97 procent som borstade sina tänder två gånger per dag och majoriteten använde fluortandkräm. Cirka en tredjedel utförde approximal rengöring 1–2 gånger i månaden i övrigt varierade svaren. De allra flesta (68 %) åt tre huvudmål och de flesta (67 %) åt 1–2 gånger mellan huvudmålen. Beträffande söta drycker och sötsaker varierade intagen allt mellan inga intag till 2 gånger per dag.Konklusion: Studenternas tandborstsvanor och användning av fluortandkräm var goda. Mindre goda vanor sågs vid rengöring approximalt samt extra fluoranvändning. Det var varierade kostvanor bland studenterna där intagsfrekvensen av sötsaker var hög. Kommande studier bör innehålla en fullständig undersökning för att se hur munhygien- och kostvanor påverkar orala hälsan. Även fördjupade studier om extra fluoranvändning samt studier som jämför kunskaper, attityder och könsskillnader vore intressant.

  • 5103.
    Åkerman, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Norrman, Sofie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Effekter av massage på patienter inom den palliativa vården2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The main objective of palliative care is to sustain a good quality of life by supporting and relieving physical and psychological ailments. Massage therapy today is an accepted complement to conventional care. Aim: The aim of this study is to highlight patient descriptions of the effects of massage therapy within palliative care. Method: An integrated literature review was conducted where relevant keywords were combined in the data bases Amed, CINAHL, Scopus and PubMed. The material was reviewed, analyzed and resulted in 15 qualitative studies. Results: In the studies all patients experienced a positive effect from the massage therapy. Furthermore, there were few statistically significant improvements regarding depression, anxiety, pain, stress, sleep and well-being. Conclusions: It is hard to come to any general conclusions about the usefulness of massage therapy in palliative care when there were so few statistically significant effects. Even though patients reported positive effects more research is needed in the future to strengthen its evidence.

  • 5104.
    Åkerman Markgren, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utveckling av lastutrymme för ett konceptfordon: Utvecklingsprojekt för den designmässiga utformningen av ett måttdefinerat lastutrymme2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers a development project which goal is to produce one or more layout concepts of a measure defined boot compartment. This project is conducted as Bachelor of Science thesis within the bachelor engineering program of innovation technics and design in Karlstad University, Sweden.

    The assignment was supplied by Martin Larsson, managing director at Precer Autotech, a company that is developing a new type of hybrid vehicle that runs on solid fuels. This vehicle owns the dimensions of an average sized car, though is technically defined as a larger sized quad or ATV. Because of this, the vehicle in question is subject to several special factors regarding, for example, the ratio between weight and size.

    The project is going to provide part of the foundation on which this concept vehicle will be developed.

    The process of industrial design has pervaded this project, with methods and techniques originated from said process riddling the entirety of the project. Methods such as the use of a full scale mock-up have nuanced this project. From sessions of brainstorming to the development of concepts, this project has been using techniques and ways which has been a defining part of the university studies.

    The project resulted in one concept for totality of the measure defined boot compartment, which has shown to fulfill the demands of the project. The final concept solution has also been implemented in a full scale mock-up, which was a part of the project’s goals.

  • 5105.
    Åkerström, Ann-Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Adaptogener: En litteraturstudie om hur växter med påstått adaptogena effekter beskrivs i marknadsföring och forskning samt en bedömning av tillförlitligheten i åtta studier på rosenrot2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5106.
    Åkerstöm, Ann-Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Adaptogener: En litteraturstudie om hur växter med påstått adaptogena effekter beskrivs imarknadsföring och forskning samt en bedömning av tillförlitligheten i åtta studierpå rosenrot2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5107.
    Åkeson, Linus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Industry 4.0: Cyber-Physical Systems and their impact on Business Models.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 is one of the fastest growing topics amongst both practitioners and academics. To this day, no definition of Industry 4.0 has reached consensus. However, some definitions can be considered more correct than others and the most accurate one is summarized as “Industry 4.0 is a concept for creating value throughout the whole value-chain”. This has been made possible through digital solutions, advanced technologies, which often are associated with Industry 4.0. This thesis started off finding the key aspects of Industry 4.0 and through a literature review it was concluded to be Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) which will bring new innovative Business Models. The fundamental aspect of Industry 4.0 is data, data which has become available through the usage of CPS, data which will transform how business are conducted. This thesis aims to develop a better understanding for how CPS affects the Business Model.

    The thesis started with a literature review, investigating the value of information in a digitalized era. It was established that the value is found in the capability to monitor, remote control, optimize, and automate products and machines. Furthermore, it was also established through the literature review that manufacturing industries are becoming more services-focused and that value-creation is done through networking. Moreover, the Business Model Canvas was embraced as theoretical framework for what a business model should consist of.

    Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews with experts on the subject of Industry 4.0 and digitalization. The data was then compared to the theoretical framework.

    The results showed that CPS will not affect business models in any direct way as it is very well founded that the business model always should be based on the customer segment. However, CPS did have an indirect impact on business models i.e. through expected changes in customer relationships and distribution channels, but foremost, through changes regarding specialization and partnerships.

  • 5108.
    Åkesson, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Remmo, Selda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Egenvårds- och kostvanor hos en grupp 15-åringar med svensk och utländsk bakgrund: En enkätstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5109.
    Åkesson, Rebecca
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Elevers syn på kroppsideal.: En studie om elevers synsätt på sin kropp, kroppsideal och hur det förmedlas i ämnet idrott och hälsa.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to study how students reflect about their bodies, body image and how well they consider it being adressed in the swedish version of gym class ”idrott och hälsa”. The questions the essay would answer was: How do the students experience the teaching regarding body image in ”idrott och hälsa”? and How do the students perceive the society’s body image and how do they reason about their own bodies?

    The method which was used to study these questions was qauntitative and used surveys to gather the information. A total of 65 students from two different schools answered the survey.

    The curriculum for the swedish compulsory school from 2011 says that the student shall receive knowledge about societys and the sports body image. From the results of the survey about body image a majority of the students said they hadn’t fullfilled this specific proficiency of the curriculum for ”idrott och hälsa”.

     A majority of the students felt that the teachers never had talked about body image during ”idrott och hälsa”. The student thought that one shouldn’t live according to the society’s body image. But a majority of the students thought it was important to be fit in accordance with society’s body image and 42% of the students had atleast once used extreme training or slimming as a method to change their body. Social media was the highest ranked affect among the students. The results from the survey say that a major part of the students atleast once had compaired their body to someone else’s  and that the males were more satisfied with their bodies than the females. From the results you can draw the conclusion that there is a lack of knowledge about body image which are confirmed by the literatures. Now I know how important it is for me as a future teacher to teach the students about the proficiency of body image. The students are our future and they need to have rightful knowledge about body image. 

    Most of the results from the survey agree with earlier sciences that say that the body image of the young people are affected by society, their suroundings and their fellow people.

     

  • 5110.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fundamental and Regulatory Aspects of UHPLC in Pharmaceutical Analysis2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) provides a considerable increase in throughput compared to HPLC and a reduced solvent consumption. The implementation of UHPLC in pharmaceutical analysis, e.g. quality control, has accelerated in recent years and there is currently a mix of HPLC and UHPLC instrumentation within pharmaceutical companies. There are, however, technical and regulatory challenges converting a HPLC method to UHPLC making it difficult to take full advantage of UHPLC in regulatory-focused applications like quality control in pharmaceutical production.

    Using chromatographic modelling and fundamental theory, this thesis investigated method conversion between HPLC and UHPLC. It reports on the influence of temperature gradients due to viscous heating, pressure effects and stationary phase properties on the separation performance. It also presents a regulatory concept for less regulatory interaction for minor changes to approved methods to support efficient life cycle management.

    The higher pressure in UHPLC gave a retention increase of up to 40% as compared to conventional HPLC while viscous heating, instead, reduced retention and the net result was very solute dependent. Selectivity shifts were observed even between solutes with similar structure when switching between HPLC and UHPLC and an experimental method to predict such selectivity shifts was therefore developed. The peak shape was negatively affected by the increase in pressure for some solutes since secondary interactions between the solute and the stationary phase increased with pressure.

    With the upcoming ICH Q12 guideline, it will be possible for the industry to convert existing methods to UHPLC in a more flexible way using the deeper understanding and the regulatory concept presented here as a case example.

  • 5111.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Chutkowski, Marcin
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Polen.
    Leśko, Marek
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Polen.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Polen.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    A practical approach for predicting retention time shifts due to pressure and temperature gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography2017In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1479, p. 107-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large pressure gradients are generated in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using sub–2 μm particles causing significant temperature gradients over the column due to viscous heating. These pressure and temperature gradients affect retention and ultimately result in important selectivity shifts. In this study, we developed an approach for predicting the retention time shifts due to these gradients. The approach is presented as a step-by-step procedure and it is based on empirical linear relationships describing how retention varies as a function of temperature and pressure and how the average column temperature increases with the flow rate. It requires only four experiments on standard equipment, is based on straightforward calculations, and is therefore easy to use in method development. The approach was rigorously validated against experimental data obtained with a quality control method for the active pharmaceutical ingredient omeprazole. The accuracy of retention time predictions was very good with relative errors always less than 1% and in many cases around 0.5% (n = 32). Selectivity shifts observed between omeprazole and the related impurities when changing the flow rate could also be accurately predicted resulting in good estimates of the resolution between critical peak pairs. The approximations which the presented approach are based on were all justified. The retention factor as a function of pressure and temperature was studied in an experimental design while the temperature distribution in the column was obtained by solving the fundamental heat and mass balance equations for the different experimental conditions. We strongly believe that this approach is sufficiently accurate and experimentally feasible for this separation to be a valuable tool when developing a UHPLC method. After further validation with other separation systems, it could become a useful approach in UHPLC method development, especially in the pharmaceutical industry where demands are high for robustness and regulatory oversight.

  • 5112.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Evaluation of co-solvent fraction, pressure and temperature effects in analytical and preparative supercritical fluid chromatography2014In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1374, p. 254-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract A chemometric approach is used for studying the combined effect of temperature, pressure and co-solvent fraction in analytical and preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). More specifically, by utilizing design of experiments coupled with careful measurements of the experimental conditions the interaction between pressure, temperature and co-solvent fraction was studied with respect to productivity, selectivity and retention in chiral SFC. A tris-(3,5-dimethylphenyl) carbamoyl cellulose stationary phase with carbon dioxide/methanol as mobile phase and the two racemic analytes trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) and 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL) were investigated. It was found for the investigated model system that the co-solvent fraction and pressure were the parameters that most affected the retention factors and that the co-solvent fraction and column temperature were most important for controlling the selectivity. The productivity in the preparative mode of SFC was most influenced by the co-solvent fraction and temperature. Both high co-solvent fraction and temperature gave maximum productivity in the studied design space.

  • 5113.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Anders
    AstraZeneca R and D, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Poland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Analytical method development in the quality by design framework2014In: American Laboratory, ISSN 0044-7749, Vol. 46, no 9, p. 12-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of analytical methods in the Quality by Design (QbD) framework is currently gaining great momentum in the pharmaceutical industry. Presented here is a case study in which a pharmaceutical Quality Control (QC) method was developed using HPLC. The possibilities of continuous improvements during the method’s lifetime are demonstrated by switching to ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC).

  • 5114.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Lesko, Marek
    Rzeszow University of Technology.
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Forssén, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Rzeszow University of Technology.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Prediction of Overloaded Profiles in Gradient Elution Chromatography2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This poster is a compliment to the oral presentation “A new procedure for improved predictions of overloaded profiles in gradient elution”. In order to simulate the separation process in liquid chromatography the competitive adsorption isotherms need to be known. In gradient elution the adsorption isotherms are determined with isocratic experiments on different mobile-phase plateaus that covers the range used in the gradient program. This can lead to extreme retention times for some mobile-phase compositions and therefore it might even be impossible to determine all necessary adsorption data using the traditional isocratic approach. We present a method where single and competitive nonlinear adsorption isotherms are determined directly from overloaded elution profiles in gradient elution. The numerical coefficients in the adsorption isotherms are determined by the inverse method that minimizes the difference between the calculated and the experimental elution profiles. This is an extension of the inverse method where the need for tedious/impossible isocratic experiments is eliminated. The method is systematically verified using both synthetic and experimental data. Finally the new method is used to successfully predict elution profiles for a two-component mixture in gradient elution. The new method makes it possible to study the adsorption of substances whose retention factor vary strongly with the mobile-phase composition, like peptides and proteins, where the classic methods will fail. A similar situation occurs in SFC and the proposed approach could with modifications probably be used also there. This is a contribution from the Fundamental Separation Science Group www.FSSG.se

  • 5115.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Lesko, Marek
    Leek, Tomas
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Estimation of Nonlinear Adsorption Isotherms in Gradient Elution RP-LC of Peptides in the Presence of an Adsorbing Additive2017In: Chromatographia, ISSN 0009-5893, E-ISSN 1612-1112, Vol. 80, no 6, p. 961-966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In electrostatic repulsive interaction chromatography, using a charged surface hybrid sorbent carrying positive charges can improve the peak shape of peptides in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC), especially in overloaded conditions, compared with standard C-18 sorbents. However, the positive surface charges can interact with anionic additives commonly used in peptide separations, e.g., trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), complicating adsorption isotherm estimation. We investigated how the competition for available adsorption sites between TFA and two peptides influenced the adsorption isotherm in gradient elution. A model accounting for the competition with TFA was compared with a model neglecting TFA adsorption. We found that the two models predicted elution profiles with the same accuracy. We also found that the adsorption isotherms were extremely similar in shape, leading to the conclusion that neglecting the competition with TFA is a valid approximation enabling faster and more robust adsorption isotherm estimation for the studied type of sorbent.

  • 5116.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Leśko, Marek
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, Rzeszów, Poland.
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, Rzeszów, Poland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Fast estimation of adsorption isotherm parameters in gradient elution preparative liquid chromatography. I: The single component case2013In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1299, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inverse method is a numeric method for fast estimation of adsorption isotherm parameters directly from overloaded elution profiles. However, it has previously only been used for isocratic experiments. Here we will extend the inverse method so it can be used for gradient elution too. This extended inverse method will make it possible to study the adsorption of substances whose retention factor vary strongly with the mobile-phase composition, like peptides and proteins, where the classic methods will fail. Our extended inverse method was verified using both simulations and real experiments. For simulated overloaded elution profiles we were able to determine almost exact Langmuir adsorption isotherm parameters with the new approach. From real experimental data, bi-Langmuir adsorption parameters were estimated using both the perturbation peak method and the extended inverse method. The shape of the acquired adsorption isotherms did match over the considered concentration range; however, the adsorption isotherm parameters found with the two methods were not the same. This is probably due to the fact that adsorption isotherm estimated with the inverse method is only a good approximation up to the highest eluted concentration in the used chromatograms. But this is not a serious drawback from a process point of view where the main objective is to make accurate predictions of elution profiles. The bi-Langmuir adsorption isotherm obtained with both methods could accurately predict the shape of overloaded elution profiles.

  • 5117.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Leśko, Marek
    Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology.
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Fast estimation of adsorption isotherm parameters in gradient elution preparative liquid chromatography. II: The competitive case2013In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1314, no Nov, p. 70-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Experimental competitive adsorption isotherms were successfully determined directly from overloaded elution profiles in gradient elution mode using an extended inverse method. This approach differs from the existing methods in one important aspect – no isocratic experiments are necessary which makes it possible to study adsorption of substances whose retention factors vary strongly with the mobile-phase composition. The approach was verified with simulated binary data and with experimental data from gradient separations of a cyclohexanone/cycloheptanone mixture. For the synthetic data, the original adsorption isotherm parameters were found using a two-step estimation procedure. In the first step analytical peaks were used to estimate the “analytical” part of the Langmuir equation and in the second step the association equilibrium parameters were estimated from two simulated overloaded elution profiles. For the experimental data, a three-step approach was used. The two first steps were used to reduce the calculation time so that parameter estimation could be performed on an ordinary computer. In the first step, analytical peaks were used to estimate the “analytical” part of the bi-Langmuir equation. In the second step, initial guesses for all other parameters were determined separately for each solute using the faster Rouchon algorithm. In the final and third step, the more accurate orthogonal collocation on finite elements algorithm, was used to fine-tune the isotherm parameters. The model could accurately predict the shape of overloaded elution profiles. The shape of the adsorption isotherms agreed well with those determined with the standard isocratic method, although the numerical values were not the same. The extended inverse method is well suited for process optimization where few experiments and accurate predictions are important.

  • 5118.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Leśko, Marek
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, PL-35 959 Rzeszów, Poland.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, PL-35 959 Rzeszów, Poland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. I. A thermodynamic perspective2014In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1362, p. 206-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first investigation in a series that aims to enhance the scientific knowledge needed for reliable analytical method transfer between HPLC and UHPLC using the quality by design (QbD) framework. Here, we investigated the differences and similarities from a thermodynamic point of view between RP-LC separations conducted with 3.5 μm (HPLC) and 1.7 μm (UHPLC) C18 particles. Three different model solutes and one pharmaceutical compound were used: the uncharged cycloheptanone, the cationic benzyltriethylammonium chloride, the anionic sodium 2-naphatlene sulfonate and the pharmaceutical compound omeprazole, which was anionic at the studied pH. Adsorption data were determined for the four solutes at varying fractions of organic modifier and in gradient elution in both the HPLC and UHPLC system, respectively. From the adsorption data, the adsorption energy distribution of each compound was calculated and the adsorption isotherm model was estimated. We found that the adsorption energy distribution was similar, with only minor differences in degree of homogeneity, for HPLC and UHPLC stationary phases. The adsorption isotherm model did not change between HPLC and UHPLC, but the parameter values changed considerably especially for the ionic compounds. The dependence of the organic modifier followed the same trend in HPLC as in UHPLC. These results indicates that the adsorption mechanism of a solute is the same on HPLC and UHPLC stationary phases which simplifies design of a single analytical method applicable to both HPLC and UHPLC conditions within the QbD framework.

  • 5119.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Leśko, Marek
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Anders
    AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Mölndal.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Combining Chemometric Models with Adsorption Isotherm Measurements to Study Omeprazole in RP-LC2016In: Chromatographia, ISSN 0009-5893, E-ISSN 1612-1112, Vol. 79, no 19, p. 1283-1291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of the proton-pump inhibitor omeprazole was investigated using RP-LC with chemometric models combined with adsorption isotherm modelling to study the effect of pH and type of organic modifier (i.e., acetonitrile or methanol). The chemometric approach revealed that omeprazole was tailing with methanol and fronting with acetonitrile along with increased fronting at higher pH. The increased fronting with higher pH for acetonitrile was explored using a pH-dependent adsorption isotherm model that was determined using the inverse method and it agreed well with the experimental data. The model indicated that the peaks exhibit more fronting at high pH due to a larger fraction of charged omeprazole molecules. This model could accurately predict the shape of elution profiles at arbitrary pH levels in the studied interval. Using a two-layer adsorption isotherm model, the difference between acetonitrile and methanol was studied at the lowest pH at which almost all omeprazole molecules are neutral. Omeprazole had adsorbate–adsorbate interactions that were similar in strength for the acetonitrile and methanol mobile phases, while the solute–adsorbent interactions were almost twice as strong with methanol. The difference in the relative strengths of these two interactions likely explains the different peak asymmetries (i.e., tailing/fronting) in methanol and acetonitrile. In conclusion, thermodynamic modelling can complement chemometric modeling in HPLC method development and increase the understanding of the separation.

  • 5120.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Mikael
    Olsson, Susanne
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Svensson, Olof
    Klick, Silke
    Ennis, Julie
    Butterworth, Paul
    Watt, Denise
    Iliadou, Stavroula
    Karlsson, Angelica
    Walker, Joanne T.
    Arnot, Kate
    Ealer, Norb
    Hernqvist, Kerstin
    Svensson, Karin
    Grinell, Ali
    Quist, Per-Ola
    Karlsson, Anders
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    A quality control method enhancement concept: Continual improvement of regulatory approved QC methods2016In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 129, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality Control methods (QC-methods) play an important role in the overall control strategy for drug manufacturing. However, efficient life-cycle management and continual improvement are hindered due to a variety of post-approval variation legislations across territories and a lack of harmonization of the requirements. As a result, many QC-methods fall behind the technical development. Developing the QC-method in accordance with the Quality by Design guidelines gives the possibility to do continual improvements inside the original Method Operable Design Region (MODR). However, often it is necessary to do changes outside the MODR, e.g. to incorporate new technology that was not available at the time the original method was development. Here, we present a method enhancement concept which allows minor adjustments, within the same measuring principle, outside the original MODR without interaction with regulatory agencies. The feasibility of the concept is illustrated by a case study of a QC-method based on HPLC, assumed to be developed before the introduction of UHPLC, where the switch from HPLC to UHPLC is necessary as a continual improvement strategy. The concept relies on the assumption that the System Suitability Test (SST) and failure modes are relevant for other conditions outside the MODR as well when the same measuring principle is used. It follows that it should be possible to move outside the MODR as long as the SST has passed. All minor modifications of the original, approved QC-method must be re-validated according to a template given in the original submission and a statistical equivalence should be shown between the original and modified QC-methods. To summarize, revalidation is handled within the pharmaceutical quality control system according to internal change control procedures, but without interaction with regulating agencies.

  • 5121.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    A fundamental study of the impact of pressure on the adsorption mechanism in reversed-phase liquid chromatography2016In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1457, p. 97-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental investigation of the pressure effect on individual adsorption sites was undertaken based on adsorption energy distribution and adsorption isotherm measurements. For this purpose, we measured adsorption equilibrium data at pressures ranging from 100 to 1000 bar at constant flow and over a wide concentration range for three low-molecular-weight solutes, antipyrine, sodium 2-naphthalenesulfonate, and benzyltriethylammonium chloride, on an Eternity C18 stationary phase. The adsorption energy distribution was bimodal for all solutes, remaining clearly so at all pressures. The bi-Langmuir model best described the adsorption in these systems and two types of adsorption sites were identified, one with a low and another with a high energy of interaction. Evidence exists that the low-energy interactions occur at the interface between the mobile and stationary phases and that the high-energy interactions occur nearer the silica surface, deeper in the C18 layer. The contribution of each type of adsorption site to the retention factor was calculated and the change in solute molar volume from the mobile to stationary phase during the adsorption process was estimated for each type of site. The change in solute molar volume was 2-4 times larger at the high-energy site, likely because of the greater loss of solute solvation layer when penetrating deeper into the C18 layer. The association equilibrium constant increased with increasing pressure while the saturation capacity of the low-energy site remained almost unchanged. The observed increase in saturation capacity for the high-energy site did not affect the column loading capacity, which was almost identical at 50- and 950-bar pressure drops over the column. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5122.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Lesko, Marek
    Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, PL-35 959 Rzeszów, Poland.
    Cavazzini, Alberto
    Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, IT-44 121 Ferrara, Italy.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, PL-35 959 Rzeszów, Poland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. II. Temperature and pressure effects2015In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1401, p. 52-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the generated temperature and pressure gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are investigated and compared to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug Omeprazole, together with three other model compounds (with different chemical characteristics, namely uncharged, positively and negatively charged) were used. Calculations of the complete temperature profile in the column at UHPLC conditions showed, in our experiments, a temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of 16 degrees C and a difference of 2 degrees C between the column center and the wall. Through van't Hoff plots, this information was used to single out the decrease in retention factor (k) solely due to the temperature gradient. The uncharged solute was least affected by temperature with a decrease in k of about 5% while for charged solutes the effect was more pronounced, with k decreases up to 14%. A pressure increase of 500 bar gave roughly 5% increase in k for the uncharged solute, while omeprazole and the other two charged solutes gave about 25, 20 and 15% increases in k, respectively. The stochastic model of chromatography was applied to estimate the dependence of the average number of adsorption/desorption events (n) and the average time spent by a molecule in the stationary phase (tau(s)) on temperature and pressure on peak shape for the tailing, basic solute. Increasing the temperature yielded an increase in n and decrease in tau(s) which resulted in less skew at high temperatures. With increasing pressure, the stochastic modeling gave interesting results for the basic solute showing that the skew of the peak increased with pressure. The conclusion is that pressure effects are more pronounced for both retention and peak shape than the temperature effects for the polar or charged compounds in our study. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5123.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Weinmann, Annika Langborg
    AstraZeneca, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, Innovat Med & Early Dev Biotech Unit, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Leek, Tomas
    AstraZeneca, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, Innovat Med & Early Dev Biotech Unit, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Lewis, Richard J.
    AstraZeneca, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, Innovat Med & Early Dev Biotech Unit, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Klarqvist, Magnus
    AstraZeneca, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, Innovat Med & Early Dev Biotech Unit, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Lesko, Marek
    Rzeszow Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Proc Engn, PL-35959 Rzeszow, Poland..
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Rzeszow Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Proc Engn, PL-35959 Rzeszow, Poland..
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    The importance of ion-pairing in peptide purification by reversed-phase liquid chromatography2017In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1496, p. 80-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption mechanism for three peptides was studied under overloaded conditions through adsorption isotherm measurements in the presence of an ion-pairing reagent, trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), on an end-capped C18-bonded stationary phase. The overall aim of the study was to obtain a better understanding of how the acetonitrile and the TFA fractions in the eluent affected the overloaded elution profiles and the selectivity between peptides using mechanistic modelling and multivariate design of experiments. When studying the effect of TFA, direct evidence for ion pair formation between a peptide and TFA in acetonitrile-water solutions was provided by fluorine-proton nuclear Overhauser NMR enhancement experiments and the adsorption of TFA on the stationary phase was measured by frontal analysis. The adsorption isotherms for each peptide were then determined by the inverse method at eight TFA concentrations ranging from 2.6 mM to 37.3 mM (0.02–0.29 vol-%) in isocratic elution. The equilibrium between the peptide ion and the peptide-TFA complex was modelled by coupling the mass-balance to reaction kinetics and determining separate adsorption isotherms for the two species. We found that a Langmuir isotherm described the elution profile of peptide-TFA complex well while the peptide ion was described by a bi-Langmuir adsorption isotherm since it exhibited strong secondary interactions. The elution profiles had an unfavorable shape at low TFA concentrations consisting of a spike in their front and a long tailing rear due to the secondary interactions for the peptide ion having very low saturation capacity. The acetonitrile dependence on the adsorption isotherms was studied by determination of adsorption isotherms directly from elution profiles obtained in gradient elution which enabled a broad acetonitrile interval to be studied. Here, it was found that the column saturation capacity was quickly reached at very low acetonitrile fractions and that there were significant variations in adsorption with the molecular weight. Finally, practical implications for method development are discussed based on an experimental design where gradient slope and TFA concentrations are used as factors. (c) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 5124.
    Åsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Artursson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    3D-visualisering i arbetet med vårdverksamhet: En studie om användandet av 3D-visualisering i produktbestämningsskedet2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how 3D visualization can facilitate work with users in the product determination stage. It focuses on how 3D visualization can improve the communication between a projects organization and healthcare. The study was conducted at the Central Hospital in Karlstad, the study was made for the Värmland County Council and ByggDialog AB was preceptors. In this project called CSK 2013 building information modeling, BIM, was used. Mainly in the form of a joint object-based 3D model where all the different technical disciplines blueprints are included.

    This study´s underlying problem is how the communication with the healthcare and their understanding of the projects design can be strengthened. This is to reduce the amount of errors that need to be addressed post-production.

    Which leads to the objectives of the study: (i) design a review meeting of construction documents with the healthcare with the intent to obtain qualitative feedback on the project by increasing their understanding by using 3D visualization. (ii) examine if the use of 3D visualization facilitates the work and communication between the healthcare and the projects organization.

    An effective communication between users and a projects organization makes it possible to detect problems and flaws in the design at an earlier stage, thus reducing costs for the project.

    The survey consisted of interviews, observations and analysis of the designed review meeting where 3D visualization was used. The design was done through a number of actions that were developed together with projects managers. Shortcomings in the existing meeting model was discovered by an observation of an earlier review meeting and interviews. The actions were aimed at solving these problems by creating a clear structure for the designed meeting. The target group for the interviews were the involved healthcare personnel, employees of the County Council and other project participants. Interviews were conducted both before and after the meeting to evaluate the performance of 3D visualization and the developed actions.

    The result of the study shows that 3D visualization facilitates the healthcare personnel’s understanding significantly compared with 2D blueprints. 3D-visualization results in several improvements; the healthcare gets a clearer picture of the design, flaws that needs corrections are detected more easily and useful solutions can be found immediately at meetings. These improvements leads to the conclusion that 3D models are a better basis for decisions at review meetings than 2D blueprints.

    The developed meeting model solved the existing flaws, created a clear structure and an efficient 3D visualization. All interviewees thought the meeting was an improvement on the past. It has emerged during the study that the business has difficulty understanding 2D drawings and they felt that 3D visualization simplified work process. Although the project organization stated that 3D visualization along with meeting the model was an improvement. These improvements were implemented directly in the project organization. Based on the obtained measures for the meeting some general aids were produced that the project organization easily can use in their further work.

    The conclusion of this study, it is recommended to use 3D visualization work with users in product determination stage.

  • 5125.
    Åsberg, Julia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Sundeborn, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    BHV-sjuksköterskans erfarenheter vid misstanke om att barn far illa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Child abuse is a major problem that occurs in society. The concept of child maltreatment includes psychological and physical abuse, sexual abuse, negligence or exploitation of children leading to injury. The child health care nurse has an important role in detecting child maltreatment. Healthcare professionals are subject to the obligation to report to the social services immediately when they become aware of or suspect that a child is abused. Method: To respond to the purpose of the study, qualitative methodology has been used. Eight interviews have been conducted and then reviewed and transcribed. Content analysis has been used to review data collection.  Aim: Describe child health care nurses’ experience in suspicion that child is abused.  Result: In the interview material, five categories appeared in relation to child health nurses’ experiences. Through vigilance the child health nurse can identify signs that a child is abused. Question to identify different forms of abuse can be asked. Being the children’s spokesman was considered important for all informants. Feedback on a notified case from the relevant agencies was considered desirable.   Conclusion: The present study shows that participants feel safe to act when there are clear signs that a child is maltreated. There is a wish from the participants in the study on increased education in the subject and improved interaction between involved bodies.

  • 5126.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Hatami, Sepehr
    Sverea IVF, Gotenburg.
    Fredriksson, Wendy
    Bodycote Hot Isostatic Pressing AB.
    Influence of HIP on microstructure, pore elimination and tensile properties of SLM manufactured H13 tool steel2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5127.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Hatami, Sepehr
    Swerea IVF AB.
    Fredriksson, Wendy
    Bodycote Hot Isostatic Pressing.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Influence of post treatment on microstructure, porosity and mechanical properties of additive manufactured H13 tool steel2019In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 742, p. 584-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an attractive manufacturing technology in tooling applications. It provides unique opportunities to manufacture tools with complex shapes, containing inner channels for conformal cooling. In this investigation, H13, a widely used tool steel, was manufactured using a laser powder bed fusion method. Microstructure, tensile mechanical properties, hardness, and porosity of the AM H13 after stress relieve (SR), standard hardening and tempering (SR + HT), and hot isostatic pressing (SR + HIP + HT) were investigated. It was found that the microstructure of directly solidified colonies of prior austenite, which is typical for AM, disappeared after austenitizing at the hardening heat treatment. In specimens SR + HT and SR + HIP + HT, a microstructure similar to the conventional but finer was observed. Electron microscopy showed that SR and SR + HT specimens contained lack of fusion, and spherical gas porosity, which resulted in remarkable scatter in the observed elongation to break values. Application of HIP resulted in the highest strength values, higher than those observed for conventional H13 heat treated in the same way. The conclusion is that HIP promotes reduction of porosity and lack of fusion defects and can be efficiently used to improve the mechanical properties of AM H13 tool steel.

  • 5128.
    Åslund, Yvonne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Egenvårdsrådgivning angående smärta: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5129.
    Åstrand, Leon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Plan för implementering av strukturerat underhållsarbete på Valmet ABs gjuteri i Karlstad2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report is about setting up an Implementation plan for a structured maintenance work on Valmet ABs foundry in Karlstad. This work is the final part for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering and takes place at Karlstad University in the spring of 2014.

    Valmet has recently bought the foundry at Lamberget in Karlstad. The maintenance work is much neglected and in the current state there is no good structure. The maintenance work is in need of systemization and integration into Valmets other maintenance organization.

    The purpose of the project is to develop a plan Implementation plan for a structured maintenance work on Valmet ABs foundry in Karlstad.

    The project is divided into three phases.

    - Situational analysis through both interviews of maintenance personnel and identifying the current equipment

    - Create a vision of how they want to work with maintenance through benchmarking against other similar businesses, and literature studies

    - Establishment of a plan for how to get there. What activities to be performed and in what order

    The work is based on the methodology TPM (total productive maintenance). However it is not about an implementation of TPM, but limited to certain parts.

    From interviews with the maintenance staff at the foundry, observational studies and an identification study of the machinery, a situational analysis has been made. This situation analysis has shown the problems and challenges that exist in the maintenance department at the foundry.

    A vision of how they want to work with maintenance on the foundry has been drawn, based on study visits and interviews with management staff. It is most vital that emerged in this phase is the importance of management commitment to implement a process of change. A good communication both between the different departments and within the group is also vital.

    Using the two phases above, together with the theory processed during the project, a plan has been established for a more structured maintenance. The plan includes 12 stages that addresses the activities that should be implemented, and in what order, in order to get a better structure on maintenance work at the foundry at Valmet.

    The two single most important elements of the plan are, in my mind, to hire a person who is responsible for the daily operations of the maintenance work. As well as to implement the maintenance system AM-underhåll, so you can get a better structure to the maintenance work in the form of work orders, metrics and history.

  • 5130.
    Åström, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Vad kännetecknar ämnestexter? (inriktning fysik)2016Other (Other academic)
  • 5131.
    Öberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hållbar utveckling i förskolan: En jämförelse av det pedagogiska arbetet i förskolor med grön flagg och en vanliga förskolor2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examens arbete var mitt syfte att ta reda på hur man arbetar med hållbar utveckling i förskolor som har Grön flagg och i vanliga förskolor. Metoden som har används i undersökningen är kvalitativ intervju. Intervjuerna gjordes med 16 pedagoger, från fyra förskolor där av två förskolor med Grön flagg och de andra är vanliga förskolor. Syftet som jag hade med denna undersökningen är att jämföra hur pedagogerna arbetar med hållbar utvekling ur ett miljö perspektiv i förskolans verksamhet. I resultaten framgår det att det finns både likheter och skillnader. De likheter som jag finner i undersökningen är att samtliga förskolor arbetar med teman som är inriktat mot miljön. Den skillnad som jag finner i resultaten är att de förskolor som har Grön flagg arbetar enbart utifrån miljöarbete. De vanliga förskolorna arbetar inte enbart med ett miljöarbete i verksamheten.

  • 5132.
    Öberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Kiuru, Saga
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Att leva med endometrios2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5133.
    Öhléh, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Matematiklyftets effekter: En studie om Matematiklyftets effekter på lärares undervisning och ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper inom problemlösning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetets syfte är att undersöka vilka ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper, lärare som deltagit i Matematiklyftet, utvecklat och hur kompetensutvecklingen bidragit till deras undervisning. För att besvara frågeställningarna har lärare i årkurs 1–3, som deltagit i Matematiklyftet, intervjuats. Studien är avgränsad till undervisning i problemlösning och taluppfattning, därför har även en avgränsning i urvalet gjorts. De lärare som har intervjuats har deltagit i modulen problemlösning.  

    Matematiklyftets målsättning var bland annat att utveckla lärares ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper och på sikt öka elevernas måluppfyllelse i matematik. Studien visar att lärare som deltagit i Matematiklyftet har utvecklat ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper och nya metoder att använda i sin undervisning som berör problemlösning. I intervjuerna har lärare beskrivit hur deras undervisning och planering har påverkats av deras deltagande i Matematiklyftet. Analysarbetet av det empiriska materialet har lett fram till att specifika ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper identifierats och presenteras genom Ball, Thames och Phelps (2008) teorin för matematikundervisning (Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching).

  • 5134.
    Öhman, Frida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Läkemedelsbehandling med klomipramin och fluoxetin till hundar och katter med beteendestörningar: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5135.
    Öhrling, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Ensam är stark- eller bara mer försiktig?: En mixmetodologisk studie om dödsolyckor och risktagande i friluftslivsaktiviteter i svenska fjällen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en masteruppsats om dödsolyckor och risktagande inom friluftslivsaktiviteter i svenska fjällen. Syftet är att undersöka om det finns några skillnader i antal och karaktär mellan dödsolyckor med ensamma och de som har någon med sig, samt att undersöka vilka orsaker som kan ligga bakom eventuella skillnader och vad det kan säga om människors risktagande ensamma och i grupp. Detta undersöks med hjälp av två metoder. Det görs en kvantitativ sammanställning och analys av de dödsolyckor som faller inom studiens avgränsningar och har inträffat sedan år 2000. Därefter görs en kvalitativ innehållsanalys av ett antal semi-strukturerade intervjuer med fjällräddare och fjällräddningssamordnare. Ett tredje syfte är att lyfta fram andra intressanta aspekter och trender om människors risktagande i svenska fjällen som kommer fram i denna studie.

    Resultatet från analyserna visar att de flesta som omkommer inom friluftslivsaktiviteter i svenska fjällen har någon med sig. En stor förklarande orsak till detta är troligen att de flesta som rör sig i fjällen har någon med sig. Dock hittades vissa intressanta skillnader i karaktär mellan olyckor med ensamma och de som har någon med sig. Medan de främsta riskerna för ensamma är att de inte har någon som kan hjälpa dem och kanske inte klarar att larma själva, handlar det bland de som har någon med sig i högre grad om hur farlig miljön är och det rör sig om mer dramatiska olyckor. Ett visst belägg hittades för att detta kan bero på att människor tar lite större risker, ägnar sig åt lite farligare aktiviteter och besöker lite farligare platser när de har någon med sig. Något som kan förklaras med hjälp av teorin om riskkompensation, där människor ”matchar” nivån av säkerhet med nivån av risk.

    Andra intressanta aspekter som hittades i denna studie är exempelvis att ökad säkerhet och tillgänglighet i fjällen tycks leda till ökat risktagande; att sociala medier har en inverkan på risktagande i fjällen; samt att människor har alltmer bråttom och pressade scheman i fjällen, något som kan leda till ökat risktagande.

  • 5136.
    Öhrnell, Annica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Surfplattan - på en förskola: En fallstudie om surfplattans intåg i en förskoleverksamhet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5137.
    Öjehag-Pettersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Politics and History.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Local Government and Public Procurement: Organizational Trends and the Rise of New Bureaucrats in Sweden2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Swedish local government play a central role in welfare production and in handling environmental issues at large. In addition, they also plan the physical use of land and water areas within its territory. Accordingly, Swedish local government are crucial actors in driving sustainable development. During the last decades reform of local government has been taking place under the umbrella of New Public Management (NPM) following a pattern seen in most parts of the world entailing market inspired logics and values that subsumes political and democratic ambitions and tasks. The political rationalities underpinning NPM continues to exist and are well researched. There are, however, significant gaps. In particular, of studies concerning the politics of public procurement. In this paper we present an analysis where public procurement is understood more broadly, as a governmental technology, an instrument of governing associated with the rationalities of marketization and competition that continues to be more or less unquestioned as virtues in contemporary society. We assume that as such a technology it is not a neutral tool, but rather designed to realize particular understandings of how to govern and with what effects. The case we present is based on interviews with civil servants, consultants and politicians working with public procurement in Swedish local government. With the perceptions of our respondents as a base, we construct a narrative where three themes emerge as important: public procurement expansion; organizational change and centralization, and: the procurer as bureaucrat. We conclude that the importance and scope of public procurement within the larger local government organization has rapidly expanded, public procurement has been centralized and, perhaps most importantly, we witness the emergence of a new bureaucrat representing values not compatible with traditional Weberian understandings.

  • 5138.
    Öjehag-Pettersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Public Procurement as Marketisation: Impacts on Civil Servants and Public Administration in Sweden2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 43-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Swedish local government plays a central role in welfare production, providing some of the most crucial services to citizens. However, over the last decades there have been significant changes in how local governments are governed and how services are implemented. In many cases, these changes entail the promotion of rationalities and technologies associated with market-oriented principles and values as the primary means to providing welfare services. A central feature in this is public procurement. This phenomenon has been surprisingly absent from scholarly work that focuses on marketisation and the politics of public sector reform in Sweden. In this article, we present a case study based on interviews with actors involved in public procurement in Swedish local government. We provide insights into how public procurement sustains and expands the rationalities of marketisation. We conclude that the importance of public procurement has expanded, producing organisational changes and, perhaps most importantly, we are witnessing changes in the role of civil servants in Swedish public administration.

  • 5139.
    Ökvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Vadsten, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Hur operationssjuksköterskor upplever sig bevara värdighet hos patienter intraoperativt: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5140.
    Öman, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Klordioxid som metod för att förebygga Legionella i varmvattensystem2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots intensiv forskning sedan bakteriens upptäckt 1976 fortsätter Legionella orsaka problem i moderna VVS-installationer. Stora varmvattensystem är särskilt utsatta för att koloniseras av bakterien. Människor som exponeras för Legionellabakterier riskerar att insjukna i legionärssjukan som är en allvarlig form av lunginflammation. Det finns flera desinfektionsmetoder som används för att bekämpa och förhindra förekomst av Legionella men ingen universal lösning. Ett problem är att det saknas tydliga riktlinjer för hur desinficering av Legionella ska gå till. Det finns inte heller något krav att metoder som används ska följas upp och utvärderas på platser där de används. Det bidrar till att det finns okunskap om varför en del metoder fungerar och andra inte.

    En desinfektionsmetod som har fått ökat intresse och som använts på flera sjukhus runt om i Europa är klordioxid. Klordioxid har visat sig effektiv mot Legionella men användningen av den garanterar inte ett vatten fritt från bakterier. En svårighet är att Legionella kan både leva fritt i vattnet men också i amöbor och biofilm. För att komma åt både fritt levande Legionella och de som lever i värddjur rekommenderas det att halten klordioxid i varmvattensystem är mellan 0,3-0,5 mg/l. Forskning har visat att det kan vara svårt att uppnå en tillräckligt hög halt klordioxid när den används i varmvattensystem. För att kontrollera att desinfektion fungerar som den ska bör därför regelbundna vattenprover genomföras för att säkerhetsställa att antal bakterier i vattnet är låga samt att halten klordioxid ligger på rätt nivå.

    Denna studie har utförts på Karlstads Centralsjukhus där klordioxid har använts för att bekämpa Legionella i varmvattensystem i fem år. Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka hur sjukhusets metod mot Legionella fungerar då fall av legionärsjuka har inträffat efter påbörjad desinficering. Under våren 2016 undersöktes ett av sjukhusets tio varmvattensystem som desinficeras med klordioxid. Vatten från fyra till sex olika tappställen undersöktes. Mätplatserna valdes efter tillgänglighet och för att få mätplatser med varierade avstånd från doseringspunkten. Halten klordioxid och Legionellabakterier i varmvattnet mättes samt vattnets tryck och temperatur. Mätningar utfördes för två olika klordioxiddoseringar, 0,2 mg/l och 0,5 mg/l.

    Mätbara halter Legionella kunde påvisas i små koncentrationer (20 CFU/l) i vattnet vid en av mätplatserna. Övriga tre kontrollerade mätplatser innehöll inga mätbara halter bakterier vid mättillfället. Halten klordioxid i varmvattensystemet var genomgående låg studien igenom. För den ursprungliga klordioxiddoseringen 0,2 mg/l var den genomsnittliga uppmätta halten klordioxid ute i varmvattnet 0,06 mg/l. När klordioxiddoseringen ställdes om till 0,5 mg/l var den genomsnittliga uppmätta klordioxidhalten 0,08 mg/l. Resultaten tyder på att halten klordioxid i varmvattensystemet är otillräcklig för att bekämpa Legionellabakterier. Vad som orsakar den låga halten klordioxid i vattnet kunde inte fastställas. Möjliga orsaker är långa uppehållstider i undercentralen eller hög förekomst av klordioxidkonsumerande ämnen i vattnet. En annan teori är att de höga temperaturer som varmvattnet har påskyndar nedbrytningen av klordioxid.

    För att få klarhet i vad som orsakar den låga halten klordioxid bör en grundligare undersökning av varmvattensystemet utföras som innefattar fler mätplatser och mätparametrar. Det finns inga åtgärder som kan garantera att den avsedda klordioxidhalten i varmvattensystemet nås men chock-klorering är en möjlig lösning. Om de låga halter klordioxid kvarstår bör en modifiering av den aktuella metoden ske, alternativt ett byte till en annan desinfektionsmetod för att minimera riskerna för framtida fall av legionärsjuka. 

  • 5141.
    Örnborg, Madelene
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Basal expression i Mo, M1 och M2 makrofager samt bakterien Propionibacterium acnes påverkan på M0 makrofagers uttryck av CCL2,CCR2,CSF-1 och CSF-1R mRNA2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5142.
    Örnefors, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Olika arbetssätt och arbetsformer i matematikundervisningen: En kvalitativ studie om lärares val av arbetssätt och arbetsformer i matematikundervisningen i årskurserna 1-3.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to examine which working methods and forms of work some teachers for grades 1-3, describes that they use in mathematics teaching, what makes them choose the working methods and forms of work, and if their attitude to mathematics teaching changed in recent years. In order to examine this, qualitative interviews with six teachers have been implemented. It emerged that these teachers partly use a variety of working methods and multiple forms of work in their mathematics teaching even if this differs between different teachers. Their arguments to the choice of working methods and forms of work are that they believe that the chosen working method, or form of work, works based on their own experience and partly because it is timesaving but also that changes in working methods in other topics inspired. All teachers think they have changed their attitude to mathematics teaching in different ways.

  • 5143.
    Örtegren, Viola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Water jet steering concept: - evaluation of an environmental design, Part 12014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current hydraulic system that function as the power source for operating the water jet steering device, need to be located inside of the hull to avoid possible environmental damage. This will cause a height difference from where the power supply will be located and where the output is needed. The research of literature and the limitations given by Rolls-Royce laid the basis for the simulation work. The lever concept is a development of the original layout from Rolls-Royce. The current lever concept was formed by simulation of the individual parts it consists of. The modeling work is a starting point for further design changes and improved solutions depending on what results are achieved when simulation is performed on the parts. The modeling work is not part of this report but can be seen in the other master thesis “Water jet steering concept - evaluation of an environmental design, Part 2” which is not yet done but it will be soon. All simulations made are simplified and they are a solid starting point for further work with dimensioning, material selection and calculations. The results of the simulation show that further development is required before a theoretically functioning concept is achieved.

  • 5144.
    Örtenmark Nilsson, Elsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Kan vi räkna med läromedlen?: En innehållsanalys av två läroböcker i matematik för årskurs 1–3.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målen i kursplanen för matematik uttrycks som matematiska förmågor, vilket eleverna ska möta i undervisningen. Till de matematiska förmågorna räknas problemlösningsförmåga, begreppsförmåga, metodförmåga, kommunikationsförmåga och resonemangsförmåga. Läroböcker i matematikämnet har en starkt styrande roll och om undervisningen ska utgå från vad som står i böckerna är det viktigt att veta vad de innehåller samt vilka förmågor som eleverna tränar när de arbetar med dem. Syftet med min studie var att undersöka hur läromedel i matematik behandlar matematiska förmågor. Med kompetensperspektiv som teoretisk utgångspunkt genomfördes en komparativ innehållsanalys bestående av två läromedel – Favorit Matematik och Matte Direkt Safari. Läromedlens uppgifter analyserades i förhållande till MCRF (Lithner et al., 2010) och analysguide för matematiska förmågor (Säfström, 2013). Analysen visade att Favorit matematik ger störst chans att öva på respektive förmåga men att procedurförmågan domineras i de båda läromedlen. För att eleverna ska utveckla de övriga matematiska förmågorna bör läraren ha en aktiv roll, använda sig av de förslag och extra aktiviteter som finns i lärarhandledningen samt ge utrymme till eleverna att resonera och kommunicera. 

  • 5145.
    Östberg, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Kvarnlöf, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    The hemicellulose content in two chemical pulps and its influence on Fock´s test and the gamma number of the resulting viscose dope2013In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 4p. 377-380Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5146.
    Österback, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Varför individanpassas matematikundervisningen?: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hur och varför undervisningen i matematik egentligen individanpassas för elever i årskurs 1-3.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien gjordes för att ta reda på varför lärare gör individanpassningar i klassrummen och hur de gör dem. I studien intervjuades tio lärare i de lägre åldrarna för att få höra om deras syfte med att individanpassa undervisningen och hur de gjorde det. Resultatet visade att många anpassar för att skapa en bättre arbetsro i klassrummet men även för att eleverna ska få hjälp att nå sina mål och de uppsatta kunskapskraven.

  • 5147.
    Österberg, Isabelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Gymnasieelevers relation till fysik: En kvalitativ studie berörande intresse, motivation och attityder inom fysikundervisningen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that students’ interest in physics has been reduced over the last decades, both nationally and internationally. The purpose of this study is to examine students’ relationship with physics and thus investigate how the physics education in upper secondary school could improve.

    Qualitative interviews were used as research method. The results indicate that students find the physics courses interesting, and that they generally have a positive attitude towards the subject. Nevertheless, they find the education hard and stressful. Furthermore, the study shows that the teachers have a great impact on students’ interests and attitudes. The students have difficulties seeing the relevance of the course and they request more connections to their everyday life, new technology and society. The students appreciate associations to media and enjoy both observing and practicing experiments. The study indicates that stereotypical prejudices, such as social awkwardness, exist about people who are devoted to their studies. However, the informants consider it admirable to be successful within the area of physics. Having a profession related to physics is associated with high status, intelligence and a high income.

    In conclusion, the education needs to be changed and adapted in order to stimulate students’ interests since students' interests and experiences have changed during the recent decades. Interest has an effect on motivation, and thus affects students' performance and future career choices.

  • 5148.
    Österdahl, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Hendo, Ilias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Themes in Totara: Creating and cloning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to give the reader an insight into the graphical interface of a Learning Management system, the theme, how it functions and its importance. The main point is how the creation of new themes can be done, and two different approaches are examined and compared.The use of learning management systems have been growing rapidly over the past years. Modern learning, be it basic school, higher education or professional training, is almost always supported by some learning management system where both instructors and participators share learning material, assignments, discussion, among other things.The theme of a learning management system is of great importance and can have a substantial impact on the efficiency of the actual learning process. Themes might also differ in their purpose, thus depending on the target audience, creating a specific theme might be desirable.The work done in this paper examines the structure and function of themes in the web based Totara learning management system, and looks at two different approaches to creating new themes. These approaches involve creating something from scratch, and cloning an already existing theme.The conclusion drawn from the work done in this paper is that the most efficient way of creating a new theme, is through cloning an already existing theme. Only when time and experience is plentiful, and a full control over the theme structure is desirable, is creating a theme from scratch a viable option.

  • 5149.
    Österdahl, Mathias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Slow sand filtration as a water treatment method: An inventorying study of slow sand filters purification rates in rural areas in Colombia2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clean water is essential for health and the living in general for humans. For some people the access of clean and fresh water is a simplicity but for others, the lack of clean water, especially in rural areas creates one of the biggest humanitarian problems in the world today. For example a child under the age of five dies every 20 seconds today, due to water-related diseases. For areas with widespread poverty and poor living conditions it has shown that the access of clean water is a fundamental factor in order to increase the living situation and for the area to start develop. UNESCO claims that is possible to extinguish about 10 % of all diseases worldwide by implementing water treatment methods and sanitation facilities in vulnerable areas in order to improve the water quality. And reports from WHO and UNESCO shows that there is a clear connection between access to clean water and economic growth for a developing country.

    One of the oldest methods of water treatment is slow sand filtration (SSF) also known as biological sand filtration (BSF). The method is adapted from nature’s own way of treating water by filtration and has been used artificially by humans since the beginning of the nineteenth century. The SSFs in this study is a simple two-tank system where one tank is filled with sand and gravel and the other tank is working as a water reservoir tank. Under suitable circumstances this type of slow sand filters is a very effective water treatment method purifying the water with both mechanical and biological processes.

    In a rural area where Rio las Ceibas is flowing in the region Huila in Colombia, an environmental authority called La CAM is running a project where SSFs is implemented as a water treatment method at individual households. La CAM is in need of a pre-study in order to inventory some filters in the valley, to find out the purification rate of the filters and to get recommendations for further development of the SSF project. The purpose of this study was to examine the general status of the SSFs, find out about the households maintenance routines and knowledge of the SSF and to evaluate if the water quality produced by the SSFs is at drinking standard according to chemical and biological parameters. The methods used for achieving this purpose was by practical examinations, performing interviews and analysing water samples from the SSF system.

    In general the filters purified the water very poor and some filters even made the drinking water more contaminated than the raw water inlet. The study showed that many filters could reduce some of the chemical and biological parameters but no filter produced water according to the recommended drinking standard. The filters was most effective against turbidity and some filters reduced coliform bacteria very effectively. The filters general status was good but almost no filter had the required sand height or grain size. The interview study showed that the households considered clean water to be important in their homes and consider the SSF to have facilitated their lives. The households had some knowledge how the SSF function but had in general no routines on cleaning or maintaining the filter.

    For continued development of the SSF project it’s recommended to fill the filters with finer sand grains (0,2 – 0,45 mm), to at least a sand height of 40 cm, to spread more knowledge about maintenance of the filters and to continue to keep a regularly contact with the households to monitoring the status of the filters and also to maintain the relation between the household and the authority.

  • 5150.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Uppsala universitet.
    van Bommel, Jorryt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Utvärdering av Matematiklyftets resultat: slutrapport2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Matematiklyftet är en fortbildning för alla lärare i Sverige som undervisar i matematik. Den genomfördes 2012-2016. Kärnan i fortbildningen var det kollegiala lärandet. Lärare arbetade tillsammans med olika moduler som var och en bestod av didaktiskt material att använda vid planering, diskuss-ioner och genomförande av matematikundervisning, samt vid kollegiala reflektioner och diskussioner. Genom modulerna belystes primärt fyra olika didaktiska perspektiv: (1) att undervisa matematik utifrån förmågorna, (2) bedömning för lärande och undervisning i matematik, dvs. formativ bedömning, (3) rutiner/interaktioner i klassrummet och (4) klassrumsnormer/sociomatematiska normer.

    Denna rapport presenterar en utvärdering av Matematiklyftets resultat där det undersökts i vilken utsträckning Matematiklyftet har bidragit till att utveckla en bestående undervisningskultur och en bestående fortbildningskultur. Utvärderingen syftar också till att identifiera faktorer som gynnar eller missgynnar Matematiklyftets resultat och ska även fungera både formativt och summativt. Det innebär att både slutsatser om hur Matematiklyftet har uppnått målen att utveckla undervisnings- och fortbildningskulturen och slutsatser om hur stöd till planeringar och genomförande av liknande fort-bildningssatsningar formuleras. Urvalet i utvärderingen består av 35 grund-och gymnasieskolor. På varje skola har tre lärare slumpmässigt valts ut att ingå i utvärderingen, dvs. totalt 105 lärare. I utvärderingen ingår också varje skolas rektor och representant för skolhuvudman. Skolorna har besökts vid två tillfällen för att kunna undersöka förändring i undervisnings- och fortbildningskultur. Datamaterialet består av observationer av matematiklektioner och av kollegiala samtal, intervjuer och enkäter med lärare och rektorer, samt intervjuer med representanter för skolhuvudmän. I datamaterialet ingår även insamlade dokument (t.ex. fortbildningsplaner och kopior av undervisningsmaterial) och bakgrundsinformation om de besökta skolorna (från externa databaser). Denna rapport utgör slutrapporten för utvärderingen av Matematiklyftets resultat. Nedan redovisas utvärderingens huvudsakliga resultat tillsammans med rekommendationer inför framtida fortbildningssatsningar av samma typ som Matematiklyftet.

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