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  • 51. Hussain, S
    et al.
    Elbergali, A
    Almasri, Abdullah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Parsimonious Modelling, Testing and Forecasting of Long-Range Dependence in Wind Speed2004In: Environmetrics, 2004, 15, 155-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting and estimating long-range dependence are important in the analysis of many environmental time series. This article proposes a periodogram roughness (PR) estimator and describes its uses for testing and estimating the dependence structure. Asymptotic critical values are generated for performing the test, and special attention is given to investigating the properties of the PR regarding size and power. The conventional short-memory models, such as the autoregressive (AR), are shown to be less parsimonious. Forecasting errors of both fractional Gaussian noise (FGN) and fractional autoregressive moving average (FARMA) are investigated by conducting simulation studies. In addition to the PR, maximum likelihood (ML) and semi-parametric (SP) estimators are used and evaluated. Our results have shown that more accurate forecasted points are obtained when using the fractional forecasting. The methods are illustrated using Swedish wind speed data

  • 52. Hussain, S.
    et al.
    Mohamed, M. A.
    Holder, R.
    Almasri, Abdullah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Shukur, G.
    Performance Evaluation Based on the Robust Mahalanobis Distance and Multilevel Modeling Using Two New Strategies2008In: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation, ISSN 0361-0918, E-ISSN 1532-4141, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 1966-1980Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Externaliteter: Varför ska man beskatta bilism och subventionera vaccinationer?2011In: Nationalekonomi för vänstern: Teori för jämlikhet och välfärd / [ed] P Gerlach, Stockholm: Kata Förlag , 2011Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 54.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Gender and Confidence: are Women underconfident?2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1057-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research finds that schoolgirls tend to be underconfident with respect to their mathematics performance, while schoolboys tend to be overconfident. We asked Swedish university students (aged 18–35) what grade they thought they would get in a macroeconomics exam 1 week later. These results were compared with their actual grade and we find no evidence of men being overconfident, but women are underconfident about their test performance. These results suggest that the findings that schoolgirls are underconfident about their math performance also carry over to grown-up women studying macroeconomics.

  • 55.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Nederländerna2009In: Reform: Förändring och tröghet i välfärdsstaterna / [ed] Peter Santesson-Wilson & Gissur O Erlingsson, Stockholm: Norstedts Förlag, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hansen, T
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Er det en sammenheng mellom formell og uformell omsorg i Norge?2012In: Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning, ISSN 0809-2052, E-ISSN 2464-3076, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 168-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Norwegian Social Research, Oslo.
    Do Attitudes toward Gender Equality really Differ between Norway and Sweden?2010In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 142-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using survey data from Norway and Sweden, we assess people’s attitudes toward gender equality. Previous studies argue that these attitudes are more egalitarian in Sweden than in Norway. Similar to previous research, we find that Swedes are more positive towards gender equality in general. However, we find no differences regarding views on egalitarian sharing of household responsibilities, and Norwegians are actually more supportive of government intervention to increase gender equality. This suggests that the lower support for gender equality in Norway is not as clear-cut as previously thought and that active state intervention to improve gender equality may be even more feasible in Norway than in Sweden.

  • 58.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    kotsadam, Andreas
    Gender Equity and Prostitution: An Investigation of Attitudes in Norway and Sweden2011In: Feminist Economics, ISSN 1354-5701, E-ISSN 1466-4372, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 31-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution assesses attitudes toward prostitution in Norway and Sweden, where it is illegal to buy sex. Sweden's law was put into place in 1999, and Norway followed in 2009. These laws were embedded in different market structures and discourses when enacted. This study uses a 2008 Internet survey to shed light on attitudes toward various aspects of prostitution while controlling for other socio-demographic factors. Findings include that men and sexual liberals of either gender are more likely positive toward prostitution and men and women who are conservative or support gender equality are more negative. Holding anti-immigration views correlates with more positive attitudes toward buying, but not selling, sex. Norwegians are more positive than Swedes toward prostitution. Supporting gender equality has more explanatory power in Sweden than in Norway, which may be due to the use of gender equality to frame the Swedish debate.

  • 59.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    The Law and Economics of International Sex Slavery: Prostitution Laws and Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation2013In: European Journal of Law and Economics, ISSN 0929-1261, E-ISSN 1572-9990, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 87-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International trafficking in humans for sexual exploitation is an economic activity driven by profit motives. Laws regarding commercial sex influence the profitability of trafficking and may thus affect the inflow of trafficking to a country. Using two recent sources of European cross country data we show that trafficking of persons for commercial sexual exploitation (as proxied by the data sets we are using) is least prevalent in countries where prostitution is illegal, most prevalent in countries where prostitution is legalized, and in between in those countries where prostitution is legal but procuring illegal. Case studies of two countries (Norway and Sweden) that have criminalized buying sex support the possibility of a causal link from harsher prostitution laws to reduced trafficking. Although the data do not allow us to infer robust causal inference, the results suggest that criminalizing procuring, or going further and criminalizing buying and/or selling sex, may reduce the amount of trafficking to a country.

  • 60.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Norwegian Social Research.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholms universitet.
    Informal Eldercare and Care for Disabled Children in the Nordic Countries: prevalence and relation to employment2013In: Nordic Journal of Social Research, ISSN 1892-2783, E-ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 4, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an international comparison, the Nordic countries are generous care spenders and a relatively large proportion of the populations receive formal care services. However, in respect of service provision, the Nordic countries are less similar today than they were some decades ago. Using survey data from three Nordic countries, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, we first document the differences in informal care between the countries, and then we assess its impact on the relationship between informal caregiving and formal employment. We find that informal care is most common in Denmark and least common in Sweden. However, those who provide care in Sweden provide care more often than people in both Norway and Denmark. There is a negative correlation between being a caregiver and the probability of being employed in Norway and Denmark, but not in Sweden. With specific regard to parental care, there is no general relation between the provision of parental care and employment, but those providing substantial care are clearly less likely to work than others. Caring for a disabled child is less common than caring for a parent, but the negative effects on employment are even stronger.

  • 61.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Norwegian Social Research, Oslo, Norway .
    Persson, Mattias
    Örebro University.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Class-size effects on adolescents' mental health and well-being in Swedish schools2013In: Education Economics, ISSN 0964-5292, E-ISSN 1469-5782, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 248-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes whether class size has an effect on the prevalence of mental health problems and well-being among adolescents in Swedish schools. We use cross-sectional data collected in year 2008 covering 2755 Swedish adolescents in ninth grade from 40 schools and 159 classes. We utilize different econometric approaches to address potential between- and within-school endogeneity including school-fixed effects and regression discontinuity approaches. Our results indicate no robust effects of class size on the prevalence of mental health problems and well-being, and we cannot reject the hypothesis that class size has no effect on mental health and well-being at all.

  • 62.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Bränder och lokala förhållanden : modellberäknade värden för kommuner metodrapport2008Report (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Effektsamband brandskydd i byggnader2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Essays on the performance of fire and rescue services2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kostnadsnyttoanalyser och evidens av brandskydd i bostäder: brandvarnare och handbrandsläckare2011Report (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Output specification and performance measurement in fire services: An ordinal output variable approach2005In: European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 161:2, p. 525-535Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sprinkler i äldreboenden - kostnadsnyttoanalys2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sprinkler i äldreboenden - kostnadsnyttoanalys2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Tidsfaktorns betydelse vid räddningsinsatser: En uppdatering av en samhällsekonomisk studie2004Report (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Daruvala, Dinky
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Carlsson, F
    Do public administrators have the same preferences for risk reductions as citizens?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    In this paper we compare the preferences of the general public with the preferences of public administrators working in the area of safety. We are interested in three different aspects of risk reductions: (i) large versus small accidents, (ii) actual versus subjective risks, and (iii) trade-off between avoiding fatalities and injuries for different age groups. We use stated preference surveys where respondents assume the role of a policy maker. In particular, respondents were asked to choose between different public infrastructure projects that resulted in different outcomes. When responding they were asked to take the role of a public policy-maker.



    For the general public, we use survey responses from two mail questionnaires sent out between May and June 2007 to a random sample of 1400 and 2600 Swedish citizens. For the administrators, we used survey responses from an internet survey sent out in September 2008 to a random sample of 330 administrators. The administrators were working in the field of fire and rescue services both in the national and local level.



    Large and small accidents

    The question concerned the choice between avoiding one large accident with many deaths, or many smaller accidents with fewer dead people per accident. Both projects would in total save an equal number of lives.



    A large fraction of the citizens are indifferent to both projects, but the most common response is that many small accidents should be avoided instead of one large accident. Among the administrators, there is almost an equal split between preferring to avoid many small and one large accident, and fewer think that the two projects are equally good. Thus, administrators are more likely to choose the project that will avoid one large accident, and they are less likely to say that the two projects are equally good.



    Actual versus perceived risks

    Respondents were asked to choose between projects with different effects on the actual and perceived risks. In one case, peoples perception of the risk is correct. In the other case people overestimate the risk. A majority of both citizens and administrators chose the alternative where the actual and subjective risk decreases in equal ratio, but a higher percentage of administrators (over 30 %) opt for the alternative where the decrease in subjective risk is higher.



    Saving different groups

    We find that saving the life of 1.43 10-year olds is equivalent to saving one 40-year-old from dying in accidents. Likewise, saving the life of one 70-year-old is equivalent to saving 3.31 10-year olds from dying. The social marginal substitution rate between saving a life and avoiding a serious injury is between 3.2 and 3.8 for the different age groups, thus one saved life is equivalent to avoiding around 3.5 seriously injured, which is significantly lower than the officially used value of 6 by the Swedish Road Administration. We find only a few differences between citizens and administrators preferences with respect to different age groups.

  • 71.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Daruvala, Dinky
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Carlsson, F
    Preferences for lives, injuries, and age: A stated preference survey2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    One of the more difficult ethical questions from a public decision making perspective is whether the estimation of benefits from risk reducing projects should be influenced by factors such as age groups and risk domains. For example, should a project that saves the lives of elderly people be assigned a different benefit value in cost-benefit analyses than one that saves the same number of childrens lives? This paper examines the preferences of the general public in Sweden on these issues. We design a choice experiment in which subjects are required to make six pair-wise choices where the characteristics of each choice are accident type (fire and traffic), number of fatalities and serious injuries avoided, and age of those saved (5-15-, 35-45- and 65-75-year-olds). We find that avoiding the fatality of one 5-15-year-old is equivalent to avoiding 1.4 fatalities of 35-45-year-olds. Likewise, avoiding the fatality of one 5-15-year-old is equivalent to avoiding 3.3 fatalities of 65-75-year-olds. We find no significant differences between the causes of accident. One avoided fatality is found to be equivalent to around 3.5 avoided severe injuries, which is lower than the official value of 6 used by the Swedish Road Administration

  • 72.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Daruvala, Dinky
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Do you do what you say or do you do what you say others do?2010In: Journal of Choice Modelling, ISSN 1755-5345, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 113-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract

    We design a donations vs. own money choice experiment and compare the results from three different treatments. In two of the treatments the pay-offs are hypothetical. In the first of these, a short cheap talk script was used and subjects were required to state their own preferences in this scenario. In the second treatment, subjects were asked to state how they believed the average student would respond to the choices. In the third treatment the pay-offs were real, allowing us to use the results to compare the validity of the two hypothetical treatments. Our hypothesis is that when subjects are asked to state how they believe an average person would respond, they will use their own preferences in their responses without using the survey situation for self-enhancement. However, we find a strong hypothetical bias in both hypothetical treatments where the marginal willingness to pay for donations is higher when subjects state their own preferences but lower when subjects state what they believe are other peoples preferences. Our explanation is that subjects use the survey situation to bolster their self-image. We also find that it is mainly women who are prone to hypothetical bias in this study

  • 73.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Daruvala, Dinky
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Preferences for lives, injuries, and age: A stated preference survey2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1814-1821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract

    One of the more difficult ethical questions from a public decision-making perspective is whether the estimation of benefits from risk reducing projects should be influenced by factors such as age groups and risk domains. For example, should a project that saves the lives of elderly people be assigned a more different benefit value in cost-benefit analyses than one that saves the same number of children's lives? This paper examines the preferences of the general public in Sweden on these issues. We design a choice experiment in which subjects are required to make six pair-wise choices where the characteristics of each choice are accident type (fire and traffic), number of fatalities and serious injuries avoided, and age of those saved (515-, 3545- and 6575-year-olds). We find that avoiding the fatality of one 515-year-old is equivalent to avoiding 1.4 fatalities of 3545-year-olds. Likewise, avoiding the fatality of one 515-year-old is equivalent to avoiding 3.3 fatalities of 6575-year-olds. We find no significant differences between the causes of accident. One avoided fatality is found to be equivalent to around 3.5 avoided severe injuries, which is lower than the official value of 6 used by the Swedish Road Administration

  • 74.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Daruvala, Dinky
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Value of Statistical Life and Cause of Accident: A Choice Experiment2010In: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 975-986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to compare the value of statistical life (VSL) estimates for traffic, drowning, and fire accidents. Using a choice experiment in a mail survey of 5,000 Swedish respondents we estimated the willingness to pay for risk reductions in the three accidents. In the experiment respondents were asked a series of questions, whether they would choose risk reducing investments where type of accident, cost of the investment, the risk reduction acquired, and the baseline risk varied between questions. The VSLs for fire and drowning accidents were found to be about 1/3 lower than that for traffic accidents. Although respondents worry more about traffic accidents, this alone cannot explain the difference in VSL estimates. The difference between fire and drowning accidents was not found to be statistically significant

  • 75.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ryen, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sund, Björn
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Skadebild, förebyggande och forskning – en granskning av statens satsningar påolycksområdet2012Report (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Värdering av olycksrisker: nationalekonomi2008Report (Other academic)
  • 77. Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Nyman, Håkan
    Wage differentials and gender discrimination ' changes in Sweden 1981-1998'2001Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to follow the development of the Swedish gender earnings gap through the 1980s and 1990s. We follow the changes in the wage gap and in factors to which it can be related, step-by-step, and year-by- year. This is done by analysing cross sectional data from statistics Sweden (HINK) for the years 1981, 1983-1991 and 1993-1998. The preliminary results show that the unadjusted wage gap varied between 15-20 percent up to 1989 when the differentials began to increase. During the 90s the size of the gap was around 25 percent. There is an increase in the wage differentials between the 1980s and late 1990s. In a decomposition analysis we find that the measured differences in jobs and qualifications between women and men can account only for between two and three fifths of the gender wage gap, if they are assumed to be rewarded according to the wage function for men. If the female wage function is applied, considerably less of the differentials are explained. Differences in the educational requirements for jobs have contributed considerably to gender earnings inequality. The impact has, however, decreased over the period studied and is about half as large in the 1990s as it was in the 1980s.

  • 78. Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Nyman, Håkan
    Wage Differentials and Gender Discrimination: Changes in Sweden 1981-982005In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 341-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to follow the development of the Swedish gender earnings gap through the 1980s and 1990s. We follow the changes in the wage gap and in factors to which it can be related year-by-year by analysing crosssectional data from Statistics Sweden (HEK) for the years 1981 and 198398. The results show that the unadjusted wage gap varied between 12 and 15 per cent of the average male wage up to 1989, when the differentials began to increase. During the 1990s the size of the gap was around 1418 per cent. In a decomposition analysis we find that the measured differences in jobs and qualifications between women and men can account only for between two-fifths and three-fifths of the gender wage gap, if they are assumed to be rewarded according to the male wage function. If the female wage function is applied, even less of the differentials are explained. Differences in the educational requirements for jobs have contributed considerably to gender earnings inequality. The impact has decreased over the period studied, however, and is about half as large in the 1990s as it was in the 1980s

  • 79.
    Johansson, N.
    et al.
    Health Metrics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Norwegian Social Res NOVA, Oslo, Norway.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Williams Coll, Dept Econ, Williamstown, MA 01267 USA.
    Regional variation in health care utilization in Sweden: The importance of demand-side factors2018In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Differences in health care utilization across geographical areas are well documented within several countries. If the variation across areas cannot be explained by differences in medical need, it can be a sign of inefficiency or misallocation of public health care resources. Methods: In this observational, longitudinal panel study we use regional level data covering the 21 Swedish regions (county councils) over 13 years and a random effects model to assess to what degree regional variation in outpatient physician visits is explained by observed demand factors such as health, demography and socio-economic factors. Results: The results show that regional mortality, as a proxy for population health, and demography do not explain regional variation in visits to primary care physicians, but explain about 50% of regional variation in visits to outpatient specialists. Adjusting for socio-economic and basic supply-side factors explains 33% of the regional variation in primary physician visits, but adds nothing to explaining the variation in specialist visits. Conclusion: 50-67% of regional variation remains unexplained by a large number of observable regional characteristics, indicating that omitted and possibly unobserved factors contribute substantially to the regional variation. We conclude that variations in health care utilization across regions is not very well explained by underlying medical need and demand, measured by mortality, demographic and socio-economic factors.

  • 80. Johansson-Stenman, O.
    et al.
    Carlsson, F.
    Daruvala, Dinky
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Measuring Future Grandparents' Preferences for Equality and Relative Standing2002In: Economic JournalArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Karlsson, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Radiumhemmet, Cancer Center Karolinska, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandelin, Kerstin
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Appelgren, Jari
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Zhou, Wenjing
    Department of Surgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jirström, Karin
    Division of Pathology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergh, Jonas
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Radiumhemmet, Cancer Center Karolinska, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Department of Surgery, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Clonal alteration of breast cancer receptors between primary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and corresponding local events2014In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 517-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:Emerging data propose biomarker alteration due to clonal selection between the primary invasive breast cancer and corresponding metastases. In addition, impact on survival has been demonstrated. The present study investigates the relationship between the oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) between primary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and intra-individually matched ipsilateral event.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS:The cohort includes 1504 patients, diagnosed with a primary DCIS between 1986 and 2004. Of the 274 patients who developed a local relapse, 135 developed a new in situ carcinoma and 139 an invasive cancer up to 31st December 2011. ER and PR were identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HER2 by silver-enhanced in situ hybridisation (SISH) as well as IHC.

    RESULTS:ER (n=112), PR (n=113) and HER2 (n=114) status from both the primary DCIS and the corresponding relapse were assessed and were demonstrated to be discordant in 15.1%, 29.2% and 10.5% respectively. The receptor conversion was both from negative to positive and from positive to negative with no general pattern being seen in spite of sub-dividing into in situ relapse and invasive relapse. However, primary DCIS was HER2 positive in 40.3% whereas in situ and invasive relapses were HER2 positive in 42.9% and 34.5% respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS:Receptor conversion for ER, PR and HER2 status occurred between primary DCIS and corresponding local relapse in 10-30%. This study could not confirm that HER2 overexpression in primary DCIS had any impact on tumour progression to invasive cancer which has been proposed.

  • 82.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Familjen under senkapitalismen1974In: Rådsmakt, ISSN 0346-024X, Vol. 6-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 83.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Feminism, socialism, organisation och utopi1987In: Fjärde Internationalen, ISSN 0345-3375, Vol. 19, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 84.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Gender, Differentiation and Discrimination: A Study of Soviet Wages1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Gender, Wages and Discrimination in the USSR1997In: Cambridge J. of Economics, 21:4, pp. 431-452, Vol. 1997:04Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Gender, wages and discrimination in the USSR.: From a 1989 Survey of a Russian Industrial Town.1998In: Women´s Work and Wages / [ed] Jonung, Christina & Inga Persson, London: Routledge , 1998, p. 230-250Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Household specialisation and gender equality in transition: Paid and unpaid work of women and men in Soviet and post-Soviet Taganrog2008Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using unique survey data from the Russian industrial city Taganrog in 1989 and 1998, we analyse changes in the gender division of labour among gainfully employed women and men, pre- and post-transition. In Soviet Taganrog, dual earner families predominated, but nevertheless men were usually primary earners, while women did the bulk of housework. After transition, contrary to early predictions, aggregate female and male employment rates have declined to a similar extent but the time-use data indicate increased gender specialisation among the employed .Thus, the dual earner norm mainly remains but the pre-existing gender difference within it has increased considerably, particularly among couples with pre-school children

  • 88.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kvinnorna & perestrojkan1991In: Fjärde internationalen, Vol. 1991:2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 89.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Labour in Transition:: Women and Men in Taganrog, Russia2001Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The paper discusses the effect of economic reforms on gender differences in participation rates and earnings in Russia in the early 1990s. Besides national statistics it uses survey data from the city Taganrog, 1989 and 1993/9. Although local, these repeated cross sections provide unique comparable data from Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. Results agree with national statistics in that participation has decreased and unemployment increased for both men and women. The female/male earnings ratio fell from 66% in 1989, to 61% in 1993, at a moment when real wages for the men too have decreased dramatically. Oaxaca-decompostions of the gender gap indicate that,

    in both years, the greater part is due to differential rewards but that gender differences in hours worked contribute more to the wage gap 1993 than in Soviet times.

  • 90.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    London mot Thatcher: kommunalpolitik för samhällsomstörtare1988Book (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Och hon skall sopa trappan och hon skall skura golv ...: kön och klass och politisk ekonomi1986In: Feminism och marxism: en förälskelse med förhinder: en antologi / [ed] Hillevi Ganetz, Evy Gunnarsson och Anita Göransson, Stockholm: Arbetarkultur , 1986, p. 115-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Perestrojkan och kvinnorna1991In: Varför feminism i ett jämställt samhälle? / [ed] Carin Holmberg et. al, Göteborg, 1991Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The oppression of women and human liberation1981In: Critique, ISSN 0301-7605, Vol. 15, p. 115-122Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 94.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Transitionsekonomierna och kvinnoarbetet2001In: Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift 2001:3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Underutnyttjad utbildning och lönegapet mellan kvinnor och män2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är vanligare att kvinnor har en högre utbildning än vad som typiskt krävs för deras yrke (överutbildning), medan män i högre utsträckning än kvinnor har en lägre utbildning än vad som typiskt krävs för deras yrke (underutbildning). I denna studie undersöker vi i vilken utsträckning denna över- och under-utbildning påverkar könslönegapet och skillnader i utbildningsavkastning i Sverige mellan 1993 och 2002.

    Resultaten visar att över- och underutbildning bidrar betydligt mer till köns-löneskillnaderna än traditionella humankapitalvariabler, som utbildningsnivå och arbetslivserfarenhet. I dekomponeringar minskar över- och underutbild-ningsvariabler könslönegapet med mellan en tiondel och en sjättedel, vilket är mellan en tredjedel och hälften av vad könssegregeringen på arbetsmarknaden förklarar. Det är med andra ord viktigt att ta hänsyn till över- och under-utbildning när könslöneskillnader analyseras. Resultatet att kvinnor har lägre avkastning på utbildning än män kvarstår dock

  • 96.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Wages in Transition: Gender differentials in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Were there no returns to education in the USSR?: Evidence from Soviet Period Household Data1999In: Labour Economics 6 (1999) 417-434, Vol. 1999:06Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Katz, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Zarabotnaia plata mushchin i zhenshchin v byvshem SSSR1992In: Zhenshchiny i sotsialnaya politika (gendernyi aspekt), Demografiia i sotsiologiia, 1992Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Katz, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Johansson, Mats
    Wage differences between women and men in Sweden: the impact of skill mismatch2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate skill mismatch and its impact on gender differences in wage gap and in returns to education in Sweden 1993 to 2002.Women are more likely to have more formal education than what is normally required for their occupation (overeducation), while men are more likely to have less (undereducation).Over- and undereducation contribute far more to the gender wage gap than years of schooling and work experience. In decompositions, adjusting for skill mismatch decreases the gender wage gap by between one tenth and one sixth. This is roughly a third to a half as much as is accounted for by segregation by industry. Thus, taking skill mismatch into account is essential for the analysis of gender wage differentiation, even though it does not alter the result that the estimated returns to education are smaller for women than for men in Sweden.Keywords: Gender differentials, discrimination, over- and undereducationJEL-codes: J16, J24, J31, J71

  • 100.
    Katz, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sterner, Thomas
    The Value of Clean Air: Consumers´ Willingness to Pay for a Reduction in Gasoline Vapours at Filling Stations1990In: Energy Studies Review, vol. 2, 1/1990, pp. 39-47, Vol. 1990:02Article in journal (Refereed)
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