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  • 51.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Grip, Karin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Broberg, Anders
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Promising but not good enough: Evaluation of communitybased interventions for children in Sweden exposed to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against their mother2012In: Children exposed to Intimate Partner Violence, 2012, p. 151-151Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Grip, Karin
    Broberg, Anders
    Psykisk hälsa hos mammor som utsatts för våld av sin partner: före och efter deltagande i Bojens grupprogram2010Report (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Hwang, C.P.
    Iranian refugees in Sweden: Coping processes in children and their families1999In: Childhood, 6: 167-188Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Division for Health and Caring Sciences.
    Barn som bevittnat våld2004In: Skolhälsovård, ISSN 1102-3112, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 55.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Malmström, Cajsa
    Barns psykosociala utveckling, riskbedömningar i asylärenden: En utbildning med Kjerstin Almqvist och Anders Broberg2006Report (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Modig, C
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Långberg, B
    Never violence - thirty years on from Sweden´s Abolition of Corporal Punishment2009Book (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Ohlsson, A.
    Svanegård, S.
    Hembesök ersätter slutenvård: En beskrivning av arbetet vid Akutsektionen2007Report (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Psykisk ohälsa2005Report (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Al-rufeye, Taqwa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Division for Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livet efter ett beroende: En kvalitativ studie om vägen från att vara beroende till ett rökfritt liv.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att genom en kvalitativ metod försöka få en djupare förståelse om hur före detta rökare upplever omställningen till ett beroendefritt liv samt hur de undviker att falla tillbaka till beroendet. För att kunna uppfylla syftet så intervjuades före detta rökare. De fick berätta om processen hur de slutade röka och hur de idag lever ett rökfritt liv. Intervjuerna analyserades med en tematisk analys.

                          Utifrån den tematiska analysen framkom gemensamma teman för respondenterna om hur det är att leva som rökfri, dessa teman var Beslutsamheten att bli rökfri och motivationen bakom, Hur man bemästrar ett röksug, Ökad medvetenhet om rökning. Dessa teman ger en bild av hur före detta rökare upplever omställningen till ett beroendefritt liv och hur de undviker att falla tillbaka till beroendet. Studiens slutsats visade bland annat att leva rökfri bidrar till en mycket bättre hälsa och positiv personlig förändring.

     

    Nyckelord: rökfri, beroende, återfall, livsförändring, hälsan 

  • 60.
    Alster, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Att leda på det aktivitetsbaserade kontoret: En kvalitativ studie om chefers upplevelser av ledarskapet i en öppen arbetsmiljö2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka chefers upplevelser av att leda på ett aktivitetsbaserat kontor. I studien tillämpades en kvalitativ metod och intervjuer användes för datainsamling. Nio chefer ingick i studien och delade med sig av sina upplevelser i semistrukturerade intervjuer. En tematisk analys av materialet genererade fyra olika teman. Temat Tillgänglighet beskriver en utsatthet i den ökade tillgängligheten, men även en möjlighet att komma närmare sina medarbetare. Temat Rörelse och tillhörighet beskriver hur den ständiga rörelsen kan skapa känslor av ensamhet, men också ge ökad energi. I temat Aktiv kommunikation berättar cheferna om hur de behöver anpassa kommunikationen för att uppmärksamma sina medarbetare samt hur öppenheten bidrar till kortare beslutsvägar och bredare kunskap. Det sista temat, Öppenhet och trygghet, beskriver en känsla av ökad delaktighet och att vara synlig både som chef och människa. Resultatet visar att det finns risker med att chefernas autonomi påverkas. Det aktivitetsbaserade kontoret kräver en mera aktiv kommunikation och det kan vara en utmaning att skapa samhörighet. Den ökade delaktigheten bidrar till ett mindre hierarkiskt ledarskap och verkar vara gynnsamt för grupprocesser.

  • 61.
    Alster, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Öppenhet - på gott och ont.: En kvalitativ studie om hur anställda på en aktivitetsbaserad arbetsplats beskriver sin arbetsmiljö.2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det blir allt vanligare att organisationer väljer en arbetsmiljö med öppen planlösning. Den aktivitetsbaserade arbetsplatsen är ett exempel på en sådan planlösning. Föreliggande studie syftar till att undersöka hur anställda i en kommunal verksamhet där arbetsplatsen är aktivitetsbaserad beskriver sin arbetsmiljö. Fyra deltagare delade med sig av sina beskrivningar av sin arbetsmiljö i semistrukturerade intervjuer. I den tematiska analysen framkom tre teman. Öppenhetens påverkan på våra sinnen, Öppenhetens påverkan på det sociala samspelet och Öppenhetens påverkan på planering och förberedelser. Olika individer klarar av utmaningarna på den aktivitetsbaserade arbetsplatsen olika bra. För några kan det leda till stressrelaterade problem och att de byter arbetsplats, andra anpassar sig och hanterar utmaningarna på ett framgångsrikt sätt. Individers copingstrategier kan ha betydelse i sammanhanget, liksom förmågan till psykologisk flexibilitet.

  • 62.
    Anclair, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Fears, Stress and Burnout in Parents of Children with Chronic Conditions: Treatment with Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Mindfulness2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present research was threefold: to investigate the fears of parents of children with chronic conditions; to evaluate the effectiveness of their treatment with either mindfulness-based therapy or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT); and to assess treatment outcome in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Long-term stress can lead to some form of chronic stress reaction. In study one, fears of future cancer recurrence and of late effects of treatment were most prominent among parents of CNS tumour patients. Study two investigated the effectiveness of two group-based interventions on stress and burnout among parents of children with chronic conditions. Parents were offered either a CBT or a mindfulness programme. Both interventions significantly decreased stress and burnout. Study three focused on the HRQoL and life satisfaction of the parents in study two. The results indicate improvements for participants in both treatment groups regarding certain areas of HRQoL and life satisfaction. To conclude, fears concerning future cancer recurrence and late effects of treatment are most prominent among parents of children with cancer. Another conclusion is that CBT and mindfulness decrease stress and burnout and may have a positive effect on areas of HRQoL and life satisfaction.

  • 63.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Cognitive behavioural therapy for stress-related problems: Two single-case studies of parents of children with disabilities.2014In: Clinical Case Studies, ISSN 1534-6501, E-ISSN 1552-3802, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 472-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many parents who have children suffering from some form of chronic illness or mental disorder may experience chronic stress reactions of various types. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been proved to be effective in reducing stress-related problems, but there seems to be no study to date in which CBT has been tested on this specific parent group. Two case studies were therefore performed. Case 1 centered on a 47-year-old married woman, who has lived in Sweden for 12 months. She described how she had become increasingly exhausted, and she wanted help to find strategies enabling her to cope with everyday life. Case 2 featured a 45-year-old single mother, who had been on part-time sick leave due to depression and stress. She described how she had always been anxious and worried and had had two episodes of depression. Both women had sons diagnosed with autism/Asperger syndrome. One of the women met the criteria for pathological burnout, while the other woman was just below the limit. The focus of the therapy for both women was on exhaustion, depression, and sleeping difficulties. In addition, therapy in Case 1 involved under-stimulation and in Case 2, anxiety. When the therapy ended, genuine improvements were registered for both clients. The results show that CBT can be an effective treatment of symptoms for this group of parents so that they can provide adequate support to their children, thus facilitating everyday life for a child with a chronic illness or disorder.

  • 64.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness for health-related quality of life: Comparing treatments for parents of children with chronic conditions: A pilot feasibility study2017In: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on parents of children with chronic conditions has shown that this parent group frequently suffers from psychological problems such as deteriorating life quality and stress-related disorders. Objective: The present feasibility study focuses on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and life satisfaction of parents of children with chronic conditions. Method: The study was conducted using a repeated measures design and applied either group-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT; n = 10) or a group-based mindfulness programme (MF; n = 9). The study participants were wait-listed for six months. Results:The results indicate improvements for participants in both treatment groups regarding certain areas of HRQOL and life satisfaction. After eight group therapy sessions, parents in the two treatment groups significantly improved their Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores as well as their scores on the mental subscales Vitality, Social functioning, Role emotional and Mental health. In addition, some of the physical subscales, Role physical, Bodily pain and General health, showed considerable improvement for the MF group. When testing for clinical significance by comparing the samples with mean values of a norm population, the MCS scores were significantly lower at pre-measurements, but no significant differences were observed post-measurement. For the Physical component summary (PCS) scores, a significantly higher score was observed at post-measurement when compared to the norm population. Moreover, the results indicate improvement in life satisfaction regarding Spare time, Relation to child and Relation to partner. Conclusion: The study concludes that CBT and mindfulness may have a positive effect on areas of HRQOL and life satisfaction.

  • 65.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Muotka, Joona
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness for stress and burnout: a waiting list controlled pilot study comparing treatments for parents of children with chronic conditions2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 389-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Parents of children with chronic conditions often experience a crisis with serious mental health problems for themselves as a consequence. The healthcare focus is on the children; however, the parents often worry about their children's health and future but are seldom offered any counselling or guidance.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two group-based behavioural interventions on stress and burnout among parents of children with chronic conditions.

    Design, participants and setting

    After a waiting list control period (n = 28), parents were offered either a cognitive behavioural (CBT, n = 10) or a mindfulness program (MF, n = 9).

    Results

    Both interventions decreased significantly stress and burnout. The within-group effect sizes were large in both interventions (CBT, g = 1.28–1.64; MF, g = 1.25–2.20).

    Conclusions

    Hence, the results of this pilot study show that treating a group using either CBT or mindfulness can be an efficient intervention for reducing stress levels and burnout in parents of children with chronic conditions.

  • 66.
    Anderson, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Ayahuasca- "själens dryck": En intervjustudie utifrån svenska deltagares perspektiv om valet att använda sig av Ayahuasca  samt hur erfarenheten påverkat dem.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 67.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Changing the servicescape: The influence of music and self-disclosure on approach-avoidance behavior2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and understand the effect of a servicescape’s ambient and social conditions on consumers’ Approach/Avoidance behavior in a retail context. More specifically, this thesis investigates the effect of music (ambient stimuli) and employees’ self-disclosure (social stimuli) on consumers’ Approach/Avoidance behavior in a retail store. Paper I comprised two experiments. Experiment 1 investigated the influence of the independent variable No music/Music. Likewise, experiment 2 studied the influence of the independent variable No music/Slow-tempo music/Fast-tempo music. The dependent variables in both experiments were pleasure, arousal, and the resulting Approach/Avoidance behavior. Paper II investigated the influence of the independent variable self-disclosure. The dependent variables were Approach/Avoidance behavior, measured by pleasure, arousal, liking, satisfaction, and reciprocity. The conclusions of this thesis are that both ambient and social stimuli in a servicescape affect consumers’ internal responses, which in turn affect their behavior. Depending on the situation (type of purchase), retail (bank, supermarket, or electronic retail store), and stimuli (ambient or social), the internal and behavioral responses are different.

  • 68.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Changing the servicescape: The influence of music, self-disclosure and eye gaze on service encounter experience and approach-avoidance behavior2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and understand the effect of a servicescape’s ambient and social conditions on consumers’ service encounter experience and their approach/avoidance behavior in a retail context. In three papers, with a total sample of over 1600 participants (including 550 actual consumers) and seven experiments, the author investigates the effect of music (ambient stimuli), employees’ self-disclosure (verbal social stimuli) and employees’ gazing behavior (nonverbal social stimuli) on consumers’ service encounter experience and approach/avoidance behavior in a retail store.

    Paper I comprised two experiments, and the aim was to investigate the influence of music on emotions, approach/avoidance behavior. Paper II comprised two experiments, and the aim was to investigate the effect of frontline employees’ personal self-disclosure on consumers’ reciprocal behavior. Paper III comprised three experiments, and the aim was to investigate the influence of employee’s direct eye gaze/ averted eye gaze on consumer emotions, social impression of the frontline employee and encounter satisfaction in different purchase situations.

    The results in this thesis show that music affects consumers in both positive and negative ways (Paper I). Self-disclosure affects consumers negatively, in such a way that it decreases encounter satisfaction  (Paper II) and, finally, eye gaze affects consumers by regulating both positively – and in some cases also negatively – consumers’ social impression of the frontline employee and their encounter satisfaction (Paper III).

    The conclusions of this thesis are that both ambient and social stimuli in a servicescape affect consumers’ internal responses, which in turn affect their behavior. Depending on the purchase situation, type of retail, and stimuli, the internal and behavioral responses are different.

  • 69.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Acting as we were friends: the influence of contact employee self-disclosure on customer reciprocity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    I'll tell you something private and you'll buy from me: Effects of self-disclosure on reciprocity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Selling by Telling: Effects of Self-disclosure on ReciprocityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    The effect of frontline employees' personal self-disclosure on consumers' encounter experience2016In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 30, no May, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how frontline employee self-disclosure influences consumers’ reciprocal behavior. To investigate the effects of frontline employee self-disclosure, two experiments were conducted with a total sample of 475 participants. The results show that when frontline employees disclose personal information in one-time encounters, they are perceived as less competent and more superficial. The results also show that self-disclosure negatively affects reciprocal behavior, but that this is mediated through liking, competence, superficiality, and satisfaction. These findings suggest that it is not always beneficial for employees to use self-disclosure as a strategy for garnering a consumer's trust or satisfaction, which counters previous research that suggest that disclosure of personal information is a good way to positively influence consumers in the retail environment.

  • 73.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Let the music play or not: the influence of background music on consumer behavior.2012In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 553-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns the effect that music has on consumer behavior in two different retail contexts during regular opening hours. Two studies were conducted in a field setting with consumers (N=550). Consumers were recruited to answer questions regarding behavioral measures, attitudes, and mood during days when background music was played. The conclusions from the two studies are that music affects consumer behavior, but also that the type of retail store and gender influences both the strength and direction of the effect

  • 74.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Nöjd, Sture
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Westman, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    The How, What, and Why of Digitalizing Physical Retail Spaces2019In: The 16th International Research Symposium on Advancing Service Research and Practice, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This aim of this study is to enhance the understanding of customer behavior and customer experience in the context of city centers and peripheral shopping centers and how the use of digitalized services affects this experience. In this paper we adopt a qualitative approach to explore consumers´ activities when visiting a city and/or a shopping center and the experiences connected to the visit. The study is based on data from 832 (55% female) with a M age = 48 years (range 17-91 years) consumers.

    When visiting a city center and/or a shopping center, customers engage with a variety of different touchpoints (Socchi, Hart and Haji, 2016). From a customer perspective these touchpoints create experiences that generates many types of values. In recent years, the mass media has warned for the demise of city and shopping centers commerce. This purported demise is mainly due to the strong growth of e-commerce. To meet this competition, the retail and hospitality industry has developed strategies to create new customer experiences and thus attract customers back to the city center’s physical places. As a consequence of the technical development, companies frequently try to influence customers’ experiences through various digitalized services, where these digitalized service have the potential to improve customer experience by providing superior and personalized services (Roy et al. 2016). The question is what impact such services have on customers’ experiences and how this, in turn, affects the profitability of the retail and hospitality industry as a whole.

    In order to shed light on the activities and experiences of visitors to city and shopping centers regular consumers were approach during a regular visit to such an area and asked to answer a few open ended questions.  The data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis aims to identify and report on thematic patterns across the sample, which allows researchers to make interpretations of the data that reflect the reported reality of participants (Braun and Clarke, 2006; Hayes, 2000; Ruane and Wallace, 2013).

    The preliminary analysis of the data shows a variety of activities and touchpoints when visiting the city and shopping center. Seven themes emerged in our analysis of the participants´ responses: Relationship, Goal fulfillment, Experiences, Physical venue, Milieu, Practical usability and Non-intrusive.

    In order to make more sense of the seven themes a model were developed. In this model three of the themes were connected to the customer, two connected to the service provider and the last two connected to digital technology. These three clusters interact in different ways.

    The customer cluster contains the themes relationships, goal fulfilment and experiences. The themes in this cluster describe and vivifies the customer. The customer is not just a “shopping robot” jumping from touchpoint to touchpoint along a customer journey. The customer instead is a person with goals to fulfil but at the same time someone who has a great need of relationships on different levels and a person who will and want to experience things.

    The service provider cluster contains two themes. One were named physical venue and this is where the service provider, be it a storeowner or a restaurant owner for example, has the most direct control. It is also where the customer will go to fulfil his or her goals. Here the direct contact between customer and service provider can and will take place. The second theme in this cluster were named “milieu”. The milieu can be the space the customer needs to pass in order to get to the physical venue or other factors that the service provider do not have control over (e.g. public spaces and weather)

    The third and most interesting cluster concerns the digital technology, named practical usability and non-intrusive. Digitalization is highly interesting when it comes to the relationship between the customer and the service provider. The first theme described the importance of the usefulness of digital technology, and  in regards to digitalization the results indicates that digitalized services mostly fulfill utilitarian needs and works best in functional touchpoints. The theme called non-intrusive describes the relation between the customer and the digital technology. It may be somewhat drastic to talk about a two edged sword but on the one hand digital technology makes life easier and sometimes more joyful and at the same time the technology may disturb goal activities which leads to negative experiences.

    These findings is important because it offers help to those managing city and shopping centers in identify touchpoints that need to be digitalized and those who need to be reinforced through social activities This knowledge could also help managers develop strategies to create new customer experience, i.e. create good valuescapes, and thus tease customer back to the city and shopping center´s physical places.

    REFERENCES

    Braun, V. and Clarke, V., (2006), 'Using thematic analysis in psychology’, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2) 77-101

    Hayes, N. (2000), Doing Psychological Research, Open University Press, Buckinghamshire.

    Ruane, L. and Wallace, E., (2013), 'Generation Y females online: insight from brand narratives', Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 16 (3) 315-335

    Roy, S. K., Balaji, M. S., Sadeque, S., Nguyen, B., and Mlewar, T. C., (2016), 'Constituents and consequences of smart customer experience in retailing', Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 124 257-270

    Stocchi, L., Hart, C., and Haji, I., (2016), 'Understanding the town centre customer experience (TCCE) ', Journal of Marketing Management, 32 (17-18) 1562-1587

  • 75.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    The effect of gaze on consumers’ encounter evaluation2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 372-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The research concerns the effect of frontline employees’ averted or direct gaze on consumers’ evaluation of the encounter. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in normal interactions, a direct or averted gaze affects people’s evaluation of others. The question was whether this finding would hold true in commercial interactions.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted three experiments using a written scenario with a photograph among a total sample of 612 participants.

    Findings – This research showed that consumers’ social impression of the frontline employees mediated the effect of the employees’ gazing behaviour on consumers’ emotions and satisfaction with the encounters. The findings also showed that averting gaze had a negative effect on consumers’ first impression of the frontline employee, which affected consumers’ satisfaction with the encounter. The findings also showed that a direct gaze had a negative effect on encounter satisfaction when consumers sought to purchase embarrassing products.

    Originality/value – The research demonstrated that the effect of gaze on encounter satisfaction was mediated by the social impression and moderated by consumers’ approach/avoidance motivation.

  • 76.
    Andersson, Maja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Ambulanspersonals upplevelser av patienter med psykisk ohälsa: En explorativ studie av hur ambulanspersonal ser på sitt uppdrag vid utryckningar som gäller psykisk ohälsa.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study aimed at exploratory describe ambulance staff’s perceptions of patients

    with mental illness and how they view their role when attending these cases. Ten employees

    within the ambulance participated in the study and semi-structured interviews were used in

    collecting data. Thematic analysis was used for analyzing data. From the analysis three main

    themes that narrate ambulance staff’s perceptions of patients with mental illness were created.

    The first theme was The challenge in facing patients with mental illness. The theme has three

    sub-themes, Valuable attributes and abilities, The encounter and treatment and Staff’s safety.

    The second main theme, Frustration and feelings of insufficiency, includes two sub-themes,

    The inaccessible care and The need for knowledge. The third main theme The perceptions of

    the assignment and the patient includes no sub-themes but stands on its own.

    In the stories of ambulance staff’s perceptions of patients with mental illness it’s made visible

    how the role of the ambulance staff, when attending these cases, becomes the one of a fellow

    creature before the patient and a negotiator before other organisations. Aspects that cause

    barriers for nursing in these situations are also highlighted, like an inaccessible psychiatric

    care and different approaches within the ambulance.

  • 77.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Aspects of Substance displacement - from illicit drugs to novel psychoactive substance2016In: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 2155-6105, Vol. 7, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several hundred new synthetic drugs, novel psychoactive substances (NPS) or “legal highs” have in recent years appeared on the drug market. These can effortlessly be obtained from on-line vendors, offering an easy access to a plethora of new and untested substances, often with unknown or dangerous effects. Several different attempts to reduce the availability of NPS and to prevent accidents and fatalities have been applied by governments around the world. Nonetheless this complex and constantly evolving situation provides palpable dilemmas and challenges to legislators and prevention strategists. One unintended consequence from prohibition and current drug policies occurs when possibly more precarious substances are used to substitute older and more well-known illicit drugs; so called “substance displacement”. We have performed extensive research on the use of NPS, by analyzing Internet resources (drug discussion forum, on-line questionnaires), and published several NPS studies. During our research we observed how substance displacement is a common issue, with implications for both clinical practices, drug prevention strategies, as well as for legislators. In the present review we discuss two common themes of substance displacement: 1) Synthetic cannabinoids replace herbal cannabis, and 2) Different attempts for self-medication using NPS. Incitements for substance displacement, that exposes the user to possibly more harmful substances, are founded both in legislation (availability of substances and fear of legal repercussions) as well as from certain policies or cultural perceptions of various medical conditions. We offer no obvious solutions to these complications, but would like to contribute to awareness of how these factors effects drug users and how measures intended to reduce harm in many cases have the opposite effects. Further studies on the divergent motivations and different groups of NPS users are highlighted as imperative to find new and realistic solutions going forward. 

  • 78.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    The slippery slope of flubromazolam: Experiences of a novel psychoactive benzodiazepine as discussed on a Swedish online forum2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 217-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the effects experienced by users of a novel psychoactive substance, the benzodiazepine flubromazolam, by analysing users' own accounts on the Swedish forum Flashback.org. Method: A thematic analysis of anonymous self-reports published on the forum was performed and generated five general themes describing effects and experiences by flubromazolam users. Results: The themes which emerged were: Onset and duration, Desired effects, Adverse effects and addiction, Loss of control, General estimations and evaluations. The main reported characteristics of flubromazolam were heavy hypnotic and sedative effects, long-lasting amnesiac effects and the rapid development of tolerance. Flubromazolam was also anxiolytic and acted as a muscle relaxant for many users. Some users experienced euphoria or intense wellbeing. Other prominent characteristics were loss of control (leading to poor choices and actions, with unpleasant consequences) and long-lasting, often severe withdrawals. There were also serious incidents where users had been admitted to hospital, acute psychiatric treatment or taken into custody by the police. Conclusion: Flubromazolam appears to be a highly addictive and precarious benzodiazepine with many, possibly severe, side effects. The substance is generally described as very potent and with long-lasting effects. Memory loss and loss of control are common adverse effects, and withdrawals appear to be severe for many users

  • 79.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Twenty percent better with 20 micrograms?: A qualitative study of psychedelic microdosing self-rapports and discussions on YouTube2019In: Harm Reduction Journal, ISSN 1477-7517, E-ISSN 1477-7517, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychedelic microdosing is the trending practice of using tiny repeated doses of psychedelic substances to facilitate a range of supposed benefits. With only a few published studies to date, the subject is still under-researched, and more knowledge is warranted. Social media and internet discussion forums have played a vital role in the growing visibility of the microdosing phenomenon, and the present study utilized YouTube contents to improve comprehension of the microdosing practice as well as the social interactions and discussions around microdosing. Methods: Microdosing self-disclosure in YouTube videos and their following comments were qualitatively analyzed by inductive thematic analysis. Various software was utilized to enable gathering and sorting relevant data. Results: Microdosing of psychedelic substances, primarily LSD and psilocybin, was used for therapeutic and enhancement purposes, and predominantly beneficial effects were reported. Many different applications and outcomes were discussed, and therapeutic effects for depression appeared especially noteworthy. Intentions for use were recognized as an influencing factor for the progression and outcomes of microdosing. The function of social interactions was mainly to discuss views on the microdosing phenomenon, strategies for optimal results, minimize risks, and share emotional support. Conclusions: Potentially, microdosing could provide some of the same benefits (for certain conditions) as full-dose interventions with less risk of adverse reactions related to the sometimes intense experiences of higher doses. Microdosing may well also mean additional benefits, as well as risks, through the repeated exposure over extended periods.

  • 80.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Persson, Mari
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Psychoactive substances as a last resort—a qualitative study of self-treatment of migraine and cluster headaches2017In: Harm Reduction Journal, ISSN 1477-7517, E-ISSN 1477-7517, Vol. 14, no 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Treatment resistant cluster headache and migraine patients are exploring alternative treatments online. The aim of this study was to improve comprehension regarding the use of non-established or alternative pharmacological treatments used by sufferers of cluster headaches and migraines.

    Methods: A qualitative thematic analysis of the users’ own accounts presented in online forum discussions were conducted. The forum boards https://shroomery.org/, http://bluelight.org, and https://clusterbusters.org/ met the inclusion criteria and were used for the study.

    Results: The analysis resulted in six themes: a desperate need for effective treatments; the role of the forum—finding alternative treatments and community support; alternative treatment substances; dosage and regimens; effects and treatment results; and adverse effects. The results provide an insight into why, how, and by which substances and methods sufferers seek relief from cluster headache and migraines.

    Conclusions: These patients are in a desperate and vulnerable situation, and illicit psychoactive substances are often considered a last resort. There appeared to be little or no interest in psychoactive effects per se as these were rather tolerated or avoided by using sub-psychoactive doses. Primarily, psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide, and related psychedelic tryptamines were reportedly effective for both prophylactic and acute treatment of cluster headache and migraines. Treatment results with cannabis were more unpredictable. No severe adverse events were reported, but it was observed how desperation sometimes spurred risky behavior when obtaining and testing various treatment alternatives. The forum discourse mainly revolved around maximizing treatment results and minimizing potential harms. 

  • 81.
    Andersson, Mona
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    En explorativ studie om synen kring vård och behandling på ett friskinriktat internetforum för personer med symtom på ätstörningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här kvalitativa studien undersöker hur personer med symtom på ätstörningar ser på vård och behandling utifrån diskussioner på ett internetforum. Tidigare forskning visar att motivationen till hjälpsökande bland personer med ätstörningar är låg, och därför behövs det fler studier kring vad denna patientgrupp tycker om vården och vilka behov de har.

    Data har samlats in genom observationer på ett offentligt friskinriktat internetforum för personer med ätstörningar. Datamaterialet analyserades med tematisk analys och resulterade i fem teman; Maktlöshet och skuld, Tvångsvård på gott och ont, Att inte passa in i vården, Behov att få prata om och hantera känslor, samt Hopp.Resultatet visar att det finns rädsla för vilka krav vården ställer på till exempel motivation och viktuppgång, vilket blir hinder för hjälpsökandet. Resultatet visar också besvikelse över att vården är kortsiktig och fokuserar på sjukdomens fysiska symtom. Respondenternas behov är att få hjälp med bakomliggande orsaker till ätstörningen och att det ska finnas mer utrymme för känslomässigt stöd. För att det ska vara möjligt att bli frisk lyfter respondenterna fram trygghet i en terapirelation som det avgörande.Forumet fungerar som en copingstrategi för medlemmarna i form av ökad kunskap och hopp om att det går att bli frisk, samt uppmuntran och stöd till att söka hjälp.Vården för ätstörningspatienter behöver inse vikten av att behandla hela personen och kunna erbjuda långsiktiga terapirelationer. Vården behöver också se brist på motivation till förändring som en del av sjukdomen, och inte ställa orimliga krav redan innan behandlingen påbörjas. 

  • 82.
    Andersson, Mona
    Karlstad University.
    Trygghet och tillit: En fenomenologisk intervjustudie kring relationen mellan personer med anorexia och deras behandlare2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationship between individuals with anorexia nervosa and their therapists, and the relationship’s importance to recovery.

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious and complex illness and sometimes difficult to treat. Only half of the individuals with anorexia reach full recovery. The therapeutic alliance is well known as an important factor in therapy but research regarding anorexia is limited.

    Seven interviews were conducted with adult women with a history of being ill in anorexia, and the material was analyzed with a phenomenological approach. The result is presented in a general structure: Safety and trust and describes safety in the relationship and in what way this safety and trust is created and maintained.

    Findings suggested that the participants needed safety in the relationship in order to make the changes which are necessary to recover. Feelings of safety were achieved from feelings of being seen, the therapist knowledge and experience, and a genuine feeling in the relation. An important aspect was the therapist’s ability to see behind the anorexia and connect with the individual, then they could work together and avoid struggle for power with the illness.

  • 83. Andersson, Ragnar
    et al.
    Björkehed, J.
    Wiberg, A.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Ta till vara kritiken2006In: Värmlands Folkblad (06-09-08)Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 84.
    Andersson, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Intuitiva beslut på Facebook: En exprimentell studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 85.
    Andreen, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Den kvalitativa forskningens förmåga att finna kulturs/religions påverkan på perception: Ett metodförsök inom ostrukturerad intervju och tematisk analys2009Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural and religious differences have been related to conflict for as long as history has been documented. The basic idea has been that our understanding of our surroundings is something that is equal in all of us. In recent years this idea has been questioned and studies have been performed that indicate differences in our perception, linked to cultural differences. The purpose of the present study includes studying whether the method, unstructured interview, with subsequent thematic analysis, can be a tool to study whether these differences exist. Research on perception has a strong focus on experimental quantitative studies and a complementary qualitative research on the subject is needed. This resulted in the choice of method to test a qualitative approach. Two groups with different cultural and religious backgrounds have been the source of information. They have both been shown an identical picture which they, during the interview, were asked to interpret and discuss about. The result shows that no group misinterprets the picture itself, but both understand its purpose. Differences between the groups were in how they interpreted and described the background to the picture, what was the cause of the situation illustrated in the picture. How we choose to interpret an image can be linked to cognitive processes, such as the "top down" processes (Passer & Smith, 2008). These processes include diagrams, collected experience, which then forms the basis for automated subconscious thought and interpretation patterns (Lundh, 1998). The differences found between the groups can be linked to these processes. The conclusion drawn is that the study shows that a method with unstructured interview and subsequent thematic analysis can capture the perceptional differences. This leads to the conclusion that the method can be used to study the effects of religion and culture on our perception, in a larger and more comprehensive study.

    One question we should ask ourselves is how it will be seen if future studies demonstrate differences in interpretation and thought patterns between cultural and religious groups. Will the results be used by people who are opposed to multi-cultural communities? This goes completely against the intention with the study, as it is based upon the idea that more knowledge on how different groups views their environment will give a better understanding and improved conditions for diverse communities.

  • 86.
    Angel, Henriette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Beteende i gruppsammanhang2012Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 87.
    Anniko, M. K.
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Boersma, K.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Sources of stress and worry in the development of stress-related mental health problems: A longitudinal investigation from early- to mid-adolescence2018In: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 155-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives: Stress and stress-related mental health complaints are common and increasing among adolescents, especially girls. Identifying typical sources of stress as well as central intervention targets is an important effort in the development of effective prevention and treatment protocols. This study investigated worry as potential mediator in the development of mental health problems in response to common stressors in adolescence. We also examined to what sources adolescents ascribe their stress over the years from the 7th through the 9th grade. Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Self-reported subjective stressor load, worry, anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed in a sample of Swedish 7th graders (N = 1137; 46% girls, mean age 13.2) with follow-up assessments one and two years later. Results: School was the most common source of stress across all time-points, with girls reporting considerable more stress than boys. Worry mediated the relationship between overall stressor load and depressive symptoms and anxiety over time and was not moderated by gender. Conclusions: Worry may be an important target in stress prevention and efforts to prevent stress-related problems would benefit from focusing on early adolescence as especially school stress is already relatively common in grade 7. 

  • 88.
    Anniko, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Adolescent Stress Questionnaire: Evaluation of a Short Version in a Sample of Swedish Adolescents2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Anniko, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro universitet.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet.
    Stress and Emotional Distress in Adolesence: The Role of Worry and Rumination2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Adolescence is a time of profound changes in multiple contexts, giving rise to an increased amount of potential stressors. It is also a developmental period were emotional problems tend to have their onset and are common. We know from previous research that stressors are a risk factor for internalizing problems. However, we know less about how this relationship unfolds. There has been a lack of research into potential mechanisms affecting this relationship such as moderating and mediating variables. Concerning stressors in the form of daily hassles, a potent mechanism is how well adolescents regulate their emotions. Studies have shown that especially cognitive regulatory strategies, such as worry and rumination, tend to increase in early adolescence, an increase that precedes increases in emotional problems. However, with a few exceptions, many studies have been cross-sectional and we do not know exactly how these strategies affects or are affected by stressors and emotional problems. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate how cognitive emotion regulation strategies, more specifically worry and rumination, relate to the development of emotional problems in the face of stressors.

    Method: This is a prospective study following 3200 Swedish adolescents in 7th and 8th grade across one year. Participants completed questionnaires about amounts of stressors, levels och worry, rumination, anxiety and depressive symptoms during school hours in the spring of 2014 and again in 2015. Half-longitudinal mediational- and moderation analyses will be performed to investigate how worry and rumination relate to the development of emotional problems in the face of stressors.

    Results: The open paper will give an overview of the above-mentioned analyses and present a discussion of the results with respect to theory and clinical implications.

  • 90.
    Anniko, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet.
    YAPI Stress: Guided Internet Based Prevention of Stress Related Ill-health in Adolescence2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Appelby, Ralph
    et al.
    Northumbria University.
    Davis, Paul
    Northumbria University.
    Davis, Louise
    Northumbria University.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå universitet.
    An Examination of the Influence of Training Hours on Athlete Burnout.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Appell, Petra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Att leva som nykter alkoholist: En fenomenologisk-hermeneutisk studie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of what it is like to live as a recovering alcoholic and what happens to the person in the process of change taking place. To fulfill this purpose interviews with sober alcoholics where made where they as free as possible could talk about their experience of living sober and the changes it entails, both mentally, spiritually and in everyday life. Literature and previous research on the topic was studied in order to deepen understanding and make connections to the performed study.

    A qualitative study using inductive approach was considered most appropriate for the query, which intends to clarify and interpret the respondents' experiences. Therefore, a phenomenological approach was chosen to explore the experience of living sober. The empirical data was analysed using the IPA method (interpretative Phenomenological Analysis).

    Based on the analysis of the material four themes emerged that were common to the respondents' experiences of living sober: Acceptance and recognition, Alone is not strong, Personal Development, Reflection and life values. These themes combine to form a whole which gave a better understanding of the experience of living sober.

    The results of this study concludes that the experience of living sober can be summarized with a sense of serenity and gratitude. It further concludes that the perception of self changed and strengthened in line with the on going process of change and personal development. Also an analogy between the twelve-step program, mindfulness as well as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) could be ascertained by the results 

  • 93.
    Appell, Petra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Behandlares upplevelser av att arbeta med Child-Parent Psychotherapy. En kvalitativ studie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate therapists’ experiences and thoughts in working with a new method in Sweden for children who have experienced trauma, Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP). The study was done as part of a feasibility study on the basis that the method is tried out in a new context and intends to contribute to the development of a structure that supports the implementation of the CPP if the trial is successful. CPP has good evidence in the United States, but has never been tested in Sweden. Twelve therapists’ participated in the training and practice of CPP; these therapists’ were interviewed based on a semi-structured interview. A qualitative study with inductive approach was considered the most appropriate to answer the studies’ query and capture as much as possible of the therapists’ experiences. The empirical data were analysed thematically, and based on analysis revealed three main themes; Reliance and appreciation, Conditions and challenges and Professional development. The therapists’ descriptions of working with CPP were predominantly positive. They described that the method was applicable, exciting and challenging. Interventions for young children, trauma focus and the dyadic approach were aspects that were considered as highly relevant. The challenges were mainly related to the methods requirements, in terms of their own craftsmanship, support from colleagues and the child's safety. The therapists’ also described that they have developed and acquired new conceptual framework in their therapeutic work. Based on the results of the study it is concluded that CPP is a required and appreciated method that is worthy of further evaluation.

  • 94.
    Appleby, Ralph
    et al.
    Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Davis, Paul
    Umea University, Sweden.
    Davis, Louise
    Umea University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Examining Perceptions of Teammates' Burnout and Training Hours in Athlete Burnout2018In: Journal Of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 316-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions of teammates and training load have been shown to influence athletes' physical and psychological health; however, limited research has investigated these factors in relation to burnout. Athletes (N = 140) from a variety of competitive team sports, ranging in level from regional to professional, completed questionnaires measuring individual burnout, perceptions of teammates' burnout, and training hours perweek on two occasions separated by threemonths. After controlling for burnout at time one, training hours were associated with athletes' burnout and perceptions of teammates' burnout at time two. Multilevel modeling indicated actual team burnout (i.e., the average burnout score of the individual athletes in a team) and perceived team burnout were associated with individual's own burnout. The findings highlight that burnout is dynamic and relates to physiological stressors associated with training and psychological perceptions of teammates' burnout. Future research directions exploring potential social influences on athlete burnout are presented.

  • 95.
    Ardita, Beqiri
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    En kvantitativ enkätundersökning om könsskillnad i stress, stresshantering ochprokrastinering.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in student stress-management and procrastination at Karlstad University. The study was a quantitative study that used questionaries as an investigative tool. The study had a between group design. The study's dependent variables were procrastination, stress and coping strategies. The study's independent variables were gender and number of semesters completed at the university. An opportunity sampling was used and a total of 328 students participated in the survey, in which 77 per cent were female and 23 per cent male. The participants' average age was 26,18 years. The women's average age was 27.25 years and men's average age was 25 years. Data were collected via an electronic questionnaire that was created using the survey tool Survey & Report. The questionnaire consisted of questions addressing background information of the participant, as well as three instruments that measured the students perceived stress, what the students did to deal with the perceived stress in the past month, and weather the students procrastinated. Data were analyzed by 16 independent t-tests. The results showed that there were no significant difference in terms of procrastination between men and women. Further the results showed that there were no significant difference between the students percieved stress when comparing new students and more experiences students. And finally the results showed that there were a significant difference between the coping strategies used by men and women. Both women and men used these strategies to some extent but women were more likely than men to prefer active coping, deny the stress, seek emotional and social support as well as seeking instrumental social support, experience feelings of despair, ventilate their feelings as well as being more prone to the use of positive reframing of stressful events than men are. 

  • 96.
    Arvidsson, Mikael
    Karlstad University.
    Mer glädje främjar inte alltid kreativitet: En studie om relationen mellan kreativitet och inre motivation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 97.
    Askeröd, Tove
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Orsaker till omföderskors önskemål om kejsarsnitt ur ett profesionellt perspektiv: En explorativ studie av hur läkare och barnmorskor uppfattat orsakerna utifrån omföderskors berättelser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This qualitative study aimed at exploratory describe what motivates women with prior deliveries to apply for a cesarean section. A total of ten doctors and midwives participated in the study with semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The study is based on an availability sample where participants by invitation itself contacted for participation. For analyzing data used thematic analysis. From the analysis grew three main themes that portray the causes of women's requests for caesarean section. The first themewastraumatic experiences and safety in healthcare. The theme has three sub-themes, Experiences of previous childbirth trauma, Lack of participation and objectification and Inability to communicate their needs. The second main theme, New approach to childbirth, stress and control includes three sub-themes, A modern approach, Stress and predictability and Personality type for caesarean section. The third main theme Lack of knowledge, defense mechanisms and preparation and emotional handling containsno sub-themes butstands on its own.        

    In the stories of how women have experienced their first delivery is made visible aspects that may be the cause of women with prior deliveries desire for cesarean section. In the stories depicted women's fear of the unknown in childbirth situation and other emotional needs that were previously hidden are made visible.

    It is about the need to be noticed, valued and validated while it talks about strong need for control and fear of failure. Also described is the fear of not being pampered and the experience of a lack of trust in other people.

    Key words: Women with prior deliveries, cesarean sections, reasons and fear of childbirth

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 98.
    Askeröd, Tove
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Planeringstid och kreativitet, en bristvara i svenska skolan?: En studie av svenska grundskolelärares upplevelse av kreativitet i planeringsarbetet?2013Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 99.
    Assermark, Sofie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Skillnader i subjektivt välbefinnande hos föräldrar: En kvantitativ studie om subjektivt välbefinnande och sömnsvårigheter hos föräldrar i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there are any differences in parents subjective well-being depending on sleep problems and the age of their youngest child. The sample that was chosen consisted of 162 parents in Sweden. The participants degree of subjective well-being and sleep problems was self-assessed through the instruments Satisfaction With Life Scale and Insomna Servity Index. A multi-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to answer the issue of the study. The dependent variable was subjective well-being and the independent variables were degree of sleep problems and age of the youngest child. The result showed that there was a significant main effect regarding subjective well-being. and sleep problems. The result also showed a significant main effect regarding subjective well-being and age of the youngest child. The result showed that there were no significant interaction-effect for sleep problems and the age of the youngest child. Furthermore, the conclusion was drawn that the degree of sleep problems and the age of the child has a meaning for parents subjective well-being.

  • 100.
    Axelsson, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Upplevelsen av löparträningen tillsammans med en löparapplikation: Kvalitativ uppsats gällande upplevelsen utav dagens löparapplikationer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how runners experience running applications in their training. The method used is a qualitative approach, using a latent thematic analysis to interpret the results. The analysis generated 5 themes. " An addiction and augmented reality " which means that the users of the running applications are fooling themselves to believe that they perform well while the applications serve the user with reinforcing statistics. The users manipulate the statistics to motivate themselves and their training, "The competition for a good self-esteem", which means that users constantly compare themselves, their achievements to themselves, but also to others through the application's sharing features. "Adapt to its surroundings" means that despite the pressures of everyday life, users have decided that they will get out and run and then perform behaviors to adapt to the environment. "Active rest" which means that the participants consider running as a form of training something that gives effective rest from everyday life and "Own created goals and motives", which means that users created their own short-term and long-term goals outside of the application. The conclusions of this study are that users overlook the statistics and miss the overall image of their performance due to application's statistical features. Users abandon the ability to get knowledge to prevent damage and instead look into application statistics to motivate themselves and that applications can only give the user a limited short-term motivation but no long-term motivation.

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