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  • 51.
    Bergström, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ekström, Linda
    Stockholms Universitet.
    "Att lyssna på lärarna" – en metodologisk utmaning2015Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:1, s. 120-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher education today is expected to strongly focus on pedagogical content knowledge. This means, among other things, increased attention to practice. However, how practice is to be analyzed and for what purpose practice is analyzed is still up for debate. In this article we turn to the growing field of civics didactics to shed light on these questions. The analysis is based on a qualitative content analysis of twelve Swedish dissertations in civics didactics. Our findings suggest that the field of civics didactics has contributed with important suggestions on how practice and academic knowledge may enrich each other. However, we also find that the ways that practice has been analyzed are characterized by methodological challenges. To overcome these, and to contribute to the civics didactics research and future independent research projects within the teacher education, we call for a broader research agenda. This means a stronger focus on methodological questions, on other kinds of research projects and on developing the practice of teaching, rather than solely describing it.

  • 52.
    Bergström, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ekström, Linda
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Mellan ämne och didaktik – om ämnesteorins roll inom samhällskunskapsdidaktiken2015Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:1, s. 93-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedagogical content knowledge is generally understood as a "bridge" between content and pedagogy, and therefore assumed to be theoretically informed by theories on both the content knowledge in question, and on general pedagogical knowledge. In this article we analyze whether this bridge exists in eleven Swedish civic didactics dissertations. This is done by developing a typology of how theory is used in relation to research problems and analytical frameworks. Our findings suggest that theories on content knowledge are downplayed in favor of pedagogical theories. We argue the need for strengthening the pillar of content knowledge, benefitting both research and teaching.

  • 53.
    Bergum Johanson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    Pedersen, Helge Christian
    UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    «La elva leve»: Alta-saken som rollespill i historieundervisninga2019Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2019:2, s. 72-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual staging of a role play for school pupils called “La elva leve” (‘Let the River Live’) at Alta museum addresses the conflict over the building of a hydroelectric power plant in the Alta-Kautokeino watercourse between 1978-82. The confrontation has an important legacy, not least by bringing the issue of Sámi Indigenous rights into the national limelight. This article discusses how the role play might serve as a starting point for teaching pupils about the conflict’s consequences for Sámi rights, and interrogates the degree to which this kind of role play might benefit the pupils’ awareness of history. Drawing on observations and interviews, we found that the pupils were strongly engaged in the play and that they found it both interesting and educational. However, while they also gained more knowledge about the conflict itself, there was little evidence that they connected the conflict to the Sámi struggle for indigenous rights, or that their historical consciousness expanded significantly.

  • 54.
    Bernmark-Ottosson, Ann
    Karlstads universitet, Estetisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Tänkbara didaktiska konsekvenser av lärarstuderandes demokratiuppfattningar2009Inngår i: Ämnesdidaktiska brobyggen: didaktiska perspektiv inom lärande och forskning, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press , 2009, s. 90-98Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 55.
    Bjaaland, Simon
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Läroböcker och objektivitet i religionskunskap: En undersökning om objektivitet i svenska läroböcker i religionskunskap 1962- 20112016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att undersöka objektivitet som mål och idé i läroplaner och

    läroböcker i religionskunskap med ett särskilt fokus på beskrivningarna av kristendomen.

    Först har jag undersökt objektivitet som mål och idé i de aktuella läroplanerna Lgr 62, 69, 80

    och Lpo 94. Därefter har jag tittat på hur objektivitet som mål återspeglas i de undersökta

    läroböckerna. Som metod har jag använt en innehållsanalys vilket är av fördel när en stor

    mängd text som i denna uppsats skall undersökas. Detta för att ett stort material kan reduceras

    systematiskt till begränsade kategorier av textens innehåll. Innehållsanalysen passade också

    till den teori som analysen tog spjärn emot. Det framkommer att objektivitet som mål

    återfinns i samtliga läroplaner men att objektivitet som begrepp var vanligt förekommande i

    Lgr 62 och 69. Slutligen kan man spåra objektivitet som mål i Lgr 80 och Lpo 94 till saklighet

    och allsidighet som kommit bli det centrala. Av undersökningen framkommer det att

    kristendomen är den religion som fått mest utrymme jämfört med övriga världsreligioner i

    samtliga läromedel kopplat till samtliga läroplaner. Det framkommer också att samtliga

    läroböcker är rikliga när det kommer till beskrivningar av olika inriktningar av kristendomen.

    När detta undersöks närmre är de främst rikliga när det kommer till beskrivningar av de

    samfund som har en nära geografisk koppling till Sverige och våra grannländer.

  • 56.
    Bjurulf, Veronica
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Reasons for choosing a technically oriented education: An interview study within the fields of pipefitting and industry2012Inngår i: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 377-397Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines how professionals within technical businesses describe their ways into their trade and why they have remained. Semi-structured interviews, analyzed by analysis of narratives, have been conducted with six informants within pipefitting and industrial work aiming to understand how technically oriented professions can attract young potentials into the field. The results from the study are thus a contribution within the field of vocational education, in order to understand why youths should consider to study the Energy Programme or the Industry Programme at upper secondary school. The results show that factors that influence people to start working within technically oriented trades are:

    1. to use your hands to screw things together,
    2. to get an income and
    3. if relatives work in the branch.

    Based on the study it is not obvious to young people what they want to do when they have graduated. But the study also shows that even though the choice of careers is not obvious from the beginning people who chose the field of pipefitting or industry remain for many years.This implies that programmes for recruitment could use the advantages shown in this study for arguments to increase the amount of students who chose the technically oriented educations. The reasons for staying in the professions are:

    1. variation and freedom,
    2. creativity and influence and
    3. you get to work with your hands.

    This significant content within the technically oriented trades contribute with specific arguments for promotion of the plumbing and industrial work in particular and also for the technical trades and technical education in general.

  • 57.
    Bjurulf, Veronica
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstads universitet, Estetisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Segolsson, Mikael
    Ämnet teknik i grundskolan - med empiriska exempel2009Inngår i: Ämnesdidaktiska brobyggen: didaktiska perspektiv inom lärande och forskning, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press , 2009, s. 100-109Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 58.
    Björk, Jonas
    Karlstads universitet.
    Betygsättning och bedömning i Idrott och hälsa: En studie om betygsättning och dess pedagogiska konsekvenser2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 59.
    Björkegren, David
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Vad spelar språkriktigheten för roll?: En studie om hur fyra svensklärare uppfattar och arbetar med språkriktighet.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how four teachers of Swedish perceive the knowledge requirement that says that a student should mainly be able to follow the rules concerning standard written language, how often they teach standard language and to what extent students’ written language affect assessment. The results show that the teachers of Swedish agree that the most important aspect of a text is how it is perceived in its entirety, as well as its flow and how well a reader can understand the text. Some nonstandard expressions are allowed by the teachers, while others are not. The study also shows that the teaching of standard language depends on which school the teachers belong to. In a public school the standard language is taught in isolated situations, while the teachers in a private school do it continuously. However, all informants agree that they do it continuously to some extent when it comes to feedback on student essays. Student perception was also examined and the result shows that there is an inconsistency in how students perceive that standard language is taught.

  • 60.
    Björkgren, Mårten
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Språk- och kulturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Gullberg, Tom
    Åbo Akademi, Språk- och kulturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Hilli, Charlotta
    Åbo Akademi, Språk- och kulturvetenskapernas didaktik.
    Mot en ämnesintegrativ helhetssyn – ett digitalt utvecklingsprojekt i finländsk lärarutbildning2014Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2014:1, s. 170-187-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The school teaching in Finland is traditionally divided into different subject lessons. Although several curricula for decades have stressed the importance of integrating subjects to each other, the didactical development of subject integrated teaching has been quite week. The authors of this article are all involved in the training of subject teachers for the Swedish schools in Finland. The article stresses the importance of integrating subject content knowledge into value education. With the theoretical discussion as a starting point, the authors describe their subject integrated project for student teachers in history, social science, religion, philosophy and literature. During the working process it was obvious that the student teachers used their own subject content knowledge, but as they worked in mixed subject groups, they also realized how to co-operate and ask questions to persons with other kinds of subject content knowledge and perspectives. It was challenging for the student teachers to combine new subject integrated perspectives with new digital methods, but considering the ambitions of the curricula, these kinds of integrated processes seems to be important in teacher training.

  • 61.
    Björnstad, Amanda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Vilka kvinnor?: Genuskontrakt och kvinnors framställning i tre internationella läroböcker i historia2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 62.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Kristiansson, Martin
    Stolare, Martin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    To develop teaching on social issues: content selection and transformation in social studies education in upper elementary school, year 4-62017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 63.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013).
    Molin, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala University.
    Research on Geography Education. Introduction to Nordidactica 2016:12016Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2016:1, s. i-viArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 64.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013).
    Molin, Lena
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Skolämnet geografi och geografididaktisk forskning i Sverige och Norden2012Inngår i: Ämnesdidaktisk komparation: Länder, ämnen, teorier, metoder, frågor och resultat / [ed] Gericke, N, & Schüllerqvist, B., Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012, s. 59-74Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 65.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Stolare, Martin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013).
    Kristiansson, Martin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013).
    Curriculum principles, didactic practice and social issues: Thinking through teachers’ knowledge practices in collaborative work2018Inngår i: London Review of Education, ISSN 1474-8460, E-ISSN 1474-8479, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 398-413Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 66.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Örbring, David
    Geocapabilities – en plattform för ämnes- och professionell utveckling i skolgeografin2016Inngår i: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 74, nr 4, s. 155-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 67.
    Blanck, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013).
    Kristiansson, Martin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013).
    Att nå kunskap om att utveckla samhällsorienterande undervisning om migrationsfrågor2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 68.
    Blanck, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013).
    Kristiansson, Martin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013).
    SO-undervisning om samhällsfrågor i grundskolans yngre år: Att utveckla undervisning i samhällsfrågor2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 69.
    Blanck, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Lödën, Hans
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Med samhället i centrum – Medborgarskapsutbildningen och samhällskunskapsämnets relevans2017Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2017:4, s. 28-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to suggest "society" and "social analytical thinking" as the core concepts for the social science (Swedish: samhällskunskap) subject. Thus, the article contributes to the ongoing research debate on social science education by exploring the question whether social science is at risk of losing its position as the central citizenship subject in Swedish school. This risk is problematized and discussed. The authors argue that the relevance of the social science subject matter would be clarified and strengthened by making "society" and "social analytical thinking" into the core concepts of the subject. The proposal means that the scientific disciplines (i.e., political science, sociology, economics and law) that contribute to the social sciences subject by relating to these concepts can clarify the discipline-specific knowledge and perspectives that are considered crucial for a society to be formed and survive. The article also discusses community engagement and what may be a relevant level of ambition for compulsory citizenship education, from the perspective of the citizen as "a reflective spectator". The possibilities to develop the pupils' community, or social, engagement is illustrated by means of current Swedish classroom research on teachers' use of concepts and social analytical thinking in teaching.

  • 70.
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    The effectiveness of education for sustainable development: Pluralism and holism in the classroom. Oral presentation within the international symposium "Environmental literacy" grounded in theory and approved in environmental / sustainability education practice2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 71.
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    The effectiveness ofeducation for sustainable development2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 72.
    Borg, Carola
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Utbildning för hållbar utveckling ur ett lärarperspektiv: Ämnesbundna skillnader i gymnasieskolan2011Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how teachers from different disciplines understand and implement education for sustainable development in their teaching. A nationwide questionnaire study was conducted with 3229 upper secondary school teachers representing 224 schools in Sweden. The concept of sustainable development is complex and research has shown that teachers exhibit uncertainties in their understanding of it, and that the way they conceptualize sustainable development can have consequences for how they incorporate it into their teaching. Previous research has emphasized that Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) should promote interdisciplinary and holistic learning rather than traditional subject-based learning. This is in accordance with the Swedish curriculum, which emphasizes that all teachers in all subjects should integrate education for sustainable development. The teachers in the study were grouped into four disciplines; science-, social science-, language-, and vocational/esthetical-practical teachers.  The results showed that there were many subject-bound barriers to successful implementation of  ESD. Teachers were influenced by their subject tradition in: 1) how they understand sustainable development, 2) which teaching methods they use, 3) which barriers they experience, and 4) which teaching tradition they work within. Because of these differences it is important to adjust any further training of teachers according to their discipline. This study highlights the need for improved teacher education and further training of in-service teachers; more than 70% of the teachers stated that they need such training. It also highlights the issue how strong subject-bound traditions make it difficult to implement general goals of the curricula such as sustainable development.

  • 73.
    Borg, Carola
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    Teachers’ understanding of sustainable development: Discipline bound differences2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 74.
    Borg, Carola
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    The gap between the curriculum and teachers knowledge of sustainable development2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 75.
    Borg, Carola
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Subject- and experience-bound differences in teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development2014Inngår i: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 526-551Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describe the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers’ understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable development. According to the Swedish curriculum all teachers in all subjects should integrate a holistic perspective of sustainable development including economic, ecological and social dimensions. This study shows that teachers differ in their understanding of the concept mostly according to their subject traditions. Social science teachers emphasize social dimensions, and science teachers’ ecological dimensions, respectively. Teachers are aware of the relevance of the three dimensions to various degrees, but do not generally have a holistic understanding. The greatest uncertainty in teachers’ understanding is related to the economic dimension. Science and social science teachers are critical of incorporating economic growth into the concept of sustainable development while language, vocational and esthetical-practical teachers are not. No experience-bound differences of the teachers’ understanding could be found, but recently qualified teachers consider their understanding of sustainable development to be poorer in comparison to more experienced teachers’ self-evaluation. The study highlights the need for further training in sustainable development since more than 70 % of the questioned teachers stated that they need such training.

  • 76.
    Borg, Carola
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    The barriers encountered by teachers implementing education for sustainable development2012Inngår i: Research in Science & Technological Education, ISSN 0263-5143, E-ISSN 1470-1138, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 185-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background : According to the Swedish curriculum teachers in all subjects have a responsibility to integrate a holistic perspective of sustainable development (SD) and teach according to an education for sustainable development (ESD) approach. However previous research has shown that teachers from different subjects perceive SD differently.

    Purpose : The study aimed at investigating if and how teachers’ subject area influences their ability to implement a holistic perspective of ESD; we investigated both the impact of teaching traditions and the barriers that teachers experienced.

    Sample : A stratified sample of 224 Swedish upper secondary schools participated. An online questionnaire was sent and answered by a total of 3229 teachers at these schools. In total, there were 669 science teachers, 373 social science teachers, 483 language teachers, 713 vocational and esthetical–practical teachers, and 739 teachers from other disciplines who participated in the survey.

    Design and methods : The questionnaire consisted of questions requiring Likert-scale responses and multiple-choice questions. The data from the questionnaire were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA. The significance level accepted was p < 0.05.

    Results : Teachers were influenced by their own subject traditions. Science teachers in our study were grounded in the fact-based tradition and lectures were the most common teaching method used. The teaching tradition of the social science teachers seemed to be most in line to an ESD approach. Many language teachers (41%) stated they did not include SD issues in their teaching at all. Among the barriers identified, the most common obstacles were that the teachers lacked inspiring examples of how to include SD in their teaching and that they lacked the necessary expertise about SD.

    Conclusion : This study highlights the need for the management within schools to create opportunities for teachers to work collaboratively when teaching ESD. It is also important to provide further training that is adjusted to the needs of different disciplines.

  • 77.
    Brantefors, Lotta
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Thelander, Nina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Children’s human rights as a subject field in education? An exploration of theoretical preconditions2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 78.
    Broman, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Hobel, Peter
    Syddansk Universitet Odense, University of Southern Denmark.
    Christensen, Torben Spanget
    Syddansk Universitet Odense, University of Southern Denmark.
    Introduction 2013:1 Globalization and School Subjects2013Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2013:1, s. i-viiArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 79.
    Broman, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Kristiansson, Martin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (from 2013).
    Att Bidra Till Analys- Och Handlingskompetenser I Tider Av Samhällsförändring Och Ökad Segregation2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 80.
    Broman, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för politiska och historiska studier.
    Introduktion Nordidactica 2011:1: Ett aktivt men outvecklat forskningsfält2011Inngår i: Nordidactica - Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 1, s. i-ivArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 81.
    Brunström, Mats
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Fahlgren, Maria
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Orchestration of mathematical discussions drawing on students’ computer-based work2017Inngår i: ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10 The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education / [ed] Johan Häggström, Eva Norén, Jorryt van Bommel, Judy Sayers, Ola Helenius, Yvonne Liljekvist, Göteborg: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2017, s. 77-87Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research points out the importance of following up students’ work on computerbasedtasks with whole-class discussions in which students play a central role.However, at the same time, research highlights the challenge for teachers in orchestratingsuch follow-up discussions. This paper examines whether an establishedmodel developed as guidance for teachers to orchestrate mathematical whole-classdiscussions (Stein, Engle, Smith & Hughes, 2008) could be useful in this educationalsetting. Students’ written responses to two different tasks are the main data used toexamine the model. The results indicate that the model has great potential to guidethese follow-up discussions

  • 82.
    Bråten, Oddrun M.H.
    Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim.
    Research on Religious Education in Nordic Countries: Introduction to Nordidactica 2015:22015Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:2, s. i-viiiArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This issue of the journal Nordidactica focuses on research in the field of religious education (RE). In Oddrun M. H. Bråten’s article, a methodology for comparative studies is presented and a comparative analysis conducted, centering on the use of the concepts of ‘learning about and from’ in Religious Education in England and Norway. In Jonathan Doney’s article we can read about the impact of the Ecumenical movement on the history of RE in England. Elisabet Haakedal discusses and compares two action research projects. Martin Ubani and a team of Finnish researchers present findings from research on RE teacher students. Gunnar J. Gunnarson and colleagues present findings from a study of Icelandic youths in a plural society, where they use theory of friendship and fear. Kathrine Kjærgaard provides us with insights into Greenlandic RE. In Mette Buchardt’s article, we can read about the role of Cultural Protestantism in developments in RE in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Together these articles give a glimpse into the rich area of RE research today. In this introduction, I present the articles before offering some perspectives on the texts, promoting a more general discussion using my methodology as an analytical device.

  • 83.
    Bråten, Oddrun M.H.
    Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim.
    Should there be wonder and awe? A three-dimensional and four levels comparative methodology used to discuss the "learning from" aspect of English and Norwegian RE2015Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:2, s. 1-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I will discuss how the idea of ‘learning about and from’ religion in Religious Education (RE) exist in both the English and Norwegian context. A main purpose of this article is to present a suggested template for comparative studies in religious education, where the discussion of this particular issue serves as example of how this can be applied. This template is a synthesis of two sets of ideas. The first is an idea of three dimensions in comparative education: supranational, national and sub-national processes. The second is the idea of levels of curriculum: societal, institutional, instructional and experiential. A basic criterion for my concept of comparative studies is a conception of comparative studies as studies of developments in specific countries/ nations in a supranational perspective. This methodology provides a framework for capturing different levels of national processes within a supranational context, which I believe are relevant for further international and comparative studies of religion in education.

  • 84.
    Buchardt, Mette
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Cultural Protestantism and Nordic Religious Education: An incision in the historical layers behind the Nordic Welfare state model2015Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:2, s. 131-165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Is there a Nordic model for Religious Education? The article explores how Cultural Protestantism and Liberal Theology influenced the ways in which Religious Education developed in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century as part of the transformation of the relations between church and state. Situated between history of education and curriculum, church history and transnational welfare state history, the article focuses on three transnationally acting theologians, early historians and psychologists of religion and public debaters who involved themselves in the question of education, namely Nathan Söderblom (1866-1931), Edvard Lehmann (1862-1930) and Eivind Berggrav (1884-1959), who serve as prisms for the transnational historical analysis of what takes place between states and social fields. The article suggests that Nordic Cultural Protestantism contributed to a model of religious education which in complex ways combines secularization in the meaning of division of the church-state relation with sacralization of the state and its so-called culture.

  • 85.
    Buchardt, Mette
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Religious Education research in welfare state Denmark. A historical and institutional perspective on an epistemological discussion2017Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 1, s. 49-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article deals with forms of knowledge and types of research interests in scholarly work on Religious Education at the primary and lower secondary levels in Denmark throughout the heyday of the welfare state from the 1960s and up until the 2000s, when the welfare state model not least with regard to education was in transition. The point of departure is the work and oeuvre of K.E. Bugge, for many years – and remaining until now – the last professor of Religious Education in Denmark, namely at the Royal Danish School of Education (Danmarks Lærerhøjskole) which reorganized as Danish University of Education in 2000. The article situates his doctoral dissertation "The school for life. Studies concerning the pedagogical ideas of N. F. S. Grundtvig" (1965) in its institutional context and compares the forms of knowledge it produced with three PhD dissertations defended during the 2000s and thus in a changed institutional field. Drawing on the conceptual understanding of the field of educational sciences deriving from Hofstetter and Schneuwly (2002), the article analyzes ways of doing research in and related to Religious Education and the scholarly disciplines involved. Focus will be on the relation between the academic disciplines studying religion and the educational sciences in their many disciplinary forms and on the relation between the field of sciences and the field of educational practice.

  • 86.
    Bönner, Oskar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Lärarperspektiv på geografiundervisning som behandlar en framtidsdimension: Utrymme, upplevelser och didaktik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning   Den här studien syftar till att visa på gymnasielärares perspektiv av undervisning som behandlar en framtidsdimension i ämnet geografi. Hur motiverar de utrymmet och behovet för framtidsfrågor? Hur upplever lärare temat med tanke på det ökade fokus på framtidsfrågor som exempelvis klimatförändringar? Och vilka didaktiska val anser lärare som framgångsrika för att behandla en framtidsdimension i undervisningen? Lite - om ens någon – publicerad forskning behandlar direkt lärares perspektiv på upplevelser och uppfattningar om en framtidsdimension som undervisningstema. Studier gjorda utifrån ett elevperspektiv däremot ger en bild av att en framtids-dimension är ett sällsynt eller icke existerande tema i skolan (Torbjörnsson & Molin 2015). På så sätt bekräftar de Molins studie som visar på att geografilärare i liten grad utnyttjar frirummet (2006). Varför behovet för en framtidsdimension i undervisningen inte anses viktigare och ges ett större utrymme kan genom forskningslitteraturen också förstås genom att det är ett nedprioriterat tema i såväl styrdokument som det ämnesdidaktiska fältet (Béneker 2015; Hicks 2002; Kramming 2017; Morgan 2015; Pauw 2015; Torbjörnsson 2014).Vidare finns studier som identifierar elevers negativa känslor för framtidsfrågor relaterade till vår gemensamma framtid (Nerdahl 2014; Kramming 2017; Ojala 2010; 2015; Pettersson 2014; Saunders & Jenkins 2012; Torbjörnsson & Molin 2015;). För att motverka negativa associationer och för att elever ska kunna ta till sig undervisning som behandlar en framtidsdimension lyfter Ojala i sin forskning fram vikten av lärarens förhållningssätt (Ojala 2010; 2015). Framträdande i internationell forskning är det ämnesdidaktiska konceptet att tala om framtiden i plural – framtider. Det anses skapa förutsättningar för en värdeskapande och innovativ pedagogik som baseras på öppna frågor och fokus på olika ståndpunkter (Hicks 2002; Pauw 2015). Undersökningens metod utgjordes av en kvalitativ studie. Sex gymnasielärare i geografi intervjuades över telefon och fick svara på frågor på temat. Intervjuernas genomförande och bearbetningen av det insamlade materialet genomfördes enligt metoder beskrivna av Kvale (1997) och analyserades enligt principer för thematic analysis av Braun & Clarke 2006. Empirin resulterade därefter i tre teman som svarade mot studiens frågeställningar. Undersökningens resultat visar att de intervjuade lärarna upplever framtidsfrågor som väl förankrade i skolans styrdokument och som ett ytterst aktuellt undervisningstema. Majoriteten menar att utrymmet är tillräckligt för att undervisa kring framtidsfrågor. Några menar att temat kunde ges mera plats. Ett par nämner frirummet som viktigt. Samtliga lärare beklagar att ämnet geografi är ett så litet ämne i den svenska gymnasieskolan. Några påpekar att undervisningens innehåll har fått stå tillbaka på grund av mindre ekonomiska resurser. Samtliga intervjudeltagarna ger dock uttryck för övervägande positiva erfarenheter av att behandla en framtidsdimension i undervisningen. Elever beskrivs som mestadels intresserade och engagerade av temat och framtida problemställningar. Inga teman eller ämnesområden beskrivs som för känsliga eller svåra att ta upp. Flera lärare uttrycker dock att det är viktigt att behandla framtidsfrågor på det som beskrivs som på rätt sätt i undervisningen. Resultaten visar att lärare använder flera olika undervisningsmetoder för att behandla en framtidsdimension. Ett par lärare ger uttryck för ett pluralistiskt förhållningssätt, varav en tydligt beskriver att undervisningen strävar mot att eleverna ska kunna diskutera framtidsscenarier. Den här studien belyser att ett lärarperspektiv på undervisning som behandlar en framtidsdimension kan skilja sig från ett elevperspektiv. Med utgångspunkt i den teoretiska översikten och undersökningens resultat lyfter studien också fram det som tolkas som rätt sätt att behandla en framtidsdimension i undervisningen. Enligt studien innebär på rätt sätt att läraren har ett positivt förhållningssätt till temat. Vidare behöver undervisningen ha ett lösningsorienterat förhållningssätt och läraren behöver kunna inge hopp inför framtida utmaningar. Läraren måste låta elever ge uttryck för och kunna kommunicera kring eventuella negativa känslor som elever kan förväntas ha kring framtidsfrågor. Slutligen visar studien på att betrakta framtiden som plural, framtider, kan öppna för ett positivt, lösningsorienterat och hoppfullt förhållningssätt. Därmed gör studien anspråk på att ett pluralistiskt förhållningssätt kan vara ett bra didaktiskt verktyg i geografiundervisning som behandlar en framtidsdimension. 

  • 87.
    Bøndergaard Butters, Nanna
    Børne- og ungdomsforvaltningen, Københavns Kommune.
    Når elever gør kultur og bruger historie2015Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:3, s. 53-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When Students Do Culture and Use History

    The article discusses the production and reproduction of cultural identities, cultural communities, cultural experiences and differences in three different history classrooms. The empirical case study material consists of observations followed by three individual interviews with history teachers. The setting is an urban Danish public school, with 60 per cent plurilingual students. Central analytical concepts are derived from social constructivism and, in particular, a dynamic and complex understanding of culture. History is here understood as a subject in which culture is preserved and transmitted but also as a subject in which culture and identities are developed, negotiated and differentiated. The article suggests that intercultural history education should be about making the students aware of these processes as they take place during history lessons, as metareflection on the historical knowledge construction process. The empirical case study suggests this is not yet the case as teachers’ intentions to implement intercultural perspectives are challenged by curricular demands.

  • 88.
    Børhaug, Kjetil
    University of Bergen.
    Watching, assessing, participating.: Globalising political education in Norwegian upper secondary education2019Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2019:1, s. 17-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transnational governance is expanding rapidly. From a political education perspective, an important question is to what extent and how these are included in the political universe that adolescents are being prepared for at school. Of particular interest is social science, which is part of social studies in primary and lower secondary school, before it develops into a variety of social science courses in upper secondary school. Including the transnational level in political education may mean critical thinking about current transnational issues as well as understanding how to participate politically with a transnational aim. Are these elements included in Norwegian political education in social science at school? And if so, is such participation related to notions of influence, power and conflicting interests? Or are notions of participation based on classical idealism? The research method is an analysis of selected social science textbooks in Norwegian upper secondary education. Textbooks are not assumed to determine teaching, but they are assumed to frame the field within which teachers develop their practice. The analysis shows that in the textbooks political education is expanded to a transnational level, where both political judgement of issues as well as participation are elaborated upon.

  • 89.
    Bürger, Paula
    Karlstads universitet.
    Fenomenet individualisering inom taluppfattning: En kvalitativ studie om hur lärare individualiserar matematikundervisningen i åk 12018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka hur lärare i årskurs 1 arbetar med individualisering inom taluppfattning. Taluppfattningen är en av de mest fundamentala delarna inom matematiken och är viktig inför det kommande arbetslivet. Inom ramen av matematikundervisningen är det dock omöjligt att kräva lika arbete av alla elever, där varje barn förväntas arbeta på samma sätt och i samma takt, vilket gör att individualiserade arbetsformer är nödvändiga. Ett individualiserande arbetssätt kan vara avgörande för barnets akademiska framtid, därmed bör undervisningen gestaltas på ett sätt som tillgodoser varje elevs behov.

     

    Med hjälp av nio kvalitativa intervjuer, med utgångspunkt i den fenomenologiska ansatsen, har arbetets två frågeställningar besvarats. Frågeställningarna har dels efterfrågat hurlärare i Västsverige med behörighet i matematik i årskurs 1 arbetar med taluppfattning, och dels varförlärarna arbetar på det sätt de gör. 

     

    Resultatet visar att de flesta lärarna utövar nivåindividualisering (undervisningsstoffet anpassas till elevernas kunskapsnivåer), miljöindividualisering (anpassade gruppkonstellationer och lokaler) och materialindividualisering (materialet anpassas utifrån elevernas behov) inom ramen av matematikundervisningen och området taluppfattning. Lärarna i studien hade svårt att besvara varförde arbetar på det sätt de gör, men resultatet visar att de främst jobbar utifrån egna erfarenheter inom området. 

  • 90.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN).
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN).
    SEE-SEP: From a separate to a holistic view on socio-scientific issues2010Inngår i: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1609-4913, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. Article 2-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend of socioscientific issues (SSIs) has been emergent in the science- and technology-dominated society of today. Accordingly, during the past 20 years, students’ skills of argumentation and informal reasoning about SSIs have achieved greater emphasis and profile in school education. Based upon the importance of SSIs, more and more researchers have investigated how students reason and make arguments about SSIs, and also explored the dimensions influencing students’ arguments and also involved in the various SSIs. This article has a threefold purpose. Firstly, we want to address the different roles of SSIs in science education nowadays, and secondly, after reviewing the divergent dimensions involved in SSIs from previous literature, we want to provide a holistic view to represent the essence of SSIs via the SEE-SEP model (connecting six subject areas of Sociology/culture, Environment, Economy, Science, Ethics/morality and Policy with three aspects of value, personal experience and knowledge) developed here. Thirdly, to support the SEE-SEP model, examples extracted from former studies are presented. The implications for research and for school science education are discussed.

  • 91.
    Chang-Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    Research in Science Education: A Comparison between Sweden and Taiwan2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 92.
    Christensen, Anders Stig
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Demokrati- og medborgerskabsbegreber i grundskolens samfundsfag i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Tyskland2015Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:1, s. 64-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Citizenship education and social science education aims at preparing the students for participation in the development of democratic societies. But which concept of democracy is the education based on, and aimed at? This article takes as its point of departure a discussion of concepts of democracy/citizenship including liberal, communitarian, republican and deliberative democracy. Through an analysis of curricula from social science education or citizenship education in lower secondary schools in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and politische Bildung (political education) in Berlin-Brandenburg, it is discussed which concepts of citizenship prevail in these, and, in the case of Denmark and Sweden, how these have developed in the last 40 years. Furthermore it is discussed, with reference to the German "Beutelsbacher-Konsensus" whether the citizenship education should be aimed at one concept of democracy if this concept is contested in itself.

  • 93.
    Christensen, Torben Spanget
    et al.
    Syddansk Universitet Odense.
    Hobel, Peter
    Syddansk Universitet Odense.
    Editorial 2014:2 To stærke tendenser i Nordidactica – temanumre og artikler af enkeltforskere2014Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2014:2, s. i-ivArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 94.
    Christensen, Torben Spanget
    et al.
    Syddansk Universitet Odense.
    Hobel, Peter
    Syddansk universitet Odense.
    Editorial 2015:1: Fagdidaktiske artikler i religion geografi, historie og samfundsfag og review af svenske samfundsfagsdidaktiske afhandlinger2015Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2015:1, s. i-iiArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 95.
    Christensen, Torben Spanget
    et al.
    Syddansk Universitet, Odense.
    Hobel, Peter
    Syddansk Universitet, Odense.
    Interdisciplinaritet – en udfordring til fagdidaktikken2014Inngår i: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, nr 2014:1, s. i-xivArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This editorial outlines a theoretical, general didactical framework for analysing demands for interdisciplinarity that we see arising in the school system, and why they occur. It also outlines a theoretical, subject specific didactically framework for analysing challenges school subjects are facing when meet with the requirement of interdisciplinarity. The intention is to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the theme of interdisciplinarity in Social Science Education in primary and secondary education and also to set a frame which cuts across the questions taken up in the various articles of this issue. It thus provides a scaffold for transverse reflections on general and subject specific didactic problems related to interdisciplinarity in primary and secondary education and in teacher training programmes. We also give short introductions to how each article in Nordidactica 2014:1 contributes to the theme of interdisciplinarity. For more adequate introductions we refer to the abstracts of the articles themselves.

  • 96.
    Christenson, Nina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    A Framework for Assessment of Socioscientific Argumentation2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework for assessment of socio-scientific argumentation

    The ability to produce a convincing argument with evidence to support a claim is important for participants in a democratic society. Research on students’ argumentation and reasoning on socio-scientific issues (SSI) has been extensive over the past decades due to its importance in science education. SSI provide a context where students can engage in reasoning and argumentation that involves the generation and evaluation of positions in response to complex issues which often lack definite solutions and have links to science and implications in society.

    Research includes a great variety among the analytical frameworks that have been developed to study students’ arguments. Most of these frameworks focus on either the structure of the argument or the content and are hard to use due to its complexity and in some cases more suitable to scientific argumentation rather than informal argumentation on SSI. Consequently, there is a need for frameworks that analyze the overarching patterns of socio-scientific arguments related to both the content as well as the structure. Accordingly, this framework should not be too complicated in its organization but possible to be used for assessment purposes for teachers as well as students own practice in order to improve their argumentation.

    Consequently, the aim of this research is to present a new analytical framework with focus on content, structure and the nature of the justifications that can be applied on socio-scientific argumentation. This framework is presented by applying it to authentic grade 12-students’ written arguments on a SSI about genetically modified organisms (GMO).

    There are two main components relating to the structural aspects: claim (decision) and justification (with pros and cons). Justification is defined as a combination of data, warrant and backings. The justification(s) that the arguers state in favor of their own claims are the pros and the justification(s) the arguers state against their own claims are the cons. Moreover, the justification can consist of value-laden statements when the arguers express their values on the issue and/or knowledge based statements when the arguers use conceptual knowledge to support their claims (and the content in the pros and cons are part of the content aspects, se below).

    The content aspect (knowledge) in the justifications (can be both pros or cons) is presented as different subjects that are based on the conceptual knowledge linked to a specific field or discipline such as politics, chemistry, economy etc. that arguers use in their justifications.

    Clearly, it is of great importance that the conceptual knowledge is relevant and scientifically correct, and this is why an explicit category about the conceptual knowledge is added to the framework:

    1. Correct and relevant content knowledge included
    2. Non-specific general knowledge (not directly related to the issue/focus)
    3. Incorrect content knowledge included (misconception or superficial scientific knowledge)

    This framework explicitly includes bot the structural and the content parts of a valid argument and will be fruitful both for future research on informal SSI-argumentation as well as in science education where the framework can be used as a tool assessing arguments considering both structure and content and consequently to assess the arguments as a whole.

     

  • 97.
    Christenson, Nina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Analyzing informal argumentation on socioscientific issues concerning covering content and structure2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to generate a convincing and persuasive argument with evidence to support a claim is important for participants in a democratic society. Research has revealed a great variety among the analytical frameworks that have been developed to study students’ arguments. Many of these frameworks have limitations such as focusing on either the structure of the argument or the content and/or are hard to use due to its complexity and in some cases more suitable to scientific argumentation rather than informal argumentation on SSI. Accordingly, there is need for a framework that can be used for assessment purposes and that can be used as support for teachers assessment as well as students own practice in order to improve their informal argumentation. The aim of this research is to present a new analytical framework with focus on content and structure as well as the nature of the justifications that can be applied on informal argumentation on SSI. We present this framework by applying it to authentic grade 12-students’ written arguments on a SSI about genetically modified organisms (GMO). The framework consists of several elements and focus on claims and justifications in arguments. The justifications are categorized with regard to three aspects; subjects, pros/cons and knowledge/attitudes. Our hope is that this framework will be fruitful both for future research on informal SSI-argumentation and in school education. The framework can be used as a tool assessing arguments, their complexity regarding both structure and content and consequently to assess the arguments as a whole. The low complexity of the framework also makes it possible for students to use directly as a tool for practicing argumentation on SSI.

  • 98.
    Christenson, Nina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för geografi och turism.
    Knowledge, Value and Personal experience: Upper secondary students' resources of supporting reasons when arguing socioscientific issues2011Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on upper secondary students’ use of resources in their supporting reasons when arguing socioscientific issues (SSIs). The skills of argumentation have been emphasized in science education during the past decades and SSIs are proven a good context for learners to enhance skills of argumentation and achieve the goal of scientific literacy. Research has shown that supporting reasons from various resources are embedded in students’ argumentation on SSIs, and also that multi-perspective involvement in reasoning is important for the quality of argumentation. To explore the reasons used by students in arguing about SSIs in this thesis, the SEE-SEP model was adopted as an analytical framework. The SEE-SEP model covers the six subject areas of sociology/culture, economy, environment/ecology, science, ethics/morality and policy, which are connected to the three aspects of knowledge, value and personal experience. Two studies covering four SSIs (global warming, GMO, nuclear power and consumption) explore how students construct arguments on one SSI topic chosen by them. In paper I, I investigated students’ use of resources in their informal argumentation and to what extent students made use of knowledge. The results showed that students used value to a larger extent (67%) than knowledge (27%). I also found that the distribution of supporting reasons generated by students varied from the different SSIs. In paper II, I explored students’ use of resources in relation to students’ study background (science majors and social-science majors) and gender. The results showed that social-science majors and females generated more numbers of reasons and also showed a larger amount of multi-disciplinary resources in their supporting reasons. From the findings of this thesis, the SEE-SEP model was established as a suitable model used to analyze students’ resources of supporting reasons while arguing about SSIs. Furthermore, the potential for applying the SEE-SEP model in teachers’ SSI-teaching and students’ SSI-learning is suggested. The implications to research and teaching are also discussed.

  • 99.
    Christenson, Nina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Role-play as a means to practice students’ argumentation skills on socioscientific issues2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Role-play as a means to practice students’ argumentation skills on SSI

    Introduction

    A democracy is dependent on well-informed citizens capable of understanding and taking part in societal issues. It is important from a societal as well as at the individual perspective, that people understand questions including for example global environmental matters, health concerns and personal ethical dilemmas.  Hence, it has been recognized in research that it is essential for students to develop argumentation skills to be able to participate in debates about controversial SSI (socioscientific issues) (Kolstö, 2000). The language is fundamental in learning science, both in being able to argue as well as being able to understand the science content. A central aspect of learning science is to learn the language of science and therefore it is crucial that science education provides possibilities for students to practice and develop their language skills (Lemke, 1990; Wellington & Osborne, 2001). Thus, language is important both for argumentation and learning science. However, in classrooms, teachers’ talk tends to be dominating (Mortimer & Scott, 2003). A shift must be made in the verbal arena so that the students are the ones doing most of the talk. Thus, a challenge in science education is to construct meaningful and motivating practices to supporting this development. Role-play debate concerning SSI has previously been investigated in research (e.g. Simonneaux, 2001). Jimenez-Aleixandre et. al. (2000) found that students constructing arguments about genetics focused on making detailed claims without being able to justify them. In this study we investigate a role-plays potential to promote students’ abilities to argue about SSI. The study was guided by the questions 1) How are the students arguments constructed concerning content? 2) To what extent do the participating students put forward arguments during the role-play?

    Methodology

    A group of eight students in grade nine, which is the last year of compulsory school in Sweden, participated in a role-play debate. This was the last activity in a series of lessons with the purpose of enhance a high degree of communication in form of dialogues and discussions. The focus of the teaching sequence was on basic genetics usually dealt with in Swedish lower secondary school. The role-play concerned gene technology and whether GMO (genetically modified organisms) should be allowed or not. The students were given different characters representing a variety of views on the GMO issue to play. The roles were handed out in advance and the participants were encouraged to find arguments based on scientific knowledge to be able to argue from facts. The role-play debate was moderated by one of the authors. The moderator made sure that all students initially got to present themselves (their given characters) and to briefly present their standpoint. The role-play debate was video- and audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The analyses focus on the content that the student use in their justifications when supporting their standpoints. We also analyzed how the time of talk was distributed between the participants.

    Findings

    The recording of the role-play debate was 48 minutes of length in total. After a short introduction, the students started to discuss the issue. Our analysis show that 82% of the time was devoted to students’ argumentation. The moderator hade a rather passive role, only making sure that the debate carried on in an orderly manner. The students’ arguments were focused on the GMO issue during the whole sequence. Concerning the content of the arguments, our analysis revealed three main themes that the students were referring to. These were 1) values (principles, ethics, beliefs etc.), 2) effects (examples and scenarios of consequences of GMO) and 3) solutions (suggestions and opinions about actions needed). Of these three themes, the effect theme was dominating the discussions. Within the themes, we found different categories of the content on which the arguments were based. For example, arguments about possible effects of GMO included a great variety of content concerning ecosystems, biodiversity, dispersion of GMO, effects on humans and animals, taste and quality of GMO-products etc. Since the discussion was mostly focused on the effects, most arguments were concerned with science. However, other aspects were included as well, for example small farmers struggle against large multinational companies, the growing gap between poor and rich and consequences for the world economy. The length of time as well as number of utterances made by the students differed to a great extent. Four of the students’ contributed to 85% of the talk. The number of utterances varied from 2-70. 

     Conclusions and implications

    It has been argued in science education research that students should learn how to argue with a scientific content, which includes that students must have the opportunity to train the language of science. This study shows that a role-play where students are given different characters and time to prepare arguments in advance, do have the potential to make students argue with commitment and focus, using a variety of scientifically based arguments. Our findings shows that students to a great extent can, on the contrary to the findings of Jiménez-Aleixandre et al. (2000), support their standpoints using scientific data in their justifications. We also found that students refer to different themes including numerous different aspects, indicating a high quality of students’ arguments (Christenson & Chang Rundgren, accepted). However, the speech time was unequal distributed among the students due to that some of the participants took a passive role during the role-play. The problem of some students being quiet has also been recognized by Albe (2008). Hence, Some students might need more practice to be able to fully participate in debates. In addition, group construction and the role of the teacher are other important aspects that need to be considered in future research.

    References

    Albe, V. (2008). When scientific knowledge, daily life experience, epistemological and social considerations intersect: Students’ argumentation in group discussions on a socio-scientific issue. Research in Science Education, 38, 67-90.

    Christenson, N. & Chang Rundgren, S-N. (accepted). A framework for teachers’ assessment of socioscientific argumentation: An example of the GMO issue. Journal of Biological Education.

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, M. P., Rodriguez, A. B., & Duschl, R. A. (2000). “Doing the lesson” or “doing science”: argument in high school science. Science Education, 84, 757-792.

    Kolstø, S. D. (2000). Consensus projects: teaching science for citizenship. International Journal of Science Education, 22(6), 645-664.

    Lemke, J. L. (1990). Talking science: Language, learning, and values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Cooperation.

    Mortimer E. F., & Scott, P. (2003). Meaning making in secondary science classrooms. Buckingham: Open University Press.

    Simonneaux, L. (2001). Role-play or debate to promote students’ argumentation and justification on an issue in animal transgenesis. International Journal of Science Education, 23(9), 903-927.

    Wellington, J., & Osborne, J. (2001). Language and Literacy in science education. Buckingham: Open University Press. 

  • 100.
    Christenson, Nina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Socioscientific argumentation: Aspects of content and structure2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Socioscientific argumentation has shown to be a feasible educational framework for promoting citizenship and for cultivating scientific literacy. However, there are several aspects of this educational framework that have been shown to be problematic. Consequently, in this thesis I investigated various aspects of quality of socioscientific argumentation from both an upper secondary student and a teacher perspective. By using students’ written argumentation on socioscientific issues (SSI) I studied how they justified their claims. The results showed that different SSI led students to use different subject areas in their justifications. I also compared science majors with social science majors and found that the number of justifications provided by the students is related to their discipline background. In these two studies, a new content focused analytical framework for analyzing content aspects of socioscientific argumentation, the SEE-SEP model, was used and shown to be suitable for this purpose. However, to ensure that students are able to produce high-quality arguments I suggest that both content and structural aspects need to be considered. As a result of this, I have presented a framework based on research literature and the Swedish curriculum, for analyzing and assessing both these aspects of socioscientific argumentation. Moreover, I investigated how science and language teachers assess students’ socioscientific argumentation and found that the science teachers focused on students’ ability to reproduce content knowledge, whereas language teachers focused on students’ ability to use content knowledge from references, and the structural and linguistic aspects of argumentation.

     

    The complexity of teaching socioscientific argumentation makes it difficult to teach and assess comprehensively. In order to promote quality and include both content and structural aspects, I suggest that a co-operation among teachers of different disciplines is beneficial.

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