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  • 51.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    di Stasi, Giovanni
    (University of Naples "Federico II", Italy.
    Impact of Multi-path Routing on TCP Performance in Wireless Mesh Networks2012In: Proceedings of the 8th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW 2012), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Routing packets over multiple disjoint paths to- wards a destination can increase network utilization by load- balancing the traffic over the network. The drawback of load-balancing is that different paths might have different delay properties, causing packets to be reordered. This can reduce TCP performance significantly, as reordering is interpreted as a sign of congestion. Packet reordering can be avoided by letting the network layer route strictly on flow-level. This will, however, also limit the ability to achieve optimal network throughput. There are also several proposals that try to mitigate the effects of reordering at the transport layer. In this paper, we perform an initial evaluation of such TCP reordering mitigations in multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks when using multi-path routing. We evaluate two TCP reordering mitigation techniques implemented in the Linux kernel. The transport layer mitigations are compared using different multi-path routing strategies. Our findings show that, in general, flow-level routing gives the best TCP performance and that transport layer reordering mitigations only marginally can improve performance. 

  • 52.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    di Stasi, Giovanni
    Department of Computer Science, University of Naples "Federico II", Italy.
    The Interaction Between TCP Reordering Mechanisms and Multi-path Forwarding in Wireless Mesh Networks2012In: 2012 IEEE 8th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), IEEE Press, 2012, p. 276-283Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Routing packets over multiple disjoint paths towards a destination can increase network utilization by load-balancing the traffic over the network. In wireless mesh networks, multi-radio multi-channel nodes are often used to create a larger set of interference-free paths thus increasing the chance of load-balancing. The drawback of load-balancing is that different paths might have different delay properties, causing packets to be reordered. This can reduce TCP performance significantly, as reordering is interpreted as a sign of congestion. Packet reordering can be avoided by letting the network layer forward traffic strictly on flow-level. This would avoid the negative drawbacks of packet reordering, but will also limit the ability to achieve optimal network throughput. On the other hand, there are several proposals that try to mitigate the effects of reordering at the transport layer. In this paper, we perform an in-depth evaluation of such TCP reordering mitigations in multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks when using multi-path forwarding. We evaluate two TCP reordering mitigation techniques implemented in the Linux kernel. The transport layer mitigations are compared using different multi-path forwarding strategies. Our findings show that, in general, flow-level forwarding gives the best TCP performance and that transport layer reordering mitigations only marginally can improve performance

  • 53.
    Khademi, Naeem
    et al.
    University of Oslo.
    Ros, David
    Simula Research Laboratory.
    Welzl, Michael
    University of Oslo.
    Bozakov, Zdravko
    Dell EMC Research Europe.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Fairhurst, Gorry
    University of Aberdeen.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hayes, David
    Simula Research Laboratory.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Jones, Tom
    University of Aberdeen.
    Mangiante, Simone
    Dell EMC Research Europe.
    Tüxen, Michael
    Muenster University of Applied Sciences.
    Weinrank, Felix
    Muenster University of Applied Sciences.
    NEAT: A Platform- and Protocol-Independent Internet Transport API2017In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 46-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sockets Applications Programming Interface (API) has become the standard way that applications access the transport services offered by the Internet Protocol stack. This paper presents NEAT, a user-space library that can provide an alternate transport API. NEAT allows applications to request the service they need using a new design that is agnostic to the specific choice of transport protocol underneath. This not only allows applications to take advantage of common protocol machinery, but also eases introduction of new network mechanisms and transport protocols. The paper describes the components of the NEAT library and illustrates the important benefits that can be gained from this new approach. NEAT is a software platform for developing advanced network applications that was designed in accordance with the standardization efforts on Transport Services (TAPS) in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), but its features exceed the envisioned functionality of a TAPS system. 

  • 54.
    Papastergiou, Georgios
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory (SRL).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Ros, David
    Simula Research Laboratory (SRL).
    Tuexen, Michael
    Fachhochschule Münster.
    Khademi, Naeem
    University of Oslo.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    On the Cost of Using Happy Eyeballs for Transport Protocol Selection2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACM, IRTF & ISOC APPLIED NETWORKING RESEARCH WORKSHOP (ANRW'16), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 45-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns have been raised in the past several years that introducing new transport protocols on the Internet has be- come increasingly difficult, not least because there is no agreed-upon way for a source end host to find out if a trans- port protocol is supported all the way to a destination peer. A solution to a similar problem—finding out support for IPv6—has been proposed and is currently being deployed: the Happy Eyeballs (HE) mechanism. HE has also been proposed as an efficient way for an application to select an appropriate transport protocol. Still, there are few, if any, performance evaluations of transport HE. This paper demonstrates that transport HE could indeed be a feasible solution to the transport support problem. The paper evaluates HE between TCP and SCTP using TLS encrypted and unencrypted traffic, and shows that although there is indeed a cost in terms of CPU load to introduce HE, the cost is rel- atively small, especially in comparison with the cost of using TLS encryption. Moreover, our results suggest that HE has a marginal impact on memory usage. Finally, by introduc- ing caching of previous connection attempts, the additional cost of transport HE could be significantly reduced. 

  • 55.
    Papastergiou, Giorgos
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Fairhurst, Gorry
    University of Aberdeen, U.K.
    Ros, David
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Distributed Systems and Communication (DISCO).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Khademi, Naeem
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Tüxen, Michael
    Münster University of Applied Sciences, Steinfurt, Germany.
    Welzl, Michael
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Damjanovic, Dragana
    Mozilla Corporation, Mountain View, CA, USA.
    Mangiante, Simone
    EMC Corporation, Ovens, Ireland.
    De-Ossifying the Internet Transport Layer: A Survey and Future Perspectives2017In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 619-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that the Internet transport layer has become ossified, where further evolution has become hard or even impossible. This is a direct consequence of the ubiquitous deployment of middleboxes that hamper the deployment of new transports, aggravated further by the limited flexibility of the application programming interface (API) typically presented to applications. To tackle this problem, a wide range of solutions have been proposed in the literature, each aiming to address a particular aspect. Yet, no single proposal has emerged that is able to enable evolution of the transport layer. In this paper, after an overview of the main issues and reasons for transport-layer ossification, we survey proposed solutions and discuss their potential and limitations. The survey is divided into five parts, each covering a set of point solutions for a different facet of the problem space: (1) designing middlebox-proof transports; (2) signaling for facilitating middlebox traversal; (3) enhancing the API between the applications and the transport layer; (4) discovering and exploiting end-to-end capabilities; and (5) enabling user-space protocol stacks. Based on this analysis, we then identify further development needs toward an overall solution. We argue that the development of a comprehensive transport layer framework, able to facilitate the integration and cooperation of specialized solutions in an application-independent and flexible way, is a necessary step toward making the Internet transport architecture truly evolvable. To this end, we identify the requirements for such a framework and provide insights for its development

  • 56. Perennou, Tanguy
    et al.
    Bouabdallah, Amine
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    IP-Level Satellite Link Emulation with KauNet2009In: International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications, Siena, Italy: IEEE Communications Society, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed applications and transport protocolscommunicating over a satellite link may react very strongly to conditions specific to that kind of link. Providing an evaluation framework to allow tests of real implementations of such software in that context is quite a challenging task. In this paper we show how the use of the general-purpose KauNet IP-level emulator combined with satellite-specific packet loss patterns can help by reproducing losses and delays experienced on a satellite link with a simple Ethernet LAN setup. We also describe a simple experimentation platform and how a typical demonstration is carried out. Such a platform is an essential tool for developers performing continuous testing as they provide new features for e.g. video codecs or transport-level software like DCCP and its congestion control components

  • 57. Pérennou, Tanguy
    et al.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Hall, Tomas
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Emulating Opportunistic Networks with KauNet Triggers2011In: EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, ISSN 1687-1472, E-ISSN 1687-1499, Vol. 2011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In opportunistic networks, the availability of an end-to-end path is no longer required. Instead opportunistic networks may take advantage of temporary connectivity opportunities. Opportunistic networks present a demanding environment for network emulation as the traditional emulation setup, where application/transport endpoints only send and receive packets from the network following a black box approach, is no longer applicable. Opportunistic networking protocols and applications additionally need to react to the dynamics of the underlying network beyond what is conveyed through the exchange of packets. In order to support IP-level emulation evaluations of applications and protocols that react to lower layer events, we have proposed the use of emulation triggers. Emulation triggers can emulate arbitrary cross-layer feedback and can be synchronized with other emulation effects. After introducing the design and implementation of triggers in the KauNet emulator, we describe the integration of triggers with the DTN2 reference implementation and illustrate how the functionality can be used to emulate a classical DTN data-mule scenario.

  • 58.
    Rabitsch, Alexander
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    A Stream-Aware Multipath QUIC Scheduler for Heterogeneous Paths2018In: EPIQ 2018 - Proceedings of the 2018 Workshop on the Evolution, Performance, and Interoperability of QUIC, Part of CoNEXT 2018, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, p. 29-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multipath communication is an attractive solution to the increasing need for improving web performance, by allowing devices to aggregate the capacity of different network paths, which can thus lead to lower latencies. However, path asymmetry is known to incur performance issues for multipath transport protocols, such as head-of-line blocking (HoLB), as well as other issues. We propose a proof-of-concept algorithm for a stream-aware packet scheduler for Multipath QUIC, called Stream-Aware Earliest Completion First (SA-ECF). SA-ECF schedules the sending of stream data so that the completion of individual streams are not delayed by slower paths, while providing a fair allocation of the aggregated bandwidth based on stream priority information from HTTP/2. We compare the performance of SA-ECF with other packet schedulers for MPQUIC using measurements from a virtualized testbed. Our results show that SA-ECF is able to handle path heterogeneity well, and can provide lower stream completion times than non stream-aware schedulers.

  • 59.
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Petlund, Andreas
    Simula Research Laboratory.
    Welzl, Michael
    Oslo University.
    An Evaluation of Tail Loss Recovery Mechanisms for TCP2015In: Computer communication review, ISSN 0146-4833, E-ISSN 1943-5819, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 6-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive applications do not require more bandwidth to go faster. Instead, they require less latency. Unfortunately, the current design of transport protocols such as TCP limits possible latency reductions. In this paper we evaluate and compare different loss recovery enhancements to fight tail loss latency. The two recently proposed mechanisms "RTO Restart" (RTOR) and "Tail Loss Probe" (TLP) as well as a new mechanism that applies the logic of RTOR to the TLP timer management (TLPR) are considered. The results show that the relative performance of RTOR and TLP when tail loss occurs is scenario dependent, but with TLP having potentially larger gains. The TLPR mechanism reaps the benefits of both approaches and in most scenarios it shows the best performance.

  • 60.
    Weinrank, Felix
    et al.
    Münster University of Applied Sciences.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Bozakov, Zdravko
    Dell EMC Research Europe.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Dreibholz, Thomas
    Simula Research Laboratory.
    Fairhurst, Gorry
    University of Aberdeen.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Khademi, Naeem
    University of Oslo.
    Tüxen, Michael
    Münster University of Applied Sciences.
    A NEAT Way to Browse the Web2017In: Applied Networking Research Workshop (ANRW) 2017, Prague, Czech Republic, July 15, 2017., Thomas Dreibholz , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing concern that the Internet transport layer has become ossified in the face of emerging novel applications, and that further evolution has become very difficult. The NEAT system is a novel and evolvable transport system that decouples applications from the underlying transport layer and network services. In so doing, it facilitates dynamic transport selection. This demo shows how the NEAT system is able to dynamically select the most appropriate transport solution for the Mozilla Firefox web browser.

  • 61.
    Yedugundla, Kiran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Handling Packet Losses in Cloud-Based Application Traffic2019In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science - Volume 1: CLOSER, SciTePress, 2019, p. 111-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet traffic is comprised of data flows from various applications with unique traffic characteristics. For many cloud applications, end-to-end latency is a primary factor affecting the perceived user experience. As packet losses cause delays in the communication they impact user experience, making efficient handling of packet losses an important function of transport layer protocols. Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is a modification to TCP that enables simultaneous use of several paths for a TCP flow. MPTCP is known to improve throughput. However, the performance of MPTCP is not optimal when handling certain loss scenarios. Efficient packet loss recovery is thus important to achieve desirable flow completion times for interactive cloud-based applications. In this paper we evaluate the performance of MPTCP in handling tail losses using traffic traces from various cloud-based applications. Tail losses, losses that occur at the end of a flow or traffic burst, are particularly challenging from a latency perspective as they are difficult to detect and recover in a timely manner. Tail losses in TCP are handled by using a tail loss probe (TLP) mechanism which was adapted to MPTCP from TCP. We investigate the performance of TLP in MPTCP, comparing the standard implementation to a recently proposed, less conservative approach. Our experimental results show that a less conservative implementation of TLP performs significantly better than the standard implementation in handling tail losses, reducing the average burst completion time of cloud based applications when tail loss occurs by up to 50% in certain cases.

  • 62.
    Yedugundla, Kiran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Multipath TCP: Can it Reduce Transport Latency for Web Traffic?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Yedugundla, Kiran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Probe or Wait: Handling tail losses using Multipath TCP2017In: 2017 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking) and Workshops, IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packet losses are known to affect the performance of latency sensitive Internet applications such as media streaming and gaming. Transport protocols recover from packet loss in order to provide reliable end-to-end communication and improve user experience. The efficiency of loss recovery mechanisms influences the completion time of flows, and thus also the application performance as perceived by the end user. In this paper we focus on state-of-the-art loss recovery mechanisms for TCP and Multipath TCP. We use controlled tail loss scenarios to evaluate the performance of loss recovery mechanisms and, based on the observations, we propose an enhanced tail loss recovery mechanism for Multipath TCP, to improve the loss recovery time. Our experiment results, using the Linux Multipath TCP implementation, show consistent end-to-end latency performance improvement in considered scenarios.

  • 64.
    Yedugundla, Venkata Kiran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Ferlin, Simone
    Simula Research Laboratory, Oslo, Norway.
    Dreibholz, Thomas
    Simula Research Laboratory, Oslo, Norway.
    Alay, Özgü
    Simula Research Laboratory, Oslo, Norway.
    Kuhn, Nicolas
    IMT Télécom Bretagne, IRISA, Cesson-Sévigné, France.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Is Multi-Path Transport Suitable for Latency Sensitive Traffic?2016In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 105, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses whether multi-path communication can help latency-sensitive applications to satisfy the requirements of their users. We consider Concurrent Multi-path Transfer for SCTP (CMT-SCTP) and Multi-path TCP (MPTCP) and evaluate their proficiency in transporting video, gaming, and web traffic over combinations of WLAN and 3G interfaces. To ensure the validity of our evaluation, several experimental approaches were used including simulation, emulation and live experiments. When paths are symmetric in terms of capacity, delay and loss rate, we find that the experienced latency is significantly reduced, compared to using a single path. Using multiple asymmetric paths does not affect latency - applications do not experience any increase or decrease, but might benefit from other advantages of multi-path communication. In the light of our conclusions, multi-path transport is suitable for latency-sensitive traffic and mature enough to be widely deployed. 

12 51 - 64 of 64
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