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  • 51.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Akiyama, M.
    Gärling, T.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Examining the use of subsidies for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions through experimental simulations2006In: European Environment, ISSN 0961-0405, E-ISSN 1099-0976, European Environment, ISSN 1756-932X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 184-197Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Akiyama, M.
    Gärling, T.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Loukopoulos, P.
    Experimental simulations of a subsidy system for sustainable production2005Report (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Akiyama, M.
    Gärling, T.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Loukopoulos, P.
    Experimental tests of system of governmental subsidies for sustainable production2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Akiyama, M.
    Gärling, T.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Loukopoulos, P.
    Subsidies for sustainable production: Effects of changing subsidy level2005Report (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Applying A Stage-Based Approach to Study Effects of Temporary Free Public Transport on Psychological Mechanisms and Behavior.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Public Transport as a provider of Maas in Rural Areas: An impossible mission?2019In: Implications of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) in Urban and Rural Environments / [ed] António Manuel Amaral, Luís Barreto, Sara Baltazar, João Pedro Silva, Luísa Gonçalves, IGI Global, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Effects of uncertainty reduction and cooperation on price setting in an imperfect price-competition game2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Huck, Jana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Intention for car use reduction: Applying a stage-based model2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates which variables drive intention to reduce car use by modelling a stage of change construct with mechanisms in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Norm Activation Model (NAM). Web questionnaires (n = 794) were collected via 11 workplaces. The socio-demographics, work commute, stage of change, attitudes to sustainable travel modes, social norms, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm were assessed. An initial descriptive analysis revealed that 19% of the employees saw no reason to reduce their car use; 35% would like to reduce their car use but felt it was impossible; 12% were thinking about reducing their car use but were unsure of how or when to do this; 12% had an aim to reduce current car use, and knew which journeys to replace and which modes to use; and 23% try to use modes other than a car for most journeys, and will maintain or reduce their already low car use in the coming months. A series of Ordered Logit Models showed that socio-demographic variables did not explain the stage of change. Instead, personal norms, instrumental and affective attitudes, and perceived behavioral control toward sustainable travel modes were all significant and explained 43% of the variance in stage of change. Furthermore, it was found that the significant relationships were not linear in nature. The analysis also showed an indirect effect of social norms on the stage of change through personal norms. Implications are discussed regarding the design of interventions aimed at influencing a sustainable work commute. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 59.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Department of Management/MAPP, Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Pareigis, Jörg
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Makrygiannis, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lindstrom, Anton
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    The relationship between office type and job satisfaction: Testing a multiple mediation model through ease of interaction and well-being2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 330-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between office type (cellular, shared-room, small open-plan, and medium-sized open-plan) and employees' ease of interaction with coworkers, subjective well-being, and job satisfaction. Methods A brief survey including measures of office type, ease of interaction with coworkers, subjective wellbeing, and job satisfaction was sent electronically to 1500 Swedish real-estate agents, 271 of whom returned usable surveys. The data were analyzed using a regression-based serial multiple mediation model (PROCESS Model 6), which tested whether the relationship between office type and job satisfaction would be mediated by ease of interaction and, in turn, subjective well-being. Results A negative relationship was found between the number of coworkers sharing an office and employees' job satisfaction. This association was serially mediated by ease of interaction with coworkers and subjective well-being, with employees working in small and medium-sized open-plan offices reporting lower levels of both these aspects than employees who work in either cellular or shared-room offices. Conclusions Open-plan offices may have short-term financial benefits, but these benefits may be lower than the costs associated with decreased job satisfaction and well-being. Therefore, decision-makers should consider the impact of office type on employees rather than focusing solely on cost-effective office layout, flexibility, and productivity.

  • 60.
    Pernebo, K.
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Fridell, M.
    Lund universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Outcomes of psychotherapeutic and psychoeducative group interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence2018In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 79, p. 213-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Witnessing violence toward a caregiver during childhood is associated with negative impact on children's health and development, and there is a need for effective interventions for children exposed to intimate partner violence in clinical as well as in community settings. The current effectiveness study investigated symptom reduction after participation in two established group interventions (one community-based psychoeducative intervention; one psychotherapeutic treatment intervention) for children exposed to intimate partner violence and for their non-offending parent. The study included 50 children—24 girls and 26 boys—aged 4–13 years and their mothers. Child and maternal mental health problems and trauma symptoms were assessed pre- and post-treatment. The results indicate that although children showed benefits from both interventions, symptom reduction was larger in the psychotherapeutic intervention, and children with initially high levels of trauma symptoms benefited the most. Despite these improvements, a majority of the children's mothers still reported child trauma symptoms at clinical levels post-treatment. Both interventions substantially reduced maternal post-traumatic stress. The results indicate a need for routine follow-up of children's symptoms after interventions.

  • 61.
    Rydstedt, Leif W.
    et al.
    ASV Psychology, Lillehammer University College (HiL), Norway.
    Österberg, Johan
    Department of Security, Safety, and Leadership, National Defense College (FHS), Karlstad, Sweden.
    Psychological Characteristics of Swedish Mandatory Enlisted Soldiers Volunteering and Not Volunteering for International Missions: An Exploratory Study2013In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 112, no 2, p. 678-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess personality traits, psychological fitness, and hardiness among conscript soldiers volunteering for international missions (n = 146), by comparing them with conscripts from the same year class and unit who did not apply for international missions (n = 275). The sample consisted of all mandatory enlisted soldiers assigned to a supply and maintenance regiment. There were no demographic differences between the groups. The volunteers reported greater stress tolerance, concern for others, extraversion, and self-confidence than the non-volunteers. There were no differences between the groups in orderliness, temper instability, or independence. Volunteers repeatedly reported greater psychological fitness for military missions and greater hardiness over the period of military service compared to the non-volunteers.

  • 62.
    Sairanen, Essi
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Lappalainen, Raimo Ilmari
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Lapveteläinen, Anja Terttu
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Karhunen, Leila Johanna
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Perceptions, Motives, and Psychological Flexibility Associated with Weight Management2012In: Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy, E-ISSN 2165-7904, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Sairanen, Essi
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Lapveteläinen, Anja
    Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.
    Tolvanen, Asko
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Karhunen, Leila
    Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.
    Flexibility in weight management.2014In: Eating Behaviors, ISSN 1471-0153, E-ISSN 1873-7358, ISSN 1471-0153, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 218-24, article id S1471-0153(14)00022-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between changes in flexible vs. rigid restraints of eating during weight management, as well as how changes in the cognitive restraint of eating were related to psychological well-being and flexibility. The data includes information on 49 overweight persons who participated in a weight loss and maintenance (WLM) intervention and a follow-up assessment after 8-9 months. An increase in flexible cognitive restraint during the weight loss intervention was related to better weight loss maintenance and well-being. The more flexible restraint increased during the WLM intervention, the more psychological distress decreased. Moreover, larger reduction of rigid restraint during the follow-up period (between the WLM intervention and the follow-up assessment) was related to a better maintenance of improved psychological well-being at the follow-up endpoint. These results suggest that increasing flexible control while reducing rigid control of eating after an active weight loss phase improves success in weight management and the psychological well-being of weight losers.

  • 64.
    Sairanen, Essi
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland .
    Tolvanen, Asko
    Karhunen, Leila
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Järvelä, Elina
    Rantala, Sanni
    Peuhkuri, Katri
    Korpela, Riitta
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    Psychological flexibility and mindfulness explain intuitive eating in overweight adults2015In: Behavior modification, ISSN 0145-4455, E-ISSN 1552-4167, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 557-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated whether mindfulness and psychological flexibility, independently and together, explain intuitive eating. The participants were overweight or obese persons (N = 306) reporting symptoms of perceived stress and enrolled in a psychological lifestyle intervention study. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological flexibility; mindfulness including the subscales observe, describe, act with awareness, non-react, and non-judgment; and intuitive eating including the subscales unconditional permission to eat, eating for physical reasons, and reliance on hunger/satiety cues. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness were positively associated with intuitive eating factors. The results suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are related constructs that not only account for some of the same variance in intuitive eating, but they also account for significant unique variances in intuitive eating. The present results indicate that non-judgment can explain the relationship between general psychological flexibility and unconditional permission to eat as well as eating for physical reasons. However, mindfulness skills-acting with awareness, observing, and non-reacting-explained reliance on hunger/satiety cues independently from general psychological flexibility. These findings suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are interrelated but not redundant constructs and that both may be important for understanding regulation processes underlying eating behavior.

  • 65.
    Sairanen, Essi
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Tolvanen, Asko
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Karhunen, Leila
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Lindroos, Sanni
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Peuhkuri, Katri
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Korpela, Riitta
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Ermes, Miikka
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Mattila, Elina
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Psychological flexibility mediates change in intuitive eating regulation in acceptance and commitment therapy interventions2017In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 20, no 9, p. 1681-1691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the promising results related to intuitive eating, few studies have attempted to explain the processes encouraging this adaptive eating behaviour. The focus of the present study was on exploring mechanisms of change in intuitive eating and weight in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) interventions. Mediation provides important information regarding the treatment processes and theoretical models related to specific treatment approaches. The study investigates whether psychological flexibility, mindfulness skills and sense of coherence mediated the interventions' effect on intuitive eating and weight.

    DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized control trial. Mediation analysis compared two ACT interventions - face-to-face (in a group) and mobile (individually) - with a control group using a latent difference score model. Settings Data were collected in three Finnish towns.

    SUBJECTS: The participants were overweight or obese (n 219), reporting symptoms of perceived stress.

    RESULTS: The effect of the interventions on participants' (i) BMI, (ii) intuitive eating and its subscales, (iii) eating for physical rather than emotional reasons and (iv) reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues was mediated by changes in weight-related psychological flexibility in both ACT groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that ACT interventions aiming for lifestyle changes mediate the intervention effects through the enhanced ability to continue with valued activities even when confronted with negative emotions and thoughts related to weight.

  • 66.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University.
    Derwinger-Hallberg, Anna
    Region Gotland; Stockholm Gerontology Research Center.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Umeå.
    Memory plasticity in older adults: Cognitive predictors of training response and maintenance following learning of number - consonant mnemonic2015In: Neuropsychological rehabilitation (Print), ISSN 0960-2011, E-ISSN 1464-0694, Vol. 26, no 5-6, p. 742-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the relationship between cognitive factors and gains in number recall following training in a number–consonant mnemonic in a sample of 112 older adults (M = 70.9 years). The cognitive factors examined included baseline episodic memory, working memory, processing speed, and verbal knowledge. In addition, predictors of maintenance of gains to a follow-up assessment, eight months later, were examined. Whereas working memory was a prominent predictor of baseline recall, the magnitude of gains in recall from pre- to post-test assessments were predicted by baseline episodic memory, processing speed, and verbal knowledge. Verbal knowledge was the only significant predictor of maintenance. Collectively, the results indicate the need to consider multiple factors to account for individual differences in memory plasticity. The potential contribution of additional factors to individual differences in memory plasticity is discussed.

  • 67.
    Soussan, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Alarming attitudinal barriers to help-seekingin drug-related emergency situations: Results from a Swedish online survey2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: New troublesome drug trends constitute a challenge for public health. Sweden has the second highest drug-related mortality rate in Europe. This calls for an investigation into the help-seeking attitudes of young adults to early middle-aged individuals asking how they would act in acute drug-related emergency or overdose situations. Methods: In total, 1232 individuals com- pleted an online survey promoted on Sweden’s largest discussion forum Flashback.org. Their free- text responses were analysed according to inductively generated categories. Results: Around 60% of the sample would act as expected and contact emergency care without hesitation. However, approximately 32% of the sample showed palpable resistance and would put off seeking help and use emergency care only as a last resort due to, for example, fear of legal repercussions and stigma. Moreover, 8% displayed a total lack of confidence in public healthcare and would avoid it at all costs or entirely disregard it as an option due to the alleged risk of negative consequences and expe- rienced restrictions on their personal freedom. Conclusions: While the inevitable criminalisation and stigmatisation associated with Sweden’s “zero tolerance” drug policy putatively serve as deterrents to drug use, our results demonstrate that these measures may also contribute to attitudes which discourage help-seeking. Such attitudes may at least partly explain the growing and comparatively high number of drug-induced deaths. Therefore, attitudinal and structural barriers to acute help-seeking in drug-related emergency situations should be acknowledged and investigated further in order to minimise harm.

  • 68.
    Soussan, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Chasing the High: Experiences of Ethylphenidate as Described on International Internet Forums2015In: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, ISSN 1178-2218, E-ISSN 1178-2218, no 9, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethylphenidate is a novel psychoactive substance with undocumented effects, risks, and motivation for use. In this study, we investigated the experience of ethylphenidate by analyzing self-reports published on Internet forums, which revealed seven overarching themes: (1) compulsive redosing and addiction; (2) impacts on the mental state; (3) bodily agitation; (4) increased sociableness; (5) administration; (6) diverse evaluations based on intention; and (7) safety and precaution. Ethylphenidate appeared as a potent psychostimulant with an imminent abuse potential. It was mainly used for recreational purposes. The effects included not only pleasurable stimulation, euphoria, and cognitive enhancement but also indecisiveness, anxiety, and cognitive frag- mentation. The users reported an increase in body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure, but they also experienced profuse sweating and muscle ten- sion. Ethylphenidate acted as a social lubricant, enhancing intimacy, communication, and social skills. Two opposing user mentalities were uncovered: (1) pleasure seeking and risk neglecting, and (2) safety-first orientation. This information could be of importance to legislators, public health personnel, and prevention strategists. 

  • 69. Stattin, Håkan
    et al.
    Kim, Yunhwan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Both parents and adolescents project their own values when perceiving each other’s values2018In: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 106-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How parents and adolescents perceive each other’s life values is a key to understanding successful value transmission. In the value socializations literature, it has been proposed that parents’ values become internalized when children correctly perceive their parents’ values and decide to adopt them as their own. In the current study, we propose that interpersonal value perception of broader life values is characterized by a perceptual bias—projection—which propels adolescents to perceive their parents’ values to be similar to their own, and propels parents to perceive their adolescents’ values to be similar to theirs. This cross-sectional study examined 518 dyads of adolescents and their parents. Adolescents rated how important different humanistic, environmental, and achievement values were to them, and how important these values were to their parents. Parents similarly rated how important these values were to them and to their adolescents. Using structural equation modeling, an interpersonal value perception model was constructed that estimated how much parents and adolescents projected their own values when perceiving each other’s values. The results supported the idea that both parents and adolescents substantially project their own values when perceiving the others’ values, and that they perceive the others’ values with low accuracy. We discuss our findings in light of value socialization in both research and practice.

  • 70.
    Ståhl, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att uppfinna ett nytt hjul eller att fastna i gamla hjulspår: En studie i priming av användbarhet och originalitet vid idéskapande2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine priming with example’s impact on ideas creativity, regarding usability and novelty both as a result of targeting priming and conceptual priming. A subsidiary aim was to examine the relationship between an idea’s degree of originality and usefulness and the interest in pursuing the idea.

    The effects of priming were tried in an experiment involving 36 students who were asked to develop IT solutions for public transport. The students were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. The members of the experimental group were primed with an example with high originality respectively usability. The solutions were given two indexes on how many of the properties of respective examples were found in the solutions. Their degree of originality and usefulness were also assessed by a group of experts. This group also assessed their interest in the respective solution.

    The study revealed a significant positive correlation between a solution's usability and interest of the solution. A positive significant correlation could also be seen between a solution's originality and the interest of the solution, but only in the group of analysts consisting of scientists. Among the industry-experts the results instead pointed toward a negative relationship between originality and interest, although a non-significant relationship.

    There were no significant differences between the group’s solutions regarding their degree of originality and usefulness nor the frequency in which features from the example was found in the solutions.

    The study is of importance because it shows how increases in the creativity of solutions produced by individuals and employees not necessarily lead to an increase in the creativity of an organization, due to lack of interest in embracing and invest in these creative solutions.

    The study also reflects the difficulties in transferring priming effects discovered in a lab environment to situations that more closely resembles those in real life. Further research is necessary to broaden the knowledge regarding variables that affects priming and the limits between which priming exist.

  • 71. Suzuki, Haruna
    et al.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    How satisfaction with trip legs affect whole trip satisfaction?: Tests of models for aggregated satisfaction of work commutes2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Terp, Ulrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Not Just Tools to Handle It: A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Experiences From Participating in a Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management Intervention2019In: Health Education & Behavior, ISSN 1090-1981, E-ISSN 1552-6127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Stress-related problems are an increasing challenge within nurse education since it affects learning, professional development, and mental health negatively. Despite this, knowledge is scarce regarding nursing students' experiences of being in stress management interventions. Aim. This study aimed to describe how nursing students experienced a preventive cognitive behavioral therapy-based stress management intervention. Method. Data were collected through 14 semistructured interviews with nursing students who had participated in a stress management intervention, and analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis. Results. The analysis yielded one theme, Turning points, which consisted of four categories: (1) more in touch with reality, (2) increased self-confidence, (3) improved communication skills, and (4) a new way of reflecting. Discussion. Findings emphasize the importance of both theoretical and structural aspects when planning a stress management training intervention. A group format delivery in combination with a multicomponent cognitive behavioral intervention can be interrelated elements for positive stress-related changes. Conclusion. Our findings indicate that participants developed new and more adaptive coping strategies, which were attributed to the intervention. The participants expressed that they had increased their ability to reflect, which led to increased insight and self-reflection. The intervention constitutes an example of a contribution to stress management research and provides information for stress management training initiatives in nurse education.

  • 73.
    Terp, Ulrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of a Cognitive Behavioral-Based Stress Management Program on Stress Management Competency, Self-efficacy and Self-esteem Experienced by Nursing Students2019In: Nurse Educator, ISSN 0363-3624, E-ISSN 1538-9855, Vol. 44, no 1, p. E1-E5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing students' exposure to stress negatively affects both academic and clinical performance and potentially their future as professional nurses. This pilot study measured the effects of a 10-week cognitive behavioral therapy-based stress management program, using a quasi-experimental design. Independent t tests showed positive effects of the training program compared with a control group. Students' perceived stress management competency, self-efficacy, and self-esteem were higher 1 year after the intervention.

  • 74.
    Torbjörnsson, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Does ESD support or oppose change in the fundamental socioenvironmental values of pupils?2010In: / [ed] Leif Östman, Tungalag Baljir, Ulanbaatar: Mongolian State University of Education, Uppsala University , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational policy documents from global to national and local levels give priority to learning how to achieve sustainable development. “Few issues are so important but so elusive as sustainable development, and there can be very few such issues indeed where the role of learning is so crucially important to our future.”(Scott & Gough, 2004, s. xi). A need of change in human values is often expressed as a prerequisite for sustainable development.  How ESD can support this change, without yielding to manipulation and indoctrination, is one of the current main issues.  How do you as a teacher balance on the edge between “knowing what is right and knowing that it´s wrong to tell others what is right” ?(Wals, 2010)           There are abundant suggestions about which values that have to be changed in order to achieve sustainable development.  I choose to presuppose the fundamental values underlying The Millennium Declaration of the UN. They are freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature and shared responsibility (UN, 2000). Despite their importance not very much is known about how these values help or hinder sustainable development (Leiserowitz, Kates, & Paris, 2006). Studies from many different countries show that students´ primary concern is globally environmental problems. Less is  known about how this concern is related to other issues that the students find important (Rickinson, 2001) and how the values mentioned above are correlated to each other.

    An individual can express values through actions and attitudes. Focus in my research is on how the fundamental values, underlying sustainable development, are expressed in attitudes and how these are combined and distributed among Swedish pupils in upper secondary school. A questionnaire (n=917) with 27 statements, concerning attitudes towards nature and towards fellow human beings is so far the empirical body. I use five-grade Likert items[i] aggregated into four groups, each of them summing up to a Likert scale[ii] measuring different aspects of one value. The four values are; biocentrism, anthropocentrism (two different aspects of respect for nature) equality and solidarity and are consequently connected to the underlying values in The Millennium Declaration of the UN. I use Bogner and Wiseman´s (2003)Model of Ecological Values to measure  respect for nature and have constructed a new scale, Model of Social Values,  for the purpose of measuring solidarity and equality.

    Preliminary results show a significant correlation between a strong willingness to preserve nature and to show solidarity with a wide in-group of others. There is also a significant correlation between strong utilization attitudes towards nature and to show solidarity with a narrower in-group and also between strong utilization attitudes and to accept unequal distribution of resources.  These findings mainly confirm results from earlier research. People high in empathy tend to be low in materialistic values and high in intrinsic values and more negative environmental attitudes are often associated with less concern for social justice and equality(Crompton & Kasser, 2009).

    My all-embracing research question is to analyze how pupils today understand how learning processes in elementary school have supported or opposed their own socioenvironmental values. To do that I need to carry out qualitative interviews with individuals representing the main categories in my survey. In those interviews one aim is to catch the essence of how pupils interpret their teachers’ ability to balance on the edge between telling what is right and supporting diversity and pluralism. 

    [i] The respondent mark the level of agreement from 1= strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree

    [ii] A summated scale of several items which together measure one dimension

  • 75.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Scott, Don
    Southern Cross Business School, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia.
    Team diversity and its management in a co-design team2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 120-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the conditions under which a co-design team comprised of in-house professionals and leading-edge service users can generate innovative service design concepts. Design/methodology/approach: The investigation used a field-experimental design to conduct two studies. Observations and open-ended questionnaires were used to examine cross-comparison matrices with experts rating the generated outcomes and t-tests being used to compare the outcome ratings between teams of different compositions. Findings: The outcomes produced by a co-design team seem to be linked to the team diversity – process facilitation relationship. Bringing a variety of knowledge and skills into the team can lead to original outcomes, while a high disparity between members’ backgrounds can require extensive efforts to facilitate a collaborative process. Separation between users’ objectives can result in a user-driven process and outcomes that are too specific for the broader marketplace. Co-design teams that characterize minimum separation, maximum variety, and moderate disparity are likely to produce the most promising results. Research limitations/implications: The research was restricted to a narrowly defined study setting and samples. Future research should replicate the current study in other service contexts using different team compositions. Practical implications: Co-design requires the careful selection of users based on their background and motivations, as well as the facilitation of a process that enables the team to collaboratively transform relevant knowledge into innovative outcomes. Originality/value: The research contributes to a better understanding of the team composition – process facilitation relationship affecting innovation outcomes. Doing so provides a more fine-grained picture of the co-design team composition and the facilitation requirements for service design. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 76.
    Waygood, E. Owen D.
    et al.
    Polytechnique Montréal, Canada.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Mitra, Raktim
    Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Introduction to Transport and Child Wellbeing2019In: Children´s travel and wellbeing / [ed] Waygood, E.O.D., Friman, M., Olsson, L. E., & Mitra, R., Elsevier, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Waygood, E.Owen D.
    et al.
    Polytechnique Montreal , Canada.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Mitra, Raktim
    Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Transportation and Children’s Well-Being2019 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation and Children’s Well-Being applies an ecological approach, examining the social, psychological and physical impacts transport has on children at the individual and community level. Drawing on the latest multidisciplinary research in transport, behavior, policy, the built environment and sustainability, the book explains the pathways and mechanisms by which transport affects the different domains of children’s travel. Further, the book identifies the influences of transportation with respect to several domains of well-being, highlighting the influences of residential location on travel by different modes and its impact on the long-term choices families make.

    The book concludes with proposed evidence-based solutions using real-world examples that support positive influences on well-being and eliminate or reduce negative solutions.

  • 78.
    Wehmeier, Peter M.
    et al.
    England.
    Schacht, Alexander
    Germany.
    Ulberstad, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Lehmann, Martin
    Germany.
    Schneider-Fresenius, Christian
    Germany.
    Lehmkuhl, Gerd
    Germany.
    Dittmann, Ralf W.
    Germany.
    Banaschewski, Tobias
    Germany.
    Does Atomoxetine Improve Executive Function, Inhibitory Control, and Hyperactivity?: Results From a Placebo-Controlled Trial Using Quantitative Measurement Technology2012In: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0271-0749, E-ISSN 1533-712X, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 653-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of atomoxetine (ATX) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms assessed as standard variables of a computer-based continuous performance test (cb-CPT) combined with a motion-tracking (MT) device. This was a 2-arm, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with ADHD (6-12 years). Therapy with ATX started with 0.5 mg/kg per day for 1 week, followed by 7 weeks on the target dosage of 1.2 mg/kg per day. Primary outcomes were cb-CPT/MT standard scores after 8 weeks using mixed models for repeated measurements. In addition, investigator-rated ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), Weekly Ratings of Evening and Morning Behavior (WREMB), and Clinical Global Impression - Severity-ADHD (CGI-S-ADHD) scores were assessed. Of 128 patients randomized, 125 were evaluated (ATX/placebo: 63/62). Baseline characteristics were comparable in both groups (overall, 80.2% boys; mean [SD] age, 9.0 [1.79] years; comorbid Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis, 40.0% oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder; prior stimulant treatment, 24.8%; ADHD-RS total score, 36.99 [11.56]). At week 8, all cb-CPT/MT q-scores were significantly reduced versus placebo (all P < 0.001) with effect sizes (ESs) of reaction time (RT) variation (ES = 0.71), mean RT (ES = 0.41), number of microevents (ES = 1.00), commission error rate (ES = 0.50), distance of movement (ES = 0.90), area of movement (ES = 1.08), omission error rate (ES = 0.70), time active (ES = 0.69), motion simplicity (ES = 0.38), and normalized variance of RT (ES = 0.50). Secondary end points also improved significantly in favor of ATX: ADHD-RS (total score ES = 1.30, P < 0.001; hyperactivity/impulsivity subscore ES = 1.37, P < 0.001; inattention subscore ES = 1.07, P < 0.001), WREMB (total score ES = 1.00, P < 0.001; morning subscore ES = 0.59, P = 0.002; evening subscore ES = 1.02, P < 0.001), CGI-S-ADHD (ES = 1.11, P < 0.001). The results of this study show that ATX for 8 weeks significantly reduced ADHD-related symptoms as measured by the cb-CPT/MT.

  • 79.
    Westman, Jessica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    How to measure Children’s Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with School Travel2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Westman, Jessica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Travel and child wellbeing: The cognitive and psychological domains.2019In: Transport and Children’s Wellbeing / [ed] Owen Waygood, Margareta Friman, Lars Olsson, Raktim Mitra, Elsevier, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Consumer perception at the point-of-purchase2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Unsold is unseen … or is it?: Examining the role of peripheral vision in the consumer choice process using eye-tracking methodology2018In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 120, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual marketing, the truism that “unseen is unsold” means that products that are not noticed will not be sold. This truism rests on the idea that the consumer choice process is heavily influenced by visual search. However, given that the majority of available products are not seen by consumers, this article examines the role of peripheral vision in guiding attention during the consumer choice process. In two eye-tracking studies, one conducted in a lab facility and the other conducted in a supermarket, the authors investigate the role and limitations of peripheral vision. The results show that peripheral vision is used to direct visual attention when discriminating between target and non-target objects in an eye-tracking laboratory. Target and non-target similarity, as well as visual saliency of non-targets, constitute the boundary conditions for this effect, which generalizes from instruction-based laboratory tasks to preference-based choice tasks in a real supermarket setting. Thus, peripheral vision helps customers to devote a larger share of attention to relevant products during the consumer choice process. Taken together, the results show how the creation of consideration set (sets of possible choice options) relies on both goal-directed attention and peripheral vision. These results could explain how visually similar packaging positively influences market leaders, while making novel brands almost invisible on supermarket shelves. The findings show that even though unsold products might be unseen, in the sense that they have not been directly observed, they might still have been evaluated and excluded by means of peripheral vision. This article is based on controlled lab experiments as well as a field study conducted in a complex retail environment. Thus, the findings are valid both under controlled and ecologically valid conditions.

  • 83. Årström, Julia
    et al.
    Lindh, Marianne
    AD/HD - hur kan det påverka mig?: Narrativ studie av 28 levnadsberättelser2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 84.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Försvarshögskolan.
    Rydstedt, L W
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Department of Social Sciences, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Kleiven, J
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Department of Social Sciences, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Fors Brandebo, M
    Swedish Defence University (SEDU), Karlstad, Sweden.
    The Path to Job Satisfaction: Applying the Theory of Purposeful Behavior to Military Conditions2017In: Journal of Defense Resources Management, ISSN 2068-9403, E-ISSN 2247-6466, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 27-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between, on one hand,personality and performance orientation and, on the other, job satisfaction andturnover intentions, using Barrick’s et al. theory of purposeful behavior. Using aquestionnaire, data about job satisfaction, performance orientation and turnover intentions were collected from 300 newly recruited Swedish soldiers. A path analysis gave partial, but not full support to the assumptions behind the theory of purposeful behavior model. No relationships were found between the personality traits of emotional stability and conscientiousness, nor to either performance orientation or directly to job satisfaction. On the other hand, performance orientation showed a consistent relationship to perceived levels of the job characteristics, which mediated the path between the person-related variables and the outcome variables.Performance orientation also showed a strong direct relationship to general job satisfaction, which, in turn, was strongly related to turnover intentions.

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