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  • 51.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    How is functional impairment linked to measurement of mental health symptoms among adolescents: A gender perspective2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    How to measure adolescent mental health?2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Impacts on fit and reliability of the ordering of response categories in polytomous items2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Insatser för en hälsosam lärmiljö2016In: Elevhälsa, ISSN 2000-5296, Vol. 3, p. 40-43Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 55.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Is the level of functional impairment a source of gender DIF in measurement of adolescent mental health symptoms?2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Mental health problems among adolescents: A trend perspective2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Mental health symptoms and functional impairment among adolescents: Analysis of Dfferential Item Functioning2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Mental health symptoms and functional impairment among adolescents: Analysis of Differential Item Functioning2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Paper and pencil versus web. Does the format affect the psychometric properties of a questionnaire measuring adolescent health?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Reporting logistic regression analysis: Should we focus on probabilities instead of odds ratios?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Skolelevers psykiska hälsa2015Report (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Smartphones, skolstress, eller…?: Vad ligger bakom ökad psykisk ohälsa hos unga?2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    The Effects of Targeting on Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Ungas psykiska hälsa i Sverige - komplexa trender och stora kunskapsluckor2013In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 671-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results in the article are in line with previous studies demonstrating that self-reported mental ill-health has, in a long-term perspective, increased among adolescents in Sweden from age 15 and up, especially among girls. Different studies indicate that the previous upgoing trend has levelled out and turned downwards. Partially separate trends for boys and girls emerge from the Young in Värmland study in grade 9. The academic orientation differentiates the time trend too. Major changes have taken place for girls with a non-theoretical academic orientation. The knowledge gaps are significant for younger adolescents in terms of trends in mental health. Previous studies show no uniform trend pattern for children aged 11, and for children under 10 there are no trend data at all.

  • 65.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Vår bästa tid var då2016In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, Vol. 3, p. 28-33Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 66.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Why is young people's mental health worst in Sweden?: A Nordic perspective2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Andrich, David
    The University of Western Australia.
    Recent advances in analysis of differential item functioning in health research using the Rasch model2017In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 15, p. 1-8, article id 181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rasch analysis with a focus on Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is increasingly used for examination of psychometric properties of health outcome measures. To take account of DIF in order to retain precision of measurement, split of DIF-items into separate sample specific items has become a frequently used technique. The purpose of the paper is to present and summarise recent advances of analysis of DIF in a unified methodology. In particular, the paper focuses on the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a method to simultaneously detect uniform and non-uniform DIF, the need to distinguish between real and artificial DIF and the trade-off between reliability and validity. An illustrative example from health research is used to demonstrate how DIF, in this case between genders, can be identified, quantified and under specific circumstances accounted for using the Rasch model.

    Methods: Rasch analyses of DIF were conducted of a composite measure of psychosomatic problems using Swedish data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study for grade 9 students collected during the 1985–2014 time periods.

    Results: The procedures demonstrate how DIF can be identified efficiently by ANOVA of residuals, and how the magnitude of DIF can be quantified and potentially accounted for by resolving items according to identifiable groups and using principles of test equating on the resolved items. The results of the analysis also show that the real DIF in some items does affect person measurement estimates.

    Conclusions: Firstly, in order to distinguish between real and artificial DIF, the items showing DIF initially should not be resolved simultaneously but sequentially. Secondly, while resolving instead of deleting a DIF item may retain reliability, both options may affect the content validity negatively. Resolving items with DIF is not justified if the source of the DIF is relevant for the content of the variable; then resolving DIF may deteriorate the validity of the instrument. Generally, decisions on resolving items to deal with DIF should also rely on external information.

  • 68.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Due, Pernille
    Univ Southern Denmark, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, DK-1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Torsheim, Torbjorn
    University Bergen Norway.
    Valimaa, Raili
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Cross-country comparisons of trends in adolescent psychosomatic symptoms: a Rasch analysis of HBSC data from four Nordic countries2019In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 17, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundTo analyse the psychometric properties of the HBSC Symptom Checklist (HBSC-SCL) on psychosomatic symptoms with a focus on the operating characteristics of the items, and on the impacts of measurement distortions on the comparisons of person measures across time and between countries.MethodsData were collected in 1993/94, 1997/98, 2001/02, 2005/06, 2008/09, 2013/14 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Data comprised 116,531 students 11, 13 and 15years old. Rasch analysis was conducted of the HBSC-SCL consisting of eight items with a focus on Differential Item Functioning (DIF) and item threshold ordering. The impacts of DIF and threshold disordering on trend analyses were analysed in a subsample consisting of 15years old students.ResultsOne item shows evidence of severe DIF and the categorisation of some items does not seem to work as intended. Analyses of changes based on proportions of psychosomatic symptoms show that bad item functioning affects some comparisons between countries across time: A four percentage point difference between 15years old girls in Finland and Sweden concerning the rate of increase of psychosomatic symptoms from 1994 to 2014 disappears when the problems with DIF and disordered item thresholds are taken into account. Although the proportions of students with psychosomatic symptoms are clearly higher 2014 than 1994 in all four countries the shape of most trends is nonlinear.ConclusionsSome of the cross-country comparisons were distorted because of DIF and problems related to disordering of the item thresholds. The comparisons among girls between Finland and Sweden were affected by the problems pertaining to the original measure of psychosomatic symptoms, while the trend patterns among boys were not much affected. In addition to confirming increasing rates of adolescent mental health problems in the Nordic countries, the substantive analyses in the current study show that Finland is joining Sweden in having the sharpest increase among older adolescents, in particular among girls.To improve the functioning of the scale the DIF item could be removed or replaced and response categories collapsed in post hoc analyses.

  • 69.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Due, Pernille
    University of Copenhagen.
    Torsheim, Torbjørn
    University of Bergen.
    Välimaa, Raili
    University of Jyväskylä.
    Potential threats to Cross Country Comparisons of Adolescent Mental Health – A Rasch analysis based on HBSC-data from four Nordic countries2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Evans, Brittany
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Kim, Yunhwan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Discrepant trends for adolescent2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hellström, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    The Psychometric Properties of the Early Development Instrument: A Rasch Analysis Based on Swedish Pilot Data2014In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 301-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) is a population measure and an indicator of children’s developmental health before entering the school system. EDI-Sweden was translated and adapted from EDI-Canada. In 2011 a pilot study was conducted, as a first step of the preparations for nationwide implementation of EDI in Sweden. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of EDI-Sweden. Data about 116 5-year-old children were collected at ten preschools in two municipalities. EDI consists of 104 core items in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, language and cognitive development, communication skills and general knowledge. Preschool teachers completed a web based questionnaire for each child. The data were analysed using the unidimensional Rasch model. With exception for the domain of physical health and well-being the Rasch analysis showed satisfying psychometric properties of EDI after removal of some misfitting items. In these four domains no items showed disordered thresholds and the reliability was good, indicated by person separation index values of 0.73 or higher. Tentative analyses of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) showed that some items didn’t work invariantly across genders, suggesting that the DIF-items should be split into gender specific items. Due to the relatively small sample size the results can’t provide definite answers but tentative indications of the psychometric properties of the EDI-Sweden. As a whole the Rasch analysis provides ground for cautious optimism for large scale assessment of EDI-Sweden enabling more thorough and finer level analysis of the instrument.

  • 72.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Rydelius, Per-Anders
    Karolinska institutet.
    Psykisk ohälsa och alkohol har en nära koppling2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, no 36, p. 1547-1550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between adolescents' alcohol consumption and mental ill-health on an aggregate level is complex, including self-reported mental ill-health as well as suicide, deliberate self-harm and other psychiatric problems. The self-reported mental ill-health among 15-16-year-old girls in Sweden increased considerably from the middle of the 1980s to the middle of the 2000s, while the increase in alcohol consumption was substantially smaller. Among 15-16-year-old boys the alcohol consumption trend curve turned downwards following the turn of the millennium, while the mental ill-health trend levelled out after the end of the 1990s. The gender differences in alcohol consumption have, over time, evened out, while the differences in self-reported mental ill-health remain. The association between alcohol consumption and mental ill-health is, on an individual level, very strong. A high-risk group among adolescents, particularly among boys, are those who do not experience any life satisfaction and who also binge drink alcohol.

  • 73.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Välimaa, Raili
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Simonsen, Nina
    Folkhälsan Research Center and University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Turku, Finland and University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Adolescent Mental Health: Illustrative Examples Using HBSC-data from Finland2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Välimaa, Raili
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Simonsen, Nina
    Folkhälsan Research Center and University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Turku, Finland and University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Adolescent Mental Health: Illustrative Examples Using HBSC-data from Finland2017In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 673-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is an increasing focus on trend analyses of adolescent mental health, yet too little attention is paid to the methodological challenges and pitfalls inherent in this type of analyses. The purpose of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of a Finnish instrument on psychosomatic problems, with a major focus on Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across time. Questionnaire data collected in 1994, 1998, 2006 and 2014 among Finnish schoolchildren in grade 9 (15-year-olds) as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study were utilised.The polytomous Rasch model was used to examine the psychometric properties of a composite measure of psychosomatic problems. The results clearly indicate that the composite measure on psychosomatic problems consisting of nine items does not work invariantly over time. In particular, the item depressed shows DIF across years ofinvestigations. This item works quite differently at the first year of investigationcompared to the last year showing higher expected values 2014 (=less frequent problems) than 1994. This DIF affects the person measure of change in psychosomatic problems between 1994 and 2014. Resolving the item depressed for year of investigation DIF, or removing it, increases the difference in person mean values between the two years, implying increasing psychosomatic problems over time. Since the DIF affects the trend results, different options to address the problems need to be considered. Removing the item depressed would bring the Finnish measure of psychosomatic problems in better accordance with the content of the questions on psychosomatic problems in the international HBSC protocol in which the item depressed is not included.

  • 75.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Välimaa, Raili
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Simonsen, Nina
    Folkhälsan Research Center; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Turku, Finland; University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Differential Item Functioning in Trend Analyses of Psychosomatic Problems based on Finnish HBSC-data.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Hellström, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Does the Strength of the Association Between Peer Victimization and Psychosomatic Health Problems Depend on Whether Bullying or Peer Aggression is Measured?2017In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 447-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to analyze to what extent the strength of the previously established association between peer victimization and psychosomatic problems depends on which of two measures is being used, a measure of bullying and a measure of peer aggression. The study included 2568 Swedish adolescents aged 13–15 years. An Ordinary Least Square regression showed that all regressors representing bullying and peer aggression revealed significant effects on psychosomatic health using no peer victimization as the reference category. An ANOVA showed no significant differences in mean values on the Psychosomatic Problems Scale captured by the two measures. Given that both measures of peer victimization show strong associations with psychosomatic health, using only one of the two measures is therefore likely not just to underestimate the overall prevalence of peer victimization but also the number of children experiencing psychosomatic problems in relation with peer victimization.

  • 77.
    Hellström, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Self-reported peer victimization: Concordance and discordance between measures of bullying and peer aggresion among Swedish adolescents2013In: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 395-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examined concordance and discordance

    between a measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression

    with respect to the number of students identified as victims.

    Swedish adolescents (N

    = 1,760) completed a web-based questionnaire.

    A measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression

    were compared in order to elucidate the unique contribution of

    each measure as well as the overlap: 13% of students who experienced

    peer victimization reported only bullying, 44% reported only

    repeated peer aggression, and 43% reported both. Concordance

    was further elucidated by phi-square coefficient tests revealing that

    18% of the variance in either measure was accounted for by the

    other measure. Given recent research showing similar associations

    with mental health for bullying and peer aggression victimization,

    it is suggested that questions about peer aggression as well

    as bullying should be used simultaneously in order to capture the

    prevalence and full magnitude of peer victimization.

  • 78.
    Hellström, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Psychometric properties of the PESOC-PLP scale, a Swedish teacher instrument measuring pedagogical leadership: A Rasch analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Hellström, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Malmö University, Sweden.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    School effectiveness in Sweden: psychometric properties of an instrument to measure pedagogical and social climate (PESOC) focusing on pedagogical leadership2019In: International Journal of Leadership in Education, ISSN 1360-3124, E-ISSN 1464-5092, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving school effectiveness is a priority for many countries. The Swedish instrument Pedagogical and Social Climate in School (PESOC) has been widely used for measurement of school improvement. Since pedagogical leadership is an important component of school effectiveness, this study aimed to describe the psychometric properties of the PESOC subscale of pedagogical leadership (PESOC-PLP). Participants were 344 teachers from 30 schools in Karlstad, Sweden. Rasch analysis indicated two subdimensions of the scale, corresponding to academic and social objectives. Analysis showed that the instrument worked invariantly across different sub groups and that the response categories functioned as intended. Small, if any, within-school response dependence was noted. PESOC-PLP may be a useful tool for school leaders when evaluating their success in fulfilling academic and social objectives. Given the global demand for measurement of school leadership, also researchers and educators outside Sweden may have interest in translating and adapting the PESOC-PLP scale. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 80.
    Hellström, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Persson, Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Understanding and defining bullying - adolescents' own views2015In: Archives of Public Health, ISSN 0778-7367, E-ISSN 2049-3258, Vol. 73, p. 1-9, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The negative consequences of peer-victimization on children and adolescents are major public health concerns which have been subjected to extensive research. Given all efforts made to analyze and estimate the social and health consequences of peer-victimization, the adolescents' own experiences and understandings have had surprisingly little impact on the definition of bullying. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore adolescents' definitions of bullying.

    Methods

    A questionnaire study (n = 128) and four focus group interviews (n = 21) were conducted among students aged 13 and 15. First, gender and age differences were analyzed with respect to what behaviors are considered bullying (questionnaire data). Second, analysis of what bullying is (focus group interviews) was conducted using qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    The adolescents own understanding and definition of bullying didn't just include the traditional criteria of repetition and power imbalance, but also a criterion based on the health consequences of bullying. The results showed that a single but hurtful or harmful incident also could be considered bullying irrespective of whether the traditional criteria were fulfilled or not. Further, girls and older students had a more inclusive view of bullying and reported more types of behaviors as bullying compared to boys and younger students.

    Conclusions

    The results of the current study adds to the existing literature by showing that adolescents consider the victim's experience of hurt and harm as a criterion for defining bullying and not only as consequences of bullying. This may be of special relevance for the identification and classification of bullying incidents on the internet where devastating consequences have been reported from single incidents and the use of the traditional criteria of intent, repetition and power imbalance may not be as relevant as for traditional bullying. It implies that the traditional criteria included in most definitions of bullying may not fully reflect adolescents' understanding and definition of bullying. Assessments of bullying behaviors that ask adolescents to strictly adhere to the traditional definition of bullying might not identify all adolescents experiencing peer victimization and therefore not provide estimates of prevalence rates reflecting adolescents' own understanding of bullying.

  • 81.
    Hogberg, Bjorn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Johansson Seva, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Ageing, health inequalities and the welfare state: A multilevel analysis2018In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 311-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative studies of health inequalities have largely neglected age and ageing aspects, while ageing research has often paid little attention to questions of social inequalities. This article investigates cross-country differences in gradients in self-rated health and limiting long-standing illness (LLSI) in middle-aged and in older people (aged 50-64 and 65-80years) linked to social class, and degrees to which the social health gradients are associated with minimum pension levels and expenditure on elderly care. For these purposes, data from the European Social Survey (2002-2010) are analysed using multilevel regression techniques. We find significant cross-level interaction effects between class and welfare policies: higher expenditure on elderly care and particularly more generous minimum pensions are associated with smaller health inequalities in the older age group (65-80years). It is concluded that welfare policies moderate the association between social class and health, highlighting the importance of welfare state efforts for older persons, who are strongly reliant on the welfare state and welfare state arrangements such as pensions and care policies.

  • 82.
    Jansson-Frojmark, Markus
    et al.
    Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Ctr Hlth & Med Psychol CHAMP, S-31705 Orebro, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Ctr Hlth & Med Psychol CHAMP, S-31705 Orebro, Sweden.; Stockholm, Sweden..
    Linton, Steven J.
    Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Ctr Hlth & Med Psychol CHAMP, S-31705 Orebro, Sweden..
    The role of emotion dysregulation in insomnia: Longitudinal findings from a large community sample2016In: British Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-107X, E-ISSN 2044-8287, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 93-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this longitudinal investigation was to examine the association between emotion regulation and future insomnia (incidence and persistence). DesignA longitudinal study in the general population. MethodsA survey was sent out to 5,000 individuals in the community. To those who returned the baseline questionnaire (n=2,333), two follow-up surveys, 6 and 18months later, were sent out and then completed by 1,887 and 1,795 individuals, respectively. The survey contained information about demographic factors, insomnia symptomatology, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, anxiety, and depression. ResultsThe findings suggested that emotion regulation at baseline was not associated with the incidence or persistence of insomnia. Overall, the effect sizes were very small to medium. When examining changes in emotion regulation over time, a different pattern emerged. Partial support was established for the notion that decreases in emotion regulation were related to incident and persistent insomnia, as a decrease in emotion regulation was associated with a higher likelihood of future insomnia. Yet, the effect sizes were very small to small. ConclusionThis study does partly point towards a longitudinal association between emotion dysregulation and insomnia. This might have implications for the conceptualization and management of insomnia as well as for future research.

  • 83.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia in Psychiatric Disorders.2016In: Current sleep medicine reports, ISSN 2198-6401, Vol. 2, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia means difficulties in initiating or maintaining sleep and is commonly comorbid with psychiatric disorders. From being considered secondary to primary psychiatric disorders, comorbid insomnia is now considered an independent health issue that warrants treatment in its own right. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an evidence-based treatment for insomnia. The effects from CBT-I on comorbid psychiatric conditions have received increasing interest as insomnia comorbid with psychiatric disorders has been associated with more severe psychiatric symptomologies, and there are studies that indicate effects from CBT-I on both insomnia and psychiatric symptomology. During recent years, the literature on CBT-I for comorbid psychiatric groups has expanded and has advanced methodologically. This article reviews recent studies on the effects from CBT-I on sleep, daytime symptoms and function and psychiatric comorbidities for people with anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, psychotic disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Future strategies for research are suggested.

  • 84.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    The cognitive treatment components and therapies of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: A systematic review2018In: Sleep Medicine Reviews, ISSN 1087-0792, E-ISSN 1532-2955, Vol. 42, p. 19-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been an increased focus on developing and testing cognitive components and therapies for insomnia disorder. The aim of the current review was thus to describe and review the efficacy of cognitive components and therapies for insomnia. A systematic review was conducted on 32 studies (N = 1455 subjects) identified through database searches. Criteria for inclusion required that each study constituted a report of outcome from a cognitive component or therapy, that the study had a group protocol, adult participants with diagnosed insomnia or undiagnosed insomnia symptoms or reported poor sleep, and that the study was published until and including 2016 in English. Each study was systematically reviewed with a standard coding sheet. Several cognitive components, a multi-component cognitive program, and cognitive therapy were identified. It is concluded that there is support for paradoxical intention and cognitive therapy. There are also other cognitive interventions that appears promising, such as cognitive refocusing and behavioral experiments. For most interventions, the study quality was rated as low to moderate. We conclude that several cognitive treatment components and therapies can be viewed as efficacious or promising interventions for patients with insomnia disorder. Methodologically stronger studies are, however, warranted.

  • 85.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    Stockholms universitet.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Linton, Steven
    Örebro universitet.
    The role of psychiatric and somatic conditions in incidence and persistence of insomnia: a longitudinal, community study2016In: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 229-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveThe objective was to investigate the role of psychiatric and somatic conditions in incident and persistent insomnia.DesignThis was a prospective study with 3 measurement points over 1.5 years.SettingThe participants were sent a survey to their home addresses.ParticipantsA survey was sent out to 5000 random individuals (18-70 years) in 2 Swedish counties. To those who returned the baseline questionnaire (n = 2333), 2 follow-up surveys (6 and 18 months later) were sent out and completed by 1887 and 1795 individuals, respectively.MeasurementsThe survey contained questions about sociodemographic factors and insomnia symptomatology, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and items assessing 12 forms of somatic conditions (eg, heart disease and headache).ResultsBaseline depression, headache, and number of psychiatric and somatic conditions were found to be independent risk factors for incident insomnia. Also, deterioration in depression and heart disease status and increased number of conditions over time increased the risk for insomnia incidence. Anxiety; depression; pain in neck, back, or shoulders; and headache at baseline were found to significantly discriminate between those with persistent insomnia and those with persistent normal sleep. Those with persistent insomnia also reported a higher number of conditions relative to those with persistent normal sleep. None of the psychiatric or somatic conditions were found to be associated with persistence of insomnia relative to remission of insomnia.ConclusionThe current study suggests that both psychiatric and somatic conditions are involved in the incidence but not in the persistence of insomnia. Clinical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.

  • 86.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Vinberg, stig
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Umeå universitet.
    Subjective well-being among the self-employed in Europe:macroeconomy, gender and immigrant status2016In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 239-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that the self-employed generally experience a higher degree of job satisfaction compared to regular employees. However, our knowledge of subjective well-being among the self-employed, the differences between various groups of self-employed and the potential influence of contextual factors is somewhat limited. The purpose of the present paper is to address this gap by taking macroeconomic conditions, gender and immigrant status into consideration. The results show that self-employment is positively related to subjective well-being, but there are also differences between groups of the self-employed; self-employed with employees report a higher level of life satisfaction than the self-employed without employees. Economic growth is more important for the level of life satisfaction among the self-employed than among employees. The analyses also point to different patterns for female and male self-employed without employees: only women experience a higher level of life satisfaction compared to employees. The results also show that the relationship is stronger among immigrants than natives. The results of this study confirm the importance of considering potential heterogeneity when examining subjective well-being among the self-employed.

  • 87.
    Kim, Yunhwan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Evans, Brittany
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Towards explaining time trends in adolescents’ alcohol use: A multilevel analysis of Swedish data from 1988 to 20112019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 729-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol use has decreased among Swedish adolescents in the past few decades. We examined peer and parent factors (i.e., time spent with peers, time spent with parents, and parental monitoring) that could contribute to explaining this trend by investigating their main effects and interaction effects with investigation years on alcohol use. We furthermore examined whether municipality-level socioeconomic conditions could contribute to explaining the trend. Methods: We used data from a repeated cross-sectional study that took place eight times between 1988 and 2011. The study targeted all ninth grade students (15-to-16-year-olds) in Värmland County, Sweden. Adolescents (N = 22,257) reported their monthly alcohol use, time spent with peers and parents, and parental monitoring. Municipality-level socioeconomic conditions were based on parent education levels. Results: Logistic multilevel regression analyses showed that peer and parent factors and municipality-level socioeconomic conditions were associated with alcohol use among adolescents. The interaction effects between peer and parent factors and investigation years were not significant. The decreased trend in time spent with peers was associated with the decreased trend in frequency of alcohol use over time. Conclusion: The findings of the current study provide an indication that the decreased trend in alcohol use that has been observed in Swedish adolescents over the past few decades may be related to changes in adolescents’ social interactions with peers.

  • 88.
    Kim, Yunhwan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Mental health problems among economically disadvantaged adolescents in an increasingly unequal society: A Swedish study using repeated cross-sectional data from 1995 to 20112018In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 6, p. 44-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing inequality in many societies highlights the importance of paying attention to differences in mental health between the economically disadvantaged adolescents and the non-disadvantaged adolescents. Also important is to understand how changing inequality in society over time influences adolescents’ mental health at the population- and individual-level. The current study examined to what extent increased societal-level income inequality over time, individual-level experiences of economic disadvantage and the cross-level interaction between the two explained Swedish adolescents’ mental health problems from 1995 to 2011. We used repeated cross-sectional data collected 6 times between 1995 and 2011 in Sweden. Each time, approximately 2,500 students in grade 9 completed a questionnaire during the spring semester. The adolescents provided self-report data on the frequency of their experiences of unaffordability of daily leisure activities (concert, movie, sports, and dance). They also reported their psychosomatic symptoms, which was used as a measure of mental health problems. We used the household equalised disposable income Gini coefficient as an indicator of societal income inequality. A real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was controlled for in order to rule out potential effects of economic growth in the society over time. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted in which students were nested in years of investigations. Adolescents who experienced unaffordability of daily leisure activities reported more mental health problems. Societal income inequality was not directly associated with the adolescents’ mental health. However, among girls the effects of experiences of unaffordability on mental health were stronger for all but one (sports) activities, and among boys for one activity (sports) when societal-level inequality was greater. Individual-level economic disadvantage are detrimental for adolescents’ mental health, both directly and interactively with societal-level economic inequality. Some suggestions for practice and future studies are made for mental health among adolescents in societies where increasing inequality is observed.

  • 89.
    Kim, Yunhwan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Trends in adolescent mental health during economic upturns and downturns: a multilevel analysis of Swedish data 1988-20082018In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 101-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background A long-term trend of increasing mental health problems among adolescents in many Western countries indicates a great need to investigate if and how societal changes have contributed to the reported increase. Using seven waves of repeated cross-sectional data collected between 1988 and 2008 in Sweden, the current study examined if economic factors at the societal level (municipality unemployment rate) and at the individual level (worry about family finances), and their interaction could explain a secular trend in mental health problems.

    Methods Participants were 17 533 students of age 15–16 years (49.3% girls), from 14 municipalities in a county of Sweden. Data on adolescents’ mental health (psychosomatic problems) and worry about family finances were obtained using a self-report questionnaire. A series of multilevel regression analyses were conducted in order to explain the trends in adolescents’ mental health.

    Results The results indicated that the individual-level predictor (worry about family finances) significantly explained the increasing rates of adolescents’ psychosomatic problems. This was particularly the case during the mid-1990s, which was characterised by a severe recession in Sweden with high unemployment rates. For example, after accounting for adolescents’ worry, a significant increase in psychosomatic symptoms between 1988 and 1998 among girls (b=0.112, P<0.05) disappeared (b=0.018, P>0.05) and a non-significant decrease between 1988 and 1995 among boys (b=−0.017, P>0.05) became significant (b=−0.142, P<0.05). Neither municipality unemployment rate nor its interaction with adolescents’ worry explained psychosomatic problems.

    Conclusions The findings demonstrate the effects of adolescents’ worry about family finances on a secular trend in mental health problems during an economically bleak period of time. The study highlights the need for repeated measurements including a large number of time points over a long time period in order to analyse time-specific putative explanatory factors for trends in adolescent mental health problems.

  • 90.
    Kim, Yunhwan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Stattin, Håkan
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Parent-youth discussions about politics from age 13 to 28.2019In: Journal of applied developmental psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, E-ISSN 1873-7900, Vol. 62, p. 249-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been commonly assumed that post-adolescent youth have fewer political discussions with parents than doadolescents, due to transitional events in young adulthood and the emergence of new age-appropriate socializingagents, like peers, colleagues, and romantic partners. We proposed a contrasting view that post-adolescent youthhave more frequent political discussions with parents due to their increased political interest over time. Using anaccelerated longitudinal design (n=4286), we found that neither transitional events nor political discussionswith other socializing agents decreased political discussions with parents. The long-term developmental trajectoriesfor political discussions with parents and youth's own political interest showed a linear increase fromadolescence to young adulthood. Cross-lagged models showed that youth's political interest positively predictedpolitical discussions with parents over time and vice-versa. These findings indicate a need to see political discussionswith parents as a parent-youth bidirectional process.

  • 91.
    Kleppang, Annette L
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Elverum, Norway.
    Thurston, Miranda
    Department of Public Health, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Elverum, Norway.
    Hartz, Ingeborg
    Department of Public Health, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Elverum, Norway.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Department of Public Health, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Elverum, Norway; Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents: Changes between 2001 and 2009 and associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 166-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this work was to examine psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents in relation to changes over time and the associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data retrieved from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys in 2001 and 2009 in Hedmark County. Adolescents aged 15–16 years old completed a questionnaire regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, psychological distress and other health and lifestyle variables. The self-report Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to assess psychological distress. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between psychological distress, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Results: Self-reported psychological distress increased significantly from 2001 to 2009 (from 19.4 to 28.2%), with the proportion of girls reporting psychological distress being twice as large as the proportion of boys. The proportion of adolescents who were physically active for ⩾11 hours per week increased significantly over the same period (from 6.0 to 10.4%). Sedentary behaviour ⩾6 hours per school day increased significantly among both sexes between 2001 and 2009. Physical activity (⩾11 hours) and sedentary behaviour (⩾6 hours) were both significantly associated with psychological distress. Conclusions: The association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological distress was weak; only high amounts of physical activity and high amounts of screen-based sedentary behaviour were associated with psychological distress. Longitudinal studies are needed to provide further insights into these associations and to understand the extent to which these variables might be causally related.

  • 92.
    Kleppang, Annette Løvheim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Innland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Mental health and physical activity in adolescence2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine the association between physical activity and mental health among Norwegian adolescents.

    The thesis includes four studies among adolescents in grade 10, aged 15-16 years. Studies I, II and III are based on the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys and study IV is based on data retrieved from Ungdata. In 2000-2003 (Youth Health Survey), the adolescents completed a paper and pencil self-administered questionnaire at school during lesson time. In both 2009 (Youth Health Survey) and 2017 (Ungdata), the adolescents completed an anonymous web-based questionnaire.

    The Rasch analysis from study I showed that overall, the HSCL-10 showed good reliability and the items worked well. One item “Sleeping difficulties”, in the HSCL-10 instrument clearly misfit and some items worked differently for boys and girls. Study II showed that the association between physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour and psychological distress was weak. In study III, a significant association between physical activity and incident use of hypnotics was shown at short-term follow up. No significant associations were found for later use of antidepressants. Study IV showed that participating in a sports club was significantly associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms.

    Mental health and physical activity are both complex phenomena. When investigating the association between adolescent`s physical activity and mental health, it is important to look at physical activities in different contexts, not only volume and frequency.

  • 93.
    Kleppang, Annette Løvheim
    et al.
    Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Department of Public Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Department of Public Health.
    The psychometric properties of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10: A Rasch analysis based on adolescent data from Norway2016In: Family Practice, ISSN 0263-2136, E-ISSN 1460-2229, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 740-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10) is widely used for both clinical and epidemiological purposes to measure psychological distress among adolescents and adults.

    Objective

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the HSCL-10 among adolescents in Norway using Rasch analysis.

    Methods

    The study is based on cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in 2001 and 2009. The target group comprised of 15- to 16-year olds (Grade 10 students) in Hedmark County, Norway. Ten items with four response categories, intended to measure anxiety and depression, were analysed. The analysis focused on invariance, including differential item functioning (DIF) across genders and years of investigations. In addition, the categorization of the items, targeting, possible multidimensionality and response dependency, was analysed.

    Results

    The HSCL-10 shows good reliability and on the whole, the items work well. However, one item, ‘Sleeping difficulties’, clearly misfit and some items work differently for boys and girls and between years of investigations. There is also need for a better targeting of the scale.

    Conclusions

    The HSCL-10 has the potential to measure the psychological distress among adolescents but there is a room for improvement. Further judgement needs to be made as to whether the misfitting item ‘Sleeping difficulties’ should be removed or retained.

  • 94.
    Kleppang, Annette Løvheim
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Department of Public Health, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Hartz, Ingeborg
    Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway & Inland Hospital Trust, Harstad, Norway.
    Thurston, Miranda
    Department of Public Health, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Department of Public Health, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Leisure-time physical activity among adolescents and subsequent use of antidepressant and hypnotic drugs: a prospective register linkage study.2018In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 177-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this prospective study, the association between physical activity and subsequent use of antidepressant and hypnotic drug use in adolescents aged 15-16 years was examined. This study is based on information retrieved from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys (2000-2003) and linked to prescription data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (2004-2013). In total, the study included 10711 participants with a participation rate of 87%. Adolescents were asked how many hours per week they spent on physical activity that made them sweat and/or be out of breath outside of school. Incident psychotropic drug use (outcome measure) was defined as ≥ 1 prescription of one of the following psychotropic drugs: hypnotics and antidepressants registered in the Norwegian Prescription Database. In the crude model for the time period 2004-2007, the odds of incident hypnotic use were lower for those who were physically active 1-2 h per week (OR 0.48-0.64), compared to those who were physically inactive (< 1 h per week). However, the association become non-significant 4-year post-baseline (2008-2010 and 2011-2013). In the crude model for the time periods 2004-2007, 2008-2010 and 2011-2013, the odds of incident antidepressant use were lower for physically active adolescents (2004-2007: OR 0.46-0.71, 2008-2010: OR 0.40-0.67 and 2011-2013: OR 0.37-0.58, compared to those who were physically inactive < 1 h. However, after adjustment for confounders, the association became non-significant in all time periods except in physical activity 5-7 and 8-10 h in the period 2008-2010. Physical activity does not indicate any association with later use of antidepressants, and the significant association with incident hypnotic drug use was for short-term follow-up only and disappeared on longer term follow-up periods. Given the scarcity of longitudinal studies examining the association between physical activity and mental health as well as psychotropic drug use among young people, the current study adds to previous research.

  • 95.
    Kleppang, Annette Løvheim
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Hartz, Ingeborg
    Institute of Public Health, Oslo,.
    Thurston, Miranda
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Elverum, .
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    The association between physical activity and symptoms of depression in different contexts: a cross-sectional study of Norwegian adolescents2018In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1368-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Lönnfjord, Victoria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    The Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale: A Rasch Analysis Based on Adolescent Data2017In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 703-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-efficacy describes people’s belief in their own ability to perform the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) with an adolescent sample, using Rasch analysis. The scale was examined with a focus on invariant functioning along the latent trait as well as across sample groups. The data were collected 2009 and 2010 among 3764 students aged between 13 and 15 years, in the 7th to 9th grade, in compulsory schools in the municipality of Karlstad, Sweden. The item fit was acceptable, the categorization of the items worked well and the scale worked invariantly between years of investigations. Although the GSES worked well as a whole, there was some evidence of misfit indicating room for improvements. The targeting may be improved by adding more questions of medium difficulty. Also, further attention needs to be paid to the dimensionality of the GSES as well as to whether the psychometric properties of GSES are affected by using more recent data.

  • 97.
    Ma, Li
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Demography Unit, Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Demography Unit, Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Duvander, Ann-Sofie
    Demography Unit, Department of Sociology, Stockholm University.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fathers’ uptake of parental leave: Forerunners and laggards in Sweden, 1993-20102019In: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is often considered a forerunner in family change and developments towardsless gendered family production patterns. In this study, we focus on recent developmentstowards more gender-equal sharing of parental leave in Sweden. We explore how fathers’use of parental leave has changed over time before and since the turn of the century. Asthe parental leave benefit is individual and earnings-based, we examine how fathers’ individualsocio-economic and demographic characteristics are associated with their parental leaveuptake over time, to determine whether there are forerunners and laggards in recent familychange. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to data from national registers.Our study demonstrates a bifurcation in trends in recent decades. This is associated with theextension of reforms that reserve part of the leave for fathers, the so-called “daddy months”,but stretches beyond the impact of any such reforms. Taking a long leave of over twomonths was pioneered by better-educated residents of metropolitan areas and surroundingsuburbs, as well as Swedish-born fathers. Young fathers, low-income earners and foreign-bornfathers lagged behind in these developments. We regard the unstable labour marketsituation of the latter as a contributing factor in widening social inequalities in family-relatedbehaviour.

  • 98.
    Ma, Li
    et al.
    Catholic Univ Louvain, Belgien.
    Turunen, Jani
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Stockholms universitet.
    Rizzi, Ester
    Catholic Univ Louvain, Belgien.
    Divorce Chinese Style2018In: Journal of Marriage and Family, ISSN 0022-2445, E-ISSN 1741-3737, Vol. 80, no 5, p. 1287-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated divorce during China’ssocial and economic transformation period from1970 to 2012. Specifically, the study examinedthe trend development of divorce and demonstratedhow marriage formation type and individualsocioeconomic characteristics were associatedwith the likelihood of divorce across time.Event-history analysis was applied to longitudinaldata from the China Family Panel Studies(2010–2012 waves). The results showed a threefoldincrease in divorce from the pre-1990s tothe 1990s. Surprisingly, the trend shifted to aplateau toward the 2000s. When cohabitationwas in its rapidly diffusing stage in the 1990s,individuals who cohabited prior to marriage hada substantially higher likelihood of divorce. Ascohabitation became increasingly common inthe 2000s, its effect on divorce weakened. Therole of socioeconomic characteristics in divorcealso varied across time. This study enriches the knowledge of family dynamics in contemporaryChinese society.

  • 99.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholms universiet.
    Ma, Li
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Does time count? Immigrant fathers’ use of parental leave for a first child in Sweden2018In: Population, ISSN 0032-4663, E-ISSN 1957-7966, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 363-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate immigrant fathers’ use of parental leave for a first child in Sweden from 1995 to2010. The issue of immigrant fathers’ uptake of parental leave is particularly well suited to assess the integrativeaspects of family policies and for studying immigrants’ integration because it reflects labour market participationand acceptance of gender-equal parental norms. Using data from Swedish population registers, we find thatimmigrant fathers do take parental leave but not to the same extent as Swedish-born fathers do, and they donot respond equally to policy changes. Our most important finding is that immigrant fathers increase their leaveuse with time spent in Sweden, indicating an adaptation to the leave-use pattern of Swedish-born fathers. Wealso find that individual income, as well as the mothers’ characteristics, are strong determinants of parental leaveuse.

  • 100.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Miranda, Vitor
    Statistiska centralbyrån, Sweden.
    Ma, Li
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Transition to third birth among immigrant mothers in Sweden: Does having two daughters accelerate the process?2019In: Journal of Population Research, ISSN 1443-2447, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 81-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate whether immigrant parents hold sex preferences for children in Sweden, a country that promotes gender equality and where parental preference for having a girl prevails. By applying event-history models to Swedish register data, we investigate the transition to third birth by the sex composition of children born among immigrants. In particular, we examine whether women who come from countries with strong son-preference cultures accelerate their process of having a third child if their prior children are both girls. We pay particular attention to immigrants from China, Korea, India and the former Yugoslavia, where son preference culture has been well documented in the literature. Our results show that women from China, Korea, India and the former Yugoslavia are more likely to have a third child if they have two girls than if they have two boys or a boy and a girl. Interestingly, mothers from China, Korea and India tends to accelerate their process to get a son, whereas mothers from the former Yugoslavia do not hasten. Furthermore, the 1.5 generation and the immigrant mothers with a Swedish partner from China, Korea and India demonstrate a girl preference, as the native Swedes do, whereas the 1.5 generation immigrant mothers from the former Yugoslavia do not show any sign of adaptation.

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