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  • 51.
    Bilker, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Föräldrars syn på barns säkerhet: En kvalitativ studie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A paradigm shift is proposed in the literature regarding child safety, from keeping the children as safe as possible to keeping the children as safe as necessary. This could be a way to satisfy children’s need of challenges in order to thrive and their need for safety. In relation to such an ongoing change it is of value to investigate how parents, as guardians, perceive child safety at home and in preschool. The purpose of this study is to research parental perception of child safety in the home environment and childcare. The study is also concerned with how parents perceive their influence over the risks and risk assessments surrounding the children at home and in preschool. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of preschool children and a qualitative content analysis was used. The results show that safety to a big extent is sees as protective measures to safeguard children from risk. Risks in the physical environment were discussed in relation to the home environment and preschool and psychological and social risks were discussed in relation to preschool, relationships amongst peers and the society. The parents see themselves as having a significant influence over risks in the home environment and to a lesser degree in relation to peers and preschool. Parents voice a constant need for balancing between safety, risks and other factors such as development, independence, and social acceptance. Adults constantly analyze risk to make appropriate decisions to safeguard the children. The informants describe supervision as crucial to keep children safe. To conclude, the results indicate a need for improved communication between parents and preschool staff regarding evaluations between safety and other factors, like development and positive challenges that help children to thrive. Suggestions for future research are given.

  • 52.
    Birgersson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Det moderna risksamhället: En studie om klimatrisker inom kommunal krisberedskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is now a phenomenon we cannot ignore. It is happening here and now and there is more or less common scientific consensus that so is the case. With climate change come risks that are difficult to predict and to relate to and this affects the integration of these risks in the municipal emergency preparedness. The purpose of the study is to examine the factors that are affecting the integration of climate risks in the municipal emergency preparedness. The result is based on a number of interviews conducted with people working with municipal activities and a Municipal Council. The responses have been more or less clear that the largest factors affecting the integration of climate risks in the municipal emergency preparedness is scientific uncertainty and how this is mediated by international organizations, the fact that there is a common lack of knowledge about the effects that may arise from climate change and that there is also a lower awareness of many of the risks in general. In addition, different effects are differently prioritized which affects the integration of all risks associated with climate change. I have also conducted a document analysis to give further substance to the results I found.

  • 53.
    Björling, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Ny konsumtion av gamla kläder: – En studie om konsumenters miljömedvetenhet och motiv till att köpa second hand kläder på Myrorna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s consumption is increasing at an accelerating rate and it´s produced and consumed more goods and services than ever before. A large part of people's consumption consists of clothing that is bought and discarded increasingly leading to a number of environmental problems such as global warming, pollution, loss of biodiversity and the depletion of natural assets. One way to save the earth's resources is to buy used clothing, so called second hand, instead of new ones. The store chain “The Ants” (in Swedish “Myrorna”) has specializing in second-hand goods and sells, among other things, clothes. This study examined consumers' motive for shopping second-hand clothing on The Ants and examined whether this is related to consumers' environmental awareness and their choice to buy second hand clothes on The Ants. The shop staffs experience of the customer's environmental awareness was also examined. The methods that were chosen were surveys that The Ants customers filled out and interviews with store employees.

    The results showed that consumer´s motive to buy second-hand clothing on The Ants was mainly due to the cheap price and then because of their environmental awareness, customers were relatively environmentally aware and knew that the clothing industry contribute to environmental problems. The consumers felt that they received too little information about the problems and they would like to know more. The result also showed that consumers don´t act according to this awareness as very few of them asked questions to the staff about their clothing production or work with sustainable consumption and the environment. The Ants shop staff experienced the same thing since they rarely or never received any questions from customers about clothing and its environmental problems. Customers also bought more new clothes than second-hand clothing.

  • 54.
    Björn, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Sambandet mellan vattenflöde och täthet av lax- och öringsyngel i Gullspångsälven: Vilka åtgärder med avseende på vattenflödet kan stärka populationen?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower is a renewable energy source that can be regulated when needed, but it creates barriers in rivers and causes hydrological changes in water flow. This reduces biodiversity and prevents migratory fish from completing their lifecycle. This threat from humans has reduced salmon populations worldwide. The rate of water flow can affect smolt production, and this will be investigated in this report for Atlantic salmon and Borwn trout in the river Gullspångsälven. In addition, I will suggesting which measures should be prioritized to sstabilize the population. The flow in the river Gullspångsälven is regulated by the hydropower plant at Gullspång. A correlation between the density of salmon and trout and water flow in januari, when waterflow is high, May, when the salmonids swim up from their spawning gravel and august, when waterflow is low. I found no distinct trend between the waterflow and density in the river. There were significant differences for salmon in January and May. This result may be due to species-specific properties that are influenced different by water flow or in Gullspångsälven there is a short-term regulation that probably affects salmon and trout populations negatively.

  • 55.
    Björndotter, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Effekt av berikad vs standard odlingsmiljö på beteende och tillväxt hos lax2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     ABSTRACT

    The farming of salmon in hatcheries has been used to compensate for the decline of many wild populations due to human activity. Recent evidence has indicated that standard farmed salmon have a  higher mortality than wild fish, leading to the question of whether hatchery conditions can be altered to improve survival of stocked salmon. The purpose of this study was to compare the behavior and growth of hatchery-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) raised under standard conditions vs varied (enriched) hatchery conditions. The hypothesis was that fish from enriched rearing would grow faster, presumably due to more efficient foraging, resulting in less total movement, In addition, I predicted that salmon from enriched conditions would  have a higher biomass of food in their stomachs than fish reared under standard conditions. Salmon from the two different groups, enriched and standard, were held separate during their first 12 months of life. The following nine months the fish were raised together in semi-natural outdoor tanks. Behavior and growth of the fish were measured during this latter period. The results showed no support for my hypotheses. Biomass of food contents and summer and winter growth did not differ between treatments. I did find, however, that fish farmed in enriched environments were more active during the summer than fish raised under standard conditions. This suggests that early rearing conditions affect the behavior of the fish, but it is unclear if this effect has any bearing on survival of the fish when stocked in rivers.

  • 56.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Myrdal-Runebjer, Eva
    Pettersson, Susanne
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gammelvallen i Södra Finnskoga. Rapport 11992Report (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics (from 2013).
    Salmenkivi, Eero
    Helsingfors Universitet.
    Tani, Sirpa
    Helsingfors universitet.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Juuti, Kalle
    Helsingfors Universitet.
    Per, Sund
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Environmental and Sustainability Education (ESE): a comparative study between disciplinary and thematic perspectives in the Finnish and Swedish curricula2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Blake, Chelsea A.
    et al.
    Lund University; Lewis and Clark Community College, USA.
    Andersson, Matilda L.
    Lund University.
    Hulthén, Kaj
    Lund University; North Carolina State University, USA.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University.
    Conspecific boldness and predator species determine predation-risk consequences of prey personality2018In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 1-7, article id 133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Individual variation in the behavior of prey can influence predation risk in complex ways. We ran individual roach (Rutilus rutilus), a common freshwater fish, through a standard refuge emergence protocol to characterize their boldness, a key animal personality trait. We then paired a bold and a shy roach and exposed the pair to one of two predator species that have contrasting hunting modes to ascertain how personality traits shaped their survival during predator encounters. When a paired bold and shy prey fish interacted with a perch predator (active foraging mode), bold and shy prey were consumed in almost equal numbers. However, pike predators (ambush foraging mode) selectively consumed more shy prey, and prey body size and boldness score both contributed significantly to which prey fish was eaten. Our findings support the idea that multiple predators with different foraging modes, and hence differential selection on prey personality, could contribute to maintaining variation in personality in prey populations. Furthermore, for social species, including shoaling fish, the ultimate consequences of an individual’s personality may depend upon the personality of its nearby conspecifics. Significance statement: Animals of the same species often look similar, but individuals show differences in their behavior that can have important consequences, for instance when these individuals interact with predators. The common roach is a freshwater fish that shows inter-individual variation in its propensity to take risks, a key personality trait often termed boldness. Variation in boldness may affect the outcome when roach interact with predators, i.e., if they get eaten or survive. However, we found the impact of roachs’ personality type depends on what species of predatory fish they face. When we put a shy and a bold roach together with predatory perch, the roachs’ personality did not significantly affect which individual was eaten. But when the predator was a pike, the predators selectively ate more shy roach, and the likelihood an individual would be eaten depended on their body size.

  • 59.
    Blomqvist, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Effekter av osmotisk potential, samt salteffekter på några vägkantsväxter.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of lowered osmotic potential and osmotic agents on seedling germination and mean germination time (MGT) of some common roadside plants. Seeds of Prunella vulgaris, Anthyllis vulneraria, Puccinella distans, Stellaria graminea and Viscaria vulgaris were distributed in petri dishes and exposed to mannitol and sodium chloride solutions with osmotic potential of -0.3, - 0.6 and -0.9 MPa. Mannitol was used to distinguish osmotic effects from ionic effects caused by sodium chloride. Controls with distilled water showed germination in the absence of osmotic and ionic effects. The percentage of emerged seedlings were highest in controls for all species and decreased with a lower osmotic potential. Viscaria vulgaris had the highest percentage of emerged seedlings across all treatments. The lowest percentage of emerged seedlings had Puccinella distans and Stellaria graminea. It took longer time for all species to germinate under a lower osmotic potential. Viscaria vulgaris and Anthyllis vulneraria turned out to be most sensitive to abiotic changes and grew slowest in relation to controls. There was no difference in the impact of the osmotic agent on percentage germination and MGT, indicating that it is mainly the osmotic effect that affects the seed germination.

  • 60.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    A GIS-based multivariate approach to identify flood damage affecting factorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates causal factors leading to pluvial flood damages, beside rainfall amount and intensity, in two Swedish cities. Observed flood damage data from a Swedish insurance database, collected under 13 years, and a set of spatial data, describing topography, demography, land cover and building type were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA). The topographic wetness index (TWI) is the only investigated variable that indicates a significant relationship with to the number and amount of insurance damage. The Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.68 for the number of insurance damages and 0.63 for amount of insurance damages. With a linear regression model TWI explained 41% of the variance of the number of insurance flood damages and 34% of variance of amount of insurance flood damage.

    Future studies on this topic should consider implementing TWI as a potential measure in urban flood risk analyses.

  • 61.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The impact of intense rainfall on insurance losses in two Swedish cities2018In: Journal of Flood Risk Management, ISSN 1753-318X, E-ISSN 1753-318X, Vol. 12, no S2, p. 1-13, article id e12504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While a major part of previous research in the field of flood damage has focused on water depth as the most important causal factor, little attention has been paid to the role of rainfall intensity. As a test, this paper used correlation and regression analyses to investigate rainfall intensity as a factor affecting flood damage. For a time period of 15 years, the relationship between insurance losses caused by floods and rainfall intensity data from rain gauges were examined in two Swedish cities. Another objective was to find an approach for damage functions based on rainfall intensity as explanatory variable. Using linear regression, two approaches with considerable high degrees of explanation were found – one based on an exponential function and one on a power function. Using a lower limit for rainfall intensity, the approaches reached degrees of explanation between 30 and 78 %. From this study it was concluded that rainfall intensity during the summer months and the occurrence of insurance damages per day caused by floods were correlated and further that rainfall intensity has a great potential to explain urban flood damages. In the future, additional studies are needed to validate the proposed methods and integrate other flood damage affecting factors in the approach.

  • 62. Bodin, S.
    et al.
    Hulling, H.
    Pettersson, S.
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Familjen Granqvist på Pinoberget materiell kultur i en backstuga2007In: Torpens arkeologi / [ed] Welinder, Stig, Stockholm: Riksantikvarieämbetet , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 63. Bodin, Sara
    et al.
    Hulling, Hans
    Pettersson, Susanne
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Olika perspektiv på föremål: Materiell kulur hos obesutna ca 19002005In: Meta : medeltidsarkeologisk tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7903, no 1, p. 3-20Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Antwerp.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    What timss tells us about education for sustainable development - a comparative study between biology and science teachers in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in formal education is an arduous process. A much reported issue is that teachers do not perceive ESD as part of their task. As ESD should be implemented through whole-school approach this is identified as one of the major barriers to successfully bringing ESD into formal education. The current study uses the most recent Swedish TIMSS data Sweden for grade 4 classroom teachers, and for grade 8 biology and science teachers to answer three questions: (1) How well prepared do teachers feel to teach ESD? (2) According to teachers, is ESD supported in/by the whole school? (3) How often do teachers participate in ESD professional development? Using data from over 1000 Swedish respondents, the study shows that elementary and science teachers feel ill prepared for ESD. Biology teachers in grade 8 feel most prepared, but their mean score is also below the value 2 (indicating that they do not even feel ‘somewhat’ prepared). Our study also reveals that students are not very involved in the implementation of ESD. This is problematic since ESD focusses on their participation. While PD rates are low for all teachers in the sample we see that when grade 4 and grade 8 science teachers do participate in such programs they feel better prepared to bring ESD into their classroom. At the same time we have to underscore that across PD topics in TIMSS, ESD is at the lowest level (around 13%, with other topics averaging 25 to 45%). Yet, these results show that PD is key to the successful implementation of ESD.

  • 65.
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Univ Antwerp, Fac Social Sci, Res Unit Edubron, Dept Training & Educ Sci, Prinsstr 13, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium..
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The Effectiveness of Education for Sustainable Development2015In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 15693-15717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perhaps the most important issue in our time is how to sustain our planet's resources, while developing wealth and well-being for a growing population. This monumental task has been defined in the concept of sustainable development (SD). During the last few decades the world communities have agreed upon addressing SD through international treaties. As a response Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been launched as an answer to cope with sustainability. However, empirical studies are a missing link in the discourse around ESD, where decisions and implementation strategies are heavily based on policy recommendations and gut feelings by practitioners. We used data from 2413 students in grades 6, 9, and 12 from 51 schools across Sweden to study the effectiveness of ESD. In line with the current debate on the definition of ESD, we quantified the extent to which teaching can be labeled as holistic and/or pluralistic. Through a series of descriptive analyses and the estimation of structural equation models, our results indicate that ESD can indeed impact on student outcomes in terms of their sustainability consciousness. The results of this study reveal the key role ESD plays in addressing SD, paving the way for a more sustainable future.

  • 66.
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The effectiveness of education for sustainable development: Pluralism and holism in the classroom. Oral presentation within the international symposium "Environmental literacy" grounded in theory and approved in environmental / sustainability education practice2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The effectiveness ofeducation for sustainable development2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Bohlin, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Göransson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköpings universitet.
    NTA-Digital – Tema kroppen2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Bolonina, Alona
    et al.
    Riga Tech Univ, Inst Energy Syst & Environm, Azenes Iela 12-1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia..
    Comoglio, Claudio
    Politecn Torino, I-10129 Turin, Italy..
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Kunickis, Maris
    Riga Tech Univ, Inst Energy Syst & Environm, Azenes Iela 12-1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia..
    Strategies for mitigating the impact of hydropower plants on the stocks of diadromous species in the Daugava River2016In: International scientific conference "Environmental and climate technologies", CONECT 2015 / [ed] Valtere, S., Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 95, p. 81-88Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Daugava River is the largest river in Latvia. Daugava Hydro Power Plants built in 1939 - 1974 are Latvia's most important renewable resource in generation of electricity. The absence of fish passage structures excludes upstream migration of diadromous species. Compensatory stocking activities are introduced annually. The need for studying alternative or additional impact mitigation measures is based on biodiversity conservation aspects and possible changes in EU legislation. The case study of solutions for improving the Daugava River connectivity is introduced and further strategies for mitigating the impact of HPP are proposed in the paper.

  • 70.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Assessing the effects of societal injury control interventions2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Injuries have emerged as one of the biggest public health issues of the 21th century. Yet, the causal effects of injury control strategies are often questioned due to a lack of randomized experiments. In this thesis, a set of quasi-experimental methods are applied and discussed in the light of causal inference theory and the type of data commonly available in injury surveillance systems. I begin by defining the interrupted time series design as a special case of the regression-discontinuity design, and the method is applied to two empirical cases. The first is a ban on the sale and production of non-reduced ignition propensity (RIP) cigarettes, and the second is a tightening of the licensing rules for mopeds. A two-way fixed effects model is then applied to a case with time-varying starting dates, attempting to identify the causal effects of municipality-provided home help services for the elderly. Lastly, the effect of the Swedish bicycle helmet law is evaluated using the comparative interrupted time series and synthetic control methods. The results from the empirical studies suggest that the stricter licensing rules and the bicycle helmet law were effective in reducing injury rates, while the home help services and RIP cigarette interventions have had limited or no impact on safety as measured by fatalities and hospital admissions. I conclude that identification of the impact of injury control interventions is possible using low cost means. However, the ability to infer causality varies greatly by empirical case and method, which highlights the important role of causal inference theory in applied intervention research. While existing methods can be used with data from injury surveillance systems, additional improvements and development of new estimators specifically tailored for injury data will likely further enhance the ability to draw causal conclusions in natural settings. Implications for future research and recommendations for practice are also discussed.

  • 71.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Compared with what?: Estimating the effects of injury prevention policies using the synthetic control method2018In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 24, p. I60-I66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction This paper discusses the application of the synthetic control method to injury-related interventions using aggregate data from public information systems. The method selects and determines the optimal control unit in the data by minimising the difference between the pre-intervention outcomes in one treated unit (eg, a state) and a weighted combination of potential control units. Method I demonstrate the synthetic control method by an application to Florida's post-2010 policy and law enforcement initiatives aimed at bringing down opioid overdose deaths. Using opioid-related mortality data for a panel of 46 states observed from 1999 to 2015, the analysis suggests that a weighted combination of Maine (46.1%), Pennsylvania (34.4%), Nevada (5.4%), Washington (5.3%), West Virginia (4.3%) and Oklahoma (3.4%) best predicts the preintervention trajectory of opioid-related deaths in Florida between 1999 and 2009. Model specification and placebo tests, as well as an iterative leave-k-out sensitivity analysis are used as falsification tests. Results The results indicate that the policies have decreased the incidence of opioid-related deaths in Florida by roughly 40% (or -6.19 deaths per 100.000 person-years) by 2015 compared with the evolution projected by the synthetic control unit. Sensitivity analyses yield an average estimate of -4.55 deaths per 100.000 person-years (2.5th percentile: -1.24, 97.5th percentile: -7.92). The estimated cumulative effect in terms of deaths prevented in the postperiod is 3705 (2.5th percentile: 1302, 97.5th percentile: 6412). Discussion Recommendations for practice, future research and potential pitfalls, especially concerning low-count data, are discussed. Replication codes for Stata are provided.

  • 72.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Data-Driven Incidence Difference-In-Differences Estimators For Causal Inference With Aggregate Counts And Rates2018In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 24, p. A173-A173, article id PW 1200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Searching for causal effects of road traffic safety interventions: applications of the interrupted time series design2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic-related injuries represent a global public health problem, and contribute largely to mortality and years lived with disability worldwide. Over the course of the last decades, improvements to road traffic safety and injury surveillance systems have resulted in a shift in focus from the prevention of motor vehicle accidents to the control of injury events involving vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as cyclists and moped riders. There have been calls for improvements to the evaluation of safety interventions due to methodological problems associated with the most commonly used study designs. The purpose of this licentiate thesis was to assess the strengths and limitations of the interrupted time series (ITS) design, which has gained some attention for its ability to provide valid effect estimates. Two national road safety interventions involving VRUs were selected as cases: the Swedish bicycle helmet law for children under the age 15, and the tightening of licensing rules for Class 1 mopeds. The empirical results suggest that both interventions were effective in improving the safety of VRUs. Unless other concurrent events affect the treatment population at the exact time of intervention, the effect estimates should be internally valid. One of the main limitations of the study design is the inability to identify why the interventions were successful, especially if they are complex and multifaceted. A lack of reliable exposure data can also pose a further threat to studies of interventions involving VRUs if the intervention can affect the exposure itself. It may also be difficult to generalize the exact effect estimates to other regions and populations. Future studies should consider the use of the ITS design to enhance the internal validity of before-after measurements.

  • 74.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Injury risks in schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity or autismspectrumdisorder: Results from two school-based health surveys of 6- to 17-year-old children in Sweden2016In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 58, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Sweden and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has previously been associated with an increased risk of injury in pediatric populations elsewhere in the world. Current evidence regarding the possible link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and injury risk appears limited, even though some potentially risk-increasing symptoms overlap. The purpose of this study was thus to study the association between both ADHD and ASD concerning the risk of injury among Swedish schoolchildren. Methods: Two samples were used: a population based register study containing data from 18,416 children ranging from the ages of 6-17 years collected by school nurses during 2012/2014 (Survey A), and a national cross-sectional study of 3202 ninth-grade children (similar to 15 years old) collected from 92 schools in 2011 (Survey B). The data were analyzed using chi(2)-tests and log binomial generalized linear models to obtain risk ratios (RR), comparing cases reportedly affected by ADHD or ASD to unaffected controls. Results: After adjusting for confounders, ADHD was associated with a 65% increased risk of injury (RR 1.65 [95% CI: 132-2.05] in Survey A, and a 57% increased risk of injury (RR 1.57 [95% CI: 1.27-1.95]) in Survey B. ASD was not significantly associated with any differences in injury risk (RR 0.81 [95% CI: 0.57-1.14]). Conclusions: The results indicate that there is an elevated injury risk among Swedish schoolchildren with ADHD but not for children with ASD. Future studies should focus on causal mechanisms mediating the association between ADHD and injuries in order to facilitate injury prevention strategies. Practical applications: Parents and teachers of schoolchildren with ADHD should be made aware of the elevated injury risks associated with the diagnosis. Safety experts and injury control professionals should consider the development of specialized prevention strategies in order to reduce these risks.

  • 75.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Evidensbaserade åtgärder för cyklisters säkerhet: kunskapsöversikt2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att cykla förespråkas ofta av hälso-, miljö- och framkomlighetsskäl, men är samtidigt ett av de farligare transportmedlen utifrån ett skadeperspektiv. För att cyklismen ska kunna utvecklas hållbart krävs därmed även att fokus läggs på säkerhetsaspekten vid policybeslut som syftar till att öka cyklandet. Syftet med denna rapport är att återge en samlad bild av det vetenskapliga kunskapsläget när det gäller säkerhetsfrämjande åtgärder för cyklister.

    Cykelhjälmar är ett välbeforskat ämne inom detta område och evidensen pekar relativt entydigt att hjälmar ger ett bra skydd mot huvud- och hjärnskador. Vissa studier har även uppmätt en skyddande effekt mot ansiktsskador, men detta har på senare tid delvis ifrågasatts. En ytterligare aspekt som har belysts är om dagens mjukare cykelhjälmar ger ett lika bra skydd som hjälmar med hårdare skal, som var vanligare förr. Denna hypotes har hittills varken kunnat styrkas eller förkastas, bl a till följd av att man inte registrerar hjälmtyp inom sjukvården. Cykelhjälmslagstiftning är ett annat kontroversiellt ämne där det har hävdats att hjälmlagarna som infördes i Australien och Nya Zeeland på 1990-talet avskräckte människor från att cykla, med åtföljande negativ effekt på folkhälsan till flöjd av minskad motion. Ingen stark evidens för denna hypotes har hittats, och det verkar för övrigt som att cykelhjälmslagar har haft en reducerande effekt på antalet cykelrelaterade huvudskador i de länder som har lyckats implementera dem på ett sätt som faktiskt ökar hjälmanvändningen i populationen. Effekten förefaller dock kulturellt betingad, och skillnader i bötesavgift eller risken att bli bötfälld är troligtvis av stor betydelse. Utbildning och ekonomiska styrmedel kan fungera som alternativ till lagstiftning, men evidensen för att utbildning verkligen ökar hjälmanvändningen är svag. Gällande ekonomiska styrmedel pekar evidensen mot att gratis hjälmutdelning är det som fungerar bäst. Större satsningar på samhällsnivå verkar fungera bättre än hjälmprogram som inriktar sig på skolor.

    När det gäller åtgärder för trafikmiljön är evidensen inte helt entydig, men det verkar som att fysiskt separerade cykelbanor är att föredra framför cykelfält (ett fält för cyklister på vägen, avgränsas med en spärrlinje). Fysiskt separerade cykelbanor kan dock vara mer problematiska i väjningsreglerade korsningar, vilket kan bero på att bilister inte uppmärksammar cyklister på samma sätt som när ett cykelfält finns anlagt på sidan av vägbanan. Detta ökar behovet av säkra cykelöverfarter och när det gäller sådana förefaller förhöjda cykelöverfarter fungera bättre än färgmarkerade överfarter. Olycksrisken på kombinerade gång- och cykelvägar bör inte förväxlas med olycksrisken på cykelspecifika banor, och ytterligare forskning behövs för att avgöra effekten av kombinerade banor. Rondeller verkar vara problematiska för cyklister om det inte finns en fysiskt separerad cykelbana i anslutning till dem. Övriga åtgärder som har uppvisat en positiv effekt är belysning på landsbygdsvägar, refuger i bostadsområden och dynamiska hastighetsskyltar i skolzoner.

    Intressant nog ser det ut att finnas få studier som har försökt mäta effekten av synbarhetsökande medel (t.ex. reflexer) med tillförlitliga utvärderingsmått (skaderisk eller olycksrisk). Att montera varselljus på cykeln som går igång automatiskt och inte kan kontrolleras av cyklisten verkar dock minska risken för kollisionsolyckor under dagtid.

    Även allmän cykelsäkerhetsutbildning i skolar har undersökts. Av de få studier som använt tillförlitliga utvärderingsmått har ingen kunnat uppvisa en positiv effekt. Fler studier behövs för att bedöma effekten av sådana åtgärder innan utbildning kan rekommenderas med starkt vetenskapligt stöd.

  • 76.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Can the provision of a home help service for the elderly population reduce the incidence of fall-related injuries?2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, no Suppl.2, p. A181-A181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Fall-related injuries are a global public health problem, especially in elderly populations. In this study, the effect of an intervention aimed at reducing the risk of falls in the homes of community-dwelling elderly persons was evaluated. The intervention, which involves home hazards reduction by providing a minor home help service, is provided in the majority of Swedish municipalities.

    Methods Intention-to-treat effect estimates were derived using quasi-experimental time series intervention (ITS) analysis for immediate effects and a difference-in-discontinuity (RD) design for long term effects, and community-level estimates were pooled using meta-analysis. The outcome measure was the incidence of fall-related hospitalizations in the treatment population, the age of which varied by municipality (≥65 years, ≥67 years, ≥70 years or ≥75 years).

    Results We found no statistically significant reductions in injury incidence in the ITS (IRR 1.01 [95% CI: 0.98–1.05]) or RD (IRR 1.00 [95% CI: 0.97–1.03]) analyses. The results are robust to several different model specifications, including segmented panel regression analysis with linear trend change and community fixed effects parameters.

    Conclusions It is unclear whether absence of an effect is due to a low efficacy of the home hazards modifications provided, or a result of low utilisation. Additional studies of the effects on other quality of life measures are recommended before conclusions are drawn regarding the cost-effectiveness of the provision of home help services

  • 77.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Can the provision of a minor home help service for the elderly population reduce the incidence of fall-related injuries?: A quasi-experimental study of the community-level effects on hospital admissions in Swedish municipalities2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 412-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Fall-related injuries are a global public health problem, especially in elderly populations. The effect of an intervention aimed at reducing the risk of falls in the homes of community-dwelling elderly persons was evaluated. The intervention mainly involves the performance of complicated tasks and hazards assessment by a trained assessor, and has been adopted gradually over the last decade by 191 of 290 Swedish municipalities.   

    Methods

    A quasi-experimental design was used where intention-to-treat effect estimates were derived using panel regression analysis and a regression-discontinuity (RD) design. The outcome measure was the incidence of fall-related hospitalizations in the treatment population, the age of which varied by municipality (≥65 years, ≥67 years, ≥70 years or ≥75 years).

    Results

    We found no statistically significant reductions in injury incidence in the panel regression (IRR 1.01 [95% CI: 0.98-1.05]) or RD (IRR 1.00 [95% CI: 0.97-1.03]) analyses. The results are robust to several different model specifications, including segmented panel regression analysis with linear trend change and community fixed effects parameters.

    Conclusions

    It is unclear whether the absence of an effect is due to a low efficacy of the services provided, or a result of low adherence. Additional studies of the effects on other quality of life measures are recommended before conclusions are drawn regarding the cost-effectiveness of the provision of home help service programs.

  • 78.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    The Effects of Bicycle Helmets and Helmet Legislation on the Severity of Children’s Head InjuriesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Norwegian Social Research (NOVA), Oslo, Norway.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Are fire safe cigarettes actually fire safe?: Evidence from changes in US state laws2018In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 193-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of fire safe cigarette laws on fire mortality and cigarette-related fires in the USA.

    METHODS: We examined the gradual implementation of the laws to identify their average effects, using difference-in-differences analysis to account for common year effects, time-invariant state effects, state-specific trends and observable time-varying state-level covariates.

    RESULTS: We found no statistically significant effects on all-cause fire mortality, residential fire mortality or cigarette-caused fire rates. The estimates for cigarette-caused fire deaths were significant under some specifications, but were not robust to the inclusion of state-specific trends or comparisons to effects on other cause-determined fires.

    CONCLUSIONS: Given the mixed state of our results, we conclude that previous claims regarding the effects of fire safe cigarette laws may be premature.

  • 80.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Podesta, Fredrica
    FBK-IRVAPP, Trento, Italy.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Sahlgrenska Göteborg.
    Universities as engines for regional growth?: Using the synthetic control method to analyze the effects of research universities2016In: Regional Science and Urban Economics, ISSN 0166-0462, E-ISSN 1879-2308, Vol. 60, p. 198-207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Does gender moderate the association between intellectual ability and accidental injuries?: Evidence from the 1953 Stockholm Birth Cohort study2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 106, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Funktionsnedsättningar som riskfaktor för olycksfall och andra skador.2014Report (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Sociodemografiska skillnader i risken för bostadsbrand, prevalens av brandskydd i hemmet och hantering av bränder: En analys av nationella enkäter 2001, 2005 och 20082017Report (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    The effect of the Swedish bicycle helmet law for children: An interrupted time series study2014In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 51, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous population-based research has shown that bicycle helmet laws can reduce head injury rates among cyclists. According to deterrence theory, such laws are mainly effective if there is a high likelihood of being apprehended. In this study, we investigated the effect of the Swedish helmet law for children under the age of 15, a population that cannot be fined. Method  An interrupted time series design was used. Monthly inpatient data on injured cyclists from 1998–2012, stratified by age (0–14, 15 +), sex, and injury diagnosis, was obtained from the National Patient Register. The main outcome measure was the proportion of head injury admissions per month. Intervention effect estimates were obtained using generalized autoregressive moving average (GARMA) models. Pre-legislation trend and seasonality was adjusted for, and differences-in-differences estimation was obtained using adults as a non-equivalent control group. Results There was a statistically significant intervention effect among male children, where the proportion of head injuries dropped by 7.8 percentage points. There was no evidence of an intervention effect on the proportion of head injuries among female children. Conclusion According to hospital admission data, the bicycle helmet law appears to have had an effect only on male children.

  • 85.
    Borg, Carola
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    The gap between the curriculum and teachers knowledge of sustainable development2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Borg, Carola
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Subject- and experience-bound differences in teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development2014In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 526-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describe the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers’ understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable development. According to the Swedish curriculum all teachers in all subjects should integrate a holistic perspective of sustainable development including economic, ecological and social dimensions. This study shows that teachers differ in their understanding of the concept mostly according to their subject traditions. Social science teachers emphasize social dimensions, and science teachers’ ecological dimensions, respectively. Teachers are aware of the relevance of the three dimensions to various degrees, but do not generally have a holistic understanding. The greatest uncertainty in teachers’ understanding is related to the economic dimension. Science and social science teachers are critical of incorporating economic growth into the concept of sustainable development while language, vocational and esthetical-practical teachers are not. No experience-bound differences of the teachers’ understanding could be found, but recently qualified teachers consider their understanding of sustainable development to be poorer in comparison to more experienced teachers’ self-evaluation. The study highlights the need for further training in sustainable development since more than 70 % of the questioned teachers stated that they need such training.

  • 87.
    Borg, Farhana
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Concrete Examples of Education for Sustainability Practices in Preschool in Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To integrate education for sustainability (EfS) in pedagogical practices is often described as complex and challenging by teachers at preschool to higher education levels. Teachers’ lack of competence in teaching EfS or inspiring examples from educational practices have been identified as some major reasons for this (Borg, Gericke, Höglund, & Bergman, 2012; Corney, 2006; Hedefalk, Almqvist & Östman, 2015). The intention with EfS is to empower learners ‘to take informed decisions and responsible actions for environmental integrity, economic viability and a just society, for present and future generations, while respecting cultural diversity’ (UNESCO, 2019). In early childhood education, a main starting point in EfS is building on children’s participation, and viewing them as active agents and stakeholders for the future (Gothenburg Environmental Centre, 2010). Despite an increase in integrating EfS in preschools in Sweden, there are teachers that do not fully acknowledge children as active citizens who are capable of being involved in activities that bring changes in society (Ärlemalm-Hagsér, 2013).

    Preschool teachers play a significant role in developing young children’s verbal and practical knowledge about environmental and sustainability-related issues through engaging them in conversations, discussions, and in practical activities (Borg, 2017). According to Pramling Samuelsson (2011, p. 110) an important factor for developing children’s competence in EfS is ‘the teacher’s competence and understanding of the questions as such related to young children’s everyday life’. However, only a few studies have been conducted to explore how teachers integrated EfS in preschool education (e.g. Svedäng, Halvars, Elfström, & Unga, 2018). Knowledge operationalization of EfS is needed for teachers to identify practical and proven examples of how to integrate EfS in their daily pedagogical practices.  

    Aim and objectives

    The purpose of this study was to highlight preschool teachers’ operationalization of education for sustainability (EfS) in their daily pedagogical practices in Sweden. The objectives were:

    • to explore teachers’ sustainability awareness in preschool education; and
    • to investigate how teachers integrate EfS in their daily pedagogical activities

    In this paper, ‘sustainability awareness’ refers to what teachers describe about what they know and how they view of sustainability in relation to preschool education from their personal perspectives. In Sweden, preschool education refers to early childhood education for children, who are below six years old.

    In Sweden, a new curriculum for preschool education will be effective from July 2019 (Skolverket, 2018), in which a number of changes compared with the previous curriculum have been made, e.g., the concept sustainably is explicitly mentioned for the first time in relation to preschool education and children’s learning. The new curriculum states that each person that works in preschool shall promote respect for individual’s intrinsic value and for sustainability.

    Conceptual framework

    Children are active participants in learning, and the involvement of adults and knowledgeable peers can make a great difference in the learning process (Bruner, 1966). Bruner (1960, 1977) argues that a child of any age is capable of understanding complex information; even very young children are capable of learning any material if the instruction is organized appropriately. Considering the complexity of the concept of sustainability, the study uses an interlocking circles model that depicts how the environmental, the social and the environmental dimensions are closely connected (Elliott, 2013). Any practices and policies developed without taking all dimensions into account are likely to provide only limited understanding of the sustainability concept and is less likely to lead to action (Siraj-Blatchford, Smith, & Samuelsson, 2010). With regard to EfS, the challenges are not only to operationalize these sustainability dimensions for preschool’s pedagogical practices, but there is a great need to concretize EfS with examples that are connected with children’s daily life.

    Method

    This study was part of a larger EfS-school development project, which was developed with practitioners to provide support for teacher professional development (TPD) in a municipality in Sweden. A qualitative approach was utilized to acquire an in-depth understanding of preschool teachers’ sustainability awareness, and their ways of operationalizing the EfS for day-today activities. The study was conducted between April and May 2018. A description of Participants and data collection, and Data analysis is given below. Participants and data collection Individual interview data were collected from 12 certified preschool teachers, who were employed in 8 preschools that participated in the EfS-school development project for a year. The preschool teachers were all women with working experiences with young children ranging from 6 to 33 years. Although 10 preschools participated in the EfS-school development project, two of them could not participate in the study due to other commitments. An interview guide was developed that included questions concerning demographic information, teacher’s definition and views of the concept of sustainability and EfS, their experiences of working with EfS with practical examples, as well as any challenges they might have experienced to integrate EfS in preschool education. Conducted in Swedish, the interviews were audio recorded and fully transcribed by a professional transcriber. Data analysis Content analysis was undertaken to analyse the interview transcriptions to identify main contents of data and the messages (Cohen, Manion, & Morisson, 2011). The transcriptions were read and re-read in order to become thoroughly familiarized with the data and initial codes were noted concurrently. Any similarities, inconsistencies or contradictions in relation to what individual teachers informed, were noted for further exploration. In later stages of the analysis, some of the codes were modified while re-reading the transcriptions to ensure consistencies and coverage of the codes. Similar types of codes were categorized and from these categories major themes emerged. To ensure reliability, the coding started with a small sample of texts, which helps to make amendments of the coding and categorisation. This study followed the codes and guidelines of research ethics in relation to informed consents of the participants, maintenance of confidentiality, and the use of information for the study (Vetenskapsrådet, 2017).

    Expected Outcomes

    Regarding sustainability awareness, most of the teachers reported an Integrated views of sustainability. All participants were capable of describing sustainability using the three interconnected dimensions: the environmental, the social and the economic. In general, all teachers viewed sustainability as an abstract and complex concept, which can be difficult to make apprehensible in preschool’s educational activities. The preliminary findings of how the teachers integrate EfS in their daily pedagogical activities are presented under emerging themes below: Environmental dimensions on focus: Common activities in all preschools were recycling of plastic materials, reusing of milk packets and plastic corks, as well as composting of leftover food. Going out in the nature appeared to be a routine for all preschools. Concrete examples for young children: A few teachers argued that working with young children with EfS, requires efforts to concretize various activities at children’s developmental levels. In general the teachers were lacking concrete ways of working with EfS; especially to integrate the social and economic dimension. Internationalization and global perspectives: A couple of preschools started integrating global perspectives, e.g. one teacher mentioned that they had a collaboration with a preschool in Canada, and, according to her, it is important that children get a wider perspective about other countries, languages and cultures, which she viewed as a part of social sustainability. Some of the teachers connected their educational practices with the preschool curriculum highlighting the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) that address the ‘areas of critical importance for humanity and the planet’ (United Nations, 2015, p.1). To summarize the main findings, it seemed that the current TPD had, to greater extent, impact on transforming teachers’ views of sustainability into a holistic concept, and they were also struggling to transform their knowledge into concrete pedagogical activities. Positive and unexpected activities though evolved in relation to globalization.

  • 88.
    Borgiel, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    En studie för att kontrollera känsligheten av primers för lake (Lota lota), lax (Salmo salar) och öring (Salmo trutta)2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    eDNA is a fast and popular method to collect information about species presence in the environment. eDNA is DNA that is collected from environmental samples, such as water, from DNA that is expelled from organisms interacting with their environment. eDNA is an effective way to find species with small populations and alien species. There are two ways to analyze eDNA, with high-throughput DNA sequencing methods and DNA metabarcoding or use of species-specific primers and PCR. In this study, we focus on the latter, designing species-specific primers for Burbot, Brown trout, and Atlantic Salmon, testing their validity in detecting eDNA of these species with functional PCR. We also evaluated eDNA collection methods, testing different scenarios in aquarium tanks with different number of dead and alive fishes. Primers and experimental setup such as use of different temperatures of the PCR reaction used in this study didn’t result in a functional PCR as determined by electrophoresis gel. There are some problems with the design of the PCR methods for eDNA since the purpose is to design methods that can identify certain species. However, future development of eDNA methods will probably include sequencing and not detection of PCR product sizes. eDNA methods will complete traditional trapping methods like net and electrofishing, but not replace them.

  • 89.
    Borjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Strategy and Leadership, Swedish Defence University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Davis, Paul
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden..
    Flotation REST as a Stress Reduction Method: The Effects on Anxiety, Muscle Tension, and Performance2018In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SPORT PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 333-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of flotation REST upon skilled and less skilled golfers' anxiety in terms of physiological indicators of stress, self-rated anxiety scores, muscle tension, and the effect on golf putting. Prior to performing the putting task participants underwent a treatment of flotation REST or a period of resting in an armchair. Participants completed both treatments in a randomized order with a two-week interval. The results showed that both flotation REST and the armchair treatment reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no differences between treatments or athlete skill levels. No significant differences between treatments were revealed regarding self-ratings, level of muscle tension or putting precision. The results indicate that flotation REST may be useful for reducing negative symptoms related to stress and anxiety in general; however, no support for direct positive effects on golf performance were found.

  • 90.
    Brink, Helen
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Teaching modelling using digital tools in secondary technology education: Teachers’ experiences2019In: Proceedings PATT37: Developing a knowledge economy through technology and engineering education / [ed] S. Pulé and M. de Vries, 2019, p. 95-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models can be used for communicating and for sharing information. In technology education in Swedish compulsory school, pupils have long created models using simple materials to test their designs, such as cardboard and wooden sticks. Models have also been used by teachers to assess pupils’ technology knowledge in particular areas (Elmer & Davies, 2000). We live in a world where technology is highly developed, where digital technology plays an important role and where models are created in digital environments (Kress, 2010). Technology as a school subject undergoes the same development, which can be seen in the technology syllabus (Skolverket, 2011). However, there is a lack of research on technology teachers’ experiences of teaching modelling using digital tools. According to previous research, teachers’ experiences of a phenomenon (Marton & Tsui, 2004) along with their pedagogical and technological knowledge (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) affect how they plan their lessons. The aim of this pilot study is therefore to examine secondary school teachers’ experiences of teaching modelling using digital tools, thereby contributing to understanding this area of technology education. The study takes a phenomenographic approach (Marton & Booth, 1997) and is based on semi-structured interviews with teachers. The interviews are analyzed, focusing on how technology teachers experience teaching modelling using digital tools. Their different experiences are divided into categories. So far, four categories have been identified: a) Modelling using digital tools as inspiration, b) Handling the modelling software as the object of learning, c) Handling 3D printing as the object of learning and d) Modelling for teaching technological content. A tentative result is that teachers have different aims and purposes when teaching modelling using digital tools.

  • 91.
    Bruhagen, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Integrering av risk- och sårbarhetsanalys och klimatanpassning i fysisk planering: En kvalitativ fallstudie av Bergen kommune2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades Risk and vulnerability analysis and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) have gained focus in the public arena. Science have been directed towards how public actors run, plan, and work with Risk and vulnerability analysis, CCA, and climate change(Granberg & Elander, 2007; Hjerpe & Glaas, 2012; Storbjörk, 2007).Local authorities both in Sweden and Norway are obligated to carry out risk and vulnerability analyses. These analyses often make suggestions for actions that may reduce vulnarability for the risks identified by the analysis, as well as increase the organizations’ ability to cope. In many cases, theses actions involves several departments within or between actors at the local level, which contributes to emphasize the need to integrate the result of the analyses in all activities at the local level. Spatial planning is an important tool to adapt society towards different or new types of risks, often intertwined with the consequences of a different climate. All stages in the process of planning and building and spatial planning must collaborate with other sectors within the organizations in order to contribute to building a society with a holistic perspective.When risk and vulnerability analysis and CCA are integrated in local descision-making processes, significant barriers may occur. Authorities are often seen as key factors both to create, but also to to identify and desolve these barriers. Institutional challenges during the integration and adaptation process often occur.Different tools and guides have been developed to systematically analyze barriers that may affect the adaptation process. By using such a guide, Wamsler’s ”Integration of climate change adaptation in local management and planning – a guide”, a case study is made on Bergen kommune’s integration of risk and vulnerability analysis and CCA in spatial planning processes. The integration process is analyzed by help of a guide. The application of such guides and its use are then discussed.The study concludes that Bergen kommune has come a long way in its integration process, based on the criterias presented in Wamsler’s guide. The process focuses around the integration of risks and vulnerabilities in an instrument developed by the department of spacial planning which is constituted by an interactive map of the municipalities’ area and physical environment. This instrument seems to meet the demands made by Norwegian authorities on integrating risk and vulnerability analysis and CCA well. There were no barriers identified in the process by the use of Wamsler’s guide, however, there emerged signs of possible barriers through the interviews made with employees for this study. These barriers seem to exist within the division of responsibilities and collaboration within different organizational units of the municipality.The study supports earlier research which confirms that there are challenges with using these types of tools and guides to analyze integration and adaptation processes. A clear aim and a background to what the tool or guide is meant to do and why, as well as help and guidance to handle barriers identified in the process of analyzing, are crucial for how well the guide can be of help for an organization going through a process of adaptation and integration.

  • 92.
    Burman, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Att vara efterklok på förhand: En kvalitativ studie om hur man ser på krisplaner inom den privata sektorn2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kriser och allvarliga händelser sker på svenska företag varje år. Krisplanernas förekomst inom privata företag är låg jämfört med den offentliga sektorn, vilket kan medföra att kriberedskapen hos privata företag inte är så god som den skulle kunna vara. Syftet med denna studie är att fånga uppfattningen av hur man på olika nivåer i privata företag beskriver förekomst, användande och implementering av krisplaner. De roller som studien undersöker är chef, mellanchef samt medarbetare. Totalt har sju stycken kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts och analyserats utifrån innehållsanalys med meningsbärande enheter, koder och kategorier. Resultatet i studien visar att användning och framkomst av krisplaner skiljer sig mellan företagen. Den största skillnaden syns dock utifrån företagets storlek och antal anställda, då bland annat ekonomi och juridik styr prioritering av säkerhetsarbetet. Även företagets risknivåer påverkar inställningen till att arbeta med krisplaner, då vissa branscher ses som mer skadedrabbade än andra.

  • 93.
    Burman, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Plötsligt händer det: En kvalitativ studie om krishantering inom den privata sektorn2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dödsfall, arbetsplatsolyckor, hot och våld. Alla är de exempel på kriser som inträffar på svenska företag varje år. Dessa händelser ställer krav på att företagen har en organisation och struktur för att klara av att hantera kriserna och för att minska verkningarna av dem. Krishantering är ett samlingsbegrepp för hur man systematiskt arbetar för att minska krisens omfattning, både före, under och efter att den har inträffat. Syftet med att använda krishantering är att företagen skall kunna förebygga att allvarliga händelser inträffar och att hantera dem på ett effektivt sätt.

      Ungefär sju av tio svenska företag har idag etablerad krisberedskap som gör att de klarar av att hantera kriser och olyckor, men lagstiftningen ställer krav att alla företag skall planera och organisera krisstöd och krishantering oavsett verksamhetsområde och bransch.

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur chefer i privata företag beskriver krishantering inom sina verksamheter och hur man ser på prioritering av krishanteringen. Studien undersöker även huruvida det anses viktigt med utbildning för att skapa förutsättningar för att bedriva ett gott krishanteringsarbete. Totalt har fyra stycken kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts med chefer i privata företag och organisationer. Intervjuerna har sedan analyserats utifrån innehållsanalys med meningsbärande enheter, koder, kategorier samt underkategorier.

     Resultatet i studien påvisar stora skillnader mellan större och mindre företag, där de större företagen har etablerade krisorganisationer med rutiner och arbetssätt som gör att de på ett effektivt sätt kan hantera allvarliga händelser. De mindre företagen saknar krisberedskap helt och hållet och saknar många gånger information och kunskap om hur de skall tolka och applicera lagtext på området.

  • 94.
    Bäckström, Morgan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Insamling av höjddata med UAV: En jämförelse mellan laserskanning, GNSS och UAV2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to compare elevation data, from UAV photo, with NRTK, trigonometric leveling and airborne laser scanning. The concrete issues to investigate were:

    • What quality is achieved by data acquisition using UAV, compared to laser scanning and terrestrial measurement with NRTK? • How much does different flight altitudes affect the result?

    The aerial photos were taken at 60 and 120 meters above ground, using seven flight support points and four ground control points. Those were measured with NRTK and terrestrial measurement. Collected images have been processed, with Agisoft Photoscan 1.4.2, into models in which coordinates are retrieved for comparison. The coordinates were compared and showed a deviation of 24 to 76 millimeters which is an acceptable result for a HMK standard level 2.

  • 95. Cafaro, Philip
    et al.
    Butler, Tom
    Crist, Eileen
    Cryer, Paul
    Dinerstein, Eric
    Kopnina, Helen
    Noss, Reed
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Taylor, Bron
    Vynne, Carly
    Washington, Haydn
    If we want a whole Earth, Nature Needs Half: a response to Buscher et al.2017In: Oryx, ISSN 0030-6053, E-ISSN 1365-3008, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 400-400Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Evaluation of nature-like fishways for re-establishing connectivity in fragmented salmonid populations in the River Emån2005In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 951-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the function of two nature-like fishways for re-establishing connectivity for anadromous salmonids in the regulated River Eman. Between 90 and 100% of the salmonids that entered the fishways actually passed through them, with median speeds of 180-190 m h(-1). Only 50% of the anadromous brown trout that passed the first fishway also passed the second one, indicating that the fish might have had problems locating the upstream fishway. The fishways were also observed to function as a passage for downstream post-spawning migrants. The densities of brown trout yearlings upstream of the fishways were higher in 2002, after the fishways were built, than during pre-fishway years. In control sites in other parts of the river as well as in a nearby river, no changes in yearling densities were observed. Thus, the fishways are working for upstream spawners, albeit at a recolonization rate that is slower than expected. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  • 97.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Griffioen, Ben
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Winter, Erwin
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fish Migration River Monitoring Plan2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish have problems passing the Afsluitdijk Dam that separates the Wadden Sea from Lake IJsselmeer. To re-establish the connectivity and thereby allow fish to pass there is an initiative to build a fishway, the Fish Migration River (FMR), at the Konwerderzand sluice complex. This report proposes a monitoring program to evaluate the functionality of the FMR, but also to monitor passage possibilities through the existing sluices. The goals of the monitoring plan are to estimate 1) The overall passage past the Afsluitdijk dam to and from Lake IJsselmeer, 2) The attraction efficiency, 3) The passage efficiency, and 4) The use of the FMR as habitat and for acclimatization for the transition into freshwater.

    We present an overview of previous and ongoing monitoring in the area to establish the current state of knowledge. The report also includes a presentation of available and suitable methods for a future monitoring program considering the broad spectra of target fish species, and their abundances. The proposed program includes a description of study design and available techniques and cost-estimates of the monitoring program.

    The proposed program will target ten species: European eel (aal), flounder (bot), three-spined stickleback (dreidoornige stekelbaars), twait shad (fint), North Sea houting (houting), river lamprey (rieverprik), smelt (spiering), Atlantic salmon (zalm), brown trout (forel) and sea lamprey (zeeprik). The monitoring program includes plans for how to capture, tag and track the study fish using the most suitable tagging techniques. Furthermore, the most optimal sites for installation of automatic data detection stations are identified.

    The total cost for the proposed project is 3.5 M€ and covers both investments in equipment and costs for personnel. However, if costs for investments in techniques such as RFId-stations and fish counters are excluded, the total cost is reduced to 1 M€ for a program running two years before and four years after the completion of the FMR. The program is considered sufficient to evaluate the FMR at Kornwerederzand from the most important perspectives: the overall passage efficiency and the use of the FMR as habitat.

    It should be noted that this report is the first step towards a full-scale monitoring program, giving insight into possible methods, study design and associated costs. The next important step will be to develop the program in more detail and to start the initial phase of the monitoring project. We predict that such activities will identify the need for, and the relevance of, a more extensive monitoring program to study the effects of the FMR on a population level and on a large geographical scale.

  • 98.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Peter
    Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Gullberg, Karl
    Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Återställande av fiskvandring i Gästrikland: Fisksamhällen, kraftverk och åtgärders potential och kostnadseffektivitet i Gavleån2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många vattendrag i Europa är påverkade av mänskliga aktiviteter som jordbruk, skogsbruk, vattenkraft och annan industriell verksamhet. Vattenkraftens effekter på vandrande fiskarter har varit kända sedan länge och man har arbetat med fiskvägar för uppströmspassage i flera hundra år. Ett problem som då inte beaktats är att fisken både måste ha tillgång till habitat för reproduktion och uppväxt, samt att de även måste kunna passera samma vandringshinder vid nedströmsvandringen. Modern rehabilitering av reglerade vattendrag beaktar dock både fiskens behov av fria vandringsvägar och tillgång på lämpligt habitat.

    Budgeten för åtgärdsarbetet är oftast begränsad och man behöver därför prioritera. Dessutom kan åtgärdsarbetet ta lång tid och det är därför angeläget att börja med de objekt som är speciellt angelägna. Det är inte alltid självklart hur en sådan prioritering skall ske och för att ordningen för åtgärdsarbetet ska vara tydlig och arbetet kunna utföras kostnadseffektivt kan det vara till stor hjälp att använda någon form av verktyg. Det är dock viktigt att välja rätt verktyg och vid valkriterierna bör man beakta hur verktyget värderar och prioriterar åtgärdsnyttan. Slutligen kommer ett sådant verktyg alltid vara en förenkling av verkligheten och man bör således låta det utgöra en del av ett beslutsunderlag som kompletteras med annan information.

    Gavleån ligger i Gästrikland och dess huvudfåra utgörs av en 30 km lång sträcka med 62 meters fallhöjd mellan Storsjön och mynningen i Bottenhavet. Det finns åtta kraftverk längs denna sträcka, men inga fiskpassager. Därför är i dag bara de nedersta 2 km av ån tillgängliga för fiskarter som vandrar upp från havet för reproduktion, tillväxt och övervintring. Större delen av strömsträckorna i Gavleåns huvudfåra är indämda av kraftverken och ån har länge ansetts ha låga naturvärden. I takt med att den allmänna miljömedvetenheten har ökat och ny lagstiftning som Ramdirektivet för vatten (2000/60/EG) och Ålförordningen (1100⁄2007⁄EC) har ställt högre krav på rehabilitering av påverkade vattendrag har dock även Gavleåns potential diskuterats. Till följd av detta har ägaren av de flesta kraftverken i Gavleån, Gävle Kraftvärme AB, tillsammans med Länsstyrelsen i Gävleborg, Gävle kommun och Naturskyddsföreningen beslutat att utreda åtgärdspotentialen för Gavleån inom ramen för projektet ”Återställande av fiskvandring i Gästrikland”. Utredningen består i en fiskeribiologisk och teknisk analys av problemen för migrationsberoende fauna och dess biologiska situation i dag, samt vilka mål som kan uppnås om de rätta åtgärderna tas. Grundläggande frågor som projektet försökt besvara är ”Vilka åtgärder behövs för att rehabilitera Gavleån för vandrande fiskarter, var gör åtgärder god naturvårdsnytta och kan kostnads- och energismarta lösningar implementeras som inte äventyrar vattenkraftsproduktionen?”

    Gavleån och dess biflödens morfologiska status och fisksamhällenas sammansättning har inventerats och redovisas i delrapporten ”Återställande av fiskvandring i Gästrikland - Fisksamhällen, habitattillgång och rehabiliteringspotential i Gavleån”. Innevarande rapport utgör den andra delrapporten och sätter resultaten från provfisken och biotopkarteringen i ett åtgärdssammanhang och värderar åtgärdsnyttan med hjälp av olika prioriteringsverktyg. Slutligen används detta underlag för att rekommendera åtgärdsprogram som syftar till att långsiktigt och hållbart förvalta Gavleåns värden från såväl biologiska, samhällsekonomiska, sociala och kulturella perspektiv utan att allvarligt försämra förutsättningen för vattenkraftproduktion vid åns kraftverk.

    I ett första steg har vi bedömt vilka möjligheter som finns till att återskapa uppströms- och nedströmspassage för fisk vid kraftverken. Dessutom har dagens habitattillgång utretts och potentialen för habitatrestaurering värderats. I nästa steg har resultaten från biotopkartering och provfisken använts för att med hjälp av modeller och prioriteringsverktyg analysera vilken effekt åtgärderna förväntas ha på fiskbestånden. Detta har först studerats för hela fisksamhället utifrån tillgång och lokalisering av strömmande habitat samt förekommande fiskarters vandringsbenägenhet, skyddsvärde och kraftverkens fallhöjd som ett grovt mått på åtgärdens komplexitet och därtill hörande åtgärdskostnad. Därefter har en liknande analys på åtgärdsnyttan genomförts för Gavleåns havsöringspopulation, där resultatet presenteras i form av förväntat antal återvändande havsöringhonor till de olika delsträckorna förutsatt att både uppströms- och nedströmspassage åtgärdas. Slutligen testades två scenarier grundat på dagens habitattillgång respektive motsvarande tillgång efter en omfattande habitatrestaurering.

    Prioriteringsverktygen och resultaten från provfisken och bitopkartering visar främst att åtgärdsnyttan för vandrande strömlevande fiskarter är störst vid kraftverken i Gavleåns nedre och övre delar, eftersom det är här det i dag finns skyddsvärda fiskarter samt kvarvarande strömmande habitat, som dock är i stort behov av biotopåterställning. Troligen har det historiskt sett aldrig funnits möjlighet till fiskvandring längre än till de första strida strömsträckorna med fallhöjd i nedre Gavleån för svagsimmande arter, och endast lax, havsöring, nejonöga och ål har nått längre i ån. Det finns inte belagt att lax eller havsöring nått högre upp i Gavleån än strax uppströms Mackmyra-området.

    I mitten av ån saknas i dag såväl strömmande habitat som skyddsvärda fiskarter. De historiska strömsträckorna är idag stort sett överdämda av dammar i denna del av Gavleån. Dessutom har kraftverken där störst fallhöjd och produktion, vilket i kombination med svårigheter att anlägga åtgärder gör att dessa får en låg prioritet. Vi har utifrån dessa resultat identifierat två prioriterade åtgärdspaket.

    Högst åtgärdsprioritet får Gavleåns nedre delar på sträckan från havet till Tolvfors kraftverk, dvs. återskapad uppströms- och nedströmspassage vid Strömsborgs och Strömdalens kraftverk. Åluppsamlingen av från havet uppvandrande ålyngel måste ske med bästa i dag tillgängliga teknik (BAT), vilket efter att fiskvägar anlagts vid Strömsborg och Strödalen lämpligen sker vid Tolvfors kraaftverk.

    Dessutom behövs habitatrestaurering längs hela sträckan inklusive torrfåran vid Tolvfors kraftverk. För att åtgärderna vid Strömsborgs och Strömdalens kraftverk ska få maximal effekt behöver ett omfattande återställningsarbete ske också av biflödet Kungsbäcken. Fokus för åtgärdsarbetet i detta område ligger på diadroma arter som vandrar upp i Gavleån från havet för reproduktion, födosök samt övervintring, t.ex. ål, lax, flodnejonöga, öring och sik.

    Näst högst åtgärdsprioritet får Gavleåns övre delar på sträckan från Åbyfors kraftverk till Storsjön, vilket innebär passagefrämjande åtgärder och habitatrestaurering vid dammen i norra fåran vid Hälleströmmens kraftverk och vid Forsbacka kraftverk. För att åtgärderna vid Hälleströmsdammen och Forsbacka kraftverk ska få maximal effekt behöver ett omfattande återställningsarbete ske av norra fåran vid Mackmyra (av vissa kallad Hälleströmmen) samt i Spikåsbäcken som mynnar nedströms Mackmyra kraftverk. Sannolikt behövs även en åtgärd för nedströmspassage från Hälleströmmens kraftverk till Hälleströmmen. Fokus för åtgärdsarbetet i detta område ligger på potamodroma arter som vandrar mellan Gavleån, Hälleströmmen och Spikåsbäcken, samt arter som vandrar till och från Storsjön, t.ex. ål, öring, lake, harr och gös. Speciellt högt prioriterad är den blankål som vandrar ut från Storsjön och som bör samlas in vid Forsbacka kraftverk för transport nedströms förbi de övriga sju kraftverken. Inga passagefrämjande åtgärder bedöms således i dag vara motiverade vid Tolvfors, Prästforsen, Åbyfors och Mackmyra kraftverk, medan endast en nedströmspassage behövs vid Hälleströmmens kraftverk.

    Arbetet att ta fram ett beslutsunderlag för åtgärdsarbete kan vara omfattande, men väger man denna kostnad mot kostnaderna för att genomföra åtgärder utan att veta om något åtgärdsbehov finns, hur åtgärderna bör utformas och var de ger störst nytta, är det välinvesterade pengar. I åtgärdsarbetet som helhet utgör kostnader för förstudie och uppföljning en liten andel, i synnerhet om man tar i beaktande kostnader för felaktigt utformade och placerade i åtgärder i avsaknad av beslutsunderlag. I framtiden kommer väl genomförda åtgärdsprojekt öka acceptansen både för naturvård och vattenkraft.

  • 99.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Karlsson, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Tielman, Johan
    E.ON Vattenkraft.
    Improving downstream passage conditions for fish at hydroelectric facilities in Sweden2012In: From sea to source: International guidance for restoration of fish migration highways / [ed] Gough, P., Veendam ,The Netherlands: Hunze and Aa’s Regional Water Authority , 2012, p. 184-185Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 100.
    Carlsson, Niclas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Låglutande galler och betydelsen av spaltvidd för passageeffektivitet och beteende hos nedströmsvandrande Europeisk ål (Anguilla anguilla)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980s, there has been a steep decline in the population of European eel (Anguilla anguilla). The decline can partly be explained by obstructed migration routes in rivers caused by dams and hydroelectric power plants (HEP). For downstream migrating eels, passing HEPs is usually associated with migration delay, as well as high risk of injury and mortality when eels are impinged on the rack or pass through the turbines. Low-sloping racks has been suggested to have high potential for diverting eels mechanically to safer passage routes. These low-sloping racks can either guide fish vertically (α-racks) or laterally (β-racks). In autumn 2018, I conducted a study using European eel to test the performance of low-sloping α- and β-racks (30 ° angle) with two different bar spacings (15 and 30 mm) in a flume (width=4 m, depth=2m and length=24m) with a water velocity at 0,7 m/s. All tested racks had a fish guidance efficiency (FGE) >80% for guiding downstream migrating eel to an adjacent bypass, a catch efficiency between 30 and 90%. Passage time through the bypass was for > 50 % of the eels < 1 h. The results demonstrate that low-sloping racks has high diverting functionality for downstream migrating eels, in particular at relatively low water velocities. The results also indicate that low-sloping racks, in addition to function as a physical barrier, act as behavioral guidance. This behavioral guidance effect of the low-sloping racks potentially results in high diverting performance also for 30 mm bar spacings, although eels can physically pass through the rack, and are especially of interest when upscaling the technique at bigger facilities.

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