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  • 51. Renkema-Padmos, Arne
    et al.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Renaud, Karen
    Building Castles in Quicksand: Blueprints of a Crowdsourced Study2014In: ProceedingCHI EA '14 CHI '14 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 643-652Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding participants for experiments has always been a challenge. As technology advanced, running experiments online became a viable way to carry out research that did not require anything more than a personal computer. The natural next step in this progression emerged as crowdsourcing became an option. We report on our experience of joining this new wave of practice, and the difficulties and challenges we encountered when crowdsourcing a study. This led us to re-evaluate the validity of crowdsourced research. We report our findings, and conclude with guidelines for crowdsourced experiments.

  • 52. Schochlow, Verena
    et al.
    Neumann, Stephan
    Braun, Kristoffer
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Bewertung der GMX/Mailvelope-Ende-zu-Ende-Verschlüsselung2016In: Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD, ISSN 1614-0702, E-ISSN 1862-2607, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 295-299Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 53. Shirazi, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    What Deters Jane from Preventing Identification and Tracking on the Web?2014In: 13th ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society (WPES 2014), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 107-116Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54. Stockhardt, Simon
    et al.
    Reinheimer, Benjamin
    Volkamer, Melanie
    17. Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Mayer, Peter
    Rack, Philipp
    Lehmann, Daniel
    Teaching Phishing-Security: Which Way is Best?2016In: ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection: 31st IFIP TC 11 International Conference, SEC 2016, Ghent, Belgium, May 30 - June 1, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Jaap-Henk Hoepman & Stefan Katzenbeisser, Springer, 2016, p. 135-149Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Tschofenig, Hannes
    et al.
    NSN, Finland.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    CASED/TU Darmstadt, Tyskland.
    Jentzsch, Nicola
    DIW Berlin, Tyskland.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Schiffner, Stefan
    ENISA.
    Tirtea, Rodica
    ENISA.
    On the security, privacy and usability of online seals: An overview2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyses the conditions under which online security and privacy seals (OSPS) can be deployed to support users to make an informed trust decision about Web services and their providers with respect to the provided security and privacy. This report is motivated by the numerous policy documents, that mention marks, seals, logos, icons, (collectively referred as OSPS) as a mean enabling users to judge on the trustworthiness of services offered on the Web.

    The field of OSPSs has also developed in maturity. Therefore, we aim at analysing the current situation and identified key challenges for online signals in practise. Based on these challenges, this report identifies possible solutions and corresponding recommendations and next steps that ENISA and other stakeholders should follow for enabling users in judging on the trustworthiness of services offered on the Web.

    The key challenges and corresponding recommendations of this report are:

     Lack of awareness. Many users are not aware of the existence of OSPSs at all. Furthermore, they are not aware on which signals they can and should base their decision on as there are many including a few which are not trustworthy. Partners from the Safer Internet Programme, working groups on awareness raising from different institutions should provide educational material to spread knowledge of the existence and meaning of OSPS.

     Lack of standards. As a result of different design requirements and business models a broad range of seals is available today. This variety makes it difficult for users to decide whether one seal provides stronger protection than another. Standardisation of OSPS will be important to make them easily recognisable and correctly understood. Standardisation bodies should also define standards for trustworthy OSPSs. This will also improve user experience as they do not need to remember as many OSPS providers as they need today.

     Lack of validity checks. Most of those who are aware do not check the validity of the online signals; even worse some signals are merely images on the web page and as such very hard to check. Hence, forgeries are possible and easy. Service providers need to provide users with OSPSs that can be automatically checked (for example, in the form of cryptographic certificates). Web browser developers need to implement these automatic checks. However, pure market forces are not very likely to lead to this ideal situation. Thus, policy makers (at EU level and national level) should investigate the enforcement of corresponding standardized mechanisms for Web browsers. Furthermore, they should investigate strategies in case promises made regarding seals are not met.

     Lack of usability. Given the intrinsic complexity of Web services it is very likely that the result of an evaluation by an OSPS issuer is not just ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ but multi-dimensional. As there is neither space nor are users generally willing to read long explanations, researchers and web designers need to develop corresponding icons communicating the results. These icons could be based on research on privacy icons. Note, designers need to take care of cultural and legal differences.

     Lack of presence. The effectiveness of trust signals needs to be improved, and this is likely to occur when a more mature market with well-known players (online service providers) is achieved; and also when users attain a more precise understanding of their meaning of a trust seal in a web page. Regulatory bodies at EU and national level should set incentives for service providers to obtain online security and privacy seals.

  • 56. Volkamer, Melanie
    et al.
    Renaud, Karen
    Braun, Kristoffer
    Canova, Gamze
    Reinheimer, Benjamin
    Design and Field Evaluation of PassSec Raising and Sustaining Web Surfer Risk Awareness2015In: Trust and Trustworthy Computing, 2015, p. 104-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents PassSec, a Firefox Add-on that raises user awareness about safe and unsafe password entry while they surf the web. PassSec comprises a two-stage approach: highlighting as the web page loads, then bringing up a just-in-time helpful dialog when the user demonstrates an intention to enter a password on an unsafe web page. PassSec was developed using a human-centered design approach. We performed a field study with 31 participants that showed that PassSec significantly reduces the number of logins on websites where password entry is unsafe.

  • 57.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Tech Univ Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Renaud, Karen
    University Glasgow, Scotland.
    Canova, Gamze
    Technical University Darmstadt, Germany.
    Reinheimer, Benjamin
    Technical University Darmstadt, Germany.
    Braun, Kristoffer
    Technical University Darmstadt, Germany.
    Design and Field Evaluation of PassSec: Raising and Sustaining Web Surfer Risk Awareness2015In: Trust and Trustworthy Computing, Trust 2015 / [ed] Conti, M Schunter, M Askoxylakis, I, Springer, 2015, p. 104-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents PassSec, a Firefox Add-on that raises user awareness about safe and unsafe password entry while they surf the web. PassSec comprises a two-stage approach: highlighting as the web page loads, then bringing up a just-in-time helpful dialogue when the user demonstrates an intention to enter a password on an unsafe web page. PassSec was developed using a human-centred design approach. We performed a field study with 31 participants that showed that PassSec significantly reduces the number of logins on websites where password entry is unsafe.

  • 58.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Technische Universität, Germany.
    Renaud, Karen
    University of Glasgow, Scotland.
    Kulyk, Oksana
    Technische Universität, Germany.
    Emeroez, Sinem
    Technische Universität, Germany.
    A Socio-Technical Investigation into Smartphone Security2015In: SECURITY AND TRUST MANAGEMENT (STM 2015), Springer, 2015, p. 265-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many people do not deliberately act to protect the data on their Smartphones. The most obvious explanation for a failure to behave securely is that the appropriate mechanisms are unusable. Does this mean usable mechanisms will automatically be adopted? Probably not! Poor usability certainly plays a role, but other factors also contribute to non-adoption of precautionary mechanisms and behaviours. We carried out a series of interviews to determine justifications for non-adoption of security precautions, specifically in the smartphone context, and developed a model of Smartphone precaution non-adoption. We propose that future work should investigate the use of media campaigns in raising awareness of these issues.

  • 59.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Renaud, Karen
    Kulyk, Oksana
    Emeröz, Sinem
    An Investigation into the "Other" Barriers to Adoption of Smartphone Security Precautions (Poor Usability being a Given)2015Report (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Renaud, Karen
    Reinheimer, Benjamin
    TORPEDO: TOoltip-poweRed Phishing Email DetectiOn2016In: ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection: 31st IFIP TC 11 International Conference, SEC 2016, Ghent, Belgium, May 30 - June 1, 2016, Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2016, Vol. 471, p. 161-175Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Technische Universität Darmstadt.
    Renaud, Karen
    University of Glasgow.
    Reinheimer, Benjamin
    Technische Universität Darmstadt.
    Kunz, Alexandra
    Technische Universität Darmstadt.
    User experiences of TORPEDO: TOoltip-powered phishing email DetectiOn2017In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 71, p. 110-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a concept called TORPEDO to improve phish detection by providing just-in-time and just-in-place trustworthy tooltips. These help people to identify phish links embedded in emails. TORPEDO's tooltips contain the actual URL with the domain highlighted. Link activation is delayed for a short period, giving the person time to inspect the URL before they click on a link. Furthermore, TORPEDO provides an information diagram to explain phish detection. We evaluated TORPEDO's effectiveness, as compared to the worst case “status bar” as provided by other Web email interfaces. People using TORPEDO performed significantly better in detecting phishes and identifying legitimate emails (85.17% versus 43.31% correct answers for phish). We then carried out a field study with a number of TORPEDO users to explore actual user experiences of TORPEDO. We conclude the paper by reporting on the outcome of this field study and suggest improvements based on the feedback from the field study participants.

  • 62.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    et al.
    Tech Univ Darmstadt, CASED, SecUSO, Dept Comp Sci, Darmstadt, Germany..
    Stockhardt, Simon
    Tech Univ Darmstadt, CASED, SecUSO, Dept Comp Sci, Darmstadt, Germany..
    Bartsch, Steffen
    Tech Univ Darmstadt, CASED, SecUSO, Dept Comp Sci, Darmstadt, Germany..
    Kauer, Michaela
    Tech Univ Darmstadt, CASED, SecUSO, Dept Comp Sci, Darmstadt, Germany..
    Adopting the CMU/APWG anti-phishing landing page idea for Germany2013In: 2013 THIRD WORKSHOP ON SOCIO-TECHNICAL ASPECTS IN SECURITY AND TRUST (STAST 2013), IEEE Press, 2013, p. 46-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phishing attacks still pose a significant problem and purely technical solutions cannot solve this problem. While research literature in general shows that educating users in security is hard, the Anti-Phishing Landing Page proposed by CMU researchers seems promising as it appears in the most teachable moment - namely once someone clicked on a link and was very likely to fall for phishing. While this page is already in use and exists in many languages we show that it is not effective in Germany as most users leave the page immediately without having read any advice. We therefore explore options to adopt their ideas for Germany. We focus on which are the trustworthy institutes that could provide such a landing page on their web pages and what is an appropriate headline and design.

  • 63. Wolf, Peter
    et al.
    Barrat, Jordi
    Bolo, Eden
    Bravo, Alejandro
    Krimmer, Robert
    Neumann, Stephan
    Parreño, Al A.
    Schürmann, Carsten
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Certification of ICTs in Elections2015Book (Other academic)
12 51 - 63 of 63
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  • fi-FI
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