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  • 51.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Experiences during shamanic-like monotonous drumming: A phenomenological study2011In: The International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, ISSN 1942-3241, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the experiences gained from a 20-minute shamanic-like drumming session. Twenty-two persons participated and made written descriptions afterwards about their experiences. A phenomenological analysis was applied which generated 31 categories, that were organized into six themes: 1) The undertaking of the drumming journey, 2) Perceptual phenomena: visual, auditory and somatic, 3) Encounters, 4) Active vs. Passive role, 5) Inner wisdom and guidance, and 6) Reflections on the drumming journey. A multitude of detailed experiences were described such as visual imagery, hearing sounds, encountering animals, as well as gaining insights. Participants generally appreciated the drumming session and few negative effects were noted. The conclusion made is that shamanic-like drumming can be a valuable supplement to other psychotherapeutic techniques.

  • 52.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Jacobsson, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Soussan, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    The quest for well-being and pleasure: experiences of the novel synthetic opioids AH-7921 and MT-45, as reported by anonymous users online.2016In: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 2155-6105, Vol. 7, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Two novel synthetic opioids, MT-45 and AH-7921, with mostly undocumented effects and risks, have emerged on the expanding market for recreational drugs on the Internet. The aim of the present study was to characterize the experiences of AH-7921 and MT-45 as described by the users on international drug discussion forums.

    Methods: A systematic data search resulted in 96 self-reports which were collected from the leading edge resources of drug related information online. The data were analysed qualitatively using thematic analysis.

    Results: The experiences of MT-45 and AH-7921 were characterized by the following themes: (1) Administration of the substances, (2) Well-being and energy, (3) Sedation and reduced here-and-now awareness, (4) Tolerance and withdrawal effects, (5) Side effects, (6) Evaluation of the effects, (7) Increased appreciation, sociableness and intimacy and (8) Self-medication. The experiences appeared to include not only the general and expected opioid effects like withdrawal, analgesia, euphoria, cough suppression, fatigue, constipation, itching, involuntary muscle spasm, nausea and pupillary constriction but also a noteworthy increase in energy. Furthermore, the users also experienced reduced inhibition and a facilitation of social situations. The results also showed that users engaged in different forms of self-medicating behaviour aimed at reducing pain or withdrawal symptoms from traditional opioid use.

    Conclusion: The spread of unpredictable, potent and novel opioids constitutes a public health concern which needs to be further monitored in order to minimize potential harm. 

  • 53.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Pedersen, Tore
    Bjørknes University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Affective forecasting of value creation: Professional nurses’ ability to predict and remember the experienced value of a telemedicine diagnostics ICT service2015In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 964-975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New innovations that can transform societies and improve life for people are increasingly being asked for. Unfortunately, some avenues of research indicate that users of these new innovations may be inaccurate when they predict or remember the value of such new offerings. For example, the rapid development of new ICT services in areas such as health care may imply opportunities for better life conditions and well-being, but may also involve complicated predictions for users about the value they will create. New innovations may face adoption difficulties if users make inaccurate predictions or remember falsely the value that such innovations might have. In this study, 48 nurses predicted, experienced, and remembered the value of a new ICT service they used to diagnose an external skin lesion on a patient. Results showed significant differences between predicted and experienced value as well as between a service with high technical quality and the same service with lower technical quality; the value was underestimated at the time of prediction, as compared to actual experience, and the value of a high-quality ICT service was substantially more underestimated than the value of a low-quality ICT service. The results provide a novel and comprehensive understanding of how employees predict and experience the value of ICT service innovations. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  • 54.
    Lindblom, Josephine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att komma ut: Homosexuellas upplevelser av att berätta för sina föräldrar om sin sexuella läggning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Gaining an understanding and an insight into what homosexuals experience when they step out of the closet and tell their parents that they are gay is what this paper seeks. In order to capture this experience has interviews carried out with six homosexuals who told at least one parent of their homosexuality. Previous research and literature on the subject has been studied to gain a deeper understanding and to draw parallels to the respondents' experiences.

    In order to best capture the experience has an inductive, qualitative approach been used. Phenomenological method was chosen to get a result as close as possible to reflect the experiences of the respondents experienced. The material was then analyzed by IPA method (Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis). Based on the analysis there were four themes that interpret the emotions that respondents felt when they revealed their sexual orientation to their parents. The four themes that were common to respondents' experiences were: norm of heterosexuality, uneasiness and fear, Self-acceptance and security in sexuality and To feel complete. These four themes form a whole picture of what it feels like to come out and the conclusion drawn from the results is that it is liberating to tell his parents about his homosexuality.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Keywords: Homosexuality, Coming Out, Phenomenology.

  • 55.
    Lindgren, Ola
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Terapeuters och patienters tankar om vad som är verksamt i individuell psykoterapi2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this licentiate thesis is to explore psychotherapists’ and patients’ thoughts about what is effective in individual psychotherapy, focusing on their own experience of psychotherapeutic work. The method chosen for data collection and analysis was grounded theory in both the included studies.

    In Study 1 psychotherapists, licensed for individual psychotherapy were interviewed. A total of nine informants participated in the study, both men and women with different professional backgrounds and with different psychotherapeutic approaches.

    A core concept, Renewing experience, was developed from the data. Renewing experience is a process where the therapist and patient in cooperation and dialogue are trying to create situations where the patient makes new experiences. These experiences call into question or challenge past experiences of the patient or gives a new perspective on past experiences that make them more understandable and manageable. Renewing experience leads to changes in the patients experiential world and behaviour that increase psychological well-being.

    In Study 2 eight persons were interviewed who have attended individual psychotherapy of various lengths and theoretical orientation with a licensed psychotherapist. They contributed data on sixteen psychotherapies as several of them had experience of more than one psychotherapy.

    The core concept that evolved from the data was The therapist's responsive acceptance. Responsiveness means that the therapist has the ability to prove sensitive to patient's needs and emotional states and to provide feedback in an appropriate and constructive manner. Acceptance represents a supportive and non-judgmental atmosphere and the therapist's tolerance, kindness and understanding attitude.

  • 56.
    Lindgren, Ola
    et al.
    County Council of Värmland, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Folkesson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), FoU Välfärd Värmland.
    Patients’ thoughts on effective psychotherapy2014In: The European Journal for Qualitative Research in Psychotherapy, ISSN 1756-7599, Vol. 7, p. 4-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies of patients’ experiences in psychotherapy identify relationship factors as being significant forpatients. Our aim in this study conducted in accord with grounded theory, was to explore in some depth patients’thoughts about what is effective in psychotherapy and thereby increase our knowledge about the processof psychotherapy from a patient perspective. Data were collected in open interviews that provided rich andvaried information. Several informants had been in more than one therapy and thus, eight interviews provideddata about sixteen psychotherapies. The core concept that emerged from the data was that of the therapist’sresponsive acceptance. This concept provides an answer to the question “What do patients think is effective inpsychotherapy?” If the therapist is responsive and accepting, the mutual interplay between the patient and thetherapist becomes productive and collaborative. On the other hand, if responsive acceptance falters, the wholetherapy process is at risk.

  • 57.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet, Sverige.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    Umeå Universitet, Sverige.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Danmark; Umeå Universitet, Sverige.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Rehabilitation for improved cognition in patients with stress-related exhaustion disorder: RECO – a randomized clinical trial2018In: Stress, ISSN 1025-3890, E-ISSN 1607-8888, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 279-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-related exhaustion has been associated with selective and enduring cognitive impairments. However, little is known about how to address cognitive deficits in stress rehabilitation and how this influences stress recovery over time. The aim of this open-label, parallel randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772) was to investigate the long-term effects of 12 weeks cognitive or aerobic training on cognitive function, psychological health, and work ability for patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED). One-hundred-and-thirty-two patients (111 women) participating in multimodal stress rehabilitation were randomized to receive additional cognitive training (n = 44), additional aerobic training (n = 47), or no additional training (n = 41). Treatment effects were assessed before, immediately after and one-year post intervention. The primary outcome was global cognitive function. Secondary outcomes included domain-specific cognition, self-reported burnout, depression, anxiety, fatigue and work ability, aerobic capacity, and sick-leave levels. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed a small but lasting improvement in global cognitive functioning for the cognitive training group, paralleled by a large improvement on a trained updating task. The aerobic training group showed improvements in aerobic capacity and episodic memory immediately after training, but no long-term benefits. General improvements in psychological health and work ability were observed, with no difference between interventional groups. Our findings suggest that cognitive training may be a viable method to address cognitive impairments for patients with ED, whereas the effects of aerobic exercise on cognition may be more limited when performed during a restricted time period. The implications for clinical practice in supporting patients with ED to adhere to treatment are discussed

  • 58.
    Mattila, Elina
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Tampere, Finland.
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Välkkynen, Pasi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Tampere, Finland & Vincit Oy, Tampere, Finland.
    Sairanen, Essi
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Lappalainen, Päivi
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Karhunen, Leila
    Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland & Institute of Clinical Medicine, Clinical Nutrition, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Peuhkuri, Katri
    Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacology, Medical Nutrition Physiology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Korpela, Riitta
    Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacology, Medical Nutrition Physiology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland & VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Kuopio, Finland .
    Ermes, Miikka
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Tampere, Finland.
    Usage and Dose-Response of a Mobile Acceptance and Commitment Therapy App: Secondary Analysis from the Intervention Arm of a Randomized Controlled Trial2016In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Niklasson, Mats
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Niklasson, Irene
    The Vestibularis Institute, Mönsterås, Sweden.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Sensorimotor therapy: Physical and psychological regressions contribute to an improved kinesthetic and vestibular capacity in children and adolescents with motor difficulties and concentration problems2010In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 327-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to gain increased understanding of the effects of sensorimotor therapy on the physical and psychological development of children and young people when using the method Retraining for Balance. The records of 8 children who had completed the program were randomly selected from a cohort of 232 with sensorimotor difficulties and concentration problems. The participants, 7 boys and 1 girl, averaged 9 years of age. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (the EPP-method, Gunmar Karlsson, 1995) was used for this analysis, which resulted in 29 categories which yielded 3 overarching themes: a) the introduction of sensorimotor exercises, b) regression to earlier sensorimotor and psychological behaviors, and c) transformations in which the sensorimotor and psychological skills of the children matured and developed. The themes formed the kinesthetic-vestibular developmental model illustrating how sensorimotor exercises push the therapy process forward while recurrent regressions are followed by positive developmental phases. The results of the study were generalized to the remaining 224 children in the cohort by comparing each individual’s records to the kinesthetic-vestibular model.

  • 60.
    Niklasson, Mats
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Niklasson, Irene
    Vestibularis Clinic, Mönsterås, Sweden.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Sensorimotor Therapy: Using Stereotypic Movements and Vestibular Stimulation to Increase Sensorimotor Proficiency of Children with Attentional and Motor Difficulties2009In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 643-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current naturalistic study examined whether sensorimotor therapy utilizing the training program, Retraining for Balance, might be an appropriate technique for sensorimotor proficiency. The 232 children (181 boys, 51 girls), whose mean age was 9.3 yr. (SD = 2.7), presented attentional and motor difficulties (according to the School Health Care) as indicated by their parents before starting therapy. The children were divided into three groups, i.e., a younger group (7 yr. old or younger, n = 65), a middle group (8 to 10 yr. old, n =91), and an older group (11 yr. old or older, n = 76). The program has seven parts, including fetal and neonatal movements, vestibular and auditory perceptual stimulation, and gross motor movements, among others. The treatment period was close to 3 yr. on the average. Analyses in a repeated-measures design indicated significant improvement of sensorimotor skills among the three age groups, but the older children performed better than the others on several tests. There were only a few sex differences. Retraining for Balance may be a functional technique for training children and youth with sensorimotor difficulties and might constitute a complement to regular treatment of Developmental Coordination Disorder, Learning Disability, and ADHD, but controlled studies are necessary before more decisive conclusions can be drawn.Read More: http://www.amsciepub.com/doi/abs/10.2466/pms.108.3.643-669

  • 61.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    Örebro universitet.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Holländare, Fredrik
    Örebro universitet.
    Engström, Ingemar
    Örebro universitet.
    Group cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia: Effects on sleep and depressive symptomatology in a sample with comorbidity2015In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 74, p. 80-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To investigate the effects of group CBT for insomnia (CBT-I) on insomnia and depressive symptomatology in a comorbid sample through a randomised controlled trial with a 6 month follow-up.

    METHODS: 64 participants were recruited through advertisements and randomised to receive CBT-I or an active control (relaxation training: RT) during four group sessions. Insomnia Severity Index and BDI-II were the primary outcome measures, assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 6 month follow-up. Insomnia and depressive diagnoses, and functional impairment were assessed before and after treatment, whereas sleep diary data was gathered continuously from one week before treatment until after treatment.

    RESULTS: CBT-I was more efficient than RT in reducing insomnia severity and equally effective in reducing depressive symptoms, although CBT-I was associated with a higher proportion of remitted persons than RT, regarding both insomnia and depression diagnoses. Also, CBT-I was associated with less functional impairment, shorter sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset but both treatments had equal improvements of sleep quality, early morning awakenings and total sleep time.

    CONCLUSION: Group CBT-I is an efficient form of insomnia-treatment for people with insomnia comorbid with depressive symptomatology. The mixed results regarding depression outcomes warrants replication and further studies into treatment mechanisms.

  • 62.
    Ohlin, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Delaktighet och maktskifte,En studie om behandling enligt modellen Resursgrupps ACT: Participation and power shift,A study of treatment according to Resource group ACT2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att beskriva hur arbetsmetoden resursgrupps-ACT (RACT) uppfattades av personer med psykiska funktionsnedsättningar (brukare) som behandlats enligt metoden. RACT bygger på samverkan mellan kommun och landsting i vården av personer med allvarlig psykisk sjukdom och en nationell utbildningssatsning omfattande 30 hp genomfördes med deltagare från fem landsting och åtta kommuner. Under kurstiden följde man en brukare och utbildningen avslutades med ett projektarbete där arbetet med brukaren redovisades. Dessa projektarbeten utgör det datamaterial som analyserats i denna studie. Analysen har gjorts med tematisk analys (Hayes, 2000) och resultatet visade att brukarna och deras anhöriga var mycket positivt inställda till att arbeta enligt metoden. Brukarna har upplevt ett större välbefinnande som också visat sig genom färre dagar i slutenvård samt färre och kortare dagar på vårdavdelningar och uppvisar även en förbättring av symtom/funktion bla enligt GAF-skattningar. Anhöriga har på ett helt annat sätt än tidigare känt sig delaktiga i vården och känt sig avlastade. En viktig förutsättning för arbetet med resursgrupp visade sig att samverkan mellan kommun och landsting fungerar.

    Nyckelord: RACT, Integrerad psykiatri, resursgrupp, brukare, delaktighet, maktförskjutning

     

     

  • 63.
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). NU-sjukvården, Trollhättan.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Helldin, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). NU-sjukvården, Trollhättan.
    Predicting real-world functional milestones in schizophrenia2016In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 242, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schizophrenia is a severe disorder that often causes impairments in major areas of functioning, and most patients do not achieve expected real-world functional milestones. The aim of this study was to identify which variables of demography, illness activity, and functional capacity predict patients' ability to attain real-world functional milestones. Participants were 235 outpatients, 149 men and 86 women, diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Our results showed that younger patients managed to achieve a higher level of functioning in educational level, marital status, and social contacts. Patients' functional capacity was primarily associated with educational level and housing situation. We also found that women needed less support regarding housing and obtained a higher level of marital status as compared with men. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering current symptoms, especially negative symptoms, and remission stability over time, together with age, duration of illness, gender, educational level, and current functional capacity, when predicting patients' future real-world functioning. We also conclude that there is an advantage in exploring symptoms divided into positive, negative, and general domains considering their probable impact on functional achievements.

  • 64.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Res dig lycklig2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 65.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Lekedal, Hans
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Relationship Between Satisfaction with Daily Travel and Subjective Well-Being in Three Urban Areas in Sweden: Description of Survey Questionnaire, Sample Characteristics and Preliminary Results2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys of satisfaction with travel are currently conducted as a means of determining the degree to which public transport meet various travel needs. A policy aim in the industry supported by the government is that more people should experience that public transport make their daily lives easier, for instance by increasing access to education and the labour market, and by contributing towards a better environment. This requires that public transport becomes tuned to various groups of citizens’ travel needs. It has been proposed that the possibility of travelling in a satisfactory way is important for the well-being of people. The first aim of the project described in this report was to develop and test a measurement instrument, the Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS), that may help to understand how the daily work commute is evaluated by people living in different urban areas of Sweden (Stockholm, Göteborg, and Malmö), and how their evaluations are related to characteristics of the work commute including travel time, travel mode, trip chaining, and activities performed during travel (multi-tasking). The second aim was to investigate the relationship between STS and well-being measured by retrospective reports of the frequency and intensity of positive and negative affects during a past period, as well as by means of judgments of satisfaction with life in general. Sample characteristics, design and development of the survey questionnaire, survey procedure, descriptive results from a pilot study, and descriptive results from the main study are presented. In total, 996 respondents answered the questionnaire. An English translation of the questionnaire is attached in an appendix.

  • 66.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Shanahan, Helena
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wåhlander, Heléne
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH.
    EcoRunner: User Experiences of a Web Based Environmental Feedback Tool Addressing Household Consumption2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback is generally used to monitor progress toward different goals and standards in life, and to adjust behaviour accordingly. EcoRunner was developed as a web-based feedback tool providing environmental and financial information about households’ daily consumption. This paper presents a user experience study of this feedback tool, and addresses the influences of goal-setting on the experience. The results show that people who more often set financial and pro-environmental goals in life find the tool more attractive, more useful, believing it to have influenced their current behaviour and believing it will be helpful when changing (regulating) future consumption behaviour. Conclusions are drawn that feedback tools like EcoRunner may have different effects for different subgroups in society. It is further suggested that EcoRunner could be used as a tool in education, at different levels in schools and higher education, for enlightening consumers about the relationship between household spending and environmental consequences.

  • 67.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Department of Management/MAPP, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Lu, Chaoren
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Kunming Academy of Governance, Beijing, China.
    Clothes, condoms, and customer satisfaction: The effect of employee mere presence on customer satisfaction depends on the shopping situation2018In: Psychology & Marketing, ISSN 0742-6046, E-ISSN 1520-6793, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 454-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined how customers respond to the mere presence of others in the shopping environment, and only one article (Söderlund, 2017) has investigated the unique impact that employee presence has on key customer outcomes. Söderlund (2017) found that customers entering a store with an employee present (vs. absent) reported significantly higher levels of customer satisfaction, with their increased levels of pleasurable feelings mediating this effect. However, similar to the majority of theorizing on customer satisfaction, that article was restricted to data collected in a Western society. Given the rapid economic growth in many Asian regions, there is a need to examine the applicability of such Western-based findings from an Asian perspective, and hence include participants from Eastern societies. Accordingly, the present research investigated whether Söderlund's (2017) results could be replicated among Asian customers. The current work also sought to extend prior findings beyond pleasure and customer satisfaction while simultaneously documenting a boundary condition for the hitherto positive employee mere presence effects. To this end, two between-subjects experiments with a total sample of 498 Chinese customers were conducted. Study 1, which involved a shopping situation in a clothing store, replicated Söderlund's (2017) main results and further found that employee mere presence (vs. absence) had a significant positive impact on customers' loyalty intentions. These results were reversed in Study 2, in which the shopping situation involved the purchase of an embarrassing product. Under such circumstances, employee presence (vs. absence) consistently produced negative effects on customers' levels of pleasure, satisfaction, and loyalty intentions.

  • 68.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Ringler, Christine
    Rutgers Business School.
    Sirianni, Nancy J.
    D’Amore-McKim School of Business.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Entering Consumption: A Greeter at the Store Entrance Positively Influences Customers’ Spending, Satisfaction, and Employee Perceptions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Left isn’t always right: Placement of pictorial and textual package elements2013In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 115, no 8, p. 1211-1225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the positioning of textual and pictorial design elements on a package affects visual attention (detection time) toward these element types. The study has a 3 × 2 (Stimulus × Location) between-subjects design. One pictorial and two textual package elements, located on the top right- or top left-hand side of a package, were used as stimuli. Visual attention was measured by eye-tracking. A total of 199 university students participated. The data were analysed using a two-way ANOVA and a Pearson’s chi-square analysis with standardised residuals. The results show that in order to receive the most direct attention, textual elements should be on the left-hand side of a package, whereas pictorial elements should be on the right-hand side. This is inconsistent with previous design directions (based on recall), suggesting the opposite element organisation. Previous research has focused on recall (whether respondents remember having seen package elements) or preference (whether respondents prefer a package based on element positioning). The focus of the present study was whether respondents actually saw the different elements on a package, and how long it took them to detect such elements. Detection time for certain element types can be viewed as a new and complementary way of evaluating the position of package elements. The paper also addresses whether preference is a result of easy information acquisition.

  • 70.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Vision (im)possible: The effects of in-store signage on customers’ visual attention2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Eye-tracking Customers’ In-store Search Behavior: The Effect of Store Familiarityon Visual Attention at Different Stages of the Search Process2014In: 2014 Shopper Marketing & Pricing Conference Proceedings / [ed] Grewal, Roggeveen, Nordfält, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Kronoberg County Council, Växjö.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Young children's experiences of participating in group treatment for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A qualitative study2016In: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-1045, E-ISSN 1461-7021, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 119-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) between caregivers is increased during early childhood. The adverse effects on the health and development of the youngest children may be severe. Effective and promising interventions for children who have experienced IPV have been developed and evaluated. However, there is a lack in knowledge about how the children themselves experience the interventions. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evaluation of group treatment designed to improve the psychological health of young children in the aftermath of family violence by elucidating the children's experiences of participating. Nine children, aged 4 to 6 years, were interviewed after participating in group programmes specifically designed for children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence. A semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions was used. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, to ensure a focus on the children's own views and experiences. Five master themes embracing the children's experiences were identified: joy - positive emotional experience of participation; security - feeling safe; relatedness - relationships within the group; to talk - externalised focus on the violence; and competence - new knowledge and skills. Theoretical and clinical implications and the benefit of including very young children's views and experiences in research are discussed.

  • 73.
    Pernebo, Karin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Young children’s experiences of participating in group treatment for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A qualitative study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Perrin-Wallqvist, Renée
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Self-Image and Physical Education: A Phenomenological Study2012In: Fort Lauderdale, Nova Southeastern University, The Qualitative Report 3 rd Annual Conference, January 13 - 14,  2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Perrin-Wallqvist, Renée
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Lindblom, Joesphine
    Coming out as gay: A phenomenological study about adolescents disclosing their homosexuality to their parents2015In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 467-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to gain an understanding of adolescents' experiences of disclosing their sexual orientation as lesbian or gay to their parents. In order to capture these experiences, we conducted interviews with 6 people who had told at least 1 parent of their sexual orientation as lesbian or gay. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis we identified 4 themes from the emotions described by the respondents when they disclosed their sexual orientation to their parents. These 4 themes were feelings of alienation, uneasiness and fear, self-acceptance and being comfortable with one's sexuality, and feeling whole. The conclusion we drew from the accounts of the people we interviewed is that disclosing one's sexual orientation to one's parents is liberating.

  • 76.
    Plank, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013).
    Mindfulness: Tradition, tolkning och tillämpning2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness har snabbt ökat i popularitet de senaste åren, mycket tack vare den legitimitet som internationell forskning om arbetssättet bidragit till. I Sverige har mindfulness kommit att få stort genomslag i vården i form av olika behandlingsmetoder. I den tvärvetenskapliga Mindfulness – tradition, tolkning och tillämpning lägger författarna humanistiska, samhällsvetenskapliga och beteendevetenskapliga perspektiv på mindfulness. De gör nedslag även bland praktiserande buddhister, psykologer och mindfulnessinstruktörer och stimulerar till befruktande samtal mellan akademi och fältet där mindfulness lärs ut. För första gången samlas forskare för att ge nya infallsvinklar på hur idéerna omtalas och synliggörs, och hur detta påverkar vår uppfattning om vad mindfulness ”är”. Antologins kritiska reflektioner syftar till att nyansera den populära bilden av mindfulness som enbart ”medveten närvaro”.

  • 77.
    Sjödin, Carina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Employee attitudes and feelings toward customer co-creation during service innovation2012In: Innovative Service Perspectives: Proceedings from the AMA SERVSIG International Service Research Conference, Helsinki, Finland, June 7-9 2012, Helsinki: Helsinki University , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Soussan, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    The flip side of "Spice": The adverse effects of synthetic cannabinoids as discussed on a Swedish Internet forum2014In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 207-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND - Synthetic cannabinoids in smoking mixtures (such as Spice) or as raw powder are sold for recreational use as an alternative to herbal cannabis (hashish and marijuana). Although clinical case studies have documented an array of side effects, there is also information available at Internet based drug discussion forums. AIM - Our study investigates experiences of side effects from use of synthetic cannabinoids, as described and anonymously shared on Swedish online discussion forums. METHODS - A systematic search yielded 254 unique and publicly available self-reports from the Swedish forum flashback.org. These texts were analysed thematically, which resulted in 32 sub-themes, which were combined into three overarching themes. RESULTS & CONCLUSION - The experiences of negative side effects were described as (1) Adverse reactions during acute intoxication; (2) Hangover the day after intoxication; (3) Dependency and withdrawal after long-term use. The first theme was characterized by an array of fierce and unpredictable side effects as tachycardia, anxiety, fear and nausea. The acute intoxication reactions were congruent with the side effects published in clinical case studies. The day after intoxication included residual effects of dullness, apathy, nausea and headache. Long-term use resulted in dependency and experiences of being emotionally numb and disconnected. Furthermore, withdrawal was described as sweating, shaking, loss of appetite and insomnia. Both the hangover and the long-term effects have previously been given little scientific attention and need to be investigated further. Drug related Internet discussion forums constitute an overlooked source of information which can aid in the identification of previously unknown risks and effects

  • 79.
    Stark, Victoria
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Affect at the different phases of cognitive behavioral therapy: An evaluation of psychotherapy provided by candidates2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 36-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Taniguchi, Ayako
    et al.
    Risk Engineering/University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Grääs, Carin
    Attityd i Karlstad AB.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Satisfaction with travel, goal achievement, and voluntarily behavioral change2014In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 26, no Part A, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential effectiveness of soft policy measures aimed at reduced car use depends on how car users experience these. A common measure being implemented is a free monthly travel card valid for a limited period on public transport (PT). In this study, a total of 321 car commuters living in Värmland, Sweden were recruited into such a program. The goal was to use PT between home and work at least three times a week over a period of four weeks. Immediately after completion of the program, the participants answered a follow-up questionnaire. The Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS) was used to measure their travel experiences. They were also asked to rate their goal achievement. A process model was used during the analyses. Regression analysis showed that the distance from home to the nearest bus stop had a significantly negative effect on the STS. The STS had a significantly positive effect on goal achievement. Both goal achievement and the STS had a significantly positive effect both on PT use and on future goals. This study shows that travel experiences and goal achievement are important for voluntary behavioral change.

  • 81.
    Thomtén, Johanna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro universitet.
    Flink, Ida
    Örebro universitet.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet.
    Social Anxiety, Pain Catastrophizing and Return to Work Self-efficacy in chronic pain: A Cross-sectional Study2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 11, no April, p. 98-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Returning to work after periods of sick-leave due to chronic pain problems, involve a number of situations of interpersonal nature (e.g. meeting supervisors/insurance companies to adapt work setting to present functional level, receive help from colleagues, express pain, etc.). Since chronic pain has shown co-morbidity with social anxiety, it is of interest to investigate restraining factors in return to work among chronic pain sufferers from a social perspective. Catastrophizing is identified in both pain and social anxiety as a mechanism that might fuel a continuous bias in how situations are perceived (threat) and by hindering the development of functional behavior strategies. The presence of social anxiety in chronic pain patients might be seen as a stressor that limits the individuals’ ability to effectively communicate pain-related needs to colleagues, and/or employers and therefore act as a hindering factor in return-to-work. Hence, the overall aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and perceived ability to communicate pain-related needs to the work environment in a clinical pain population.

  • 82.
    Waygood, Owen
    et al.
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Children’s travel and incidental community connections2015In: Travel Behaviour and Society, ISSN 2214-367X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 174-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article looks at the effect that social interactions during travel have on children. The authors investigate how the build environment and mode of travel affect the chance of a child seeing others, either a known person or unknown. The study found that car use reduces the chance of seeking a known person, whereas children associated walking or traveling independently with seeing a known person. The results suggest that mixed-use, transit-oriented development may support better social interaction for children.

  • 83.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Evoking Comprehensive Mental Models of Anonymous Credentials2012In: Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP WG 11.4 international conference on Open Problems in Network Security / [ed] Camenisch J., Kesdogan, D., Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7039, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymous credentials are a fundamental technology for preserving end users' privacy by enforcing data minimization for online applications. However, the design of user-friendly interfaces that convey their privacy benefits to users is still a major challenge. Users are still unfamiliar with the new and rather complex concept of anonymous credentials, since no obvious real-world analogies exists that can help them create the correct mental models. In this paper we explore different ways in which suitable mental models of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials can be evoked on end users. To achieve this, we investigate three different approaches in the context of an e-shopping scenario: a card-based approach, an attribute-based approach and an adapted card-based approach. Results show that the adapted card-based approach is a good approach towards evoking the right mental models for anonymous credential applications. However, better design paradigms are still needed to make users understand that attributes can be used to satisfy conditions without revealing the value of the attributes themselves.

  • 84.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Insights in consumer behavior: Eye-tracking studies at the Service Research Center2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Peripheral vision and the consumer choice process2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Försvarshögskolan.
    Rydstedt, L W
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Department of Social Sciences, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Kleiven, J
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Department of Social Sciences, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Fors Brandebo, M
    Swedish Defence University (SEDU), Karlstad, Sweden.
    The Path to Job Satisfaction: Applying the Theory of Purposeful Behavior to Military Conditions2017In: Journal of Defense Resources Management, ISSN 2068-9403, E-ISSN 2247-6466, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 27-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between, on one hand,personality and performance orientation and, on the other, job satisfaction andturnover intentions, using Barrick’s et al. theory of purposeful behavior. Using aquestionnaire, data about job satisfaction, performance orientation and turnover intentions were collected from 300 newly recruited Swedish soldiers. A path analysis gave partial, but not full support to the assumptions behind the theory of purposeful behavior model. No relationships were found between the personality traits of emotional stability and conscientiousness, nor to either performance orientation or directly to job satisfaction. On the other hand, performance orientation showed a consistent relationship to perceived levels of the job characteristics, which mediated the path between the person-related variables and the outcome variables.Performance orientation also showed a strong direct relationship to general job satisfaction, which, in turn, was strongly related to turnover intentions.

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