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  • 51.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Classroom vs. extramural English: Teachers dealing with demotivation2013In: Language and Linguistics Compass, ISSN 1749-818X, E-ISSN 1749-818X, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 329-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article explores challenges facing EFL classrooms in Sweden due to new informal out-of-school language learning settings created by the current media landscape. A recent Swedish national evaluation identifies that a problematic situation in secondary school EFL classrooms has emerged. EFL teachers find it difficult to bridge the gap (cf. Olsson 2011) between the English used in school and the English used outside of school, extramural English (Sundqvist 2009). As a consequence, the pupils (aged 13–16) become discouraged and demotivated. Based on experiences from language teaching methodology in-service training programs and a small-scale survey, the article discusses the problem with demotivation, the empowerment of EFL teachers, and the development of teaching practices in order to meet the new challenges. The article argues that the challenges that Swedish EFL teachers currently meet can be viewed as an early indication that similar challenges are likely to emerge also in EFL classrooms elsewhere.

  • 52.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Engelska på fritiden och engelska i skolan: en omöjlig ekvation?2015In: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, ISSN 1653-1868, no 1, p. 53-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article explores challenges facing English language classrooms in Sweden and elsewhere due to new informal out-of-school language learning settings created by the current media landscape. The article also discusses the empowerment of teachers and teachers’ perceived ability to bridge the gap between the English used in school and the English used outside of school (extramural English) in various activities (blogging, playing digital games, watching TV/films etc.). Generally young people engage in extramural English activities on a voluntary basis and because of a specific interest; that is, they do not commonly do it for the purpose of language learning. As a consequence, they may become discouraged and demotivated during English classes in school. After an extensive literature review about motivation/demotivation in second language learning in general, and the current media landscape in relation to English language learning in particular, this article discusses problems with learner demotivation, the empowerment of teachers, and the development of teaching practices in order to meet the new challenges. The discussion draws on the authors’ experiences of in-service training programs (related to language teaching methodology) and on the results of a small-scale survey carried out among English teachers participating in Boost for teachers (Lärarlyftet).

  • 53.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Universitetet i Oslo.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Källkvist, Marie
    Lunds universitet; Linnéuniversitetet.
    Fredholm, Kent
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Dahlberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Ömsesidighet i framtidens praktiknära språkklassrumsforskning: ASLA-symposiets panelsamtal med forskare, lärare och elever2019In: Klassrumsforskning och språk(ande): Rapport från ASLA-symposiet i Karlstad, 12-13 april, 2018. / [ed] Ljung Egeland, Birgitta; Roberts, Tim; Sandlund, Erica; Sundqvist, Pia, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2019, p. 19-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under ASLA-symposiet hölls för första gången ett panelsamtal om forskningsbehov i språkämnena där lärare, språkforskare och gymnasieelever deltog. I detta kapitel situerar vi idén med panelsamtalet i studier av lärares roll i och för den praktiknära skolforskningen. Vi redogör för några modeller för samverkan mellan lärare och forskare och diskuterar identifierade framgångsfaktorer i praktiknära forskning. Vi redogör också för KIPPS, det samverkansprojekt som möjliggjorde panelsamtalet och den satsning på praktiknära skolforskning som det statliga ULF-avtalet möjliggjort. Vi diskuterar sedan de tankar och idéer som lyftes i panelsamtalet i ljuset av aktionsforskning, lärares forskningsengagemang samt behovet av ömsesidigt kunskapsutbyte och lärande. Slutligen ger vi några förslag till vägar framåt för tillämpad språkvetenskap och praktiknära forskning och ASLA-föreningens möjliga roll i en sådan utveckling.

  • 54.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Nyroos, Lina
    Uppsala universitet.
    National speaking tests in English: Does group size matter?2014In: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, Vol. 3, p. 3p. 29-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 55.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Nyroos, Lina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Speaking about speaking: English teachers' practices and views regarding Part A of the English national test2015In: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, no 3, p. 16-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 56.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Nyroos, Lina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Genomförande och bedömning av nationella prov i engelska: en pilotstudie2013In: KAPET, ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 24-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blogpost about Language-related computer use: Focus on young L2 English learners in Sweden.2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 58.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Computer-assisted L2 English language-related activities among Swedish 10-year-olds2012In: CALL: Using, learning, knowing: EUROCALL Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 22-25 August 2012, Proceedings / [ed] L. Bradley & S. Thous̈eny, Dublin: Research-publishing.net , 2012, p. 280-285Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young Swedish learners’ extramural (out-of-school) contact with English. In contemporary Sweden, the influx of English is great and research has shown that extramural contact with English correlates positively with students’ proficiency in English (Olsson, 2011; Sundqvist, 2009; Sylvén, 2004). While Sylvén (2004) investigates type and amount of involvement in extramural English activities among upper secondary students and Sundqvist (2009) as well as Olsson (2011) among 9th graders, little on the same topic is known about younger learners. However, in a nationwide survey, more than half of Swedish 5th-graders indicate that they have learned English as much or more outside of school as in school (Skolverket, 2004), but empirical studies on the topic remain scarce. Based on data collected from young learners (N = 112; grade 4; age 10), this paper presents results regarding their type and amount of extramural language activities in English as well as in Swedish and other languages. Previous research has shown that digital gaming may contribute to L2 English learning, in particular with regard to vocabulary (Cobb & Horst, 2011; Miller & Hegelheimer, 2006; Ranalli, 2008; Sundqvist & Sylvén, 2012; Turgut & Irgin, 2009). Therefore, the first focus of our presentation is on these young learners’ L2 English language-related use of computers, for instance in playing digital games. A comparison is made between digital gaming habits in English and Swedish. The second focus is on analyses of playing digital games from the perspectives of gender and the learners’ first languages. The final focus is on learner motivation and self-assessed L2 English proficiency.

  • 59.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Det heterogena engelskklassrummets ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar: En jämförelse mellan elever med stor respektive liten mängd extramural engelska2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I svensk skola är engelska ett kärnämne, vilket automatiskt ger det en speciell tyngd. Engelska är också generellt sett ett populärt ämne som anses viktigt (Oscarson & Apelgren, 2005; Skolverket, 2004). Detta är inte underligt eftersom inflödet och användningen av det engelska språket är utbrett i dagens svenska samhälle. Alltsedan IT-revolutionen har dessutom engelskan fått ökat utrymme eftersom engelska är det ledande språket på Internet och dessutom fungerar som ett globalt lingua franca (Crystal, 2006). Inom språkvetenskap har det länge funnits en distinktion mellan främmandespråksinlärning och andraspråksinlärning, där det förstnämnda motsvarar att man lär sig målspråket framförallt genom undervisning i ett land där målspråket inte talas och det sistnämnda att man bor och lever i ett land där målspråket talas och lär sig språket på så sätt (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). I en nutida svensk kontext hävdar vissa att engelska mer liknar ett andraspråk än ett främmande språk, framförallt därför att elever i ökande grad lär sig engelska även utanför skolan, så kallad extramural engelska (jfr Viberg 2000; Sundqvist 2009). Situationen har medfört att elever stiger in i engelskklassrummet med helt olika bakgrund beträffande extramural engelska, vilket bland annat avspeglas i den kunskapsnivå de har. Den kunskapsmässiga polariseringen inom ett klassrums väggar kan vara mycket stor och innebär en didaktisk utmaning för engelskläraren. I detta paper diskuterar vi det heterogena engelskklassrummets ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar, bland annat utifrån resultat från en gemensam pilotstudie om extramural engelska bland elever på mellanstadiet samt våra respektive doktorsavhandlingar genomförda i årskurs 9 samt på gymnasiet. Vi kommer bland annat att jämföra elever med stor respektive liten mängd extramural engelska och diskutera vilken typ av engelska de ägnar sig åt utanför skolan samt vilka konsekvenser deras extramurala vanor får för prestationerna i klassrummet och för läraren.ReferenserCrystal, D. (2006). Language and the Internet (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2006). How languages are learned (3 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Oscarson, M., & Apelgren, B. M. (2005). Nationella utvärderingen av grundskolan 2003 (NU-03). Engelska. Ämnesrapport till rapport 251. Stockholm: Skolverket.Skolverket. (2004). Nationella utvärderingen av grundskolan 2003: huvudrapport - svenska/svenska som andra språk, engelska, matematik och undersökningen i årskurs 5. Stockholm: Skolverket.

  • 60.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Extramural English in teaching and learning: From theory and research to practice2016 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is unique in bringing together theory, research, and practice about English encountered outside the classroom – extramural English – and how it affects teaching and learning. The book investigates ways in which learners successfully develop their language skills through extramural English and provides tools for teachers to make use of free time activities in primary and secondary education. The authors demonstrate that learning from involvement in extramural English activities tends to be incidental and is currently underutilized in classroom work. A distinctive strength is that this volume is grounded in theory, builds on results from empirical studies, and manages to link theory and research with practice in a reader-friendly way. Teacher-educators, teachers and researchers of English as a foreign language and teachers of English as a second language across the globe will find this book useful in developing their use of extramural English activities as tools for language learning.

  • 61.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fritidsspråk i femman: framtidens studenter formas2011In: Språk för framtiden. Rapport från ASLA:s höstsymposium, Falun, 12-13 november, 2010.: Language for the future. Papers from the ASLA Symposium in Falun, 12-13 November, 2010 / [ed] A. Ylikiiskilä & M. Westman, Uppsala: Swedish Science Press, 2011, p. 186-198Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg.
    How Swedish children learn English through gaming2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 63.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Informal learning and extramural English among young learners2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    This paper presents findings from an ongoing study investigating young Swedish learners extramural (out-of-school) contact with English. In contemporary Sweden, English abounds and research has shown that extramural contact with English correlates positively with students proficiency in English (Sundqvist 2009, Sylvén 2004). While Sylvén (2004, 2006) investigates type and amount of extramural English among upper secondary students and Sundqvist (2009) among 9th graders, little on the same topic is known about young learners. In a nationwide survey, more than half of Swedish 5th-graders indicate that they have learned English as much or more outside of school as in school (Skolverket 2004). With a focus on young learners (N=243; grades 4-6), the aim of the present study is to map their type and amount of extramural English and identify possible correlations with language proficiency, socioeconomic backgrounds, and motivation to study languages, thus partly filling a void in research.

    Informal learning has been defined as a natural, simple and subconscious acquisition of knowledge about the underlying structure in some complex stimulus, such as language (Ellis 1994:1). The informal acquisition of a new language can be juxtaposed to formal learning, which in comparison is characterized by a more conscious treatment of the complex structure typical of the new language (cf, e.g. Krashen 1981). As suggested above, extramural English seems to be a decisive factor for informal learning to take place and it is of interest to increase knowledge about young learners in this respect, not least in light of the fact that the European Commission recommends language teaching at an early age, for example in order to increase students language awareness and interest for learning at least two languages in addition to their first (Commission of the European Communities 2003). It is also clearly stated in the Swedish curriculum that teachers should take advantage of the rich and varied supply of English that learners come in contact with and use it in their teaching (Skolverket 2000).



    References



    Commission of the European Communities,. (2003). Promoting language learning and linguistic diversity: An action plan 2004-2006. Brussels: European Commission.

    Ellis, N. (1994). Implicit and explicit language learning An Overview. I N. Ellis (ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 1-31). London: Academic Press.

    Krashen, S. D. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon.

    Skolverket. (2000). Språk Gy2000:18. Grundskola och gymnasieskola. Kursplaner, betygskriterier och kommentarer. Stockholm: Skolverket.

    Skolverket. (2004). Nationella utvärderingen av grundskolan 2003. Huvudrapport svenska/svenska som andraspråk, engelska, matematik och undersökningen i årskurs 5. Stockholm: Skolverket.

    Sundqvist, P. (2009). Extramural English Matters: Out-of-school English and its impact on Swedish ninth graders oral proficiency and vocabulary. Karlstad: Karlstad University Studies.

    Sylvén, L. K. (2004). Teaching in English or English teaching? On the effects of content and language integrated learning on Swedish learners incidental vocabulary acquisition. Göteborg: Göteborg University.

    Sylvén, L. K. (2006a). How is extramural exposure to English among Swedish school students used in the CLIL classroom? VIEWS - Vienna English Working Papers, 15(3), 47-53.

  • 64.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Language-related computer use: Focus on young L2 English learners in Sweden2014In: ReCALL, ISSN 0958-3440, E-ISSN 1474-0109, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 3-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N=76, aged 10–11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners’ L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and their use of computers and engagement in playing digital games in particular. A comparison is made between language-related activities in English, Swedish, and other languages. Another purpose was to see whether there is a relationship between playing digital games and (a) gender, (b) L1, (c) motivation for learning English, (d) self-assessed English ability, and (e) self-reported strategies for speaking English. In order to do so, the sample was divided into three digitalgame groups, (1) non-gamers, (2) moderate, and (3) frequent gamers (>4 hours/week), based on diary data (using self-reported times for playing digital games in English). Results showedthat YELLs are extensively involved in extramural English (EE) activities (M=7.2 hrs/w).There are statistically significant gender differences, boys (11.5 hrs/w) and girls (5.1 hrs/w; p < .01), the reason being boys’ greater time investment in digital gaming and watching films.The girls, on the other hand, spent significantly more time on pastime language-relatedactivities in Swedish (11.5 hrs/w) than the boys (8.0 hrs/w; p < .05), the reason being girls’greater time investment in facebooking. Investigation of the digital game groups revealed that group (1) was predominantly female, (2) a mix, and (3) predominantly male. YELLs with an L1 other than Swedish were overrepresented in group (3). Motivation and self-assessed English ability were high across all groups. Finally, regarding the self-reported strategies, code-switching to one’s L1 was more commonly reported by non- and moderate gamers than frequent gamers.

  • 65.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    The lexicon and extramural English among 5th graders2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    This paper is based on a pilot study focusing on young learners (N=244, 4-6th grade, aged 10-12) and their use of English outside of school, i.e. extramural English (Sundqvist 2009). The overall aim of the study is to examine whether there is a relationship between extramural English and achieved learning outcomes in school. Since it is a pilot study, several measuring tools were tried out: (a) a questionnaire to measure extramural English, motivation, and background variables, (b) a language diary to measure involvement in various extramural English activities as well as extramural activities in other languages, and (c) a written vocabulary test to measure the size of English vocabulary. In our paper, we focus on the results of the evaluation of the vocabulary test and on the analysis of learners scores on that particular test. The test was taken by 52 learners in 5th grade and included test items from the levels tests (Nation 2001; Laufer and Nation 1999) available at http://www.lextutor.ca/. The test we designed includes three parts: (A) Recognition (1,000 word level; receptive vocabulary), (B) Recognition (2,000 level; receptive vocabulary), and (C) Production (2,000 level; productive vocabulary). The mean was close to 19 points out of 37. A comparison of the mean scores on the separate parts of the test indicates that Part A was the easiest one and Part C the most difficult. Moreover, the boys had a significantly higher mean score (21) than the girls (17; p < .05). In our analysis, we examine in detail which words cause learners problems and which do not. Furthermore, we discuss the gender difference in light of the fact that previous research has shown that boys to a larger extent than girls benefit from their engagement in extramural English in terms of incidental vocabulary acquisition (Sylvén 2004/2010, Sundqvist 2009).



    References



    Laufer, B., & Nation, P. (1999). A vocabulary-size test of controlled productive ability. Language Testing, 16(1), 33-51.

    Nation, P. (2001b). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Sundqvist, P. (2009). Extramural English matters: Out-of-school English and its impact on Swedish ninth graders' oral proficiency and vocabulary. PhD, Karlstad University Studies (2009:55), Karlstad.

    Sylvén, L. K. (2004/2010). Teaching in English or English teaching? On the effects of content and language integrated learning on Swedish learners' incidental vocabulary acquisition. PhD, Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, Gothenburg.

  • 66.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Unveiling the force of learner-initiated informal language learning: Extramural learning2018In: Language Magazine, ISSN 1537-7350, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 67.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    World of VocCraft: Computer games and Swedish learners’ L2 English vocabulary2012In: Digital games in language learning and teaching / [ed] Hayo Reinders, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 189-208Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Young learners of English and the educational significance of extramural English activities2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    This paper presents findings from an ongoing study investigating young Swedish learners extramural (out-of-school) contact with English. In contemporary Sweden, as in many other countries, English abounds; research has shown that extramural contact with English correlates positively with students proficiency in English (Sundqvist 2009, Sylvén 2004). While Sylvén (2004) investigates type and amount of extramural English among upper secondary students and Sundqvist (2009) among 9th graders, little on the same topic is known about young learners. In a nationwide survey, more than half of Swedish 5th-graders indicate that they have learned English as much or more outside of school as in school (Skolverket 2004). Focussing on young learners (N=244; grades 4-6), the aim of the present study is to map their type and amount of extramural English and identify possible correlations with language proficiency, socioeconomic backgrounds, and motivation to study languages, thus partly filling a void in research.



    Extramural engagement in English activities is connected with informal learning, defined by Ellis (1994) as a natural, simple and subconscious acquisition of knowledge about the underlying structure in some complex stimulus, e.g. language. The informal acquisition of a new language can be juxtaposed to formal learning, which in comparison is characterized by a more conscious treatment of complex structures typical of the new language. As suggested above, extramural English seems to be a decisive factor for informal learning to take place and it is important to increase knowledge about young learners in this respect, not least in light of the fact that the European Commission recommends language teaching at an early age, for example in order to increase students language awareness and interest for learning at least two languages in addition to their first (Commission of the European Communities 2003).



    References

    Commission of the European Communities. (2003). Promoting language learning and linguistic diversity: An action plan 2004-2006. Brussels: European Commission.

    Ellis, N. (1994). Implicit and explicit language learning An Overview. I N. Ellis (ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 1-31). London: Academic Press.

    Skolverket. (2004). Nationella utvärderingen av grundskolan 2003. Huvudrapport svenska/svenska som andraspråk, engelska, matematik och undersökningen i årskurs 5. Stockholm: Skolverket.

    Sundqvist, P. (2009). Extramural English Matters: Out-of-school English and its impact on Swedish ninth graders oral proficiency and vocabulary. Karlstad: Karlstad University Studies.

    Sylvén, L. K. (2004). Teaching in English or English teaching? On the effects of content and language integrated learning on Swedish learners incidental vocabulary acquisition. Göteborg: University of Gothenburg.

  • 69.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar i det heterogena engelskklassrummet: En jämförelse mellan elever med stor respektive liten mängd extramural engelska2012In: Ämnesdidaktisk komparation: Länder, ämnen, teorier, metoder, frågor och resultat / [ed] Niklas Gericke & Bengt Schüllerqvist, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012, p. 121-135Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Gamers and girls: Avancerad vokabulär i engelska uppsatser (årskurs 9)2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 71.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Learning by playing: Relations between out-of-school digital gameplay and L2 English proficiency2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between digital gameplay and language learning is a growing field of interest within SLA. Gee (2007) was among the first linguists to highlight the affordances offered by digital games for learning and literacy; subsequent empirical studies have proved him right as regards L2 learning. The present study is grounded in sociocultural theory (Lantolf & Thorne, 2006; Vygotsky, 1978) where social interaction is fundamental; likewise, social interaction is central in many games (see e.g. Peterson, 2012). The aim of the present study is to shed more light on the relation between digital gameplay and L2 English proficiency, vocabulary in particular, as well as on the relation between gameplay and learners’ attitudes towards English. To this end, a sample of 80 L2 English learners (aged 15–16) were divided into three Digital Game Groups (DGGs) based on frequency of out-of-school digital gameplay activity: (1) non-gamers, (2) moderate gamers, and (3) frequent gamers (≥ 5 hours/week). Due to the gendered distribution of non-gamers (predominantly female) and frequent gamers (predominantly male), these three DGGs are also partially defined by gender. The study attempts to answer the following research questions: (1) Are there any correlations between out-of-school digital game play and (a) L2 proficiency, (b) vocabulary, (c) attitudes towards English, and (d) outcomes in terms of various grades? (2) What is the role of gender in any correlations observed? For the present study, we use datasets originally collected for Author1 (year), comprising questionnaire data, vocabulary tests, essays, assessment data, and school subject grades. The data were analyzed quantitatively using Pearson’s chi-squared and Cramér’s V for tests of association between nominal variables, and t-tests, ANOVA, and classical eta squared for tests of variance with numeric variables. Results show a medium to large effect of gameplay, but also gender, on vocabulary. Further, DGG 3 had the most advanced vocabulary, the highest rated essays, and the highest final English grades, closely followed by DGG 1, while DGG 2 trailed behind. Attitudes varied between the groups, but DGG 3 tended to have the most positive attitudes towards English. One conclusion is that both gaming and gender are connected with L2 English proficiency.

     

     

    Gee, J. P. (2007). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. Revised and updated edition. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Peterson, M. (2012). Learner interaction in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG): A sociocultural discourse analysis. ReCALL, 24(3), 361-380.

    Vygotsky, L. (1978). Cole, M., John-Steiner, V., Scribner, S., and Souberman, E. (Eds.) Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.

     

  • 72.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary outcomes2015In: System, ISSN 0346-251X, Vol. 51, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relation between out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary measures and grading outcomes. Data were originally collected from a sample of 80 teenage Swedish L2 English learners and comprise a questionnaire, language diaries, vocabulary tests, assessed essays, and grades. Using an observational post-hoc design, three Digital Game Groups (DGGs) were created based on frequency of gameplay: (1) non-gamers (0 h/week), (2) moderate gamers (<5 h/week), and (3) frequent gamers (≥5 h/week). Results show that DGG3 had the highest rated essays, used the most advanced vocabulary in the essays, and had the highest grades, closely followed by DGG1, while DGG2 trailed behind. For the vocabulary tests, DGG3 was followed by DGG2 and DGG1, indicating that gameplay aligns more directly with vocabulary test scores than vocabulary indicators drawn from essays. Due to the gender distribution of non-gamers (predominantly girls) and frequent gamers (exclusively boys), a subsidiary aim is to investigate how gameplay correlates with outcomes for boys and girls: significant correlations were found for gameplay–vocabulary tests/English grades for the boys.

  • 73.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Nyroos, Lina
    The teacher as examiner of L2 oral tests: A challenge to standardization2018In: Language Testing, ISSN 0265-5322, E-ISSN 1477-0946, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 217-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper looks at the issue of standardization in L2 oral testing. Whereas external examiners are frequently used globally, some countries opt for test-takers’ own teachers as examiners instead. In the present study, Sweden is used as a case in point, with a focus on the mandatory, high-stakes, summative, 9th-grade national test in English (speaking part). The national test has the typical characteristics of standardized tests and its main objective is to contribute to equity in assessment and grading on a national level. However, using teachers as examiners raises problems for standardization. The aim of this study is to examine teachers’/examiners’ practices and views regarding four aspects of the speaking test – test-taker grouping, recording practices, the actual test occasion, and examiner participation in students’ test interactions – and to discuss findings in relation to issues concerning the normativity and practical feasibility of standardization, taking the perspectives of test-takers, teachers/examiners, and test constructors into account. In order to answer research questions linked to these four aspects of L2 oral testing, self-report survey data from a random sample of teachers (N = 204) and teacher interviews (N = 11) were collected and quantitative data were analyzed using inferential statistics. Survey findings revealed that despite thorough instructions, teacher practices and views vary greatly across all aspects, which was further confirmed by interview data. Three background variables – teacher certification, work experience, gender – were investigated to see whether they could provide explanations. Whereas certification and gender did not contribute significantly to explaining the findings, work experience bore some relevance, but effect sizes were generally small. The study concludes that using teachers as examiners is a well-functioning procedure in terms of assessment for learning, but raises doubts regarding assessment of learning and standardization; a solution for test authorities could be to frame the test as non-standardized.

  • 74.
    Sylvén, Kerstin Sylvén
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Tidig språkundervisning lönar sig2009In: Svenska DagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 75. Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) in extracurricular/extramural contexts2017In: CALICO journal, ISSN 0742-7778, E-ISSN 2056-9017, Vol. 34, no 1, p. i-ivArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 76. Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Extramural English in relation to CLIL: Focus on young language learners in Sweden2015In: CLIL in action: Voices from the classroom / [ed] David Marsh, María Luisa Pérez Muñoz och Juan Ráez Padilla, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015, p. 47-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Gaming as extramural English L2 learning and L2 proficiency among young learners2012In: ReCALL, ISSN 0958-3440, E-ISSN 1474-0109, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 302-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people’s everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as learners get ample opportunities for L2 input and scaffolded interaction in the L2. In this paper, we present empirical evidence that L2 English proficiency correlates with the frequency of gaming and types of games played. We base our observation on a study among young L2 English learners (N = 86, aged 11–12, Sweden). Data were collected through a questionnaire, a language diary, and three proficiency tests. The questionnaire provided demographic background information but was also targeted at measuring extramural English habits, i.e., learners’ out-of-school contact with English (cf. Sundqvist 2009). The diary measured how much time the learners spent on seven predetermined extramural English activities during one week, while the tests measured their achieved L2 proficiency regarding reading and listening comprehension, and vocabulary. Previous research among learners aged 15–16 (Sundqvist 2009) showed positive correlations between playing digital games and L2 proficiency, in particular with regard to vocabulary, and also identified gender-related differences regarding vocabulary (boys outperformed girls) as well as the frequency of gaming and types of games played. These results were corroborated in the present study. A clear pattern emerged from our data: frequent gamers (≥ 5 hours/week) outperformed moderate gamers who, in turn, outperformed non-gamers. Background variables could not explain the between-group differences. Even though the boys might have been more proficient or apt than the girls a priori and, therefore, chose to engage more in L2 gaming, the findings suggest that playing digital games at an early age can be important for L2 acquisition.

  • 78.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Needed: A vocabulary test for young learners of English2014In: Conference Proceedings from Early Language Learning: Theory and Practice 2014 / [ed] Janet Enever, Eva Lindgren, Sergej Ivanov, Umeå: Umeå University , 2014, p. 121-124Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Playing World of Warcraft as extramural CLIL2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that playing World of Warcraft (WoW) is a form of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) that we refer to as extramural CLIL. We base our argument on findings from three studies. The first (Sylvén, 2004/2010) is about CLIL and non-CLIL students at upper secondary school level (N=363, 99 CLIL and 264 non-CLIL students) and aims to investigate what effect, if any, CLIL has on the incidental acquisition of vocabulary. The second (Sundqvist, 2009) is about extramural English and aims to examine its potential impact on learners’ (N=80; 9th grade) oral proficiency and vocabulary. Extramural English is broadly defined as any type of contact that learners have with English outside (Lat. extra) the walls (Lat. mural) of the classroom. The third study (Sundqvist & Sylvén, forthcoming) focuses on young learners (N=102, 5th grade) and their extramural English habits and aims to see whether there is a relationship between what the learners do in English in their spare time and their learning outcomes in school, as measured by the national test of English and a written vocabulary test. A pattern regarding gaming and learning outcomes emerged from the three studies, making it possible to claim that playing WoW is a form of extramural CLIL. WoW supplies an authentic environment for learning where players can practice, develop, and test their interactive skills. Thus, it is an extramural and informal arena for an immersive L2 experience and as such constitutes an emerging learner context. Players (learners) focus on content and meaning in order to make progress in the game and acquire language while doing so. Moreover, we hypothesize that not only WoW but all similar massively multiplayer online role-playing games help learners automatize L2 use, in particular since language is an important and integral part of such games.

  • 80.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Similarities between playing World of Warcraft and CLIL2012In: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 113-130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Undervisning på och i engelska2016In: Pedagogik för högskolelärare / [ed] Thomas Hansson, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2016, 1, p. 375-398Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 82. Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Validation of a test measuring young learners’ general L2 English vocabulary knowledge2016In: Novitas-ROYAL, ISSN 1307-4733, E-ISSN 1307-4733, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to present the validation of a test designed to assess young learners’ general L2 English vocabulary knowledge, the Young Learner Vocabulary Assessment Test (YLVAT). YLVAT consists of 37 items selected from the K1–2 frequency levels of the Productive and Vocabulary Levels Tests. In the study, Swedish learners (N = 52, age 12) took YLVAT and filled out an evaluation; scores from the national test of English (readingand listening comprehension) were also collected. Four validity measurements were used: the spread of YLVAT scores, correlation with the national test – reading, correlation with the national test – listening, and evaluation responses. YLVAT results point to a sufficient spread of scores (M = 18.9, SD = 6.5). There were significant correlations between YLVAT and (i) reading (r = .597**), (ii) listening (r = .541**), (iii) perceived test difficulty (rs = -.538**), and (iv) how fun it was to take the test (rs = .683**). An ANOVA showed that learners who found YLVAT “easy” or “very easy” scored significantly (p = .000) higher (26.1) than those who found it “difficult” (18.3) or “very difficult” (12.9). Finally, teachers found YLVAT to correlate with their own assessment of learners’vocabulary.

  • 83.
    Tengberg, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Borgström, Eric
    Lötmarker, Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Skar, Gustaf B.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Walkert, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Wikberg, Kristina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Likvärdig bedömning av elevers språkförmågor: Preliminära resultat från ett ämnesdidaktiskt forskningsprojekt2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
12 51 - 83 of 83
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