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  • 51.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Ahmad, Awais
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Nöjd, Sture
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Hassan Sodhro, Ali
    Kristianstad Högskola.
    IoT in Elementary School for Everyone – A Research Plan2022Ingår i: Challenges of Trustable AI and Added-Value on Health / [ed] Brigitte Séroussi; Patrick Weber; Ferdinand Dhombres; Cyril Grouin; Jan-David Liebe; Sylvia Pelayo; Andrea Pinna; Bastien Rance; Lucia Sacchi; Adrien Ugon; Arriel Benis; Parisis Gallos, IOS Press, 2022, s. 955-956Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a tentative research plan to increase students’ mental health

    in elementary schools by implementing Internet of Things (IoT) technology. The

    research plan should answer how to support students’ mental health using IoT

    solutions and the critical factors influencing testbeds for IoT solutions with the

    previously mentioned purpose. Our intended research method is Design Science,

    which we plan to use stepwise.

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  • 52.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Zingmark, Magnus
    Östersunds kommun.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mittuniversitetet.
    A Transition Towards Digital Home Visits in Social Care and Home Health Care During the Corona Pandemic2021Ingår i: GLOBAL HEALTH 2021, The Tenth International Conference on Global Health Challenges, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the pandemic, physical meetings were supposed to decrease as much as possible to avoid the virus to spread. Before the pandemic, the physical meeting favoured social care and home health care in Sweden. One solution was to digitize as many of these meetings as possible. Therefore, we investigated this transition in a web survey, including questions with predetermined and open-ended answers. The web-survey was sent to co-workers in home health care and social care in a middle-seized municipality in Sweden. The results showed that not all meetings could be transformed, like meetings with citizens with hearing or cognitive impairments. Challenges related to the transformation were instability in technical equipment, the professionals’ and citizens’ knowledge of handling technical equipment, and access to technical equipment support. Despite this did the co-workers digitize meetings whenever possible, adding operational and problem-solving attitude to the transformation. Due to this study’s limitation, like respondents from one municipality and the pandemic’s length, we intend to investigate further and understand the development of the transformation and how knowledge in the area increases.

  • 53.
    Ahlqvist, Klas
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Norell, Per-Ivar
    Karlstads universitet.
    Har vi verkligen ett säkert beteende på internet?: En kvalitativ studie om hur användare hanterar lösenord på internet och varför de gör som de gör.2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: För att kunna använda möjligheterna som internet erbjuder krävs i många fall ett användarkonto som identifierar och autentiserar användaren. En förutsättning för att det ska vara säkert är att ingen annan har tillgång till användarens kontouppgifter, vilket ställer krav på att användaren har komplexa och unika lösenord. Syfte: I denna studie har vi undersökt vilken kunskap användare har kring säkra lösenord, hur de agerar samt undersökt varför de agerar som de gör. Metod: Studien är genomförd som en kvalitativ intervjustudie med 12 respondenter i varierande ålder och bakgrund. Resultat: Våra resultat visar att användarens kunskaper ofta bygger på äldre, ej längre aktuella, rekommendationer. De har även bristande kunskaper om vad en lösenordsgenerator eller lösenordshanterare är och hur de fungerar. Kunskapsbristerna, kombinerat med önskan om att det ska gå snabbt, medför att användarna ej genomför korrekta hot- och konsekvensbedömningar av riskerna på internet. Diskussion/Slutsats: Kunskaperna hos användarna behöver höjas för att minska riskerna de utsätter sig för. Teknikutvecklingen går fort och ökad kunskap och medvetenhet krävs för ett säkert agerande på internet.

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  • 54.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Technology Acceptance of an Online Speech and Language Assessment Application for Stroke Patients - the Medical Caregivers’ Viewpoints2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke is a globally increasing disease and speech and language deficiencies are common in stroke survivors. To facilitate medical caregivers in their professional work and to improve patients’ quality of life, technology can play an important role.  However, the use and acceptance of technology are uncertain and more research is needed in this direction. This study evaluates the technology acceptance and adoption of an online speech and language assessment application. The evaluation focused Design Science Research strategy was adopted for that purpose. Two physiotherapists, one occupational therapist and three speech therapists participated in the study. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was used as the theoretical base for interview questions formation and data analysis. The study findings show that the suggested application is useful and easy to use; however, it should be more synchronised with speech therapists’ daily work routines. The speech therapists stressed that functionalities of the application should be designed in close collaboration with them, and it should be compatible with the already existing systems and services in place.  Due to the impairments after stroke, the patients have some specific preferences for software and hardware such as a tablet with touch pen is the preferred hardware. Additionally, the interface should have bigger text fonts and pictures, and highly contrastive colours in the graphics should be used for patients’ convenience. The user’s privacy and security, patient’s current health, and their previous knowledge and experience about technology were also found important determinants for intention to use the given technology. 

  • 55.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University.
    The Technology-Enhanced Requirements for the Three-Fold Stroke Rehabilitation to Support Independent Living2020Ingår i: Information and Communication Technologies for Ageing Well and e-Health: ICT4AWE 2019I / [ed] Martina Ziefle, Leszek A. Maciaszek, Springer, 2020, s. 142-159Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke is a common and severe disease that can be found in all regions across the globe, and not onlyamong older adults. Result of a stroke can be death, or a variety of disabilities caused by impairments indifferent brain functions. This chapter discusses technology enhanced stroke rehabilitation from a threefoldview of cognitive, motoric and speech rehabilitation. The important research question was: Whatwould be the requirements for technology-enhanced stroke rehabilitation in the areas of cognitive, motoricand speech rehabilitation? The study was carried out with a requirement-focused Design Science approachcollecting data with semi-structured interviews. Informants were selected in a purposive sampling choosingprofessionals with valuable knowledge and skills in stroke rehabilitation. The findings in this study havegenerated useful general requirements for a future implementation and testing of technology enhancedstroke rehabilitation. Within each of the three rehabilitation categories cognitive, motoric and speech, thereseems to be potential for successful use of technology enhanced services. This development ofrehabilitation services must follow the fundamental principle for all forms of stroke rehabilitation: eachpatient needs a personalised treatment. However, in all three rehabilitation categories, there is a need todefine more specific requirements based on feedback from stroke patients testing the rehabilitationservices.

  • 56.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Factors Influencing Acceptance of Technology-enhanced Speech and Language Relearning for Stroke Survivors – A Systematic Review2021Ingår i: ICSLT 2021: Proceedings of the 2021 7th International Conference on e-Society, e-Learning and e-Technologies, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2021, s. 86-91Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech and language loss is the most common disease for stroke survivors. The process of relearning communication skills is difficult and a time taking process. Technology-enhanced systems (TES) can be useful in speech and language relearning, however, the acceptance and usability of TES for stroke patients have been a matter of concern and more research is needed in this area. This study is therefore aimed to explore the factors that might influence the acceptance of technology-enhanced speech and language relearning after stroke. A systematic literature review was conducted to determine the technology acceptance factors. To ensure the state of the art in the given field, 97 articles written from 2016 to April 2021 were retrieved with a search string aligned to the research question. After applying the exclusion criteria and quality assurance, 13 articles were selected for inclusion. An overview of selected articles, their chosen methodology, and main findings from the articles was presented in a pre-defined table. The results show that patients’ physical and cognitive condition, the intensity of relearning exercises, native language, the involvement of friends and family, technical assistance and training, selection of hardware and usability of the graphical interface are important factors for acceptance of TES. Stroke patients tend to use TES. Independent living, treatment in the home environment, and improved quality of life are the major motivations for use of TES. However, TES should be tailor-made and a user-centre approach should be adopted. Finally, proper education and training are essential not only for the patients but for the speech therapists and patients’ relatives and friends as well.

  • 57.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University.
    Testbed requirements for technology enhanced stroke rehabilitation to support independent living2019Ingår i: ICT4AWE 2019 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Ageing Well and e-Health, 2019, s. 174-182Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An identified global phenomenon is that, as the percentage of older adults increases, new challenges arise for medical care and rehabilitation. Several research studies have presented e-health as a promising concept to support the idea of independent living among patients with chronic diseases. The Mid Sweden region has a relatively old population and is a region where people live with long distances to the nearest hospital or health care centres. This study had a focus on defining testbed requirements for a technology enhanced stroke rehabilitation adapted to the specific region. The focal research question to answer in this study was: What are the requirements and their associated benefits and barriers of using technology-enhanced systems instead of traditional techniques for stroke rehabilitation in the Mid Sweden region? With Design Science as the overall research strategy, data was collected by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the field of stroke rehabilitation. A deductive thematic analysis was conducted where important themes were grouped into the four main requirement categories of: Technical, Human-computer-interaction, Clinic and Sustainability. Beside the more specific requirements, an interesting finding was the division of stroke rehabilitation into the categories motoric, cognitive and speech rehabilitation; also, how technology enhanced solutions might be used in these categories. Each category has a potential for a successful use of technology enhanced services, but as the standard procedure in traditional stroke rehabilitation each patient needs a personalised treatment.   

  • 58.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Sodhro, Ali Hassan
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Speech and Language Relearning for Stroke Patients- Understanding  User  Needs for Technology Enhancement2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech and language relearning are challenging for stroke survivors, as well as medical caregivers. After a stroke, patient’s ability to read, write, speak, and listen is decreased to different degrees, which results in a compromised independent life and a decreased quality of life for the patients. Technology-Enhanced Systems (TES) can play a vital role in this context. However, the available software are not explicitly built for recovering stroke patients’ needs but often for children’s learning needs. This paper is, therefore, aimed at gathering requirements to support the design of speech and language relearning software applications for stroke survivors. A design science approach was adopted, where different stakeholders such as medical caregivers and information technology consultants were involved in the process. Deductive thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the main findings according to adult learning theory. The software requirements vary from patient to patient where the intensity of speech and language impairments, general medical condition, age, prior experience, and knowledge about the previous health record, and social setup of the patient are playing an important role. The speech therapists should have management functionality in the software to adjust the relearning exercises according to the patient’s needs.  Since, stroke is most common in adults who learn differently than children, andragogy principles were useful in recognizing patients’ health conditions. Adults are interested to be involved in the development of their relearning process. Software for speech and language assessment will be helpful to establish relearning objectives for patients.

  • 59.
    Ahmad, Iftikhar
    et al.
    University of Engineering & Technology Peshawar, PAK.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013). University of Oulu, FIN.
    Alqarni, Mohammed A
    University of Jeddah, SAU.
    Almazroi, Abdulwahab Ali
    University of Jeddah, SAU.
    Khalil, Muhammad Imran
    University of Engineering & Technology Peshawar, PAK.
    Using algorithmic trading to analyze short term profitability of Bitcoin2021Ingår i: PeerJ Computer Science, E-ISSN 2376-5992, Vol. 7, artikel-id e337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin (BTC) have seen a surge in value in the recent past and appeared as a useful investment opportunity for traders. However, their short term profitability using algorithmic trading strategies remains unanswered. In this work, we focus on the short term profitability of BTC against the euro and the yen for an eight-year period using seven trading algorithms over trading periods of length 15 and 30 days. We use the classical buy and hold (BH) as a benchmark strategy. Rather surprisingly, we found that on average, the yen is more profitable than BTC and the euro; however the answer also depends on the choice of algorithm. Reservation price algorithms result in 7.5% and 10% of average returns over 15 and 30 days respectively which is the highest for all the algorithms for the three assets. For BTC, all algorithms outperform the BH strategy. We also analyze the effect of transaction fee on the profitability of algorithms for BTC and observe that for trading period of length 15 no trading strategy is profitable for BTC. For trading period of length 30, only two strategies are profitable. 

  • 60.
    Ahmad, Iftikhar
    et al.
    University of Engineering and Technology, PAK.
    Hamid, Muhammad
    University of Engineering and Technology, PAK.
    Yousaf, Suhail
    University of Engineering and Technology, PAK.
    Tanveer Shah, Syed
    The University of Agriculture, PAK.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Optimizing Pretrained Convolutional Neural Networks for Tomato Leaf Disease Detection2020Ingår i: Complexity, ISSN 1076-2787, E-ISSN 1099-0526, Vol. 2020, artikel-id 8812019Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetable and fruit plants facilitate around 7.5 billion people around the globe, playing a crucial role in sustaining life on the planet. The rapid increase in the use of chemicals such as fungicides and bactericides to curtail plant diseases is causing negative effects on the agro-ecosystem. The high scale prevalence of diseases in crops affects the production quantity and quality. Solving the problem of early identification/diagnosis of diseases by exploiting a quick and consistent reliable method will benefit the farmers. In this context, our research work focuses on classification and identification of tomato leaf diseases using convolutional neural network (CNN) techniques. We consider four CNN architectures, namely, VGG-16, VGG-19, ResNet, and Inception V3, and use feature extraction and parameter-tuning to identify and classify tomato leaf diseases. We test the underlying models on two datasets, a laboratory-based dataset and self-collected data from the field. We observe that all architectures perform better on the laboratory-based dataset than on field-based data, with performance on various metrics showing variance in the range 10%–15%. Inception V3 is identified as the best performing algorithm on both datasets.

  • 61.
    Ahmad, Iftikhar
    et al.
    Univ Engn & Technol, PAK.
    Yousaf, Muhammad
    Univ Engn & Technol, PAK.
    Yousaf, Suhail
    Univ Engn & Technol, PAK.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Fake News Detection Using Machine Learning Ensemble Methods2020Ingår i: Complexity, ISSN 1076-2787, E-ISSN 1099-0526, Vol. 2020, artikel-id 8885861Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of the World Wide Web and the rapid adoption of social media platforms (such as Facebook and Twitter) paved the way for information dissemination that has never been witnessed in the human history before. With the current usage of social media platforms, consumers are creating and sharing more information than ever before, some of which are misleading with no relevance to reality. Automated classification of a text article as misinformation or disinformation is a challenging task. Even an expert in a particular domain has to explore multiple aspects before giving a verdict on the truthfulness of an article. In this work, we propose to use machine learning ensemble approach for automated classification of news articles. Our study explores different textual properties that can be used to distinguish fake contents from real. By using those properties, we train a combination of different machine learning algorithms using various ensemble methods and evaluate their performance on 4 real world datasets. Experimental evaluation confirms the superior performance of our proposed ensemble learner approach in comparison to individual learners.

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  • 62.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    5G Secure Solution Development and Security Master Role2024Ingår i: International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, 2024Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relationship between self-organisation andtailored roles in large agile software development teams. The casestudy examines a Swedish IT company that has introduced the roleof “Security Master” in Scrum teams. The teams are developing avery large and secure 5G solution. Twenty semi-structuredinterviews were conducted and deductively analysed. The resultsshed light on the Security Master role, its need, responsibilities andimpact on secure coding. The paper concludes with a discussion oflessons learned and recommendations for future research in thecontext of large, security-sensitive projects.

  • 63.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    A Deep Dive into Self-Regulated Learning: ReflectiveDiaries Role and Implementation Strategies2024Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflective learning diaries can help students develop self-regulated learning (SRL), a critical skill for success. Forteachers such learning diaries can be a valuable tool for formative evaluation of SRL. However, there is limitedresearch on the use of reflective diaries in software engineering and information systems education. To address thisgap, we conducted a case study in which reflective learning diaries were used in a course. The goal of this research isto investigate the potential of using reflective diaries to formatively evaluate three key features of SRL: conceptions ofknowledge, conceptions of learning, and strategies for monitoring and regulating learning. Our findings suggest thatreflective diaries is a valuable tool for formative evaluation of SRL in software engineering education. Reflection onlearning experiences helps students develop self-awareness of their SRL skills and identify areas for improvement.Instructors can use this information to provide students with targeted feedback and support. By using reflective diariesto promote dialogic feedback, instructors can help students to develop a deeper understanding of their own learningand to become more effective self-regulated learners. The study conclude with lesson learned that provide practicalrecommendations for educators who are swiftly moving towards online teaching.

  • 64.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Agile methods and cyber-physical systems development: A review with preliminary analysis2019Ingår i: Big Data and Security / [ed] Yuan Tian, Tinghuai Ma, Muhammad Khurram Khan, Springer, 2019, Vol. 1210, s. 274-285Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The software companies are using Agile methods and practices totackle challenges in the rapidly changing environments and increasingly com-plex software systems. However, companies developing cyber physical systems(CPS) are still infancy in the use of Agile methods and hesitate to adopt. Thissystematic literature review was conducted in order to analyze the current trendsof Agile methods use for CPS development. The search strategy resulted in 101papers, of which 15 were identified as primary studies relevant to our research.The results show growing trend of Agile processes and Scrum is widely usedreported for CPS development. The primary studies also exhibits a growinginterest in teaching Agile in embedded systems, CPS and other engineeringdegree programs. The reported challenges included synchronization of softwareand hardware development, software and hardware developers use differentvocabulary, lack of visibility and track of software releases and project progress.Additionally, lesson learned were extracted from the primary studies for guidingthe practitioners interested in adopting Agile for CPS development.

  • 65.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Antecedents To Achieve Kanban Optimum Benefits In Software Companies2019Ingår i: 14th International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2019, s. 147-183Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004, Kanban successfully entered the Agile and Lean realm. Since then, software companies have been increasingly using it in software development teams. The goal of this study is to perform an empirical investigation on antecedents considered as important for achieving optimum benefits of Kanban use and to discuss the practical implications of the findings. We conducted an online survey with software professionals from the Lean Software Development LinkedIn community to investigate the importance of antecedents of using Kanban for achieving optimum benefits. Our study reveals that subjective norm, organizational support, ease of use, Kanban use experience and training are the antecedents for achieving expected benefits of Kanban. The potential benefits of Kanban use can only be realized when the key antecedents are not only identified, but also infused across an organization. When managing the transition to or using Kanban, practitioners need to adapt their strategies on the extent of various antecedents, a few identified in this study.

  • 66.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Business Analytics Continuance in Software Development Projects: A Preliminary Analysis2021Ingår i: Conference on e-Business, e-Services and e-Society, Springer, 2021, Vol. 12896, s. 622-628Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates factors affecting business analytics (BA) in software and systems development projects. This is the first study to examine business analytics continuance in projects from Pakistani software professional’s perspective. The data was collected from 186 Pakistani software professionals working in software and systems development projects. The data was analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modelling techniques. Our structural model is able to explain 40% variance of BA continuance intention, 62% variance of satisfaction, 69% variance of technological compatibility, and 59% variance of perceived usefulness. Technological compatibility and perceived usefulness are the significant factors that can affect BA continuance intention in software and systems projects. Surprisingly the results show that satisfaction does not affect BA continuance intention. 

  • 67.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Exploring Process Debt in Large-Scale Agile Software Development For Secure Telecom Solutions2024Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Technical Debt, ACM Digital Library, 2024Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Agile methodologies emphasise iterative development, customer collaboration, and flexibility in software development. However, challenges arise when agile practices are adoptedin larger projects. Process inefficiencies and redundancies, knownas process debt, result from the compounded complexities of expanding agile processes and workflows. However, strategies tounderstand and tackle it remain markedly inadequate.Aims: This study investigates process debt types, causes, andeffects in large-scale agile development and its connection withtechnical debt.Method: In this case study, we conducted fifteen semi-structuredinterviews with a Nordic IT company, primarily focusing on telecomrelated products like 5G secure solutions, testing tools, and basestation software. We performed a thematic analysis to examine thedata qualitatively.Results: The thematic analysis identified five process debt typeswith 28 sub-types: documentation (3), roles & responsibilities (5),synchronization (5), inefficiency & unsuitability (12), and infrastructure debt (3) identified causes and effects of process debt andidentified the correlation of process debt to technical debt based ondescriptions from interview data and researchers’ insights.Conclusions: Process debt, stemming from flawed agile practices in large-scale development, causes inefficiencies, reduces quality, and extends timelines, risking technical debt. Its managementis essential for the success of these projects

  • 68.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    On the Efficiency of Supernodal Factorization in Interior-Point Method Using CPU-GPU Collaboration2020Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, s. 120892-120904Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Primal-dual interior-point method (PDIPM) is the most efficient technique for solving sparse linear programming (LP) problems. Despite its efficiency, PDIPM remains a compute-intensive algorithm. Fortunately, graphics processing units (GPUs) have the potential to meet this requirement. However, their peculiar architecture entails a positive relationship between problem density and speedup, conversely implying a limited affinity of GPUs for problem sparsity. To overcome this difficulty, the state-of-the-art hybrid (CPU-GPU) implementation of PDIPM exploits presence of supernodes in sparse matrices during factorization. Supernodes are groups of similar columns that can be treated as dense submatrices. Factorization method used in the state-of-the-art solver performs only selected operations related to large supernodes on GPU. This method is known to underutilize GPU’s computational power while increasing CPU-GPU communication overhead. These shortcomings encouraged us to adapt another factorization method, which processes sets of related supernodes on GPU, and introduce it to the PDIPM implementation of a popular open-source solver. Our adaptation enabled the factorization method to better mitigate the effects of round-off errors accumulated over multiple iterations of PDIPM. To augment performance gains, we also used an efficient CPU-based matrix multiplication method. When tested for a set of well-known sparse problems, the adapted solver showed average speed-ups of approximately 55X, 1.14X and 1.05X over the open-source solver’s original version, the state-of-the-art solver, and a highly optimized proprietary solver known as CPLEX, respectively. These results strongly indicate that our proposed hybrid approach can lead to significant performance gains for solving large sparse problems.

  • 69.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Preliminary Citation and Topic Analysis of International Conference on Agile Software Development Papers (2002-2018)2019Ingår i: Annals of Computer Science and Information Systems, ISSN 1545-827X, E-ISSN 2300-5963, Vol. 18, s. 803-812Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study utilizes citation analysis and automated topic analysis of papers published in International Conference on Agile Software Development (XP) from 2002 to 2018. We collected data from Scopus database, finding 789 XP papers. We performed topic and trend analysis with R/RStudio utilizing the text mining approach, and used MS Excel for the quantitative analysis of the data. The results show that the first five years of XP conference cover nearly 40% of papers published until now and almost 62% of the XP papers are cited at least once. Mining of XP conference paper titles and abstracts result in these hot research topics: “Coordination”, “Technical Debt”, “Teamwork”, “Startups” and “Agile Practices”, thus strongly focusing on practical issues. The results also highlight the most influential researchers and institutions. The approach applied in this study can be extended to other software engineering venues and applied to large-scale studies.

  • 70.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Psychological Safety, Leadership and Non-Technical Debt in Large Scale Agile Software Development2023Ingår i: Proceedings of the 18th Conference on Computer Science and Intelligence Systems, FedCSIS 2023, Poland: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023, s. 327-334Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological safety has been hypothesised as an important antecedent of the success of agile software development (ASD) teams. However, there is a lack of investigation on psychological safety in large-scale agile (LSA) software development teams. This study explored the antecedents and effects of psychological safety on LSA teams. We conducted semi-structured interviews with software professionals working on LSA project in a Scandinavian technology company. The results suggest that building a psychologically safe environment is a multi-dimensional factor that requires proactive leadership approach, open communication and constructive feedback. The focus should be on designing teams for learning, remuneration safety, and a well-prepared onboarding process for new team members. A psychologically safe environment contributes to effective teamwork, work satisfaction, and promotion of learning. Absence of such an environment leads to brain drain, highlighting the consequences of neglecting this essential aspect of organisational culture. Future research directions are proposed in this paper.

  • 71.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Software factory project for enhancement of student experiential learning2019Ingår i: 16th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age, CELDA 2019, IADIS Press, 2019, s. 297-306Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing opportunities for students to work on real-world software development projects for real customers is critical to prepare students for the IT industry. Such projects help students to understand what they will face in the industry and experience real customer interaction and challenges in collaborative work. To provide this opportunity in an academic environment and enhance the learning and multicultural teamwork experience, the University of Oulu, Finland offers the software factory (SWF) project. This paper presents the design of the SWF course and the learning environment and assessment techniques, and it discusses the importance of reflective learning diaries and serious games. Additionally, this paper examines factors in the SWF learning environment that affect student learning in the SWF course. Survey data were collected from the last six years of SWF projects. The results show that students consider the SWF to be a good collaborative learning environment that helps them achieve academic triumphs and enhances various professional skills. The learning diaries are effective for increasing students’ learning experiences as well as providing an opportunity for teaching staff to monitor students’ progress and offer better facilitation. These results are helpful for academic institutions and industry when developing such a learning environment.

  • 72.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Ahmad, Iftikhar
    University of Engineering and Technology, Pakistan.
    Qayum, Fawad
    University of Malakand, Pakistan.
    Early career software developers and work preferences in software engineering2024Ingår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 36, nr 2, artikel-id e2513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The software engineering researchers and practitioners echoed the needfor investigations to better understand the engineers developing software andservices. In light of current studies, there are significant associations between thepersonalities of software engineers and their work preferences. However, limitedstudies are using psychometric measurements in software engineering.Objective: We aim to evaluate attitudes of early-stage software engineers andinvestigate link between their personalities and work preferences.Method: We collected extensive psychometric data from 303 graduate-levelstudents in Computer Science programs at four Pakistani and one Swedish universityusing Five-Factor Model. The statistical analysis investigated associations betweenvarious personality traits and work preferences.Results: The data support the existence of two clusters of software engineers, one ofwhich is more highly rated across the board. Numerous correlations exist betweenpersonality qualities and the preferred types of employment for software developers.For instance, those who exhibit greater levels of emotional stability, agreeableness,extroversion, and conscientiousness like working on technical activities on a settimetable. Similar relationships between personalities and occupational choices arealso evident in the earlier studies. More neuroticism is reported in femalerespondents than in male respondents. Higher intelligence was demonstrated bythose who worked on the“entire development process”and“technical componentsof the project.”Conclusion: When assigning project tasks to software engineers, managers might usethe statistically significant relationships that emerged from the analysis of personalityattributes. It would be beneficial to construct effective teams by taking personalityfactors like extraversion and agreeableness into consideration. The study techniquesand analytical tools we use may identify subtle relationships and reflect distinctionsacross various groups and populations, making them valuable resources for bothfuture academic research and industrial practice.

  • 73.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Ahmad, Iftikhar
    University of Engineering and Technology, PAK.
    Rana, Nripendra P.
    Qatar University, QAT.
    Khan, Iqra Sadaf
    University of Oulu, FIN.
    An Empirical Investigation on Business Analytics in Software and Systems Development Projects2023Ingår i: Information Systems Frontiers, ISSN 1387-3326, E-ISSN 1572-9419, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 917-927Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To create competitive advantages, companies are leaning towards business analytics (BA) to make data-driven decisions. Nevertheless, users acceptance and effective usage of BA is a key element for its success. Around the globe, organizations are increasingly adopting BA, however, a paucity of research on examining the drivers of BA adoption and its continuance is noticeable in the literature. This is evident in developing countries where a higher number of systems and software development projects are outsourced. This is the first study to examine BA continuance in the context of software and systems development projects from the perspective of Pakistani software professionals. The data was collected from 186 Pakistani software professionals working in software and systems development projects. The data were analyzed using partial least squares - structural equation modelling techniques. Our structural model explains 45% variance on BA continuance intention, 69% variance on technological compatibility, and 59% variance on perceived usefulness. Our results show that confirmation has a direct impact on BA continuance intention in software and systems projects. The study has both theoretical and practical implications for professionals in the field of business analytics.

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  • 74.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Al-Baik, Osama
    Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Jordan.
    Beyond Technical Debt Unravelling Organisational Debt Concept2024Ingår i: 39th ACM/SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing, 2024Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of software and systems is a complex task that involves social, technical and organisational factors. Technical debt is a well-known concept that refers to the negative consequences of taking shortcuts in software development. However, organisational debt (OD) is a less well-known phenomenon that arises due to shortcuts in the organisational structure and processes of a software organisation. The lack of a clearly defined OD makes it difficult to identify and manage this type of debt. This study presents a multi-vocabulary literature review that consolidates an understanding of the nature of OD and its impact on software organisations. OD encompasses a set of attributes, precedents and outcomes. In addition, this study highlights the five causes and mitigation strategies of OD. The results of this study indicate that software companies are facing a major issue with OD. Future research should include empirical studies to validate techniques that can assist software professionals in managing OD to address this issue.

  • 75.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Nexus Between Psychological Safety and Non-Technical Debt in Large-Scale Agile Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Development2024Ingår i: Software, System, and Service Engineering / [ed] Aleksander Jarzębowicz, Ivan Luković, Adam Przybyłek, Mirosław Staroń, Muhammad Ovais Ahmad, Mirosław Ochodek, Springer, 2024, s. 63-81Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological safety, a pivotal factor in team dynamics, has been proposed as a crucial determinant of success in agile software development (ASD) teams and learning. However, the extent of its influence within the domain of large-scale agile (LSA) software development teams remains underexplored. This research investigates the multifaceted dimensions of psychological safety within LSA teams, examining both its precursors and outcomes. This study conducted semi-structured interviews with software professionals actively involved in LSA projects within a Swedish software consultancy company. The findings underscore the intricate nature of establishing a psychologically safe environment within LSA teams, revealing it as a multidimensional construct necessitating a proactive leadership approach, fostering open communication, and cultivating an ecosystem of constructive feedback. The study highlights the critical importance of intentionally shaping teams to facilitate continuous learning, ensuring remuneration safety, and implementing a comprehensive onboarding process for incoming team members. By fostering psychologically safe settings, LSA teams enhanced teamwork dynamics, heightened job satisfaction, and facilitation continuous learning and development. Notably, the absence of such an environment exacerbates the phenomenon of brain drain, exposing the tangible consequences of overlooking this fundamental aspect of organizational culture. This study proposes avenues for future research directions, aiming to further unravel the nuances of psychological safety and its cascading effects within the realm of contemporary LSA software development context.

  • 76.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    The Pandora's box of social, process, and people debts in software engineering2024Ingår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 36, nr 2, artikel-id e2516Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering, technical debt (TD) has been widely investigated, but debt regarding social issues, people, and processes has not been explored as much. It should be noted here that we use nontechnical debt (NTD) as an umbrella term to cover social, process, and people debts. Although the number of studies on NTD in software is increasing, the majority of them are descriptive rather than rigorous, and there is no systematic development of cumulative knowledge. As a result, identifying the fundamental causes of NTD and the associated mitigation techniques in software engineering is challenging. Therefore, this study investigates the scientific evidence regarding NTD till date by conducting a systematic mapping review of software engineering research between January 2000 and October 2021. The search strategy resulted in 175 studies, 17 of which were identified as unique and relevant primary papers. The primary studies show that NTD and TD are inextricably linked. In addition, this study also captured a plethora of causes and mitigation strategies for managing NTD and thus makes four important contributions: (i) highlighting state-of-the-art NTD research; (ii) identification of the reported causes and mitigation strategies in the primary papers; and (iii) determination of opportunities for future NTD research.

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  • 77.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Saeeda, Hina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Customised Roles in Scrum Teams for the Development of Secure Solution2023Ingår i: 2023 49th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023, s. 362-369Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper examines the implementation and impact of customised roles in large-scale agile software development teams, specifically within the Scrum framework. This is a single case study based on 15 practitioners’ interviews from a Swedish software company to review the dynamics of role customisation. The two customised roles of Product Guardians and Security Masters are crucial for addressing complex secure software development, maintaining product quality and security, and fostering team self-organisation. The study also uncovers challenges associated with role customisation, such as the potential overburdening of individuals and disruption of self-organisation. The findings contribute to the discourse on agile methods' adaptability and provide practical insights for organisations considering similar role customisations. Furthermore, the research opens the door for future exploration of organization-wide roles that promote self-organisation.

  • 78.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Iftikhar, Ahmad
    University of Engineering and Technology, Pakistan.
    Iqra, Sadaf Khan
    Aalto University, Finland.
    An Empirical Investigation on Electronic Government Services Continuance and Trust2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trust is an important factor that contributes to citizens' willingness to continuance use of e-gov services. However, there is a lack of prior investigation about trust and continuance use of e-gov services in Pakistan - a developing country. We propose a model to investigate citizens' trust and e-gov services' continuous use intention to fill this research gap. Our study collected data from an online survey of 558 Pakistani citizens. Using partial least squares analysis, we found that disposition to trust positively correlates with both internet and government trust. Moreover, citizen satisfaction, trust, perceived usefulness, confirmation, and perceived risk all have significant impacts on the continuous use intention of e-gov services. This research extends and validates the Expectation-Confirmation Model by exploring key factors that influence e-gov continuance use intention. As such, our study offers valuable insights for policymakers and practitioners involved in e-gov service delivery in developing countries like Pakistan. The paper also discusses our findings' implications and identifies future research directions.

  • 79.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Liukkunen, K
    M3S Research Unit, University of Oulu, FIN.
    Enhancement of Experiential Learning in Software Factory Project-Based Course2021Ingår i: Balancing the Tension between Digital Technologies and Learning Sciences, Germany: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2021, s. 217-233Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 80.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Liukkunen, Kari
    University of Oulu, Finland .
    Markkula, Jouni
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Student perceptions and attitudes towards the software factory as a learning environment2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry needs graduates from universities having knowledge and skills to tackle the practical issues of real life software development. To facilitate software engineering students and fulfill industry need, the Department of Information Processing Science, University of Oulu, Finland, built a Software Factory laboratory (SWF) in 2012 based on Lean concept. This study examines factors in the SWF learning environment that affect learning of a SWF course by the students. It employs amended Computer laboratory Environment Inventory (CLEI) and Attitude towards Computers and Computing Courses Questionnaire instrument (ACCC) with two additional constructs: 1) Kanban board 2) Collaborative learning. The general findings indicate that SWF learning environment, collaborative learning and Kanban board play important role in software engineering students learning, academic achievements and professional skills gaining. The findings are helpful to develop a better understanding about learning environments. The information gathered in this study can also be used to improve the software engineering learning environment.

  • 81.
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ovais
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013). Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Raulamo-Jurvanen, P
    M3S Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Scientific Collaboration, Citation and Topic Analysis of International Conference on Agile Software Development Papers2019Ingår i: Advances in Agile and User-Centred Software Engineering, Springer, 2019, s. 108-132Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Conference on Agile Software Development (XP) was established almost sixteen years ago. Based on data from Scopus database, a total of 789 papers have been published in between years of 2002 and 2018. We employed bibliometrics analysis and topic modeling with R/RStudio to analyze these published papers from various dimensions, including the most active authors, collaboration of authorship, most cited papers, used keywords and trends of probable topics from the titles and abstracts of those papers. The results show that the first five years of XP conference cover nearly 40% of the papers published until now and almost 62% of the XP papers have been cited at least once. Mining of XP conference paper titles and abstracts result in these hot research topics: “Coordination”, “Technical Debt”, “Teamwork”, “Startups” and “Agile Practices”, thus strongly focusing on practical issues and problems faced by the practitioners in the industry. The results highlight the most influential researchers and institutions, and the collaboration between the authors in the conference papers. The approach applied in this study can be extended to other software engineering venues and can be applied to large-scale studies.

  • 82.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Open-source Defect Injection Benchmark Testbed for the Evaluation of Testing2020Ingår i: IEEE 13th International Conference on Software Testing, Validation and Verification (ICST), IEEE Computer Society, 2020, s. 442-447Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A natural method to evaluate the effectiveness of a testing technique is to measure the defect detection rate when applying the created test cases. Here, real or artificial software defects can be injected into the source code of software. For a more extensive evaluation, injection of artificial defects is usually needed and can be performed via mutation testing using code mutation operators. However, to simulate complex defects arising from a misunderstanding of design specifications, mutation testing might reach its limit in some cases. In this paper, we present an open-source benchmark testbed application that employs a complement method of artificial defect injection. The application is compiled after artificial defects are injected into its source code from predefined building blocks. The majority of the functions and user interface elements are covered by creating front-end-based automated test cases that can be used in experiments.

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  • 83.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    USI SUPSI, Ist Dalle Molle Studi Intelligenza Artificiale ID, Lugano, Switzerland.;Salahaddin Univ Hawler, Software Engn Dept, Erbil, Iraq. IRQ.
    Test case minimization approach using fault detection and combinatorial optimization techniques for configuration-aware structural testing2016Ingår i: ENGINEERING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL-JESTECH, ISSN 2215-0986, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 737-753Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a technique to minimize the number of test cases in configuration-aware structural testing. Combinatorial optimization is used first to generate an optimized test suite by sampling the input configuration. Second, for further optimization, the generated test suite is filtered based on an adaptive mechanism by using a mutation testing technique. The initialized test suite is optimized using cuckoo search (CS) along with combinatorial approach, and mutation testing is used to seed different faults to the software-under-test, as well as to filter the test cases based on the detected faults. To measure the effectiveness of the technique, an empirical study is conducted on a software system. The technique proves its effectiveness through the conducted case study. The paper also shows the application of combinatorial optimization and CS to the software testing. (C) 2016, Karabuk University. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V.

  • 84. Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Bures, M.
    Czech Technical University, CZE.
    Testing of Smart TV applications: Key ingredients, challenges and proposed solutions2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Future Technologies Conference / [ed] Bhatia R., Arai K., Kapoor S, Springer, 2019, Vol. 880, s. 241-256Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart TV applications are software applications that have been designed to run on smart TVs which are televisions with integrated Internet features. Nowadays, the smart TVs are going to dominate the television market, and the number of connected TVs is growing exponentially. This growth is accompanied by the increase of consumers and the use of smart TV applications that drive these devices. Due to the increasing demand for smart TV applications especially with the rise of the Internet of Things (IoT) services, it is essential to building an application with a certain level of quality. Despite the analogy between the smart TV and mobile apps, testing smart TV applications is different in many aspects due to the different nature of user interaction and development environment. To develop the field and formulate the concepts of smart TV application testing, this paper aims to provide the essential ingredients, solutions, answers to the most critical questions, and open problems. In addition, we offer initial results and proof of concepts for a creeper algorithm to detect essential views of the applications. This paper serves as an effort to report the key ingredients and challenges of the smart TV application testing systematically to the research community. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

  • 85.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    EvoCreeper: Automated Black-Box Model Generation for Smart TV Applications2019Ingår i: IEEE transactions on consumer electronics, ISSN 0098-3063, E-ISSN 1558-4127, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 160-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Smart TVs are coming to dominate the televisionmarket. This accompanied by an increase in the use of the smartTV applications (apps). Due to the increasing demand, developersneed modeling techniques to analyze these apps and assess theircomprehensiveness, completeness, and quality. In this paper, wepresent an automated strategy for generating models of smartTV apps based on a black-box reverse engineering. The strategycan be used to cumulatively construct a model for a given app byexploring the user interface in a manner consistent with the use ofa remote control device and extracting the runtime information.The strategy is based on capturing the states of the user interfaceto create a model during runtime without any knowledge ofthe internal structure of the app. We have implemented ourstrategy in a tool called EvoCreeper. The evaluation results showthat our strategy can automatically generate unique states anda comprehensive model that represents the real user interactionswith an app using a remote control device. The models thusgenerated can be used to assess the quality and completeness ofsmart TV apps in various contexts, such as the control of otherconsumer electronics in smart houses.

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  • 86.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague.
    Frajtak, Karel
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague.
    Cerny, Tomas
    Baylor University, Waco.
    Aspects of Quality in Internet of Things (IoT) Solutions: A Systematic Mapping Study2019Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, s. 13758-13780Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology that has the promising power to change our future. Due to the market pressure, IoT systems may be released without sufficient testing. However, it is no longer acceptable to release IoT systems to the market without assuring the quality. As in the case of new technologies, the quality assurance process is a challenging task. This paper shows the results of the first comprehensive and systematic mapping study to structure and categories the research evidence in the literature starting in 2009 when the early publication of IoT papers for IoT quality assurance appeared. The conducted research is based on the most recent guidelines on how to perform systematic mapping studies. A set of research questions is defined carefully regarding the quality aspects of the IoT. Based on these questions, a large number of evidence and research papers is considered in the study (478 papers). We have extracted and analyzed different levels of information from those considered papers. Also, we have classified the topics addressed in those papers into categories based on the quality aspects. The study results carry out different areas that require more work and investigation in the context of IoT quality assurance. The results of the study can help in a further understanding of the research gaps. Moreover, the results show a roadmap for future research directions.

  • 87.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Eduard, Enoiu
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, SWE.
    Wasif, Afzal
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, SWE.
    Kamal Z, Zamli
    University Malaysia Pahang, Pekan, MYS.
    An evaluation of Monte Carlo-based hyper-heuristic for interaction testing of industrial embedded software applications2020Ingår i: Soft Computing - A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies and Applications, ISSN 1432-7643, E-ISSN 1433-7479, Vol. 24, nr 18, s. 13929-13954Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyper-heuristic is a new methodology for the adaptive hybridization of meta-heuristic algorithms to derive a general algorithm for solving optimization problems. This work focuses on the selection type of hyper-heuristic, called the exponential Monte Carlo with counter (EMCQ). Current implementations rely on the memory-less selection that can be counterproductive as the selected search operator may not (historically) be the best performing operator for the current search instance. Addressing this issue, we propose to integrate the memory into EMCQ for combinatorial t-wise test suite generation using reinforcement learning based on the Q-learning mechanism, called Q-EMCQ. The limited application of combinatorial test generation on industrial programs can impact the use of such techniques as Q-EMCQ. Thus, there is a need to evaluate this kind of approach against relevant industrial software, with a purpose to show the degree of interaction required to cover the code as well as finding faults. We applied Q-EMCQ on 37 real-world industrial programs written in Function Block Diagram (FBD) language, which is used for developing a train control management system at Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB. The results show that Q-EMCQ is an efficient technique for test case generation. Addition- ally, unlike the t-wise test suite generation, which deals with the minimization problem, we have also subjected Q-EMCQ to a maximization problem involving the general module clustering to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. The results show the Q-EMCQ is also capable of outperforming the original EMCQ as well as several recent meta/hyper-heuristic including modified choice function, Tabu high-level hyper-heuristic, teaching learning-based optimization, sine cosine algorithm, and symbiotic optimization search in clustering quality within comparable execution time.

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  • 88. Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Gambardella, L. M.
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi SullIntelligenza Artificíale (IDSIA), CHE.
    Zamli, K. Z.
    University Malaysia Pahang, MYS.
    A new approach to speed up combinatorial search strategies using stack and hash table2016Ingår i: Proceedings of 2016 SAI Computing Conference, SAI 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 1217-1222Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to the significance of combinatorial search strategies both for academia and industry, the introduction of new techniques is a fast growing research field these days. These strategies have really taken different forms ranging from simple to complex strategies in order to solve all forms of combinatorial problems. Nonetheless, despite the kind of problem these approaches solve, they are prone to heavy computation with the number of combinations and growing search space dimensions. This paper presents a new approach to speed up the generation and search processes using a combination of stack and hash table data structures. This approach could be put to practice for the combinatorial approaches to speed up the generation of combinations and search process in the search space. Furthermore, this new approach proved its performance in diverse stages better than other known strategies. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 89.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Ist Dalle Molle Studi sullIntelligenza Artificial, CH-6928 Manno Lugano, Switzerland.;Czech Tech Univ, Fac Elect Engn, Dept Comp Sci, Karlovo Nam 13, Prague 12135 2, Czech Republic. CZE.
    Gambardella, Luca M.
    Ist Dalle Molle Studi sullIntelligenza Artificial, CH-6928 Manno Lugano, Switzerland. CHE.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mlardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Zamli, Kamal Z.
    Univ Malaysia Pahang, Fac Comp Syst & Software Engn, Gambang, Malaysia. MYS.
    Handling constraints in combinatorial interaction testing in the presence of multi objective particle swarm and multithreading2017Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, s. 20-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Combinatorial testing strategies have lately received a lot of attention as a result of their diverse applications. In its simple form, a combinatorial strategy can reduce several input parameters (configurations) of a system into a small set based on their interaction (or combination). In practice, the input configurations of software systems are subjected to constraints, especially in case of highly configurable systems. To implement this feature within a strategy, many difficulties arise for construction. While there are many combinatorial interaction testing strategies nowadays, few of them support constraints. Objective: This paper presents a new strategy, to construct combinatorial interaction test suites in the presence of constraints. Method: The design and algorithms are provided in detail. To overcome the multi-judgement criteria for an optimal solution, the multi-objective particle swarm optimisation and multithreading are used. The strategy and its associated algorithms are evaluated extensively using different benchmarks and comparisons. Results: Our results are promising as the evaluation results showed the efficiency and performance of each algorithm in the strategy. The benchmarking results also showed that the strategy can generate constrained test suites efficiently as compared to state-of-the-art strategies. Conclusion: The proposed strategy can form a new way for constructing of constrained combinatorial interaction test suites. The strategy can form a new and effective base for future implementations. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 90.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Gargantin, Angelo
    University of Bergamo, ITA.
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University, CZE.
    An Automated Testing Framework For Smart TVapps Based on Model Separation2020Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), IEEE Computer Society, 2020, s. 62-73Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart TV application (app) is a new technological software app that can deal with smart TV devices to add more functionality and features. Despite its importance nowadays, far too little attention has been paid to present a systematic approach to test this kind of app so far. In this paper, we present a systematic model-based testing approach for smart TV app. We used our new notion of model separation to use sub-models based on the user preference instead of the exhaustive testing to generate the test cases. Based on the constructed model, we generated a set of test cases to assess the selected paths to the chosen destination in the app. We also defined new mutation operators for smart TV app to assess our testing approach. The evaluation results showed that our approach can generate more comprehensive models of smart TV apps with less time as compared to manual exploratory testing. The results also showed that our approach can generate effective test cases in term of fault detection.

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  • 91.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013). Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Gargantini, Angelo
    University of Bergamo, Italy.
    Zamli, Kamal Z.
    University Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, Malaysia.
    Yilmaz, Cemal
    Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Szeles, Marek
    Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Code-Aware Combinatorial Interaction Testing2019Ingår i: IET Software, ISSN 1751-8806, E-ISSN 1751-8814, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 600-609Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial interaction testing (CIT) is a useful testing technique to address the interaction of input parameters in software systems. In many applications, the technique has been used as a systematic sampling technique to sample the enormous possibilities of test cases. In the last decade, most of the research activities focused on the generation of CIT test suites as it is a computationally complex problem. Although promising, less effort has been paid for the application of CIT. In general, to apply the CIT, practitioners must identify the input parameters for the Software-under-test (SUT), feed these parameters to the CIT tool to generate the test suite, and then run those tests on the application with some pass and fail criteria for verification. Using this approach, CIT is used as a black-box testing technique without knowing the effect of the internal code. Although useful, practically, not all the parameters having the same impact on the SUT. This paper introduces a different approach to use the CIT as a gray-box testing technique by considering the internal code structure of the SUT to know the impact of each input parameter and thus use this impact in the test generation stage. We applied our approach to five reliable case studies. The results showed that this approach would help to detect new faults as compared to the equal impact parameter approach.

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  • 92.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Pahim, Amador
    Red Hat Czech s.r.o., Brno, Czech Republic .
    Rosa Junior, Cleber R
    Red Hat, Inc., Westford, USA .
    Kuhn, D. Richard
    Natl Inst of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA .
    Bures, Miroslav
    Dept of Computer Science, Czech Technical Univ, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Towards an Automated Unified Framework to Run Applications for Combinatorial Interaction Testing2019Ingår i: EASE '19 Proceedings of the Evaluation and Assessment on Software Engineering, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, s. 252-258Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial interaction testing (CIT) is a well-known technique,but the industrial experience is needed to determine its effectivenessin different application domains. We present a case study introducinga unified framework for generating, executing and verifyingCIT test suites, based on the open-source Avocado test framework.In addition, we present a new industrial case study to demonstratethe effectiveness of the framework. This evaluation showed thatthe new framework can generate, execute, and verify effective combinatorialinteraction test suites for detecting configuration failures(invalid configurations) in a virtualization system.

  • 93.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Ist Dalle Molle Studi SullIntelligenza Artificial, CH-6928 Manno Lugano, Switzerland.;Salahaddin Univ, Engn Coll, Software & Informat Engn Dept, Erbil, Kurdistan Regio, Iraq. IRQ.
    Sahib, Mouayad A.
    Salahaddin Univ, Engn Coll, Software & Informat Engn Dept, Erbil, Kurdistan Regio, Iraq. IRQ.
    Gambardella, Luca M.
    Ist Dalle Molle Studi SullIntelligenza Artificial, CH-6928 Manno Lugano, Switzerland. CHE.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Zamli, Kamal Z.
    Univ Malaysia Pahang Lebuhraya Tun Rezak, Fac Comp Syst & Software Engn, IBM Ctr Excellence, Kuantan 26300, Pahang Darul Ma, Malaysia. MYS.
    Optimum Design of (PID mu)-D-lambda controller for an automatic voltage regulator system using combinatorial test design2016Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 11, artikel-id e0166150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial test design is a plan of test that aims to reduce the amount of test cases systematically by choosing a subset of the test cases based on the combination of input variables. The subset covers all possible combinations of a given strength and hence tries to match the effectiveness of the exhaustive set. This mechanism of reduction has been used successfully in software testing research with t-way testing (where t indicates the interaction strength of combinations). Potentially, other systems may exhibit many similarities with this approach. Hence, it could form an emerging application in different areas of research due to its usefulness. To this end, more recently it has been applied in a few research areas successfully. In this paper, we explore the applicability of combinatorial test design technique for Fractional Order (FO), Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) parameter design controller, named as FOPID, for an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) system. Throughout the paper, we justify this new application theoretically and practically through simulations. In addition, we report on first experiments indicating its practical use in this field. We design different algorithms and adapted other strategies to cover all the combinations with an optimum and effective test set. Our findings indicate that combinatorial test design can find the combinations that lead to optimum design. Besides this, we also found that by increasing the strength of combination, we can approach to the optimum design in a way that with only 4-way combinatorial set, we can get the effectiveness of an exhaustive test set. This significantly reduced the number of tests needed and thus leads to an approach that optimizes design of parameters quickly.

  • 94.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Czech Tech Univ, Fac Elect Engn, Dept Comp Sci, Software Testing Intelligent Lab, Prague 12135, Czech Republic. CZE.
    Zamli, Kamal Z.
    Univ Malaysia Pahang, Fac Comp Syst & Software Engn, Gambang 26300, Malaysia. MYS.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Tech Univ, Fac Elect Engn, Dept Comp Sci, Software Testing Intelligent Lab, Prague 12135, Czech Republic. CZE.
    Constrained interaction testing: A systematic literature study2017Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 5, s. 25706-25730Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction testing can be used to effectively detect faults that are otherwise difficult to find by other testing techniques. However, in practice, the input configurations of software systems are subjected to constraints, especially in the case of highly configurable systems. Handling constraints effectively and efficiently in combinatorial interaction testing is a challenging problem. Nevertheless, researchers have attacked this challenge through different techniques, and much progress has been achieved in the past decade. Thus, it is useful to reflect on the current achievements and shortcomings and to identify potential areas of improvements. This paper presents the first comprehensive and systematic literature study to structure and categorize the research contributions for constrained interaction testing. Following the guidelines of conducting a literature study, the relevant data are extracted from a set of 103 research papers belonging to constrained interaction testing. The topics addressed in constrained interaction testing research are classified into four categories of constraint test generation, application, generation and application, and model validation studies. The papers within each of these categories are extensively reviewed. Apart from answering several other research questions, this paper also discusses the applications of constrained interaction testing in several domains, such as software product lines, fault detection and characterization, test selection, security, and graphical user interface testing. This paper ends with a discussion of limitations, challenges, and future work in the area.

  • 95.
    Airola, Rasmus
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Hager, Kristoffer
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap.
    Image Classification, Deep Learning and Convolutional Neural Networks: A Comparative Study of Machine Learning Frameworks2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of machine learning and specifically neural networks is a growing trend in software development, and has grown immensely in the last couple of years in the light of an increasing need to handle big data and large information flows. Machine learning has a broad area of application, such as human-computer interaction, predicting stock prices, real-time translation, and self driving vehicles. Large companies such as Microsoft and Google have already implemented machine learning in some of their commercial products such as their search engines, and their intelligent personal assistants Cortana and Google Assistant.

    The main goal of this project was to evaluate the two deep learning frameworks Google TensorFlow and Microsoft CNTK, primarily based on their performance in the training time of neural networks. We chose to use the third-party API Keras instead of TensorFlow's own API when working with TensorFlow. CNTK was found to perform better in regards of training time compared to TensorFlow with Keras as frontend. Even though CNTK performed better on the benchmarking tests, we found Keras with TensorFlow as backend to be much easier and more intuitive to work with. In addition, CNTKs underlying implementation of the machine learning algorithms and functions differ from that of the literature and of other frameworks. Therefore, if we had to choose a framework to continue working in, we would choose Keras with TensorFlow as backend, even though the performance is less compared to CNTK.

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  • 96.
    Aitenbichler, Erwin
    et al.
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Behring, Alexander
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Bradler, Dirk
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Hartmann, Melanie
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Mühlhäuser, Max
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Ries, Sebastian
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Schnelle-Walka, Dirk
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Schreiber, Daniel
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Steimle, Jürgen
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Strufe, Thorsten
    Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.
    Shaping the Future Internet2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 3rd International CompanionAble Workshop IoPTS, Brussels, 2. December 2009., The CompanionAble , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) and the Internet of Services (IoS) are two well-knownexemplars of the emerging ‘Internet variants’. These variants will be tightlyinterwoven yet specific with respect to the supporting technologies needed. Thepresent paper discusses the five variants identified as essential by the authors: IoT,IoS, Internet-of-Humans, Internet-of-Crowds, and Internet-of-Clouds. For eachvariant, a non-comprehensive set of research challenges is cited and related to thestate of the art and to ongoing projects of the lab.

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  • 97.
    Akil, Mahdi
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Islami, Lejla
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Zuccato, Albin
    ICA Gruppen AB.
    Privacy-Preserving Identifiers for IoT: A Systematic Literature Review2020Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, s. 168470-168485Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) paves the way for smart applications such as in E-health, E-homes, transportation, or energy production. However, IoT technologies also pose privacy challenges for their users, as they allow the tracking and monitoring of the users' behavior and context. The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) mandates data controller to follow a data protection by design and default approach by implementing for instance pseudonymity for achieving data minimisation. This paper provides a systematic literature review for answering the question of what types of privacy-preserving identifiers are proposed by the literature in IoT environments for implementing pseudonymity. It contributes with classifications and analyses of IoT environments for which privacy-preserving identifiers have been proposed and of the pseudonym types and underlying identity management architectures used. Moreover, it discusses trends and gaps in regard to addressing privacy trade-offs.

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  • 98.
    Akil, Mahdi
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Mancini, L. V.
    Universita di Roma Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Venturi, D.
    Universita di Roma Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Multi-covert channel attack in the cloud2019Ingår i: 2019 6th International Conference on Software Defined Systems, SDS 2019, IEEE, 2019, s. 160-165Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequently, it is believed that the adoption of encryption is adequate to ensure the safety of the message. However, encryption only restricts unapproved individuals from decoding the message. Whereas in many circumstances, the mere presence of communication or variations in communication patterns, such as an increase in message rate, is sufficient to raise doubt and initiate alerts. One of the best ways to bypass that is by using covert channels. In this paper, we create innovative protocols that use multiple covert channels working in parallel to exfiltrate data from a remote-controlled machine to our server. The provided protocols guarantee the completeness and unforgeability of the exfiltrated data. We analyze the difference in performance between the created protocols and provide mathematical equations to evaluate them.

  • 99.
    Akil, Mahdi
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Naskar, Sujash
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Hoepman, Jaap-Henk
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013). Radboud University, The Netherlands; University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    A Privacy-Preserving Approach to Vehicle Renting and Driver Accountability in VANETs2024Ingår i: Privacy and Identity Management. Sharing in a Digital World / [ed] Felix Bieker, Silvia de Conca, Nils Gruschka, Meiko Jensen, Ina Schiering, Springer, 2024, s. 192-210Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) play a crucial rolein the evolution of Intelligent Transportation Systems. The problems ofrenting and drivers’ accountability still need to be answered in VANETs.Existing proposals do not consider renting vehicles, and there is nodistinction between renters and owners. This paper proposes privacy-preserving rental and accountability protocols to address these problems.The proposed rental protocol outputs an agreement between an ownerand a renter, which allows the renter to unlock and drive the vehicle.The privacy-preserving accountability protocol offers a robust solutionfor detecting and mitigating malicious behavior in VANETs. It provides aplatform for holding entities accountable for their actions without violating their privacy. The paper demonstrates that our solution successfullymeets the pre-set security and privacy requirements in VANETs. Thesefindings suggest promising potential for improving future vehicular networks’ safety, efficiency, and performance.

  • 100.
    Akrin, Christoffer
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Using Imitation Learning for Human Motion Control in a Virtual Simulation2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Test Automation is becoming a more vital part of the software development cycle, as it aims to lower the cost of testing and allow for higher test frequency. However, automating manual tests can be difficult as they tend to require complex human interaction. In this thesis, we aim to solve this by using Imitation Learning as a tool for automating manual software tests. The software under test consists of a virtual simulation, connected to a physical input device in the form of a sight. The sight can rotate on two axes, yaw and pitch, which require human motion control. Based on this, we use a Behavioral Cloning approach with a k-NN regressor trained on human demonstrations. Evaluation of model resemblance to the human is done by comparing the state path taken by the model and human. The model task performance is measured with a score based on the time taken to stabilize the sight pointing at a given object in the virtual world. The results show that a simple k-NN regression model using high-level states and actions, and with limited data, can imitate the human motion well. The model tends to be slightly faster than the human on the task while keeping realistic motion. It also shows signs of human errors, such as overshooting the object at higher angular velocities. Based on the results, we conclude that using Imitation Learning for Test Automation can be practical for specific tasks, where capturing human factors are of importance. However, further exploration is needed to identify the full potential of Imitation Learning in Test Automation.

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