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  • 51.
    Dahlheim, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Att lära sig är att spela: En intervjustudie av elbaslärares val av innehåll i nybörjarundervisning2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is, in relation to the activity ideas/plans of community schools of music and art, to gain insight into the electric bass teachers approach to what is important for beginners to learn. From this view, the intention is to try to understand which lesson content is prioritized in the teaching of beginners, why they chose to focus on these and their views on possible regulatory documents for each workplace. In my survey I have conducted qualitative interviews with four bass guitar teachers from various community schools of music and art. Work is based on theories of the emergence of community schools of music, the educational traditions that shaped them and the sociocultural perspective on learning.

     

    The results show that the main driving force of beginners teaching for bass guitar students is desire, joy and experiences – which is in line with much of the trends covered in research on community schools of music and art and their activity plans in recent years.

     

    In the discussion section the views on what informants thinks is important for beginners to learn is discussed in relation to the traditions, ideas and values according to previous research which determines how the lessons are shaped. In addition to this the music teacher's attitudes and relations to current regulatory documents at their respective workplace is discussed.

  • 52.
    Dahlqvist, Mathias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Ingesund Acedemy of Music.
    Musik och Motorik: En intervjustudie om lärares uppfattningar om musik och motorik i brassundervisning på kulturskolan2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to find out how the teachers' look at motor problems, how informed they are about pupils difficulties and how they handle motor skill problems that may arise in instrumental teaching. The background chapter presents motor skill aspects, previous studies about the subject and the study's theoretical starting points.

    The research method used in this study is the qualitative interview. I have interviewed four teachers who work with brass pupils. The interviews have been transcribed, processed, analyzed and the answers came to constitute the study's results. The result describes how teachers' learn about motor problems and how they handle them. It turns out that they hardly ever get any information. The teachers have different approaches from each other. There are two distinct methods: Task -specific training where the teachers practice the students on a specific problem and the holistic approach, which is about gross motor training. The discussion compares the teachers’ responses to the motor skill aspects, research questions and the theoretical perspectives that I have chosen. I put the teachers approaches against each other, pointing out the differences between their methods. 

  • 53.
    David, Mattsson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Att göra det jag hör: En observationsstudie om att lära sig på gehör2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to identify and explain ways to learn tunes from a tradition of western contemporary music and improvisational music by ear. The questions in the study are about how ways are designed and what semiotic modes are used to learn a tune with a focus on chords, melody and solo and also how the transformation from recording to playing happens. The chosen theoretical point of departure is a design theoretic perspective on learning and is used to analyse and make the learning process by ear visible. To document my own formative learning process I used video recording and logbook as methods. The result begins with an overall explanation about my learning process. After that the semiotic modes I used is presented and how they where used. All this I presented in themes witch all has to do with the process from recording to voice play, from recording directly to play, from recording to writing to play, from recording to play with technical help and at last from recording to visual pictures to play. At the end, I connect the results to previous research and literature in a discussion with two themes on conditions for learning by ear and the making and using of memories. 

  • 54.
    De Wit Sandström, Leon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Fumliga nypor, varför då?: Ett designteoretiskt perspektiv på lärares synsätt på vänsterhäntas lärande i klassiskt gitarrspel2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to gain a deeper knowledge of how guitar teachers view left-handedness with regard to the technical difficulties of the instrument and how they work with left-handed students while teaching. This paper provides some background on what left-handedness is, some historical background on the classical guitar and the technical difficulties of playing it, and an overview of previous work on musical education and left-handed people. The study is based on a multimodal and design theoretical perspective, and an empirical material consisting of four qualitative interviews. The results show that the participating teachers did not, in their own view, adapt their teaching because of left-handed students. The exception was students with a strong degree of left-handedness, who were encouraged to turn the guitar around. However, how the guitar is held was not often described as something left up to the individual student, but rather as something decided by the teacher. The teachers also felt that all students need to practice the same techniques, and that the same instructions therefore should be used for both right-handed and left-handed students. Right-handed guitars are standard in teaching situations, and the fact that the teachers say that they rarely recommend that students turn the guitar around reflects that. The results of the study then form the basis for a discussion on teaching left-handed students. It is not just a question of adapting an instrument; the whole design of the lessons makes a difference when it comes to the student learning the instrument. 

  • 55.
    Dellstig, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Att arbeta med helheten: En kvalitativ intervjustudie av lärares syn på arbetet med sceniska förberedelser i sångundervisning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore vocie teachers views on performance preparations and how they implement these thoughts in their work. The background chapter describes literature and previous research on performance preparations. Different aspects of performance preparations are presented, such as portraying different emotions, body awareness, various programs and methods to improve one’s performance, expression etcetera. Phenomenology was used as the theoretical framework and the method was semi-structured interviews. Following the method of thematic analysis, the result showed a certain consensus between the teachers’ interpretation of performance preparations. The result shows the informants’ interpretations of performance preparations as a phenomenon as well as how they experience they’re implementing this in their teaching. Different methods, aids etcetera are presented as well as the informants’ perceptions of performance preparations. Lastly, parts of the result and method are discussed in relation to the literature and research presented in the background chapter. Here,the teachers’ different names and interpretations of similar phenomenons such as evaluation, reflecting and asking questions are discussed. Thereafter, a statement of the importance of this study follows as well as possible further research on the subject.

  • 56.
    Edman, Mariana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    ”Oj, vad händer nu?”: En självstudie om pianistens upplevelser av nervositet och oro vid olika uppspelstillfällen2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of present study is to investigate from a phenomenology of body perspective what reactions occur in my body when I am nervous at different performance situations. Apart from that this study will investigate importance of mental training for decrease of stress and nervousness and its influence on my performance ability in this performance situations. In background chapter are definitions of nervousness, stress, musical performance anxiety and more presented. Apart from that in background chapter are earlier studies on this field and following studies theoretical perspective – phenomenology of body presented. In method chapter the methods of documentation - journal notes and video are presented. Result chapter is showed in themes: Nervousness and anxiety in different performance situations and Influence of mental training on nervousness and stress level and performance ability. In these chapters is shown how my negative feelings and experiences of nervousness and anxiety with mental trainings help transformed into positive. In discussion chapter following themes are showed: Comparison between nervousness and anxiety before, under and after mental trainingandImportance of continuous training and effectiveness of recordings. In this chapter, even my thoughts about following studies importance for myself and ideas about further research on the field are presented.

  • 57.
    Einarsson, Josef
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Avistaläsning på djupet: En observationsstudie i avistaläsning för kontrabas2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how an exercise process can be designed to improve the ability to note readingFor a period of six weeks I have practiced sight reading 15 minutes a day. I started the period of reading a piece on sight and then ended the period by reading the same song again in order to compare if any development had occurred. The first week has been devoted to pitch, the, second week has been devoted to  rhythm, the third week has been devoted to exercising stroke of the bow, and the other three weeks I have practiced combining pitch and rhythm with stroke of the bow. A selection of these exercises has been video documented. As a theoretical point of departure, I have choosen the design theory perspective. The result section shows how different resources have been used for my learning. It also turns out that the sight reading has improved during this period. In discussion, I describe, based on the design theoretic perspective, the conditions I have put for myself as well as the resources used in learning.

  • 58.
    Ekeberg, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Det finns värre saker än en dålig prestation "...man kan dö": En kvalitativ jämförande studie som belyser hur musiklärare och idrottstränare erfar fenomenet prestation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore and compare the ways in which teachers in music and sport,

    experience the phenomenon of achievement in teaching at the secondary level. The

    study has two research questions: How does teachers in music and sport look upon the

    phenomenon of achievement? and How does teachers in music and sport work to promote

    student achievements? The philosophical perspective is phenomenology and the theoretical

    foundation is psychology concerning performance and motivation. The research

    method is semi-structured interviews, and three music teachers and three sports coaches

    have been interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and processed using thematic

    analysis and the result presents the phenomenon of achievement. The results are divided

    into two main themes: Subject-based or individual-based focus and The role of the

    teacher - Instrumental guide or goal promotar. The first theme describes the informants

    'views on the phenomenon of achievement, and the second theme highlights the work

    informants use to benefit their students' achievements. The study's concluding chapter

    discuss the result in relation to research, psychology and phenomenology.

  • 59.
    Ekeberg, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    En musikstudents övande: En läroprocess i två cykler2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this independent work my rehearsal process of Rhapsody for solo clarinet written by Giacomo Miluccio is explored and described from a design theory perspective. The study is based on self-observations that lasted for about 6 months and collected data consists of logbook writing and video recordings. The result of the analysis show how the learning is done with the help of various semiotic resources, and in the form of two transformation cycles, where the first is characterized by a Desire for mimesis, and the other by The way to my own expression. As a bridge between these two cycles will be an occasion where the representation takes the form of a Masterclass. Finally, I discuss my results in relation to literature based on the design theoretical perspective and other previous research in the field of learning.

  • 60.
    Eklöf, Felicia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Andas in, sjung ut!: En självstudie om andning och röstspänningar.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not being conscious of your breath while singing could eliminate my voice tension. The purpose is supported by the following research question: Can focusing on the breath eliminate voice tension? The study is based on a phenomenological life-world perspective where video logbook is used as a documentation method. The result is presented on the basis of three themes: tensions, tools and breathing during singing. Finally, a discussion is conducted in relation to the previous research and other literature presented in the background chapter. Among other things, the discussion leads to the conclusion about how breathing can be seen as a tool for creating the awareness that is needed to eliminate voice tension. Finally, the significance of the work and further research opportunities is explained.

  • 61.
    Ekroth, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    "När man väl är inne i svängen är det svårt att sluta": En enkätstudie om motivation hos musikhögskolestudenter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to examine what motivates Music College-students in their musicianship and in their choice to study music. The purpose is also to examine whether there are any significant connections between factors such as gender, primary instrument or genre in relationship to motivation. Chapter two presents different views on the subjectmotivation, with the help of relevant literature and earlier studies. Earlier studies show that desire, student participation, teachers, and music in the family are important motivational factors. The research questions are examined with a quantitative method where a poll was used to gather the data. Some qualitative data was also collected, through free text answers written by the participants. The participants answer questions about background factors and fill in Likert scales that measure different motivational attitudes. The results show that, among others, desire, role models and education are common motivational factors. Several significant connections between gender, primary instrument and genre in relationship to motivation was found. The result confirms earlier studies in some ways. Due to the method used to select the participants, no generalizations towards the total population can be made from presented results. The discussion lifts questions about what the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are. The title is a quotation from one of the free text answers

  • 62.
    Ekroth, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Ta det piano: En observationsstudie i en gitarrists övande av pianoteknik2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to observe and examine my own learning process when practicing technique on the piano. The purpose is also to observe how this affects my piano playing. In order to examine this I have, during a ten week period, practiced two specific exercises, five times a week 20-30 minutes per session. I documented the sessions via video and a logbook. I have chosen a design theoretical perspective as my theoretical basis. In the result section, I describe which resources I have used in my practice, how I choose to design my practice as well as how it has affected my piano playing. It turns out that I have used many different resources and that many of them has produced positive results. Lastly, I discuss the results in relation to relevant literature and research. 

  • 63.
    Ekström, Kajsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    "Hur trivs du då?": Erfarenheter och upplevelser av musikalisk socialisering under utlandsstudier2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on how I as a student in a certain cultural and social structure am affected both learning and expression wise in the music education by entering a musical environment where other cultural and social structures are normative. The study is ethnographically inspired and based on a static-dynamic analysis technique where video recordings and reading logs is the underlying material. The result shows the activities that have played a major role, both negatively and positively, in my musical, social and personal development and also describes how these activities change during the time of the study. The activities that have played a big role during my studies abroad are primarily my trumpet lessons, with communication, technique and musical expressions as subheads, the social life in and outside of school and my musical journey outside of school. In the discussion I describe and discuss the confusion and frustration that my trumpet lessons created and how my initial feelings of loneliness was the base of my personal development. I also discuss the importance of a secure social context and how my social life affected my learning.

  • 64.
    Ekström, Kajsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    "Vi ska prata om genus": En studie av lärares konstruktioner av genus och musikundervisning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how music teachers converse about the school´s gender mission in relation to music education. The theoretical frame of the study is gender theories and a social constructionism. The data for the study has been collected through two focus group interviews where female and male music teachers from different educational levels and specializations discuss gender and music education. The data generated from the focus group interviews has been processed and analysed with discourse analytical tools with a focus on the teachers’ views on gender and music education. The result show several smaller discourses that show the views the teachers have on themselves, their mission and their students. The result shows that the teachers strive for gender awareness and a focus on individuals, but that they also feel held back by fixed biological elements and that they feel resigned towards historical structures that remain strong, a fear of power relations and a perception of gender as a difficult and complicated subject. In conclusion gender is understood as something abstract and contradictory. In practical arrangements the teachers struggle with perceptions and ideas about gender that are difficult to concretize. In the discussion two contradicting discourses are highlighted as the aspirational and the biologically fixed, and the struggle between the discourses

  • 65.
    Elblaus, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH Stockholm.
    Unander-Scharin, Asa
    Lunds universitet.
    Unander-Scharin, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Uncanny Materialities: Digital Strategies for Staging Supernatural Themes Drawn from Medieval Ballads2017In: Leonardo music journal, ISSN 0961-1215, E-ISSN 1531-4812, Vol. 27, p. 62-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the medieval tradition of ballads, a recurring theme is that of transformation. In a staged concert for chamber orchestra, singers and dancers called Varelser och Ballader (Beings and Ballads), we explored this theme using ballads coupled with contemporary poetry and new music. The performance made use of custom-made digital musical instruments, using video analysis and large-scale physical interfaces for transformative purposes. In this article, we describe the piece itself as well as how uncanny qualities of the digital were used to emphasize eerie themes of transformation and deception by the supernatural beings found in the medieval ballads.

  • 66.
    Elkjär Gustafsson, Ann
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Gulyás, Georg
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Fokus på gestaltande i övandet: Pedagogiskt utvecklingsprojekt2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under hösten 2016 och våren 2017 genomförde Ann Elkjär och Georg Gulyás ett pedagogiskt utvecklingsarbete, där syftet var att undersöka hur deras studenter kunde utveckla sin förmåga till musikalisk gestaltning i sitt övande. Genom loggböcker och gruppmöten utforskades deltagarnas övningsprocess.

  • 67.
    Ellinore, Andersson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Hur ska jag tolka det där?: En studie i hur lärare och elever på musik- eller kulturskola kommunicerar med varandra i enskild undervisning på fiol2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore how teachers and pupils in music schools communicate during one-to-one music lessons with violin as instrument. With video observation as a method, three teachers and three pupils have been observed. This study has its theoretical base in the design theoretical perspective and multimodality. The results show that the teachers use several different ways of communication in their teaching; they instruct and demonstrate, they use questions and metaphors and also communicate in a humorous way. The results even show that the ways of communication are combined in different ways. In the discussion chapter the teachers’ different teaching designs are discussed as well as which conditions different types of designs has for the pupils learning. 

  • 68.
    Erik, Rosengren
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Spela med ”riktning”: En självstudie i att öva improvisation2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how I, as a drummer, practice in order to improve my ability of improvising a clear idea. During approximately three months I videotaped and kept a logbook of my practice to find which methods and strategies were used to improve my improvisational solo performance. The result shows that the use of limitations is a powerful and frequently used tool during the practice. By implementing restrictions on the improvisation, my awareness of what I played increased granting me greater control of my performance. When something technically challenging was practiced two methods were used, to practice a longer passage slowly or a part of the passage fast. Both were used successfully. In the discussion I compare my own results with those of other literature and research on the subject. I also analyze parts of my result from a phenomenological point of view. 

  • 69.
    Eriksson, Alma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Gehörsinlärning – hur går det till?: En självobservationsstudie i en folkmusikers inlärning på gehör2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aural skills, design theory, learning process, semiotic resources, violin, folk music, video observation, self-observation

  • 70.
    Erlanson, Ernst
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Musikaliska aktiviteter och hjärnaktivitet: En självstudie om hur musik påverkar hjärnvågor2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thanks to recent advances in the development of portable electroencephalografy technology (PEEGT), doing research on brain activity has become both cheaper and more convenient to do. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of the brain activity between musical activities, using the commercially available PEEGT “Insight”, developed by the tech company EMOTIV. The use of these PEEGT to estimate states of mind and emotions is a relatively new area of research, with a promising future. The study is motivated by the possibility to use research like this to address questions about education and musicmaking. Two musical activities were chosen for the study, improvisation and sight-reading. EMOTIVs Insight was used to collect data on 10 separate occasions, which later was analyzed with the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The quantitative data was triangulated with notes from a logbook about the subjective experiences during the 10 occasions. No statistically significant difference was found between the activities. On the other hand, the study proved useful for the subject. Especially regarding insights on the relationship between the notes in the logbook, and the reported data from the EEG. Hopefully the work can also serve as an inspiration for future studies. 

  • 71.
    Erlanson, Ernst
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Varför spelar du som du gör?: En studie om relationen mellan interpretation och förklaringar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the relationship between “explanations” and musical interpretation. More specifically the question why do I play Prokofievs 6th piano sonata in a particular way? Every interpreter makes choices when preparing and performing a musical work. Many such choices involve tempo, dynamics, or phrasing, as well as other musical parameters. This study explores the degree to which these choices may be based on analytic “explanations" of the structure of the music. Building upon the theoretical work of Leonard Meyer and Karl Popper, I identify certain passages which highlight the diversity of interpretation, examining the differences through structural and interpretive analyses. Above all, the study seeks to understand the “tacit knowledge” embodied in certain approaches to musical interpretation — and, in the process, to make it explicit. Therefore, the results are of potential value not only in performance analysis, but in the training of performers. The project culminated in a performance and live recording of the sonata which were influenced by my analysis of the music.

  • 72.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Institutionen för pedagogik, didiaktik och utbildningsstudier. Uppsala Universitet.
    Assessment of musical knowledge from a life-world-phenomenological perspective: Challenges of conceptualising and communicaiton2011In: Hellenic Journal of Music, Education and Culture, ISSN 1792-2518, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 37-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current time, when all syllabuses in all subjects and school forms are rewritten in Sweden, assessment is a concept for discussions in several settings at several levels. Formal and informal, formative and summative assessment of musical knowledge has been carried out in all settings where musical performance has taken place. In several contexts the idea of how different qualities of musical knowledge are performed, is constituted and re-created through sharing of experiences. Concepts and descriptions of the qualities, that are possible to transcend between time and space, and possible to use as a base for discussion and reflection upon musical knowledge are missing though. A prerequisite for such a conceptualising is a common understanding of what musical knowledge is. The philosophical study will take life-world-phenomenology as a point of departure for defining musical learning and knowledge, a base for a further discussion about how musical knowledge can be assessed, and how assessment can become a part of learning of music.

  • 73.
    Fhinn, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    En slagverkare utforskar konsten att öva: En självstudie om en slagverkares lärandeprocess utifrån ett designteoretiskt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine witch semiotic resources a percussionist uses while rehearsing a new piece and how the percussionist designs the individual music practice with focus on different practice strategies. In order to realize this have I under a four-week long period rehearsed a multi-percussion piece and documented the process by a video recording device and log writing. The study is permeated by the theoretical perspective of design theory. The results show how I as a percussionist have designed the individual practice by planning, realisation and evaluation. The semiotic resources that have been observed is the body, instrument, notation, metronome and gear known as mallets and sticks. In the last chapter, a discussion is made between the result and the background chapter.

  • 74.
    García, Victoria Eugenia Bautista
    et al.
    University of Malaga, Spain.
    Mateos-Moreno, Daniel
    Univeristy of Malaga, Spain.
    Diseño y validación de un cuestionario de evaluación de la actitud hacia la música clásica del alumnado de educación secundaria obligatoria2012In: Revista Electrónica de Investigación y Docencia (REID), ISSN 1989-2446, no 7, p. 141-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to measure the attitude of Secondary School Students towards Classical Music, a questionnaire based on the traditional tri-dimensional model was built and validated. Items were therefore built upon the three-dimensional attitudinal model (i.e affective, cognitive and behavioural). Other variables were also taken into account in order to help for characterizing the study-population. In a first stage, 56 students from a High School in the city of Malaga were the initial sample for carrying out the pilot study. Eventually, the questionnaire was taken by 3137 subjects from Andalusia (Spain) in order to define itspsychometric values. From the first test of 30 items to the last of 25, several changes were made due tothe expert judgments, testing experiences and scale-validity tests.

  • 75.
    Gasslander, Timmy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Att studera in musik mentalt: Hur långt kan jag komma utan mitt instrument?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I have during this project studied five renaissance pieces for classical guitar without the help of my instrument while studying them and analyzed the results from a hermeneutical point of view. The studying of the pieces has been a completely mental process and a combination of two methods for mental rehearsal that have been used based on Giesking and Liemers (1972) Visualization and a method presented by Pujol (1983) that I during this study will call Practical Imagery. The intention is to explore how the process of mental rehearsal will evolve during the project as I learn more about the methods by using them. During the five-week long study I wrote a journal used for me to reflect and present the process of studying the pieces and recorded each performance with video and audio. Each period lead to me evolving the use of the methods. In the results I present how the use of both methods lead to them both gradually evolved and how the performance was affected by the mental training. In the discussion chapter I compare the results to my theoretical perspective, relevant literature and former research within the subject matter.

     

    Keywords: guitar, mental rehearsal, visualization, observational study, reading sheet music, sight reading, hermeneutics

  • 76.
    Grafström, Ronja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Hä e´bare te å härme´: En studie i förutsättningar för melodisk instudering och memorering2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines my ability to collect, imitate and memorize melodies by listening to different songs through eight different methods for by-ear learning. The songs in the study belong to the folk music genre and their melodic structures varies to provide information about however different melodic patterns has effect on my learning ability. The main focus of this study is to investigate how different methods for by-ear learning affects my interpretation of the learning situation and to approach an understanding about my conditions for by-ear learning. The study comes to the conclusion that the lyrics of a song and my experience of validity connected to the song plays a main part in my learning process. In the discussion of this study learning by-ear and its different definitions are lifted together with how a social environment and its approach towards music can have effect on a persons motivation for learning. The study is prosecuted from a hermeneutic perspective. 

  • 77.
    Granat, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Utantillspel inför publik: En självstudie om att kunna spela utan noter under press med hjälp av mental träning2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore how mental training can give me a feeling of be- ing calm when I play music from memory on stage. The study is supported by the follow- ing research question: How can I use mental training to get a calm feeling when I play the cello without support from any scores? The study is based on a life- word perspec- tive where I analyse my experiences from my own point of view, from my lifeworld. The method that the study is based on is a writing-log and video recordings of myself. The result is presented by following themes: finding focus, awareness, inner pictures, repeat- ing and mental preparations, and concert. The result are then discussed in relation to previous research. I discuss the audients effect on the life- world and relaxation related to awareness and inner pictures. 

  • 78.
    Granat, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    ''Ämnesintegrerade projekt är kul, men...'': En studie om hur musiklärare erfar samarbete med andra ämneslärare i kulturskolan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to get a view of how music teachers in the Swedish music schools experience projects where different art subjects are integrated with each other and to see if these projects can facilitate that more people get included in these schools. In order to achieve this purpose, the study is based on the following research questions: In what ways does music teachers experience subject integrated projects in the Swedish music schools?, In what way can subject integrated projects facilitate that more people get included in the Swedish music schools according to music teachers? The theoretical foundation of the study is interpretivism and the philosophical perspective is phenomenology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three music teachers whom where all working in one music school each. The result is presented in two overall themes. Resources and motivation for creative work is the first theme. The second theme is Social interaction. The result reveal that the experience the music teachers describes when it comes to subject integrated projects and the work with including more people to the music schools are quite similar too each other. The experience is however different within the teachers answes when it comes to the possibility and the motivation to participate or lead a subject integrated project. The result reveal that possibilities and motivation is affected by resources and the cooperation in between colleges. 

  • 79.
    Greenberg, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    ”Det ska inte behöva göra ont”: En intervjustudie med tre Alexandertekniklärare om hur ett avspänt fiolspel kan främjas2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to explore how violin teachers, educated in the Alexander Technique, use their experience in Alexander Technique to support a non-tensed violin playing among their students. The theoretical starting point of the study is hermeneutic perspective and the method used is half structured interviews. Three violin teachers, educated in the Alexander Technique, were interviewed and the questions of the research were: what view of man do the teachers describe they have when it comes to violin students? What strategies do they describe they use to help their students encourage non-tensed playing? How do they describe they form their lessons to support non-tensed playing? The results indicate that the respondents have a view of man as a whole and that a positive approach to a person’s ability to change and develop helps promoting a non-tensed playing. The approach to process and result in a learning situation, the teacher’s and student’s awareness in the lesson and awareness in practicing, were seen as essential to promote a relaxed playing among students. The discussion focus on the result in relation to studies made in near-by subjects and in relation to the theoretic starting point, hermeneutic perspective. A discussion of my pre-understanding in Alexander Technique related to the result, is also presented. 

  • 80.
    Gumar, Guran
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Hur spelar jag det jag hör?: Observationsstudie i hur man plankar eller transkriberar musik2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to discover methods and strategies about how to transcribe[1]music by ear. Through studies, I have observed my learning process when I transcribe a rock song by ear. I have used a logbook and sound recordings during the work process to document what has happened and get knowledge of how I have been doing. In the background, I have used the sociocultural perspective as theory and this theory has been the basis for the analysis of my learning process. I have then discovered what I use for different cultural tools as I transcribe music and how these are used in my process. These tools are presented in the result section as voice and memorization, early music studies, limitation and structure listening as well as the foot as a tool. This means that I needed to memorize what I heard carefully to then apply it to my instrument. The voice was represented as song, for example, I sang what had been memorized and clarified for the fingers what would be played. In order to move on and overcome the difficult parts of the work, I had to limit myself to small sub-goals in the song and structure my way of working. My early studies and experiences in music were the reason why I could in general start the transcribing process and develop in it. The foot helped me feel the pulse and clarify the beat to keep the correct note value. In the discussion, I compare the result with previous research and literature related to topics hearing, transcribing and strategies for transcribing. I finish the work with my own reflections about the importance of work and possible further studies.

  • 81.
    Gunnarsson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Hur får man tyst på en gitarrist?: En observationsstudie i a-°©‐vistaläsning2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out if it is possible to become better at sight-reading melodies during a shorter period, in this case eight weeks with 15 minutes of daily training. With a video recorder, I have documented a selection of daily training sessions based on a book that specifically focuses on sight-reading melodies. Furthermore, I have written a logbook to document my personal experiences during the process. Theoretical perspective is design theory. The results shows how different resources are handled, and the learning progression of the process are described. It appears that I during this period, have become better at sight-reading melodies and it is also clear that I use bodily resources quite a lot while practicing sight-reading. Lastly, in the last chapter I discuss the preconditions given by the book and what resources that has been created during my learning period.

  • 82.
    Gunnarsson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Notskrift – En akilleshäl?: En observationsstudie i att undervisa i noter på elgitarr på kulturskolan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to gain insight into how guitar teachers working to get their students to learn musical notation. In the background chapter, previous research in music reading and notation is shown. As a theoretical basis the design theory perspective is used, which focuses on how people use different characters to design their communication and learning. The study is based on a qualitative research with video observation as method. Six electric guitar teachers at different arts schools have been observed using video recording. The recorded material was then transcribed and analysed with a focus on the character-building resources teachers use in their teaching. The result shows that teachers use speech, voice, body, instrument, musical terms and sounding backing tracks to teach traditional music notation and/or tablature for students. In the discussion two comprehensive teaching methods that have been highlighted by the teachers is discussed: a traditional sight-reading and music theory based teaching and a tablature and ear based instruction.

  • 83.
    Guo, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Att kräva eller inte kräva... det är frågan: - en kvalitativ intervjustudie om lärares hantering av elevers övning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine music teachers’ views of and management of pupils’ exercise. Data were collected through interviews with four instrumental teachers working in arts school/high school/college or university. Two of the informants work mainly in the classical genre and two in both the classical genre and the Afro-genre. The interview method was qualitative, with an overall main question and then with open follow-up questions. The analysis of the data was performed from a perspective of design theory. The result shows that the respondents use multiple resources simultaneously to create the conditions for the students to learn how to practice. How the balance between resources looks vary both depending on the workplace of the informants and the age of the pupils. The result also shows that the informants see the playing of an instrument as a craft and that practice is necessary to becoming better at the craft. The discussion compares teachers’ preferences with the educational program requirements and guidelines as well as the pupils’ social environment. The discussion furthermore highlights exercise in relation to the design and multimodal resources.

  • 84.
    Gustavsson, Rickard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Inspiration genom interaktion: En observationsstudie med fokus på balansen mellan praktiska och teoretiska moment i gehörs- musikteoriun- dervisning.2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is, with inspiration from ethnographic method, to explore how teachers design their lessons in the subject music theory at upper secondary school lev- el, with focus on the balance between theoretical and practical element. The literature that is presented in the background chapter describes how students or teachers can per- form the exercises in the books, by using practical tools, as well as by using theoretical arguments. The earlier research that is presented focuses on student’s and teacher’s view on the subject music theory and ear training. The research methods that have been used are based on an ethnographic perspective with participating observation, where the researcher finds him self in a field with participants whom are to be observed in their natural environment. The result is divided in three parts: Introduction and course of actions, Practical participation, and Archetypes of the teachers. Introduction and course of actions illustrates how the teachers begin their classes, what tasks they give the stu- dents, and also how the teachers finish their classes. Practical participation presents the practical elements that occurred during the classes. These elements were dialogue, dis- cussion, and active listening. Archetypes of the teachers focuses on the different roles the teachers takes during certain situations: the mountain climber, master and apprentice, and the sounding board. In the discussion the result is compared to earlier research and also to the literature. Some conclusions are also made in the discussion, At the end of the study the importance of the essay is described as well as how it can be used in later re- search. 

  • 85.
    Hagersjö Sandqvist, Elias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Ur led är tiden: En fenomenologisk självstudie i övning av rubatospel på trumset2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to examine timing as an aspect of and transcription in relation to music in tempo rubato. The study examines a four week learning period wherein a piece of music in tempo rubato was practiced with the original recording being used as the starting point. The study is based on the phenomenological life world theory and its results are based on logbook entries as well as audio and video recordings made during the practice period. The results are presented from the themes studying and learning and performance and show that different practice methods were used for different purposes, that the learning process was strongly affected by earlier experiences and that the absence of a steady pulse in the music brought about difficulties that don’t occur in the study of music where the tempo and pulse is more consistent. The results also show that the transcription had a great impact on the learning process through the relation between the transcription and the experience of the music. Lastly, timing and transcription is discussed through literature presented in the background chapter, with an emphasis on the life world theory.

  • 86.
    Hake, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    "Ingenting får kosta! Vi ska jobba digitalt utan reella förutsättningar": En enkätstudie kring musiklärares IKT-användning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the past couple of years an extensive restructure towards increased digitization, has affected Swedish schools. Some investments aim towards teachers training, whilst others prioritise hardware. Some intend to transact radical, groundbreaking changes, whilst some care to integrate information and communication technology (ICT) successively in the current education model. The methods for digitization are many and contested. Previous research focuses on investigating what effects digitization has on student learning and how the digitization mission has been interpreted and executed in school context. Teachers and students attitudes towards digitization are too fields that have been explored, though most studies are made outside of Sweden, which causes a certain knowledge gap. Music education in Sweden lacks creative elements, which has been noted in research. According to previous research ICT is also considered missing the most within the creation field. Underlying causes for the slow progress of digitization in Swedish schools however, belong to a less researched field. Initially, this study seeks to chart both in what context and extent music teachers in secondary school tend to use ICT and to investigate if any connections show between ICT usage and personal or workplace related variables. The research questions define which variables that are being investigated by dint of the web-based questionnaire that constitutes the foundation for the research. The result indicates that the informants of younger age us ICT for other purposes than the older ones, to some degree. Some differences in ICT usage between men and women also showed, where women for example tend to search online for teaching inspiration more frequently than men. The result also showed that the music teachers that participated in this study use ICT mostly for simple tasks that support the traditional education, as opposed to more advanced functions that demands a higher level competence, which are used less frequently. As the title reveals, the result also show that the informants experience a lack of reources that affects the prequisites for implementing digitization, in various ways. The most missing resource is according to this study time. The end diskussion of this study report mentions that the question ”how?” ought to be relevant for making the implementation of ICT in school context as smooth as possible.

  • 87.
    Hallgren, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    En min säger mer än tusen ord: En observationsstudie med fokus på hur semiotiska resurser används inom nybörjarundervisning på elbas2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to see how teachers design the teaching for beginner students in electric bass. The literature mentioned in the study background describes how educational situations are created and what can affect a teacher's design of a lesson. The previous research presented is about how an educator is formed, and the background to an educational identity. This study is based on a design theoretical perspective with video observations as a method. Three teachers were observed at a lesson in their regular teaching environment. The results are presented in four categories with a focus on the use of semiotic resources: physical resources, auditory resources, visual resources, and how the semiotic resources are used in a multimodal way. The discussion compares the results with previous research and literature from the background. Some conclusions are made, such as the importence of visual resources when teaching and the width of semiotic resources that the teachers used. Finally is the importance of the work described and how it can be used in further research.

  • 88.
    Hansson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Subjektiva tolkningar av subjektiva skrivningar: En intervjustudie om sånglärares uppfattningar om och kommunikation av betygskriterier i sång på gymnasiet2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to investigate vocal teachers’ perceptions and communication of the assessment criteria in singing at aesthetic programs in high school. The background chapter presents concepts that are central to the study. It has not yet been published any research on the rating criteria which in the present study consists of the subjective wordings "self-expression" and "musically satisfying results". Qualitative interviews are used as a research method. Interviews were conducted with three singing teachers who rated students according to the rating criteria which are the focus of this study. The results indicate that self-expression may be the individual's personal expression, the expression we have just by being human, but in an enhanced form. It may also involve interpretation. Furthermore, the result shows that musically satisfying results is reached by basic hearing and sense of form. The singing teachers convey rating criteria and the quality mostly by grading conversation with the student. All singing teacher also emphasizes the student's autonomy and its own momentum continuations to achieve the highest rating. The discussion section compares the results of the study of the theories and previous research presented in the background section. Finally, discussions are underway about the importance of the study and continued research in the area

  • 89.
    Hansson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Lektionsformers betydelse för elevers motivation: En intervjustudie med tre musiklärare2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on qualitative interviews with three teachers in a Swedish municipal school of music. The purpose of the study is to examine these teachers’ views on various types of lessons and the impact they have in terms of motivating students. The theoretical basis of this work is the social cultural perspective. In the interviews the teachers were asked to answer a couple of open questions, from which they described their views. The teachers’ experiences show a traditional and most common way of education on musical instruments in Sweden that is, 20 minute individual lessons. The practises of teaching in groups are however considered to have increased in popularity over past years. The reason why individual lessons still are norm is because of the larger workload for the teachers regarding group lessons. Nevertheless, group lessons are considered to motivate students to a greater extent than individual lessons. The three teachers agreed upon that the best alternative is to give students opportunity to receive both individual and group lessons, since these complement each other in a favourable manner. When it comes to young beginners, some form of group activity is though preferable. This is because young students do not have the internal reward system developed and therefore requires a higher degree of direct confirmation, which is supposed to be more facilitated by group settings than by individual lessons. The study ends with a chapter where results to previous research are discussed. 

  • 90.
    Harald, Drejare
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Skillnader i musiklyssnande: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om ungdomars lyssningssätt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore high school students' experiences of listening to music. The background chapter presents previous research works and literature on theories and categorization of different kinds of listening mode. Qualitative interviews are used as researched method. Five students from senior level of the nine-year school have listened to three selected music examples.  After that they were interviewed about their experiences of the music. The interviews were then transcribed, processed and analyzed. In the result chapter I have compiled each informant's experiences and listening mode separately, in order to get a complete picture of each individual's listening mode. Each performance theme thus corresponds to one informant: "Johanna" - an associative and physical listening, "Klara" - a syntactically listening with objective character, Oskar - a variable, emotional listening, "Malin" - an associative semantic listening, "Stefan" - an emotion-operated and associative listening. The discussion chapter compares the results of the study of the theories and previous research presented in the background section. Finally, discussions are underway about the importance of work and continued research in the area

  • 91.
    Harning, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Musikhögskolan Ingesund.
    Att skapa balans: Hur FMT-metoden kan påverka kroppsbalans och stabilitet2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete beskriver jag FMT-metoden och dess framväxt, samt mitt praktikarbete med två elever från särskolan. En med Cerebral Pares och en med svårigheter inom autism-spektrumområdet. Jag har försökt söka svar på hur FMT-metoden kan påverka kroppsbalans och stabilitet. Min slutsats är att FMT kan påverka kroppsbalans och stabilitet, då jag observerat en märkbar skillnad hos de två adepter jag arbetat med. 

  • 92.
    Hasselqvist, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Relationer i sångundervisning: En intervjustudie om sånglärares syn på relationen mellan lärare och elev2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through the lens of interpersonal psychological theory and self determination theory, this study explores how vocal teachers converse about relationships between teacher and students. The background chapter presents literature and previous research that describes different aspects of relationships, relationship competence and relationships in education. The data generated from the interviews has been collected through two focus group interviews where vocal teachers discuss relationships. The generated data was processed and analysed applying thematic analysis. The result shows that the teachers consider that relationships are important for the student to feel confident and that well-functioning relationships are needed to be able to make demands for teaching. Furthermore, the result reveals that teachers consider relations to be difficult when they experience that they don’t understand each other or when the student doesn’t feel well. Finally, the result shows that the teachers try to find a balance in the relationships to their students by asking questions to show genuine interest. In summary, the teachers find it difficult to describe and define what makes relationships effective, or lack thereof. In the discussion two concluding themes are highlighted, meaning of relationships and conditions for relationships.

  • 93.
    Hasselqvist, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Skarpt läge i sång: En observationsstudie med fokus på edge i sångmetoden "komplett sångteknik"2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out how I design my learning process studying the song technique known as edge. The study’s research questions are: Which character building resources are used during learning the song technique known as edge? How are these resources used? To explore this, I have practiced edge half an hour over a six-week period, three days a week. After every practice session I have written a log to document my personal experiences during the process. Furthermore, I have documented six practice sessions with a video camera. The theoretical perspective is design theory with focus on the character building resources used during the learning process. The results show that the most important resources that were used were the body and the technical vocal elements, especially twang, high larynx and a broad smile. Other resources such as gestures, recorded voice examples, a specific song and reflection were used more as a support for the major resources. In the last chapter I discuss the resources that served as prerequisites for learning edge and the consequences of the social context for the learning of edge. There is also a discussion of the social and cultural importance of context for learning. 

  • 94.
    Hebbe, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Jag vill bli kändis!: En intervjustudie om etablerade sångares syn på vilka kunskaper och färdigheter som krävs för att bli etablerad sångare2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore what knowledge and skills some established singers consider necessary for singers to become established and recognized. The study starts from a socio-cultural perspective and is based on qualitative interviews with three singers: a jazz singer, an opera singer and a pop singer. All three interviewees are regarded as established and recognized in their respective genres. In the background chapter a description is given of how the music industry appears in the 21st century – the participants, venues and power factors that exist. Marketing and personal image promotion are considered together with how the mental attitude is associated with success. In addition, the reader gets a picture of how today's music teacher programmes are dedicated to education in marketing, freelance and knowledge of the industry. It emerges from the results that the music industry is a hard world to live and work in. Those interviewed therefore are unanimous in the need for a secure and special type of personality to achieve success. In addition, social skills and a strong passion are indispensable. A description is given of what use those interviewed gained from their education, on the way to becoming established singers. They believe that there are many deficiencies in training today and that consequently there are many areas for improvement. 

  • 95.
    Hed, Martina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Min kropp är mitt instrument: En självstudie i den fysiska aktivitetens betydelse för sångare2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore through self-observation how my singing can be changed by regular physical activity. The process consisted of physical activity four times a week at Lifestyle Fitness Arvika as well as a practice session in singing twice a week at Ingesund Music School. The study is based on the phenomenological perspective focusing on the lifeworld and the phenomenology of the body, which creates the opportunity to freely reflect on how I experience, learn and act in a context. The data consists of logbook entries and video documentation. The result is presented in five different themes describing the patterns that emerge in self-observation. These themes are the body's stability, the voice's development, the song performance disposition versus physical activity, routines and when inspiration and motivation occur. The result shows the pros and cons as well as the effect that physical activity may have for singing. 

  • 96.
    Hed, Martina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Är det bara en sångteknikalitet?: Hur sångpedagoger väljer sina termer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate vocal teachers views on and experiences with the singing technology phenomenon. The study’s research questions concerns how singing pedagogues verbalize their views on singing technique, their terms about register, methods and their relation to research. The starting points for implementation is semi structured interviews with four singing pedagogues whom all have a teachers degree. The study’s theoretical framework covers phenomenology and focus on intentionality and lifeworld phenomenology. The interviews was recorded with phonogram and later transcribed and analyzed through thematic analysis. The different themes which are presented in the result are as follows: the vocal teachers views on singing techniques, the vocal teachers experiences and perceptions of registers, the vocal teachers own methods and singing techniques and methods in relation to research. The result visualizes both similarities and differences in how they view and verbalize their approaches to singing technology, terms about register, methods and research. The experiences that form the basis of these approaches, however, are experienced in their own lifeworld and have in different ways been important for how they experience the phenomenon of singing technique and relates to it through teaching. The result also shows that the singing pedagogues agree that research on singing is very important, nonetheless they themselves seldom turn to research. The discussion is further conferring around the themes that emerge in the result in relation to the previous background and the theoretical perspective that permeates the study.

  • 97.
    Hedberg, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Hur övar proffsen?: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om professionella musikers övningsstrategier2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att utifrån ett fenomenologiskt livsvärldsperspektiv, utforska hur några professionella musiker upplever att de går till väga under sina instuderingsprocesser. För att belysa detta tar arbetet avstamp i följande forskningsfråga: Vilka övningsstrategier beskriver några professionella musiker att de använder sig av när de tillägnar sig ett för dem nytt material? För att uppnå syfte och forskningsfråga har tre kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts med tre professionella musiker. I resultatet framkommer en rad olika strategier vilka sorterats in i fem meningsenheter: Dagliga tekniska övningsstrategier, Noggranna förberedelser, Tidsplanering, Övriga strategier och Strävan efter utveckling. I diskussionen sätts dessa strategier i relation till bakgrundslitteratur och forskning samt till fenomenologi.

  • 98.
    Hedberg, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Sonatinstudering: En hermeneutisk fenomenologisk självstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores my own study of the violin part in Edward Elgar’s Sonata in E minor for violin and piano based on a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective. The data collection took place during approximately one semester and in the form of log writing at every occasion that I practiced the sonata or rehearsed it together with my pianist and fellow musician. The analysis results revolve round differences in focus that existed during different practice sessions regarding the technical aspects versus the musical aspects and presented in the results chapter as five themes. The themes deal with different aspects of my rehearsal and they are later set against previous research in the area in the discussion.

  • 99.
    Hedenstedt, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Att lära sig improvisera musik med hjälp av arpeggion: En självstudie i att öva improvisation2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore how arpeggioexcercises used as a method for studying improvisation is experienced. Research questions are: What is my attention directed towards when performing the exercise? What benefit for my improvising can there be by using arpeggioexercises? To investigate this, I have done eight practice sessions of one hour each where an arpeggioexercise is used to study a song. All sessions are ended with audio logs where I reflect on how things have gone during the practice session. I have also made two improvisations on the selected song, one before the practice sessions implementing the exercise and after. Regarding the processing of data, I have chosen a phenomenological perspective as a theoretical standpoint. The result shows what has been in my consciousness during the process of practicing and how my improvising has changed. The results first theme "Study Process" describes arpeggio as studying method. This theme is given the categories "Progression", "Detection of problems," "Mechanical exercise". In the second theme, "Improvised solos," describes the benefits of using arpeggios as a method of studying improvisation. Categories are here " Approach to the tonal and harmonic structures", "Rule-breaking approach". During the process, it appears that I have learned some new patterns and that I am more aware of what I do when I improvise. Meanwhile, the process proved to be exhausting.

  • 100.
    Hedenstedt, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies (from 2013).
    Musiker eller musiklärare? Eller både och?: En enkätstudie om musiklärarstudenters motivationer och visioner för sitt framtida yrkesliv inom musik.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a shortage of music teachers in Sweden's elementary schools. At the same time, earlier studies indicate that there is a social agenda among students in music teacher education wherein the musicianship has a higher status than the music teacher's profession. In addition, some students will apply for bachelor education instead of starting to work as a music teacher after graduation. The aim of this study was to investigate the motivation of music education students teach music alternatively work as a musician as well as to investigate whether there are any external factors that interact with different motivations. Data collection was done with the help of questionnaires that were distributed to students within music education programs at four different music colleges in Sweden. Subsequently, statistical analysis methods were used to analyze collected data. The results show that music teacher students generally have a low to moderate motivation to work as a music teacher in elementary school, but there are no links between motivations and external factors. It also shows that those who apply for a bachelor education in music after music teacher exams play classical music. These results though cannot be generalized to the chosen population from statistical point of view. This is discussed based on aspects of external and internal motivation. Further studies in the field are needed to find out why the motivation of music teacher students looks like they do. 

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