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  • 51.
    Bellström, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Thorén, Claes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Learning How to Program through Visualization: A Pilot Study on the Bubble Sort Algorithm2009In: / [ed] doi: 10.1109/ICADIWT.2009.5273943, IEEE , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Bellström, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Thorén, Claes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    On the Importance of Visualizing in Programming Education2011In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems V. 5 Human Computer Interaction: Enterprise Information Systems / [ed] Edited by Joaquim Filipe and José Cordeiro, SciTePress, 2011, p. 131-136Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Bellström, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Thorén, Claes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Reifying Abstract Programming Concepts through Visualization2010In: Journal of Information Technology Review, ISSN 0976-3511, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 160-168Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Bellström, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Vöhringer, Jürgen
    econob GmbH Klagenfurt, Austria .
    A Semi-Automatic Method for Matching Schema Elements in the Integration of Structural Pre-Design Schemata2011In: International Journal On Advances in Intelligent Systems, ISSN 1942-2679, Vol. 4, no 3&4, p. 410-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a semi-automatic method for matching schema elements in the integration of structural pre-design schemata. In doing so we describe and present how element level matching (concept), structural level matching (neighborhood) and taxonomy-based matching can be combined into one workflow and method. The matching method is a composite schema-based matching method where several different approaches are used to receive one single matching result. Our contributions facilitate the otherwise complex task of matching schema elements during the integration of pre-design schemata and they also speed up the process due to automation of certain process steps. The research approach used within this work can be characterized as design science and our main contributions as a method and an instantiation (a prototype)

  • 55.
    Bellström, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Vöhringer, Jürgen
    A Three-Tier Matching Stategy for Predesign Schema Elements2011In: / [ed] Jerman-Blazic, B. & Burdescu, Jan Dumitru (Eds.), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Bellström, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Vöhringer, Jürgen
    Towards the Automation of Modeling Language Independent Schema Integration2009In: / [ed] Kusiak, A. & Lee, S. (eds.), IEEE , 2009, p. 110-115Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Bellström, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Vöhringer, Jürgen
    Kop, Christian
    Guidelines for Modeling Language Independent Integration of Dynamic Schemata2008In: Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Software Engineering / [ed] Pahl, C., 2008, p. 112-117Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    View and schema integration have been a research topic for approximately three decades now. Several integration approaches were developed over the time for dynamic modeling (e.g. integration of state charts, business process models, enterprise models etc.). The integration strategies of these approaches are based on language specific features of a certain modeling language. But what happens if the source schemata are available in different languages? In this paper we research if there are some language independent integration guidelines for behavior modeling. In other words which approaches have been proved to be successful in the past which can be applied on all modeling languages dealing with behavior modeling? Thus our approach will be a first step towards an integration strategy for dynamic schemata independent of modeling languages.

  • 58.
    Bellström, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Avdelningen för informatik och projektledning.
    Vöhringer, Jürgen
    Department of Business Informatics and Application Systems, University of Klagenfurt, Austria.
    Salbrechter, Alexander
    R&S Software GmbH, Feldkirchen, Austria.
    Recognition and Resolution of Linguistic Conflicts: The Core to a Successful View and Schema Integration2007In: Advances in Information Systems Development New Methods and Practice for the Networked Society / [ed] Magyar, G., Knapp, G., Wojtkowski, W., Wojtkowski, W.G. & Zupančič, J., 2007, p. 77-87Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59. Bergander, M.
    et al.
    de Haan, J.
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Pilotprojekt hösten 2004 inom området systemlösningar för mobiltjänster i arenamiljö2004Report (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    A Conceptual Framework for Studying the Successful Outcome of the IS Outsourcing Process from a Relationship Perspective2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has its point of departure in the identified knowledge gap, which includes the importance of the information systems (IS) outsourcing relationship for studying the success of IS outsourcing. This research study, therefore, is structured with the belief that the disregard of the client-IS supplier relationship when studying IS outsourcing is paradoxical. Paradoxical since the impact of the relationship on the overall IS outsourcing can make the difference between success, less success and even failure. In contrast to the majority of prior research, which has focused IS outsourcing in its entirety, this research study percieves IS outsourcing as a process. Because prior research shows that the success or failure of IS outsourcing is connected to its implementation, this thesis focuses the post-contract stage of the IS outsourcing.

    The purpose chosen and addressed is to develop a conceptual framework for describing and explaining the degree of successful outcome of the IS outsourcing process using a relationship perspective. To approach this purpose, a literature review study is conducted. The literature review study includes the integration of three theoretical fields: IS, interorganisational business relationships and IS outsourcing. The knowledge domains of particular interest are 'strategies, approaches and frameworks for the IS life cycle', 'the interaction approach' and 'IS outsourcing success'.

    The purpose is focused through the identification of key conditions, dimensions and interrelations among dimensions. These identified elements, constituting the core elements of the conceptual framework, are a result of the conducted literature review study. The key conditions are identified according to their influence on the degree of successful outcome of the IS outsourcing process from a relationship perspective. Due to the large amount of key conditions identified, they are categorised into nine dimensions: Atmosphere, Behaviour, Contract, Environment, Interatction, IS, Management, Organisation and Outcome. The identified interrelations among these dimensions are fruitful since they provide insights and a favourable point of departure for studying the degree of successful outcome of IS outsourcing processes.

    The main contribution of this thesis is the conceptual framework for the IS outsourcing process. The key conditions, dimensions and interrelations constitute the conceptual framework as a result of their potential for describing and explaining the degree of successful outcome of the IS outsourcing process from a relationship perspective. The application of the conceptual framework provides managers with core elements to be considered during IS outsourcing decision-making and subsequent design of IS outsourcing. Its usage, moreover, is believed to support managers during the operationalisation of the post-contract stage of IS outsourcing processes. Finally, the conceptual framework is a fruitful 'tool' for future empirical research. Fruitful in the sense that it can provide useful and important insights into how different key conditions infuence the degree of successful outcome of IS outsourcing processes and how these key conditions are interrelated.

  • 61.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Conditions Influencing Client-IS Supplier Interactions During IS Outsourcing2011In: Information Systems Development: Business Systems and Services: Modeling and Development / [ed] Pokorny, J., Repa, V., Richta, K., Wojtkowski, W., Linger, H., Barry, C. & Lang, M., New York: Springer, 2011, p. 125-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent of outsourcing information systems (IS) activities has been significant and the trend seems likely to continue in the foreseeable future. IS outsourcing relationships bring challenges that need to be understood and managed. The client–IS supplier relationship as such is one of the less frequently examined topics in IS outsourcing research. This paper contributes to the IS outsourcing relationship literature by describing conditions influencing client–IS supplier interactions during IS outsourcing. The paper sets out from the interaction approach as it contributes new insights to IS outsourcing relationships. The interaction approach is complemented with elements to increase the description of IS outsourcing relationship interactions. The elements are composed of viewing the client firm and the IS supplier firm as being comprised of business, process and IS level and the dimensions contract and management. The conditions influencing client–IS supplier interactions are presented in the form of a conceptual framework which when adopted can contribute to a better understanding of the features of IS outsourcing relationships and facilitate for firms in their decision-making of IS outsourcing.

  • 62.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Conditions Influencing Client-IS Supplier Interactions During IS Outsourcing2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    The extent of outsourcing information systems (IS) activities has been significant and the trend seems likely to continue in the foreseeable future. IS outsourcing relationships bring challenges that need to be understood and managed. The clientIS supplier relationship as such is one of the less frequently examined topics in IS outsourcing research. This paper contributes to the IS outsourcing re-lationship literature by describing conditions influencing clientIS supplier inter-actions during IS outsourcing. The paper sets out from the interaction approach as it contributes new insights to IS outsourcing relationships. The interaction ap-proach is complemented with elements to increase the description of IS outsourc-ing relationship interactions. The elements are composed of viewing the client firm and the IS supplier firm as being comprised of business, process and IS level and the dimensions contract and management. The conditions influencing clientIS supplier interactions are presented in the form of a conceptual framework which when adopted can contribute to a better understanding of the features of IS outsourcing relationships and facilitate for firms in their decision-making of IS outsourcing

  • 63.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Dimensions for Describing and Explaining the Successful Outcome of the IS Outsourcing Process - Emphasising the Relationship Perspective2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outsourcing of Information Systems (IS) is today a commonly accepted and growing practice that is continually evolving. As the IS outsourcing market has matured, IS outsourcing is perceived as one way to increase business operations. Despite, few firms report success. The critical role of an effective clientIS supplier relationship has been argued as a precondition to reach a successful outcome of IS outsourcing. Even though the importance of the IS outsourcing relationship has been highlighted by both practitioners and researchers, paradoxically few studies have applied the relationship as the unit of analysis. This research study contributes to the identified knowledge gap by studying the success of the post-contract stage of the IS outsourcing process from a relationship perspective. The purpose of the paper is to identify dimensions for describing and explaining the successful outcome of the IS outsourcing process.



    As the combination of several theories increases the possibility to obtain a better understanding of the dimensions by which the IS outsourcing process evolves, the success of the IS outsourcing process is studied with an emphasis on three different domains of knowledge: the IS life cycle model, the interaction approach and the framework of the IS outsourcing relationship. Through the application of several theories, a more compelling description of what contributes to the successful outcome of the IS outsourcing process is reached. Furthermore, the application of several theories entailed the possibility to compensate for weaknesses of one theory through the strengths of another theory.



    Through the review of three different theoretical fields dimensions have been identified for describing and explaining the successful outcome of the IS outsourcing process. The dimensions identified are the activity-related dimension, the atmosphere dimension, the contract dimension, the efficiency outcome dimension, the environment dimension, the interaction dimension, the management dimension and the structure dimension.



    Besides the contributed dimensions, a modified version of the interaction approach is proposed. The modified version is adjusted to the IS outsourcing relationship and includes, besides its original parts, a time-line, additional dimensions and the specification of the involved firms as composed of three different interacting areas.

  • 64.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    ISD Activities and Their Suitability for Outsourcing - A Literature Review2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the introduction of Information Technology (IT) it has become easier for firms to co-operate globally. A result of this globalization is the growth of outsourcing of ISD activities. Through outsourcing of ISD the complexity of managing the ISD process increases, which motivates research enhancing the understanding of the conditions that are critical during ISD outsourcing. The research questions addressed in the paper are: Which ISD activities are contracted in onshoring and offshoring? and How does the nature (complex versus simple) of ISD activities suit outsourcing? To answer the research questions, a literature review on ISD/IS outsourcing has been conducted.



    From the literature review I found that ISD activities relating to the ISD phase of systems design are contracted within both onshoring and offshoring. However, construction activities, such as software coding and software testing, are commonly contracted with far distant IT-suppliers. Another finding is that the content of the ISD process determines the suitability for outsourcing. The literature review shows that the ISD activities suitable for outsourcing are the ones that can be structured into individual modules, are perceived as routine work and are not dependent on knowledge of the firm. From the literature review it was also found that ISD activities relating to construction, operation and maintenance management often satisfy these requirements. Additionally, it was found that the more unstructured the ISD activities are the more important the use of a common ISD methodology becomes. One contribution from the review is that research on outsourcing the ISD process demands specification of the specific case of outsourcing and the type of ISD activity included in the contractual agreement. Depending on the specific case of ISD outsourcing and the type of ISD activity contracted, the level of resources needed for the management of the ISD process and the clientIT-supplier relationship varies.

  • 65.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Management Conditions Influencing the Successful Outcome of IS Outsourcing2009In: / [ed] Remenyi, D, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    This research paper contributes to the existing literature on information systems (IS) outsourcing and IS outsourcing relationships by studying the successful outcome of IS outsourcing using a relationship perspective. The research study focuses the exploration of management conditions influencing the successful outcome of IS outsourcing. The purpose chosen and addressed is to describe and explain management conditions influencing the successful outcome of IS outsourcing using a relationship per-spective. Relationship perspective is in this research study constituted of the client firm and the IS supp-lier firm and their actors involved in IS outsourcing. To approach the purpose, a literature review study is conducted. The literature review study includes three theoretical fields: Information Systems, Industrial marketing and IS outsourcing. The combination of several theories increases the possibility to obtain a better understanding of management conditions influencing the successful outcome of IS outsourcing.



    As a result of the literature review study, management conditions influencing the successful outcome of IS outsourcing are identified. The conditions concern the management of IS outsourcing and the clientIS supplier relationship. More precisely, management of IS outsourcing involves management related to the contract, finance, performance, time and quality. Know¬ledge management, resource management, team building and working relation¬ship management are management conditions related to the clientIS sup-plier relationship. The degree of management depends on, for example, the special case of IS outsourcing (e.g. IS offshoring, IS nearshoring) and the IS activity outsourced.



    The management conditions identified are a result of their potential for describing and explaining the su-ccessful outcome of IS outsourcing from a relationship perspective. The management conditions are believed to support managers during the design and implementation of IS outsourcing

  • 66.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Design Patterns - vad, hur och varför?2002Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inom mjukvaruindustrin går det åt mycket tid för att lösa problem som redan är lösta. Förevigandet av den här cykeln att uppfinna hjulet på nytt har delvis uppmuntrats på grund av att det inte finns någon effektiv mekanism för spridning av framgångsrika lösningar på återkommande problem. Design patterns utgör ett verktyg för att återanvända erkända lösningar och kan därmed delvis lösa detta mjukvaruproblem. Detta har väckt vårt intresse och vi har valt att koncentrera vår studie på problemformuleringen; vad, hur och varför design patterns i en utvecklingsverksamhet för mjukvara. För att få en grundläggande kunskap i ämnet har vi samlat in teori genom litteraturstudier och för att besvara vår problemformulering har vi samlat in empiri från en verksamhet. Den verksamhet som vi har valt att basera vår studie på är Ericsson Infotech AB i Karlstad. Empirin har vi samlat in genom att genomföra tre intervjuer. Respondenterna vi har intervjuat har likartad befattning och representerar tre olika avdelningar på företaget. Detta för att erhålla en mer representativ syn på verksamhetens användande av design patterns. Några av de resultat som vi har kommit fram till är att design patterns är ett beprövat sätt för att lösa designproblem samt en strategi att luta sig mot vid designarbete. Den främsta anledningen till varför verksamheten använder design patterns är för att möjliggöra återanvändning. Vad som även framkom vid vår studie var att verksamheten inte har några fasta rutiner för hur användandet av design patterns ska gå till.

  • 67.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Fredriksson, Odd
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Outsourcing Terms - A Literature Review from an ISD Perspective2008In: / [ed] Golden, W., Acton, T., Conboy, K, van der Heijden, H. and Tuunainen, V., 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Technology (IT) has made it easier for firms to communicate globally. Improved IT capabilities and the increased global collaboration have been drivers of the growth of IT ´outsourcing´. This growth has resulted in a variety of IT ´outsourcing´ terms used to denote both global and domestic "client - IT-supplier" relationships. An introductory literature review showed that there exist no common standard definitions of ´outsourcing´ terms used for describing the contracting of ISD activities between a client and an IT-supplier. This may lead to confusion. The first purpose chosen for the paper is therefore to review how the variety of commonly used ISD ´outsourcing´ terms are defined in the literature. Based on these identified definition differences, the second purpose is then to propose a structured set of definitions of ISD ´outsourcing´ terms.

    The review process of IT/ISD ´outsourcing´ research included two steps. Firstly, a literature search study was conducted. The literature search study resulted in the collection of about 240 articles. The second step of the literature review process included reading each paper. The selection criterion for the articles to be included in the review study was that the article should focus on IT/ISD ´outsourcing´. As a result, about 100 of 240 articles were reviewed. These articles constitute the majority of the articles studied in the literature review.

    From the literature review, different definitions of the variety of ISD ´outsourcing´ terms have been identified. One conclusion drawn from the literature review is that many of the different ISD ´outsourcing´ terms are used as special cases of the generic ´ISD outsourcing´ term. The different ISD ´outsourcing´ terms found in the literature have been analysed and categorised based on a geographical distance perspective. Another finding from the literature review is that the relationship perspective often is neglected when ISD ´outsourcing´ terms are defined. Therefore, definitions from a relationship perspective for the majority of the ISD ´outsourcing´ terms identified are proposed. The proposed ISD ´outsourcing´ definitions provide a structured set of definitions based on both the geographical distance perspective and the relationship perspective. Furthermore, a graphical representation of how different IT-supplier locations, from the client perspective, relate to the definitions of six of the proposed ISD ´outsourcing´ terms is provided.

  • 68.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Johansson, Björn
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Evaluate Motivational Factors Involved at Different Stages in an IS Outsourcing Decision Process2007In: The Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, ISSN 1566-6379, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates factors involved at different stages in an IS outsourcing decision process. From a theoretical perspective, the motivation for IS outsourcing is often described as a result of three factors: cost reduction, access to technological expertise and focus on core competence. The aim of this paper is to evaluate motivational factors in an outsourcing decision process. The study uses a literature review and a retrospective case study of an outsourcing project in a large Swedish organization. The idea is to evaluate if there are different factors involved at different stages in an IS outsourcing decision process. It has been found that the cost perspective is often used as a way of motivating the start of the process as well as the result of the process. However, during different stages other factors are involved. The results, based upon the case study, show that the size and reputation of the provider as well as thoughts about the providers ability to deliver required capability is more important than cost reduction. It can be argued that the impact of IS outsourcing on performance and value of an organizations IS function can be both positive and negative. To minimize the odds of a negative result, this paper contributes with an evaluation of motivational factors involved at different stages in an IS outsourcing decision process. If they are duly addressed, the chances of a successful IS outsourcing process will improve significantly

  • 69.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Johansson, Björn
    Evaluate Motivational Factors Involved at Different Stages in an IS Outsourcing Decision Process2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates factors involved at different stages in an IS outsourcing decision process. From a theoretical perspective, the motivation for IS outsourcing is often described as a result of three factors: cost reduction, access to technological expertise and focus on core competence. The aim of this paper is to evaluate motivational factors in an outsourcing decision process. The study uses a literature review and a retrospective case study of an outsourcing project in a large Swedish organization. The idea is to evaluate if there are different factors involved at different stages in an IS outsourcing decision process. It is has been found that the cost perspective is often used as a way of motivating the start of the process as well as the result of the process. However, during different stages other factors are involved. Our results show that the size and reputation of the provider as well as thoughts about the providers ability to deliver required capability is more important than cost reduction. It can be argued that the impact of IS outsourcing on performance and value of an organizations IS function can be both positive and negative. To minimize the chances of a negative result, this paper contributes with an evaluation of motivational factors involved at different stages in an IS outsourcing decision process. If they are duly addressed, the chances of a successful IS outsourcing process will improve significantly

  • 70.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Johansson, Björn
    Management of Information Systems Outsourcing: Challenges and Lessons Learned2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    To be successful in Information Systems (IS) outsourcing the necessity of better management practices has been pointed out. This research contributes to the knowledge base on management of IS outsourcing by addressing management of IS outsourcing relationships. The research describes two cases of IS outsourcing relationships that differ in type of activity outsourced, IS development versus IS maintenance and operation, and relationship composition. From the cases lessons learnt are identified which with support from IS outsourcing literature are proposed as propositions for management of IS outsourcing. It can be concluded that if the propositions, related to negotiation, communication and way of working, are adopted in an early stage they could contribute to successful IS outsourcing relationships. Another conclusion is that the IS outsourcing management approach should not differ between type of IS activity outsourced, but rather reflect the nature of the IS activity; if it is a simple or complex activity

  • 71.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Johansson, Björn
    Management of Information Systems Outsourcing: Evaluation of Lessons Learned from a Boundary Spanning Perspective2011In: / [ed] Remenyi, D, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Even if outsourcing is a well-researched phenomenon, it can be stated that evaluation studies on IS outsourcing relationships are scarce. From a description of two IS outsourcing relationship cases, a set of lessons learned are presented. A boundary spanning perspective is then used when evaluating these lessons learned in the client-supplier outsourcing relationships and thereby adding a new theoretical perspective on outsourcing relationships. The evaluation is concluded in a set of propositions that present the boundary spanning perspective of the lessons learned. The aim of these propositions is to act as both a guiding tool for how to further develop boundary spanning roles in outsourcing relationships and to act as a base for future research on outsourcing relationships

  • 72.
    Bergkvist, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Svensson, Ulrika
    Motivationsfaktorer i projekt2003Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka vilka motivationsfaktorer som projektmedlemmen upplever i projektarbetsformen. Vårt intresse för forskningsområdet grundar sig i att projektdeltagarnas motivation anses vara en viktig drivkraft vid projektarbete (Jansson & Ljung, 2002) och vi såg det därför som viktigt att belysa ämnet utifrån projektmedlemmens perspektiv. Vi inriktade oss på kundorderprojekt i IT-branschen och fokuserade undersökningen på de operativa deltagarna i projektarbetsformen. Vår forskningsfråga lyder: Vad, specifikt för projekt-arbetsformen, blir projektmedlemmen motiverad av i sitt projektarbete? För att besvara denna fråga genomförde vi en kvalitativ studie med en abduktiv ansats. Vår undersökning påbörjades genom litteraturstudier i etablerade motivationsteorier som vi sedan kopplade till projektarbetsformens karakteristika. Detta ledde oss fram till nio motivations-faktorer som vi ansåg specifika för projektarbetsformen. Relevansen för dessa undersöktes sedan genom intervjuer med respondenter från två olika IT-företag i Karlstad. Utifrån analysen av vår empiriska undersökning samt vår litteraturstudie kom vi fram till att av de ursprungliga motivationsfaktorerna är följande fem specifika för projektarbetsformen: projektmål, arbetsuppgifter, personliga mål, självförverkligande och samhörighet. Projektmål är motiverande då de är nära relaterade till projektmedlemmen, framtagna genom diskussioner inom projektgruppen samt accepterade av projektmedlemmarna. Projektmedlemmen blir motiverad av att få nya arbetsuppgifter som leder till utveckling inom eget kompetens- och intresseområde. Dessutom är det motiverande att få ta eget ansvar för hur uppgiften ska lösas. Personliga mål är motiverande i projekt då de är kopplade till den enskilde projekt-medlemmens kompetensutveckling. Projektmedlemmen uppnår självförverkligande i projekt genom att få lagom svåra arbets-uppgifter, personlig kompetensutveckling och bekräftelse. Samhörighet gynnar mer projektet som helhet än den enskilde projektmedlemmens motivation. Trots detta uppger majoriteten av respondenterna samhörighet som den viktigaste motivationsfaktorn i projektarbetsformen. Vår slutsats är därmed att då projektmedlemmen känner ett stort personligt ansvar för projektet bidrar det till att det som gynnar projektet som helhet också gynnar den personliga motivationen.

  • 73. Bergmann, Mike
    et al.
    Rost, Martin
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Exploring the feasibility of a spatial user interface paradigm for privacy-enhancing technology2006In: Advances in Information Systems Development: Bridging the Gap between Academia and Industry. Volume 1 / [ed] Nilsson, Gustas, Wojtkowski, Wojtkowski, Wrycza, Zupancic, New York: Springer , 2006, p. 437-448Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74. Björkman, G.
    et al.
    Hultén, C.
    Lundeberg, M.
    Sundling, K.
    Öquist, A.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Roupé, E.
    Röstlinger, A.
    Att genomföra och avrapportera projektarbetsuppgifter på delkurs PK:11977Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en rapport om hur man bedriver och avrapporterar projektarbete på kurs PK:1 i informationsbehandling. Rapporten beskriver de olika momenten i projektarbetet och innehåller dessutom regler och anvisningar för detta arbete. Rapporten försöker även förmedla tips och erfarenheter från tidigare terminer beträffande kurs PK:1

  • 75. Björkman, G.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    En studie av systembeskrivningsmetoden ADS tillämpat på praktikfallet XAB1975Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report is the result of an analysis of the system description method ADS (= Accurately Definded Systems). As the basis for the study is a case - a description of the future information system for the order processing and sales statistics of the XAB company.



    ADS consists of a set of five interrelated forms for the purpose of problem (application) definition. These forms enable the definer to communicate the problem in an understandable manner to all concerned, regardless of their level of knowledge and experience

  • 76.
    Blom, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Öfverberg, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Combining Contract-Based Development and Test-Driven Development2009In: / [ed] Hamid R. Arabnia, Hassan Reza, CSREA Press , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Contract-based Development and Test-Driven Development are two techniques for handling and avoiding software errors. They are generally not combined and we have studied the processes associated with the techniques to

    see how this combination could be done. We have found possible ways to move to and from both processes and some benefits for both ways. Moving from contracts to test cases is rather straight forward due to the completeness of the contracts, whereas moving from test cases to contracts demand some more work since the test cases are only examples of usage.

  • 77. Boström, B.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Selldén, J.
    Systemering med datorstöd: En introduktion till verksamhetsbeskrivning (med Lärarhandledning)1986Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med systemering menar vi utveckling av datorbaserade informationssystem för en verksamhet. Systemering är en process där man utifrån en idé successivt arbetar sig fram till ett färdigt datasystem. Vid systemering är det nödvändigt att arbeta enligt en metod.



    I denna bok presenterar vi en konkret metod för systemering. En väsentlig del av metoden är att beskriva verksamheter med hjälp av V-grafer (verksamhetsgrafer). Med ett datorstöd kan man skapa V-grafer enklare, säkrare och snabbare. Vi presenterar därför ett praktiskt datorstöd, GraphDoc, som är ett kraftfullt hjälpmedel vid systemering.



    Vi ser metod, datorstöd och utbildning som tre ledstjärnor för effektivare systemering. Syftet med vår bok är att knyta samman dessa delar till en helhet. Boken ska fungera som en uppslagsbok för metoden, en manual för datorstödet och en lärobok för utbildningsändamål. Det är första gången som ett sådant försök genomförs inom detta område.



    Till boken finns framtagen en Lärarhandledning "Systemering med datorstöd - En introduktion till verksamhetsbeskrivning", Esselte Studium, Stockholm.



    Boken finns översatt och utgiven på både norska och holländska

  • 78. Boström, Mattias
    et al.
    Siponen, Joe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Simulering av grafiska gränssnitt - programvara för Ozlab2001Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats har vi försökt att kartlägga olika tekniker som möjliggör simulering av grafiska användargränssnitt. Denna simuleringsteknik skall underlätta för icke-programmerare (här: pedagoger) att på ett snabbt sätt testa sina ideer om människa-dator-interaktion i ett multimedialt simuleringslaboratorium kallat Ozlab. Att utforma gränssnitten blir enklare och går snabbare genom att man slipper en stor del av programmeringen, som till exempel input-kontroll i textfält. Denna teknik möjliggör en mer tidseffektiv läsning för att testa nya idéer om människa-dator-interaktion än den traditionella med fungerande prototyper vilka alltid kräver någon form av programmering. För att hitta en lämplig teknik för denna simulering har vi testat både egenutvecklade program och standardprogramvara som finns p marknaden samt en kombination av båda. I uppsatsarbetet ingick att lämna rekommendationer för programvara som kan vara lämpligt för ett Ozlab. Uppsatsens slutsats är att Macromedia Director 8.0 med Multiuser Server stödjer både kommunikation och gränssnittsuppbyggnad om Director förses med lämpliga förprogrammerade rutiner (behaviors)

  • 79. Brandt, P.
    et al.
    Carlsson, R.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Välja och Förvalta Standardsystem1998Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Standardsystem börjar alltmer användas som avancerade hjälpmedel för att effektivisera affärsverksamheten inom företag och organisationer. Här avses generella system som utvecklats av en leverantör för att kunna motsvara flera användares behov av IT-lösningar. Standardsystem är som regel parameterstyrda vilket ger en ökad flesibilitet vid användning och drift. En vanlig situation är att företag behöver förvalta flera standardsystem från olika leverantörer tillsammans med ett antal egenutvecklade system. En kritisk framgångsfaktor är att användarna i verskamheten, ADB-avdelningen och leverantörer kan samarbeta på ett professionellt sätt. Vi behöver därför ett systematiskt arbetssätt för att göra rätt saker, skapa ett kreativt klimat och fatta genomtänkta beslut. VFS-metoden för att "Välja och Förvalta Standardsystem" ger sådana möjligheter. VFS ger ett metodstöd för ett integrerat arbetssätt under systemets hela livscykel:

    - strategi

    - förstudie

    - utveckling

    - förvaltning

    Som underlag för styrning av dessa områden presenteras en konkret modell för projektarbete. VFS-metoden tar utgångspunkt i kundens situation. "Hur ska jag arbeta med standardsysstem för att nå ett bättre verksamhetsstöd i min organisation?" Boken avslutas med att blicka framåt över vad som händer i branschen och vilka förändringar av standadsystem som kan skönjas. I boken presenteras resultaten från en leverantörsstudie med fokus på två intressanta trender på marknaden, nämligen utvecklingen mot långsiktiga affärsrelationer och så kallade komponentbaserade standardsystem

  • 80. Bratt, H.I.
    et al.
    Nilsson, A.G.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Företagens syn på programvaror förändras: Ökade krav på snabb lönsamhet - Tema: Välja programvara1992In: Diagonalen, nr 2, 1992, sid. 2-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsten att köpa programvara är egentligen konsten att välja en bra leverantör. I grunden handlar det om sunt bondförnuft. Och det kan behövas, programvara är den klart viktigaste delen i en datorinvestering.



    Diagonalen lät tre erfarna herrar samtala om saken vid det runda bordet. Vi ställde några frågor och lyssnade på många kloka ord. De tre är: Anders G. Nilsson, ekonomie doktor vid Handelshögskolan i Stockholm. Hans Wärneryd, Svenska Branschsystem AB i Göteborg. Hans Iwan Bratt, VD för LKD, informatikföretagens organisation med huvudkontor i Danderyd.



    Det gäller att se klokt och pragmatiskt på programköpet, är deras budskap. Eftersom det gäller ny teknik på en svåröverskådlig marknad där det ständigt sker stora förändringar känner man sig inte lika säker som till exempel när man köper bil. Men i grunden är det samma sak. Man frågar sig inte vad bränslepumpen kan ha för kapacitet, man frågor sig om bilen är bra att skjutsa ungarna till dagis i

  • 81. Bubenko jr, Janis
    et al.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Promote IT 2004: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference for the Promotion of research in IT at New Universities and University Colleges in Sweden, 5-7 May, Karlstad University, The Knowledge Foundation, Part 1 and Part 22004Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Knowledge Foundation of Sweden and Karlstad University are proud to announce the fourth annual conference for promoting research and advanced education in topics of IT at Sweden's new universities and university colleges. The conference takes place at Karlstad University in Sweden, May 5-7, 2004.



    The conference is in the Foundation's programme for promoting research and advanced education in topics of IT at Sweden's new universities and university colleges. Almost 200 MSEK (about 22 MEUR) has been allocated, for a period of five years, in order to increase the number of IT-teachers with a PhD. degree at Sweden's new universities and university colleges.



    Since the start of the programme in year 2000, almost one hundred persons are actively pursuing their graduate studies and research at these new universities and colleges. These are the persons that now present their progress at this conference

  • 82. Burnett, Robert
    et al.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Perspectives on Multimedia: Communication, Media and Information Technology2003Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The uses of multimedia are rapidly increasing. Its power to present information in ways not previously possible and its integration of resources, allow for the creation of rich learning environments. The book "Perspectives on Multimedia: Communication, Media and Information Technology" provides a critical examination of the latest multimedia developments and approaches, such as Interface Technology and QoS architectures.



    Topics covered include:

    - The key concepts intrinsic to digital forms of multimedia: integration, interactivity, hypermedia, immersion, narrativity, and hybridity.

    - The development of Informatiuon Technology (IT) usage in society and in the business community.

    - How modern IT enables private companies and public organisations to support business operations, create new business opportunities, and to promote more proactive service management.

    - Multimedia from a computer science perspective and how computer science provides the technical foundation for the computer software and hardware that drives the information usage.



    Gives a broad range of perspectives on key issues for interactive multimedia in organsiations and industry today. This book will be of interest to practioners involved in multimedia development in an organisation, management consultants gviving professional advice on digital solutions and inforamtion technology matters to their customer organisations and academics focusing on business and technical aspects of multimedia frameworks

  • 83.
    Buskqvist, Ulf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Molin, Lennart
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Forskningsanknytning och IKT: Röster från lärarutbildningen vid Karlstads universitet2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om hur ett forskningsanknutet IKT-perspektiv kan stärkas och integreras i högre utbildning. Studien är en fallstudie av lärarutbildningen vid Karlstads universitet och syftar till att identifiera och belysa de förutsättningar som finns inom högre utbildning att åstadkomma och förankra forskningsanknytning av och med IKT. Det övergripande syftet utgörs av två delar; att (1) beskriva vilken forskning om IKT med anknytning till lärarutbildningen som i dagsläget finns på universitetet, och (2) beskriva vilka möjligheter som finns att forskningsanknyta lärarutbildningen avseende IKT. Metoderna som används är fokusgrupper, en kartläggning av forskningsdatabasen samt intervjuer.

    Studien visar att det finns en avsaknad av forskningsprojekt om IKT, liksom bristfälliga kunskaper bland lärarutbildarna om vilken forskningslitteratur som finns att tillgå och knyta an till inom ramen för utbildningen. Det finns ett stort intresse för frågan och det betraktas som angeläget att lärosätet bedriver forskning om IKT som är relevant för lärarutbildningen. En central förutsättning för att kunna ha en forskningsanknuten lärarutbildning på ett kunskaps-/kompetensområde är att det finns aktuell forskning att tillgå. Lärarutbildningen vid Karlstads universitet har ett tydligt behov av att få en ökad forskningsaktivitet om frågor som rör lärande och undervisning i relation till IKT. En rimlig ambition torde vara att det inom ”det moderna universitet” bedrivs lärarutbildningsrelevant forskning som innefattar aspekter av modern informations-, kommunikations- medieteknik.

    Studien visar vidare att IKT inte enbart är ett kunskapsområde som kan forskningsanknytas utan också ett medel (ett verktyg) för att underlätta och skapa nya möjligheter för studenterna att komma nära forskningens praktik. Frågan huruvida det på lärosätet finns relevant forskning om IKT som kommer lärarutbildningen tillgodo bör således kompletteras med frågan hur IKT kan användas så att studenterna hamnar i situationer där de själva lär sig att identifiera angelägna problem, ställa relevanta frågor, positionera sig, genomföra någon form av analys och komma fram till valida ståndpunkter.

  • 84. Börnow, Maria
    et al.
    Stenberg, Pernilla
    Wicander, Gudrun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Kan sponsring bistå med upplysning och utveckling? - en studie av finansieringsform för ett elektrifieringsprojekt i nordöstra Zambia2002Report (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Datorn och roboten som artefakter för stöd för lärande2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 86.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Information Systems Development: Participation and Intersubjectivity - Is this Just a Matter of Communication?2002In: / [ed] Wrycza, S., 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Information Systems Development: Participation and Intersubjectivity - Is this Just a Matter of Communication?2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Kunskapsförmedling mellan medarbetare i en lärandemiljö2006Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien behandlar och ger exempel på hur en kunskapsförmedling mellan medarbetare kan underlätta och förbättra arbetet såväl psykiskt som pedagogiskt i den lärandemiljö personerna är verksamma. Studien har som syfte att utreda och beskriva praktiska exempel på när kunskapsförmedling bör genomföras samt hur, vad och varför kunskapen bör förmedlas. Studien genomfördes med 15 intervjuer av lärare och forskarstuderande. I studien redovisas nio kategorier av olika kunskapsförmedlingsproblem.

  • 89.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Learning and Analysis in an E-commerce Project2002In: / [ed] Kirikova, M. et al, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Learning and Understanding E-commerce2003In: / [ed] John Sören Pettersson, 2003Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Learning in systems development - a challenge to develop better information systems2001In: On Methods for Systems Development in Professional Organisations. The Karlstad University Approach to Information Systems and its Role in Society (Nilsson, AG & Pettersson, JS, Eds.) 88-105, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2001, p. 88-105Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning in systems development is about how the participants in a systems development process should become better at learning from and communicating with each other. When change work in organisations is conducted as learning in systems development, the end-users will be more satisfied with the information systems. This is indeed where the challenge lies, that all participants in this process should learn to communicate. Who wouldnt want the information systems requirements to be understandable to non-experts as well? This is not merely a matter of choosing the right words, however, nor of avoiding difficult words altogether. Instead, it has to do with teaching each other what you mean, regardless of which words you use. This chapter addresses the question of how communications can be improved in the forms of co-operation that are common in systems development: the dialogue, group work and assembly meetings. Different ways to improve the communication are presented, with some pedagogical advice

  • 92.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Lärande och undervisning i ett kontext med datorer och robotar2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 93.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Lärande systemutveckling och samarbetsformer-från kommunikation till samförstånd genom lärande och undervisning2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Lärande systemutveckling-en utmaning för att utveckla bättre informationssystem2000In: A G, Nilsson. J S, Pettersson: Om metoder för systemutveckling i professionella organisationer, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2000, p. 86-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärande systemutveckling handlar om hur deltagarna i en systemutvecklingsprocess ska bli bättre på att lära av varandra och lära sig att kommunicera med varandra. När systemutveckling bedrivs som lärande systemutveckling kommer slutanvändarna att bli mer nöjda med informationssystemen. Utmaningen handlar just om att alla, som deltar i denna process, bör lära sig att kommunicera. Vem vill inte att informationsystemens krav ska bli begripliga också för den som inte är expert? Men, det handlar nu inte om att välja de rätta orden eller att undvika alla svåra ord. Det handlar istället om att lära varandra vad man menar oavsett vilka ord som används. Detta kapitel handlar om hur kommunikationen kan förbättras i de samarbetsformer som är vanliga vid systemutveckling: dialog, grupparbete och stormöte. Hur kommunikationen kan förbättras presenteras med hjälp av olika pedaogiska råd

  • 95.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Utvärdering av systemutvecklingsmetoder i ett pedagogiskt perspektiv1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport diskuteras utvärdering av systemutvecklingsmetoder i ett pedagogiskt perspektiv. Inledningsvis motiveras utifrån pedagogiska och hermeneutiska grunder relationen mellan inlärning/undervisning och systemutveckling. Därmed presenteras varför systemutveckling och utvärdering av dess metoder bör behandlas i ett pedagogiskt perspektiv. Det pedagogiska kunskapsområdet didaktik persenteras och diskuteras i relation till systemutvecklingsmetoder. Utifrån denna diskussion härleds några kriterier för att utvärdera dessa metoder i ett pedagogiskt perspektiv.

  • 96.
    Carlsson, Sten
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Christiansson, Benneth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    The Concept of Object and its Relation to Human Thinking: Some Misunderstandings Concerning the Connection Between Object-Orientationand Human Thinking1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All throughout the computer science community object-orientation is accepted as being built upon the same basic concepts that human beings use to apprehend reality. This misconception, as we think, is what we focus on in this paper. To show this we analyse two well-recognised object-oriented systems development methods. We try to pinpoint in what way these methods do not correspond to the way human beings apprehend reality in terms of objects. We show that the methods do not use the concepts of object or class in a manner that corresponds to the way human beings use them to apprehend reality. Furthermore the method-creators do not separate the notion of an object and its representation in a model. We also suggest a better adaptation of the searching-for-objects model based on how human beings apprehend reality. When analysing, one should focus on the purpose of the actions and the two different modes with which an object can be treated: present-at-hand and readiness-to-hand. This will increase the conformity between object-orientation and the way human beings apprehend reality.

  • 97.
    Carlsson, Sten
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Lindh, J
    Vad innebär IKT i skolan ur ett didaktiskt perspektiv?2003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 98.
    Christiansson, Benneth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    A Knowledge Plan for Research in the Area of Software Component Specification2001Report (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Christiansson, Benneth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Att komponentbasera informationssystem - Vad säger teori och praktik?2000Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Christiansson, Benneth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Jämförelse mellan Langefors teoribildning kring system- utveckling och systemutvecklingsmetoden OOA1995Report (Refereed)
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