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  • 51.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Larsson, PL
    Östlund, S
    Eklund, J
    Folding of printed papers: experiments and numerical analysis2003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Folding of digital prints has been investigated experimentally in order to determine the influence from different features on the residual strength of the folded paper. In particular, the effect of toner-layer, paper-fibre orientation and pre-creasing is investigated and the experimental results are supplemented with numerical ones based on the finite element method. The results indicate that creasing, and to a less extend also fibre orientation, is the most important factor influencing the residual tensile strength after folding

  • 52.
    Barklund, Christine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Gruvesäter, Ulrica
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Arbetsmiljö och arbetsvillkor: - en studie om stress2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Vi avser med denna kvantitativa studie att finna faktorer som kan antas leda till stress. Vi avser också att undersöka respondenternas arbetsmiljö och arbetsvillkor och utifrån deras enkätsvar eventuellt kunna se om de har lågstress- eller högstressarbeten. Uppsatsen baseras på en enkätundersökning genomförd under 2002 av Birgitta Eriksson och Jan Ch. Karlsson vid Karlstads universitet i samarbete med Statistiska Centralbyrån. Enkäten Arbetsmiljö och arbetsvillkor besvarades av 1570 förvärvsarbetande individer. Vår undersökning använder sig av utvalda frågor i enkäten som kan antas kopplas till stress i arbetslivet. I studien undersöks: förekomsten av stressfaktorer, krav, egenkontroll och socialt stöd, tid, sjuknärvaro och ersättbarhet, ledarskap, meningsfullhet samt möjligheten att förena arbete med övrigt liv. I analysen studeras dessa variablers eventuella samband med kön, ålder och yrkestillhörighet.

    Nedan redovisas en kort sammanfattning av frågeställningarnas resultat utifrån tabellerna:

    1. I vilken utsträckning förekommer stress bland respondenterna?

    Överlag visar resultaten att de flesta av respondenterna har få stressfaktorer i arbetsmiljön. Trötthet är dock något som majoriteten av respondenterna upplever efter arbetet, men vi anser att det inte är tillräckligt ofta för att det ska vara oroväckande siffror.

    2. Kan det antas om respondenterna har lågstress- eller högstressarbeten?

    Vi finner att relativt många respondenter i studien har ett lågstressarbete i många avseenden och i relation till de undersökta variablerna.

    3. Hur ser kontakten ut mellan respondenterna och deras ledare?

    Det övergripande resultatet visar på tvetydiga siffror. Trots resultatet anser vi att respondenterna överlag har en relativt god kontakt med deras arbetsledare/arbetsgivare.

    4. Upplever respondenterna en hög eller låg meningsfullhet i deras arbeten?

    Majoriteten av respondenterna upplever att de har en hög meningsfullhet i deras arbeten.

    5. Hur väl lyckas respondenterna förena arbete med övrigt liv?

    En mycket stor andel av respondenterna anser att de lyckas förena arbete med övrigt liv.

    Intressant är att det inte ofta skiljer sig nämnvärt inom kategorierna kön och ålder och inte heller mellan dessa kategorier, oavsett den analyserande variabeln. Däremot visar resultaten på att det ofta skiljer sig mellan arbetare och tjänstemän inom kategorin yrkestillhörighet. Tidigare undersökningar visar på en ökad ohälsa i samhället i form av bland annat stress. Trots detta visar resultaten i vår undersökning att majoriteten av respondenterna upplever en låg grad av stress på deras arbeten.

    Nyckelord: Stress, arbetsmiljö, arbetsvillkor, krav, egenkontroll, socialt stöd, meningsfullhet.

  • 53.
    Barréra, Mimmi
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Engström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Alkohol i arbetslivet: Faktorer som påverkar de anställdas inställning2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen behandlar ämnet alkohol i arbetslivet och syftet är att undersöka inställningen till alkohol i arbetsorganisationer. I studien redovisas faktorer som påverkar detta.

    Frågeställningarna är;

    • Har arbetsorganisationerna en alkoholpolicy och i så fall förmedlar arbetsgivaren vad som faktiskt är nedskrivet i detta dokument?

    • Har företagskulturen, den kultur som finns på orten, så kallad bruksanda samt den psykosociala arbetsmiljön inverkan på inställningen till alkohol?

    – Finns det andra faktorer som kan tänkas påverka de anställdas inställning till alkohol?

    Uppsatsen börjar med ett bakgrundsavsnitt som behandlar viktiga begrepp, alkoholpolitik och dryckeskultur i Sverige samt vad lagen säger om utformningen av en alkoholpolicy. Teoridelen som följer efter utgörs av tre delar som är till grund för vår analys. Dessa tre delar är; ledarskap, företagskultur och arbetsmiljö. Vi har valt att utgå från dessa områden för att kunna se vilken påverkan de kan ha på inställningen till alkohol i arbetsorganisationer. Först tar vi upp ledarskapet som en viktig del i vår undersökning och redogör för olika ledarskapsmodeller samt chefens ansvar och chefen som förebild. Vad gäller företagskultur har vi bland annat valt att redogöra för olika kulturella perspektiv samt vad som är god företagskultur, för att kunna få en djupare förståelse om begreppet. Vi har även diskuterat begreppet bruksanda för att se hur det eventuellt kan påverka arbetsorganisationerna då de företag som vi har undersökt är belagda på så kallade bruksorter. Begreppet arbetsmiljö har avgränsats till den psykosociala arbetsmiljön samt att undersöka det vedertagna begreppet after work, även i detta fall för att öka vår förståelse för begreppen.

    Studiens resultat visar att formella riktlinjer i form av till exempel policydokument inte har så stor påverkanskraft angående alkoholkonsumtion om företaget har en väl förankrad företagskultur. Andra faktorer som är avgörande för individens dryckesmönster är sådant som ålder, livssituation och subkulturer. Resultaten visar även på att det på orterna finns tendenser till vad som brukar kallas bruksanda, både en positiv och negativ sådan. Denna bruksanda präglar även de företag som vi har undersökt.

  • 54.
    Beckman, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Blomér, Malin
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Konsten att effektutvärdera: En beskrivande studie om hur kompetensutveckling effektutvärderas2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kompetensutveckling är en verksamhet som får allt större betydelse för organisationer. En av de viktigaste delarna av ett kompetensförsörjande arbete är att utvärdera effekten av en kompetensutveckling. Hur dessa ef-fekter skall utvärderas är ett eftersatt område såväl teoretiskt som praktiskt och forskning om ämnet är nästintill obefintlig. Denna studie genomfördes i samarbete med Stora Enso Skoghalls Bruk i syfte att finna varför detta arbete är så svårgenomträngligt samt att utveckla övergripande riktlinjer att använda som hjälpverktyg för organisationen i dess arbete med att effektutvärdera kompetensutveckling.

  • 55.
    Bengtsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Eriksson, Carita
    Vilka privata angelägenheter sysselsätter sig den anställda med på arbetstid coh varför?: En kvalitativ studie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 56.
    Bengtsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Eriksson, Carita
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Vilka privata angelägenheter sysslar den anställde med på arbetstid och varför?: En kvalitativ studie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I vår studie undersöker vi vad arbetstagare gör på arbetet som inte är arbetsrelaterat och av mer privat karaktär och varför de gör dessa sysslor. Anledningen till att vi valt denna frågeställning är för att vi tycker det är ett intressant ämne att undersöka. Samt att vi vill skaffa oss kunskapen om vad de anställda sysselsätter sig med på arbetstid, som inte ingår i de ordinarie arbetsuppgifterna.

    Teoridelen ska hjälpa läsaren att senare förstå resultat och analysdelen, därför tar vi inledelsevis upp kort historik angående hur ledningen kan styra sina anställda. Vi fortsätter att beskriva vad de anställda gör på jobbet och om dessa sysslor kan kallas för motstånd. Men även varför de anställda gör dessa sysslor och en rad anledningar till det såsom missnöje, oklara roller eller för att de kan. Vi frågar oss sedan vad ledningen kan göra åt det? Vad ledningen kan göra är exempelvis att bättre anpassa och stödja de anställda i arbetet. I slutet av teorin delen går vi igenom olika förklaringar till dessa beteenden, som kan vara att de anställda känner sig missgynnade samt om man ska göra något åt det? Det finns här inget angivet svar men kontentan är ändå att det kan vara svårt att gör något åt det då organisationsmedlemmar ärver varandras beteenden och handlingssätt. Det är då svårt för ledningen att bryta denna kedja som sker informellt i gruppen.

    Vi har i vår undersökning kommit fram till att anställda sysselsätter sig med privata göromål på arbetstid. De sysslor som utförs är bland annat, betala räkningar och surfa privat på Internet, ringa privatsamtal, boka frisörtid eller fika. En av de största anledningarna till varför dessa sysslor utförs är för att möjligheten finns att utnyttja vissa resurser och för att de anställda har tid över. De anställda anser att detta beteende är accepterat så länge alla i arbetsgruppen sköter det ”snyggt” och inte utnyttjar dessa fördelar i för stor utsträckning. Vi avslutar vår uppsats med en avslutande diskussion som är skriven utifrån våra egna tankar och åsikter, men som även innefattar vilka konsekvenser vi tror att denna blandning av arbete och fritid kan få på sikt.

  • 57.
    Bengtsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Eriksson, Carita
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Vilka privata angelägenheter sysslar den anställde med på arbetstid och varför?: En kvalitativ studie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I vår studie undersöker vi vad arbetstagare gör på arbetet som inte är arbetsrelaterat och av mer privat karaktär och varför de gör dessa sysslor. Anledningen till att vi valt denna frågeställning är för att vi tycker det är ett intressant ämne att undersöka. Samt att vi vill skaffa oss kunskapen om vad de anställda sysselsätter sig med på arbetstid, som inte ingår i de ordinarie arbetsuppgifterna.

    Teoridelen ska hjälpa läsaren att senare förstå resultat och analysdelen, därför tar vi inledelsevis upp kort historik angående hur ledningen kan styra sina anställda. Vi fortsätter att beskriva vad de anställda gör på jobbet och om dessa sysslor kan kallas för motstånd. Men även varför de anställda gör dessa sysslor och en rad anledningar till det såsom missnöje, oklara roller eller för att de kan. Vi frågar oss sedan vad ledningen kan göra åt det? Vad ledningen kan göra är exempelvis att bättre anpassa och stödja de anställda i arbetet. I slutet av teorin delen går vi igenom olika förklaringar till dessa beteenden, som kan vara att de anställda känner sig missgynnade samt om man ska göra något åt det? Det finns här inget angivet svar men kontentan är ändå att det kan vara svårt att gör något åt det då organisationsmedlemmar ärver varandras beteenden och handlingssätt. Det är då svårt för ledningen att bryta denna kedja som sker informellt i gruppen.

    Vi har i vår undersökning kommit fram till att anställda sysselsätter sig med privata göromål på arbetstid. De sysslor som utförs är bland annat, betala räkningar och surfa privat på Internet, ringa privatsamtal, boka frisörtid eller fika. En av de största anledningarna till varför dessa sysslor utförs är för att möjligheten finns att utnyttja vissa resurser och för att de anställda har tid över. De anställda anser att detta beteende är accepterat så länge alla i arbetsgruppen sköter det ”snyggt” och inte utnyttjar dessa fördelar i för stor utsträckning. Vi avslutar vår uppsats med en avslutande diskussion som är skriven utifrån våra egna tankar och åsikter, men som även innefattar vilka konsekvenser vi tror att denna blandning av arbete och fritid kan få på sikt.

  • 58.
    Bengtsson, Kim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Systematisk processutveckling: Eliminering av pluggar i fluffer2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 59.
    Bengtsson, Peder
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Apply heat pump systems in commercial household products to reduce environmental impact: How to halve the electricity consumption for a household dishwasher2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the household appliance industry, heat pump systems have been used for a long time in refrigerators and freezers to cool food, and the industry has driven the development of small, high-quality, low-price heat pump components. In the last few decades, heat pump systems have been introduced in other household appliances, with the express purpose of reducing electricity consumption. Heat pump tumble dryers have been on the market since 2000 and dominate the market today. A heat pump dishwasher was introduced on the market in 2014 and a heat pump washing machine in 2016. The purpose of adding a heat pump system in these three products was to decrease electricity consumption.

    Papers I and II used a methodology where transient simulation models were developed and used to increase knowledge about how to decrease electricity consumption for a tumble dryer and a dishwasher by adding a heat pump system. Papers II to V showed that a lower electricity consumption and lower global warming potential together with an energy-efficient drying method, where no humid air evacuates to the kitchen, give a heat pump dishwasher competitive advantages compared to any conventional dishwasher currently on the market. Using simulations, this dissertation concludes that a future commercial heat pump dishwasher, using R600a as a refrigerant, will reduce electricity consumption and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) by 50% compared to the conventional dishwasher.

    The willingness from the customer chain to pay extra for this heat pump dishwasher is because of the decreases electricity consumption and the fact that no humid air evacuates to the kitchen. This willingness makes the heat pump dishwasher to a variant which have possibility to succeed on the future market.

    The challenge for the manufacturer is to develop and produce a high-quality heat pump dishwasher with low electricity consumption, predict future willingness to pay for it, and launch it on the market at the right moment with the right promotion in order to succeed.

  • 60.
    Bengtsson, Peder
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Increasing the value of household appliances by adding a heat pump system2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, domestic tasks such as preparing food and washing and drying clothes and dishes were done by hand. In a modern home many of these chores are taken care of by machines such as washing machines, dishwashers and tumble dryers. When the first such machines came on the market customers were happy that they worked at all! Today, the costs of electricity and customers’ environmental awareness are high, so features such as low electricity, water and detergent use strongly influence which household machine the customer will buy. One way to achieve lower electricity usage for the tumble dryer and the dishwasher is to add a heat pump system.

    The function of a heat pump system is to extract heat from a lower temperature source (heat source) and reject it to a higher temperature sink (heat sink) at a higher temperature level. Heat pump systems have been used for a long time in refrigerators and freezers, and that industry has driven the development of small, high quality, low price heat pump components. The low price of good quality heat pump components, along with an increased willingness to pay extra for lower electricity usage and environmental impact, make it possible to introduce heat pump systems in other household products.

    However, there is a high risk of failure with new features. A number of household manufacturers no longer exist because they introduced poorly implemented new features, which resulted in low quality and product performance. A manufacturer must predict whether the future value of a feature is high enough for the customer chain to pay for it. The challenge for the manufacturer is to develop and produce a high-performance heat pump feature in a household product with high quality, predict future willingness to pay for it, and launch it at the right moment in order to succeed.

    Tumble dryers with heat pump systems have been on the market since 2000. Paper I reports on the development of a transient simulation model of a commercial heat pump tumble dryer. The measured and simulated results were compared with good similarity. The influence of the size of the compressor and the condenser was investigated using the validated simulation model. The results from the simulation model show that increasing the cylinder volume of the compressor by 50% decreases the drying time by 14% without using more electricity. 

    Paper II is a concept study of adding a heat pump system to a dishwasher in order to decrease the total electricity usage. The dishwasher, dishware and water are heated by the condenser, and the evaporator absorbs the heat from a water tank. The majority of the heat transfer to the evaporator occurs when ice is generated in the water tank. An experimental setup and a transient simulation model of a heat pump dishwasher were developed. The simulation results show a 24% reduction in electricity use compared to a conventional dishwasher heated with an electric element. The simulation model was based on an experimental setup that was not optimised. During the study it became apparent that it is possible to decrease electricity usage even more with the next experimental setup.

  • 61.
    Bengtsson, Peder
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). ASKO Appliances AB, Lidköping, Sweden.
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Concept Study of a New Method for Drying Dishware in a Heat Pump Dishwater2017In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a heat pump dishwasher, the whole dishwasher with the cabinet, dishware and process water is the heat sink, while a water tank, whose contents will freeze, is the heat source. The aim of the experimental concept study presented here was to evaluate a new drying method for a heat pump dishwasher. In this method, the drying of the dishware occurs as a fan circulates humid air in a closed system in which the water on the dishware evaporates inside the warm dishwasher cabinet and then condenses on a cold surface of the frozen water tank. The evaluation of drying performance was based on the European standard EN50242, which considers visible water drops left on the dishware after a completed dishwashing cycle. The results showed that this new closed drying method was more energy efficient compared to an existing open drying method, and that the drying start temperature and the drying time had a significant effect on the drying performance. Its lower electricity consumption and the fact that it does not vent humid air into the kitchen gives this heat pump dishwasher a competitive advantage over dishwashers using an open drying method.

  • 62.
    Bengtsson, Peder
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    A household dishwasher heated by a heat pump system using an energy storage unit with water as the heat source2015In: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 49, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity usage by a household dishwasher can be reduced by using a heat pump system to heat the dishwasher cabinet, dishware and washing water. The evaporator obtains the energy from an energy storage unit which consists of a container filled with water which freezes to ice. The majority of the heat transfer from the energy storage to the evaporator occurs when ice is created in the energy storage unit. A transient simulation model of a dishwasher with a heat pump system was developed and compared to an experimental setup with good agreement. A simulation study of the compressor cylinder volume and the compressor operating time was performed. The results showed a 24% reduction in total electricity use compared to a dishwasher cycle using a traditional electric element.

  • 63.
    Bengtsson, Peder
    et al.
    ASKO Appliances AB, Lidköping.
    Eikevik, Trygve
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Reducing the global warming impact of a household heat pump dishwasher using hydrocarbon refrigerants2016In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 99, p. 1295-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a heat pump dishwasher, the dishware and the dishwater constitute the heat sink and a water tank filled with water, which can freeze, the heat source. A simulation model developed and validated earlier was modified and used in a parameter study to determine the lowest total electricity usage for the refrigerants R134a, R290, and R600a with different cylinder volumes of the compressor. The total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) was calculated in three regions with different CO2 eq. emissions from electricity generation, i.e., Sweden, Europe (OECD), and Europe (Non-OECD), for small, medium-sized, and large households. In regions with low CO2 eq. emissions from electricity generation, the total TEWI of a heat pump dishwasher is the lowest with R600a and the highest with R134a, and in regions with high CO2 eq. emissions, the total TEWI is the lowest with R600a and the highest with the conventional electrical element.

  • 64.
    Berg, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Utveckling av ergonomiskt armstöd för dentala operatörsstolar: Ett produktutvecklingsprojekt på uppdrag av Support Design AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report treats a product development project conducted in the course Degree Project for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design Engineering, MSGC12, at Karlstads University. The course is a part of the faculty of heath, sciences and engineering. The report is written by the student Elin Berg, the supervisor of the project is Kristina Gullander and the examnier is Leo de Vin.

    The assignment is provided by Support Design, a Swedish company in Sunne that manufactures and distributes ergnomic chairs. The chairs are mainly sold to clients working in the dental and medical markets, but also office workers. Customers often sit on the chairs for long workdays, and several users sometimes perform precision work that requires relief for the arms and shoulders. Today, Support Design does not manufacture its own armrests but buys these from the US and China.

    The aim of the project is to develop an ergonomic armrest for dental operator chairs where the target group is dentists, dental hygienists and dentist assistants. The armrest should have functions that relieve, provide support and are flexible in order for the user to change the working position. The purpose of the project is to expand the Support Designs business by introducing its own armrest production. Eventually, this would give the company competitive advantages, facilitate logistics and result in better margins.

    The work process follows the methods that are part of a product development process. The phases of the project are project start, project planning, research, product specification, concept generation, concept selection, sub-report, design, final prototype, opposition, presentation, and exhibition. The research is the most important phase in identifying the user's needs, thus developing ergonomic armrests that fulfill the necessary functions.

  • 65.
    Berg Johansson, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Konstruktion av sorteringsramp: Examensarbete vid Karlstads universitet2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har varit ett projekt där målet har varit att en komplett sorteringsramp för pappersbruk skulle konstrueras och syftet med detta har varit att komplett tillverkningsunderlag skulle tas fram. Två typer av maskiner har konstruerats, så kallade rullpuffare och rullstopp samt ramper mellan rullstopp. För att konstruera för marknaden konkurrenskraftiga maskiner har tidigare sådana studerats och använts som grund och vidareutvecklats under projektarbetets gång.

    Vid konstruktion av rullpuffare har kraftanalyser skett för att utröna hur maskinen belastas. Vidare har hållfasthetsberäkningar gjorts på de delar på konstruktionen som bedömts som kritiska. Även Finita Elementmetoden har använts som grund för att få en inblick i vilka spänningar och deformationer som uppstår i den sammansatta konstruktionen.

    När rullstopp konstruerades lades stor vikt vid att försöka lösa ett problem med sprickande svetsar som uppstod i tidigare konstruktion. Även vid konstruktion av denna maskin har kraftanalyser, hållfasthetsberäkningar samt FEM-analyser skett.

    Vid konstruktion har stor vikt lagts vid monteringsvänlighet och att om möjlighet funnits utforma de båda maskinerna så att dessa skulle kunna använda samma komponenter.

    En ny typ av golv har valts att användas till sorteringsrampen där val av golv har till största delen baserats på rekommendationer från olika leverantörer.

    Några av de mindre uppsatta målen hann inte uppfyllas, men projektet i sin helhet bedöms ha gått väldigt bra.

  • 66. Bergh, Gustav
    Improved Method on theDetermination of Allowable Forceson Sliding Shoes Used in PipingSystems2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 67.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Ståhl, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Lösningarna finns! Är pelletsproducenterna medvetna om problemen?2011In: Bioenergi: utmaningar och möjligheter / [ed] Delin, Karin, Persson, Lars, Wikström, Per-Arne, Gävle: Region Gävleborg , 2011, p. 25-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige är inte längre världsledande som pelletsproducent. USA producerar allra mest pellets i världen. Kanada och Ryssland producerar också allt mer pellets. Ingen av dessa länder har någon omfattande inhemsk konsumtion. I stort sett all pellets exporteras och det sker huvudsakligen till Europa. Sannolikt kommer det att leda till att priset på pellets i Europa sjunker, med följd att lönsamheten för svenska pelletsproducenter minskar.

  • 68.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Ståhl, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Varför får inte villaägaren driva kvalitetsutvecklingen på bränslepellets?2011In: Bioenergi: utmaningar och möjligheter / [ed] K. Delin, L. Persson, P.-A. Wikström, Gävle: Region Gävleborg , 2011, p. 31-33Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Ståhl, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    From sawdust to pellets. Still a challenge...2012In: Public Service Review European Union, no 33, p. 398-399Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Effects of Using Draft Tubes in a Continued Spouted Bed Dryer2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Superheated steam drying of sawdust in continuous feed spouted beds: a design perspective2014In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 71, no 0, p. 228-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spouted bed drying technology shows promising results for the drying of unscreened sawdust in superheated steam. In this paper, the experiences from designing, running and evaluating two spouted bed continuous feed dryers are presented. Stable running conditions and drying results have been achieved. This has been particularly important for sawdust that will be compressed into pellets or briquettes. The spouted bed superheated steam dryer also shows high potential for energy efficient integration into sawmills. Our recommendation is thus, to use the outlet steam temperature as the control parameter for the outlet moisture content. A drying rate above and one below the fibre saturation level, can be identified. Visual observations through the viewing glass in the drying zone in both the dryers clearly showed that not all of the material participated in the spout at all times; there were, however, no indications of dead zones. A heat transfer analysis indicated that only about 70% of the surface area of the material was in thermal contact with the steam. This paper sums up the experiences regarding drying properties, control and system properties obtained when sawdust is dried using superheated steam as the drying medium. Further work on standardised dryers in series or in parallel is necessary to increase the capacity in the spouted bed dryer.

  • 72.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Kullendorff, Anders
    Biobränsletorkning - en lägesrapport projektet Fluidtork1996Report (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Ståhl, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    How residence time in the mixing conditioner affects the quality in wood fuel pellets2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Ståhl, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    The amount of dust and rejects as well as the electricity consumption during production decreases with the use of adequate additives2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Berglund, Alfred
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Ackumuleringspotential av PHA  från restströmmar inom pappersbruk: En studie om PHA från Gruvöns, Bäckhammars och Skoghalls bruk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic is one of the most universal materials used today. With a good future view, with new implementations and applications, it makes a lot of time to look at the production and management of the plastic materials. Plastic materials that have been used in our daily lives cause serious environmental problems. Millions of tons of these non-degradable plastics accumulate in the environment every year. The basic problem is that plastic is not naturally occurring in nature since containers are usually made of polyethylene terephthalate. This means that microorganisms do not have the ability to break it down to the current cycle. It takes hundreds of years for plastic containers to break down, not biologically but only degenerate into smaller and smaller pieces. Plastic breaks down into smaller pieces that become smaller and smaller until we cannot see them with the naked eye, mainly through heat and UV light. Although we cannot see them, they are still present and become part of our nature forever. Bioplastics is the plastic industry's tool to try to reduce these little pieces of our nature that will remain forever so that they do not grow more. With today's plastic packaging, which is said to be bioplastic, additives of, for example, cobalt and nickel, which are said to make it easier for the polymers to break down over time, have proven to be not as effective as they thought.

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are polymers which are biodegradable as based on their composition have different physical properties. PHA is a family of natural polyesters synthesized from various microorganisms discovered in 1926. Once discovered, interest has been high due to their biodegradability and its production from renewable resources. The polymers can be described generally as production from microorganisms under controlled conditions, where they occur naturally in organisms that classify them as biopolymers. Some of these polymers are already industrially produced on a large scale today. However, many still apply to several new areas but must be optimized for commercial production.

    Biopolymers can be classified into four groups. Amino-acid-based polysaccharides from bacteria, polyphenol-based and polyesters that this study is looking at. Depending on what the microorganisms possess for character traits and what they give to the substrate to break down, it gives polyesters with different physical properties. This case is a short-chain polyester to be formed, more specifically P3HB which is a three-carbon PHB polyester in its polymer which can be up to 5-7 units long.

    To avoid ongoing problems, a solution is needed. A solution that has received much attention to reduce plastic residues in nature is the use of biodegradable plastics and among them polyhydroxyalkanoates. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are common intracellular compounds found in bacteria, archaea and in few eukaryotes such as yeast and fungi. PHA acts as an energy storage polymer that is produced in some microorganisms when the carbon source is abundant and other nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen or sulfur are limited. These polymers accumulate intracellularly up to 90% of the dry weight of the cell under nutritional conditions and act as energy saving materials. It has resembled mechanical properties like the traditional oil-based plastic such as polypropylene or polyethylene that can be formed with other synthetic polymers. PHA plastics possess many more applications, in agriculture, packaging and in the medical industry. It is biodegradable and also immunologically compatible. What the PHAs plaster can cause is an ultimate decomposition from a non-fossil source, which is exactly why it is very attractive.

    The purpose of this study was that from a hypothesis see within a limited time frame of ten hours of bio sludge from Gruvön, Skoghall and Bäckhammar's use could accumulate PHA with the aid of added readily degradable substrate. The process of the study will be a small part of a current research project together with Paper Province, Promiko, Pöyry and RISE. The aim of their study is to use residues from the forest industry to make hydrogen as well as bioplastics. This study will help to look at a subprocess of their cascading process.

    The aim of the study is to be able to measure the amount of PHA that could accumulate and rank the potential of the different uses. Using chemical analysis methods and extractions, it will provide opportunities to measure the accumulation of PHA in the various bacterial cultures of biomass from the use. The methods involve soxhlet extraction to successfully extract PHA from the bacteria. Dosage of substrate is sodium acetate piped from egg-diluted solution at 600 mg per dosage. In order for the dosage to be added at the right time, DO and the pH of the reactors were measured and logged throughout the course. FT-IR is used to view the course of events during the experimental period, linked to known features that may indicate that PHA is present in the bio sludge. Nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen are measured, along with SÄ, SS, TOC, several before and after the experiment to compile discussion of the results.

    The conclusion was based on the analysis methods that the bio sludge that yielded the best yield was from Gruvöns use. This also relates best to the hypothesis of celebration and starvation, the relationship to which the bio sludge is exposed. The mine has a slurry in its five-step process which causes the bio sludge to return from step five where there is a shortage of food for bacteria to step three where there is a lot of food to consume. The rankings of the different uses relate to the hypothesis that the use of mining was best and the worst was the use of Bäckhammar. Based on the analysis methods included in the study, it can be concluded that the bio sludge that yielded the best yield was Gruvöns use with 13.6% of PHA / VS from the soxhlet extraction, the practice was best matched to the hypothesis. The ranking of the different bio sludge of the use is based on the hypothesis that Skoghall's use was second best followed by Bäckhammar's use which was the worst in accumulating PHA in the bacterial culture.

  • 76.
    Berglund, Felix
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Cellphone Survey System: En studie om marknadsförhållanden och produktlansering för Tradewell Group AB2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s market for companies doing statistical surveys is a market consisting of mostly standardized methods where differentiating your company from the competitors is hard. Simultaneously both the society at large and technology in specific is under constant development and everything needs to be done at a faster pace with better precision.

     

    One of the companies on the market mentioned above is Tradewell Group AB. During 2008/2009 Tradewell has developed a new method for doing statistical surveys. The method named by Tradewell is called Cellphone Survey System, CSS and include using existing technology in a, for this market, unknown way. By doing so Tradewell offer their customers fast and price worthy surveys where the results can be viewed online where they are constantly being updated.

     

    At this very moment CSS is about to be launched och so the purpose of this master thesis is to identify and analyse those factors impacting the success of product development and product launching and also to do a mapping over the market at which Tradewell is an actor. The goal is then to combine the above mentioned analyse and mapping with results given from my own market survey to discuss Tradewell at large and CSS in more detail which then will lead to recommendations regarding how to move further, both as a company and with their launch of CSS.

     

    The master thesis consists of a literature study where product development and product launching has been researched. It also includes a mapping over those methods most frequently used and offered on today’s market. Finally I did my own market survey among 72 of Tradewell’s potential customers, all respondents chosen in collaboration with the management at Tradewell. The purpose of the survey was to gain knowledge about potential customers and to see if there is any interest for a service like CSS.

     

    Some of the most important factors when launching a product that were identified during the work of the thesis were pricing, timing, market orientation and market communication. The results from the survey showed, among other things, that most of the respondents already do customer surveys and also that there is an interest for a service like CSS. The conclusions drawn from the results of the survey together with the literature study lead to the final discussion. The discussion brings up how Tradewell are doing today, seen in the light of the different factors; what they do well and what needs improvement. Finally it is discussed what can be done to make these improvements and why they are necessary and I give recommendations for how to move along with the launch of CSS.

  • 77. Bergman, Ida
    Produktpackning mot kundorder: Produktionstekniskt förbättringsprojekt vid Morakniv AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 78.
    Bergqvist, Tuula
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Självständighetens livsform(er) och småföretagande: tillämpning och utveckling av realistisk livsformsanalys2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the realist life mode analysis, especially the independent life mode, and the empirical field of entrepreneurship – running a small firm. The aim is to broaden the general understanding for entrepreneurship to include non-capitalistic rationality through application and development of realist life mode analysis. The application of the analysis is done by studying different social phenomena within the field of entrepreneurship. The two phenomena in question are expansion of small firms and trust between an entrepreneur and an employee, and flexibility in small firms. The problem concerning this theoretical application has to do with showing how life mode analysis can be used to explain that entrepreneurship does not have to be about capitalism. The problem concerning theoretical development has to do with identifying social relations and mechanisms that constitute the everyday life of entrepreneurs. The study has been carried out as a qualitative interview study and it is based on the methodology of critical realism.

    Concerning expansion and trust between an entrepreneur and an employee, my study shows that as an expression of an entrepreneur’s socio centric life mode specific way to interpret reality trust can be an obstacle for employing extra labour-force outside the own firm. Trust can also be an obstacle for an existing relationship to function smoothly if the entrepreneur and the employee live different life modes. However, my study shows that trust can also function as a possible incitement for employment.

    My conclusion concerning flexibility is that the concept of flexibility, defined with a starting point in the capitalist principles of the economic market, is occasionally misused in literature. My structural perspective shows that not all small firms are driven by these motives powers. Capitalistic small firms do exist and are to be described as flexible, but not all small firms. The size of the firm conditions entrepreneurship in many ways but it does not condition the rationality.

    My study also shows that the independent life mode as described in the theory so far characterizes simple commodity production and not production of services. Structural changes seem to have resulted in two different life modes for independent entrepreneurs; a commodity specific independent life mode and a service specific independent life mode.

  • 79.
    Bergqvist, William
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Jordning av propelleraxel: Konceptutveckling för jordningsanordning som kräver lite underhåll2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis project has been done at Rolls-Royce AB (now known as Kongsberg Maritime as of April 1st2019) located in Kristinehamn, Sweden. The focus of the thesis is to develop a low maintenance propeller shaft earthing device for the company’s new podded propulsion system. Many electrical machines with a rotating shaft are exposed to damage due to the flow of electrical charges through the shaft and components with high resistance electrical contact. It is therefore important to mitigate this induced shaft voltage either by insulation or by altering the discharge path. 

    The thesis purpose is to identify concept solutions for earthing of propeller shafts that are cost effective, requires low levels of maintenance and fulfills performance requirements. A systematic development process is used throughout the project, which consists of four main activities. The first activity is to create a requirement specification from customer input, pre-study and knowledge search. The pre-study generated a fundamental base of knowledge for different earthing methods and the tribological aspects for sliding electrical contact.  The second activity is generating concepts by deriving main solutions and sub-solutions for each generated concept based on the criteria in the developed requirement specification. To make the process easier the main function of the device is divided into two categories, one focusing on contact method and the other assembly.  The third activity is evaluation and scoring of developed solutions to make the final concept selection. The fourth and final activity is to create a product description of the selected concept based on layout and detailed engineering aspects.

    The final results of the thesis is a product description of a  “multiple fiber brushes” earthing device concept, with a solution on how to optimize design and performance parameters for a certain specific wear rate. A fundamental construction solution is presented with optimized performance parameters suitable for the performance demands of the company’s new podded propulsion system.

    Three future projects could be extracted from the results of this thesis. These potential projects will in more detail focus on the structural design of the earthing device, component material selection and practical performance testing of a fiber brush prototype.

  • 80.
    Bergstrand, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Konstruktion av en mobil nödduschanläggning: En produktutveckling åt Gia Premix AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a project assigned by Gia Premix within the program for bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering at Karlstad University during spring 2018.

     

    This project contains the design of a mobile emergency shower unit. The project is assigned by Gia Premix with a goal to develop a new product for their portfolio of emergency showers to expand the range of products on the market. Today Gia Premix doesn’t have a department for design and development of new products, because of this Gia Premix choose to do a collaboration and have a project together with Karlstad University.

     

    During the project analyses of stresses in the construction has been made to make sure that the product is safe and secure to use. These analyses have been made both manually and with help of FEM-analyses in computer environment. With a CAD program 3D-models has been modelled. From these models a complete set of drawings on the product has been made.

     

    The project has reached its design goals of a new product for the company with success. Drawings of about 40 components and assemblies is made as a base for manufacturing of a prototype for evaluation. Insulation of pipes and connection of shower units to the pressure system is excluded from the project. Ideas for solutions on these parts can be found under the chapter of ideas for later work. The goal for the details in the excluded part is also reached with good success.

  • 81.
    Bergström, Jarl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utvärdering och driftplanering av Lidköpings värmeverk2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lidköpings värmeverk har i uppgift att producera värme till Lidköpings invånare och företag. Distributionen sker via kommunens fjärrvärmenät. Värmeverket har förutom ren värmeproduktion även möjlighet att producera el och kyla bort ett visst effektöverskott sommartid.

    I dagsläget har värmeverket inga klara riktlinjer för hur elproduktionen och bortkylningen av värmen ska hanteras vilket är av betydande del för värmeverkets ekonomi. En ökad kunskap om hur man tar tillvara på förfogad energi har efterfrågats och är en del i att hjälpa Sverige som land att uppnå uppsatta miljö- och energimål.

    Med linjärprogrammering har en beräkningsmodell tagits fram för att utifrån givna förutsättningar optimera driften av värmeverket. Mot historiska lastdata har modellen använts för att:

    • Utreda hur väl värmeverket har tagit tillvara på förfogad energi. Parametrar som panndrift, rökgaskondensering, spillvärme, turbindrift och bortkylning av värme har studerats.
    • Driftplanerat värmeverkets pannor. Förutom tidigare nämnda parametrar tillkommer drifttid, total mängd bränsle och revisionsplanering.
    • Utrett typiska driftfall för vår, sommar, höst och vinter beroende på elpris och tillgång på olika typer av bränsle.

    Resultatet visar att:

    • Värmeverket har underutnyttjat möjligheten till elproduktion under större delen av året, men också producerat el på förlust under kortare perioder.
    • Köpt spillvärme på förlust under delar av året, men att spillvärmen som helhet har varit en god affär för värmeverket.
    • Det saknas tillförlitlighet hos mätutrustningen som hanterar bortkyld energi sommartid.
    • Värmeverket bör förbränna mer avfall än den mängd som är planerad sedan tidigare.
    • Bortkylning av värme för att hålla igång turbinerna sommartid har en väldigt liten påverkan för resultatet vilket innebär att värmeverket bör vara restriktivt med att kyla bort energi vid brist på avfall.
  • 82.
    Bergström, Viktor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Headbox Slice Opening Arrangement: A developed version and a new one2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the headbox is to convert a flow of fiber suspension to a jet, with a thickness between 4 and 20mm and a width between 3 -8meters, depending on the paper machine model. To adjust the beam thickness, the lip adjustment arrangement is used.

    This master thesis was written to develop the headbox and the lip adjustment system, for paper machines with a width over 6 meters. In the beginning of the project much focus was layed on understanding the problem and develop the product and customer requirements of the Headbox.

    In order to utilize the entire idea space a number of idea generation methods were used. The evaluation of concepts were conducted with the method Analytic hierarchy process (AHP), which is a method for clarifying the decision pattern.

    From the evaluation of the concept, two concepts were chosen. A modification of the existing headbox and a new concept, which adjusts the slice opening with a number of elastic pockets and a wedge. To further evaluate the modified headbox concepts the Finite Element Method was used. During the simulations the elastic deformation was compared between the current and the modified solution. The second concept was developed by describing the new design and motivated the chosen material and structures.  

    Overall it can be said that the modification of the current headbox solves the main problem and maintains the current quality on the paper. The new and innovative solution enables a more exact adjustment of the lip opening and allows a larger potential of modularization.

  • 83.
    Beri, George
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Prediktering och styrning av värmesystem i flerbostadshus: Utvärdering av egenutformad MPC-regulator2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012, 30% of the total energy consumption was used by apartments and buildings. Heating of apartment buildings and commercial buildings represents 60% (79.5 TWh) of that energy consumption. There is thus great potential for reducing energy use in the residential sector. Part of the overall efficiency work is to review the control of heating systems. Today's control often involves simple on / off systems where an upper and lower limit controls when to start and stop a process. This form of control is therefore best suited to systems where the change of state occurs quickly. When it comes to homes with high mass however, it takes time before a change takes effect. In some cases, it can take up to 24h before a change is noticed for buildings with high thermal inertia. An alternative to the traditional temperature based control is the so-called MPC controller which stands for Model Predictive Control. MPC is a control method that can take into account the thermal inertia and the dynamics of buildings. MPC controller also controls the system proactive rather than retroactive, which is the technique most of current control methods use. One problem with the MPC controller thou is that it requires large computational resources and technical knowledge of the building where it will be implemented. The aim of the thesis was to design a simple MPC controller and evaluate its performance. This was done by constructing a bench test model that can evaluate the function of the MPC controller. In addition to constructing a simple MPC-controller, a study has been done on how the current control method can be more energy efficient without having to invest in new equipment. The goal was to reduce the variations in indoor temperature and improve operating economics of the building. The study was conducted at Karlstad Bostads Aktiebolag (KBAB) that owns and manages 7,300 apartments in Karlstad. The Bench test model calculated indoor temperature using the weather conditions as solar radiation, cloud cover, outside temperature and wind speed. The study presents a number of simple MPC controllers that can be used to minimize indoor temperature variations and improving operating economy. It is estimated, however, that the MPC controller that only takes into account the outside temperature in its prediction is the most appropriate. The MPC controller has the potential to reduce heating requirements by 3.12 MWh (-4%) and reduce indoor temperature variations with 96%. The mean annual temperature would be 21.1 ° C and the energy consumption 113 kWh/m2 for the building. The study also presents an alternative to current control method that does not require any additional resources or investments. It has the potential to reduce heating requirements by 8.3 MWh (10%) and reduce indoor temperature variations by 65%. The energy consumption would then be 106 kWh/m2.

  • 84.
    Bjällfalk, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Integration av Design to Cost i Produktlivscykeln: Med hänsyn till kostnad som en designparameter i produktutveckling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Being a competitive company in today's society requires prioritization of many areas. With the advancement of technology, it becomes all the more important as the lifetimes of products become increasingly short-lived. In order to maintain their attraction in the market, an effort is needed for improvement and an important parameter in this is costs. There are various strategies that focus on cost reduction, but some are more useful than others. One of the parties involved is Design to Cost (DtC) and its purpose is primarily to optimize product development. The reason lies in taking cost into account already in a product's design phase. In the design phase, approximately 70% is estimated to be the life cycle costs, which makes the part most relevant to analyze.

    At Valmet Karlstad, the method has been recognized and there is therefore an ambition to integrate DTC into its internal PLC process. The company is a global one and is a leading developer and supplier in technology, automation and service. Great focus is on sustainability and high quality. What, on the other hand, is less prioritized today is costs. There is a tendency to carry out cost analysis at a late stage where it is less influential. To maintain its position and its positive reputation, this should therefore be improved.

    This report therefore contains a survey of DtC as a tool. An evaluation of the need for the strategy has been made as well as f the existing knowledge at the company. This has been done through analysis of internal data, several interviews and a larger meeting arrangement in the form of a workshop. The work then resulted in recommendations on how DtC can be implemented in the process and applied in the daily operations. Important factors and actions were also given that can improve and facilitate the process.

  • 85.
    Björkdahl, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Designstudie CamCoil: Inkåpning av haspelsystem2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project has been carried out as a bachelor thesis in the Innovation and Design Engineering Programme at Karlstad University. For this project, Lennart Wihk has been the supervisor and Professor Leo de Vin acted as examiner.

    The task has been to conduct a design study on CamCoil, a reeling system for strip steel in the manufacturing industry. The reason for this is that the principal, Camatec Industriteknik AB, would like this machine to be made more competitive in the european market. The goal is to create a unique and brand specific concept solution compatible with the many different options of the reeling system. Mikael Hallenborg acted as supervisor from the client.

    The study has been conducted on the product development process. The implementation phase consists of an initial functional analysis, interviews with customers and product specialists, an investigation into the Machinery Directive for the opportunity to CE mark the housing as a security feature. The concept is also studied on the semantic correlations between CamCoil and the housing.

    The result culminated into a solid concept database as the client requested. One of the proposals was selected for further development.

    The conclusion of the project resulted in a concept that responds to the question: "How should a housing be designed to tell of its brand, and make the work environment safer for an operator without limiting the reel systems features? “. This resulted in a saftey feature compatible with different configurations of the machine and with a major focus on defining the product profile.

  • 86.
    Björnfoth, Kristin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Grahn, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Samverkansavtalets många sidor: En kvantitativ undersökning gällande medarbetarnas inflytande och delaktighet inom Arbetsförmedlingen Kundtjänst i Karlskoga2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 87.
    Blomberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Stöllman, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Haspelsystemet Camcoil 15002008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our employer Camatec Industriteknik AB gave us the assignments to increase theirs range of versions on Camcoil that is their own patent product. Camcoil is a capstan system that is used when steel band fabricated. Exist for example in production lines their steel band should be annealed. Our goal with this work is to come up with a completed production basis on a Camcoil for heavy industry. The basis should contain calculations, 3D-constructions, drawings and cost proposal on manufacturing and detail purchase.

    Demands on this project:

    1. 15 ton load

    2. Strip width up to 1500 mm

    3. Head diameter 610 mm

    4. Production speed 35 m/min

    5. Economy manufacturing

    6. Be simple

    Several concepts were decided out of the feasibility study. The concepts were compared against each other and finally only one was left. Result of the design concept became one shaft with three capstan heads and a support function.

    One conceivable working process was planed with a Gantt-table. A decision was made that the work of the Camcoil should be separated in several details. Earlier work on Camcoil was study to increase our understanding for the work.

    Some of the examined parts were shaft dimensions, bearings, head shape, tripod, support function and hydraulic cylinder for the capstan and support.

    Some of the calculations have been made in Ansys. Directional deformation, Von Mises stress for the shaft, length of the hydraulic cylinder in the capstan heads and the stress for tripod and support function was calculated.

    Analytic calculations were made on some parts. Frequency analysis for the system was made with Dunkerleys method. The reaction forces in the bearings were calculated with a combination of elementary case. Lifecycle of the bearings can with this be appreciated. Hydraulic cylinder strength in capstan heads and support function, locking assemblies, sheet metal thickness and control off beam dimensions in support was also decided with analytic calculations.

    3D models were made on several details in the system. Models like lock rings, engines and bearings were taken from the supplier.

    After the modeling assemble drawings and detail drawings were made for the whole capstan system. The drawings were sending to manufacturer for a cost proposal.

  • 88.
    Blomqvist, Ellie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Elfström, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Känslor är alltid med oss: en studie av den emotionella intelligensens betydelse för Polisens arbete2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka hur fyra uttryckningspoliser i Värmland upplever den emotionella intelligensens betydelse i deras vardagliga arbete. Poliser utsätts dagligen för si-tuationer, där de konfronteras av både sina egna och andras känslor. Polis är ett högriskyrke, därför är det viktigt att förebyggande åtgärder är i fokus. Vi anser att det är intressant att un-dersöka hur poliser uppfattar och värderar betydelsen av känslor i arbetet. Vår undersökning är en kvalitativ studie baserad på intervjuer. Resultatet kan i korthet sammanfattas med att de intervjuade upplever att det är mycket viktigt att vara medveten om sina känslor och att kunna styra dem, i arbetet som polis. Att läsa av, och skapa förståelse, för andras beteende och käns-lor har stor betydelse i polisernas arbete. Vi ser att det sociala stödet är av stor vikt för att kla-ra av att hantera känslor som följer efter svåra situationer. Stödet och kommunikationen från kollegor beskrivs som det mest betydelsefulla för våra intervjupersoner. Att vara medveten om sina känslor och att bearbeta påfrestande händelser är mycket viktigt. Samtliga poliser menar att de ständigt reflekterar över sina känslor, vilket leder till utveckling och förståelse.

  • 89.
    Borregales, Manuel
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway..
    Radu, Florin A.
    University of Bergen, Norway..
    Kumar, Kundan
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Nordbotten, Jan M.
    University of Bergen, Norway.; Princeton University, USA..
    Robust iterative schemes for non-linear poromechanics2018In: Computational Geosciences, ISSN 1420-0597, E-ISSN 1573-1499, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 1021-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a non-linear extension of Biot's model for poromechanics, wherein both the fluid flow and mechanical deformation are allowed to be non-linear. Specifically, we study the case when the volumetric stress and the fluid density are non-linear functions satisfying certain assumptions. We perform an implicit discretization in time (backward Euler) and propose two iterative schemes for solving the non-linear problems appearing within each time step: a splitting algorithm extending the undrained split and fixed stress methods to non-linear problems, and a monolithic L-scheme. The convergence of both schemes are shown rigorously. Illustrative numerical examples are presented to confirm the applicability of the schemes and validate the theoretical results.

  • 90.
    Brauer, Samuel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    High Speed Electric Vehicle Transmission: Investigation how noise vibration harshness are affected at high speeds in an electric vehicle transmission2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 91.
    Bretschneider, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Ny typ av tailcutter: Framtagning av ett nytt koncept med fokus på enkelhet, kostnad och kvalitet2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the examination for Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering at the Karlstad University. The thesis is done for Valmet AB Karlstad and describes the development of a new concept for a tailcutter which is an important part of a tissue machine when starting up and restarting the machine. But it will also give the student skills that will be useful when getting employed. Some specifications for the new concept were that it had to be cheaper than the current design, deflection lower than 5 mm over the whole length. The design should be simple and reliable and it should be designed so that it would fit into small spaces and different mounting places. All those different requirements made this thesis varied and interesting. Calculations of strength were made to ensure that the deflection and the eigenfrequency of the beam was at an acceptable level, a product development process was used to get a quality assurance through-out the whole project. After a time-consuming selection using Pugh matrix and plus -minus lists a concept was taken. The result is a carbon fiber tube with plastic (PTFE) constructions around it holding the linear unit. This unit is a standard linear device that operates with a belt and a servo motor, this makes it possible to determine the position of nozzle via pulsing. The selected plastic is resistant to most chemicals that can be found in the environment. A pneumatic coil hose is feeding water to the nozzle, the hose acts like a spring that follows the nozzle when it traverses. The manufacturing cost of the new concept is estimated at about 110 000 SEK. This is a decrease of 42 percent compared to today's construction. The proposed solution is optimized for DFM / DFA and it is also optimized for serviceability. The problem was so comprehensive which made it impossible to specify all details, this gives great opportunities for further work to continue from this thesis.

  • 92.
    Broomé, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Important factors when implementing an improvement process and examining how subcontracting companies differ from other companies.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine which factors are the most important to

    successfully implementing an improvement process, and to examine if subcontracting

    companies differ from the rest of the companies in the study.

    Increasing the quality of products and at the same time lowering the costs is often

    necessary with the pressure from the external environment that many companies are facing

    today. Many companies are active on a global scale with competitors all over the planet. It is

    easy to understand that companies need to have an innovative approach, and improve their

    products, but it is hard to know how and what to change.

    Upon completion of the initial research phase, a form with questions was created. The

    composed question sheet was used in an internet based survey. The same question sheet was

    later used in interviews with 3 different companies. The interview phase provided a chance to

    ask follow up questions to increase the understanding and help with the analysis. The results

    from the study were compared with leading literature and similarities were highlighted.

    The results from the study demonstrate that soft values are the most important factors

    when implementing an improvement process. Engaged leadership, clear goals and

    participation from leaders and personnel are the most prominent factors. The differences

    between subcontracting companies and the other companies in the study are not significant.

  • 93.
    Brunzell, Anton
    Karlstad University.
    Utveckling av överbelastningslarm till lyftverktyg: Ett produktutvecklingsarbete hos Volvo Construction Equipment i Arvika2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är utförd i samband med kursen Examensarbete för Högskoleingenjörsexamen i Maskinteknik som är en avslutande kurs för Högskoleingenjörsprogrammet i Maskinteknik på Karlstads Universitet.

    Uppdragsgivare för arbetet är Volvo Construction Equipment i Arvika, och det huvudsakliga målet för arbetet var att skapa en produkt som motverkar plastiska deformationer av lyftverktyg i produktionslinan vilka på ett eller annat sätt utsätts för överbelastning.

    Projektets är strukturerat som ett produktutvecklingsarbete där arbetet är uppdelat i 3 huvudfaser. Dessa faser är planering-, genomförande och avslutsfasen. Vid planeringen skapas en projektplan för arbetet såväl som en detaljerad förstudie, genomförandefasen är den fas där flertal produktutvecklingsprocesser görs för att komma fram till en slutgiltig produkt. Avslutsfasen är till för att skapa arbetsunderlag för framtida vidarearbete samt underlag för tillverkning av produkten.

    Produkten som genererades i detta projekt är en extern detalj som monteras mellan lyftkranen/traversen och lyftverktyget, utrustningen mäter de krafter som uppstår vid lyftet och läses av med hjälp av en mikrokontroller. Värdena evalueras utav mikrokontrollern som skickar en driftspänning till en ljudkälla då krafterna överstiger den förbestämda maxlasten.

    I projektet skapades också en prototyp där de ingående komponenternas funktioner testades för att stämma av den teoretiska funktionen mot hur produkten fungerar i praktiken. 

  • 94.
    Brunzell, Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Energy Efficient Textile Drying2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, textiles were dried outdoors with the wind and the sun enhancing the drying process. Tumble dryers offer a fast and convenient way of drying textiles independent of weather conditions. Tumble dryers, however, consume large amounts of electrical energy. Over 4 million tumble dryers are sold each year in Europe and a considerable amount of energy is used for drying of clothes. Increasing energy costs and the awareness about environmental problems related to a large energy use has increased the demand for dryers with better energy efficiency. The aim with this thesis is to show how to improve the energy efficiency of domestic tumble dryers.

    Two types of tumble dryers are available on the market today: the open cycle dryer and the closed cycle dryer. In the open cycle dryer room air is heated and led into the drying drum. The exhaust air leaves the dryer and is often evacuated outside the building. In the closed cycle dryer an internal airflow is recirculated inside the dryer. When the hot air has passed through the drying drum it is led through a heat exchanger where the water vapour is condensed before the air is heated again and led to the drum. The heat exchanger is cooled with room air.

    Drying at low temperature has been shown to reduce the specific energy use for an open cycle tumble dryer. In Paper I a correlation between the specific energy use, the drying time and the heat supply was established for a specific load by using the exhaust air temperature. It was shown that the total drying time and specific energy use could be predicted from data during the first hour of the process. This result indicated a possibility to create a control system that makes it possible for the user to choose between low energy use or short drying time.

    The focus of Paper II is to reduce the energy use for a closed cycle tumble dryer. Energy and mass balances were established in order to determine feasible improvements. Energy and mass flows in the dryer indicated that reducing leakage from the internal system of the dryer gave the largest reduction of specific energy use. Insulation of the back cover of the dryer and opening the internal system during the falling drying rate period also gave positive results on the energy use. In total a feasible reduction of the energy use of approximately 17% was calculated.

  • 95.
    Bäcklin, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Energieffektiv kylning av frukt: Studier och simuleringar av forcerad luftkylning i en Californiatunnel för minskad elanvändning2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every day people buy fruit and vegetables. A problem with these produces is that they are usually not locally grown, but they have often undergone long journeys. Because fruit is perishable, they easily become damaged and rot during a long transport. The most cost effective way to extend the shelf life of fruit is by cooling it. Since it is desirable that fruits are in the same state as if they were freshly harvested, it is important that they are cooled to their optimum temperature as quickly as possible after they have been harvested. The most common pre-cooling method is forced air cooling.

    The work has been done in collaboration with Billerud Fresh Services AB. The company's goal is to reduce wastage of fruits and vegetables through improved packaging solutions, with paper as raw material, thereby improving both the economic and environmental efficiency throughout the value chain, from harvesting and cooling until the fruit is on the store shelf.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what effects the use of electricity in forced-air cooling and how it can be reduced. If the energy use during the air-cooling could be reduced, then carbon emissions and economical cost of the cooling process can be reduced. This allows growers to be able to afford a complete cooling process and the losses from fruit that has been damaged due to bad cooling will decrease. This increases the value of the fruit value chain and suppresses the increase of greenhouse gases.

    The aim of this study is to describe how the cooling homogeneity and the fan energy power during forced air cooling of fruits and vegetables depends on the box and the California Tunnel design.

    By simulations in COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3, the impact of the vent hole ratio on the pressure drop is studied. Simulation in COMSOL has also been made to estimate how the flow varies between boxes in a California Tunnel and how this tunnel can be modified to provide a more homogeneous cooling. Experiments have been conducted to compare the cooling homogeneity in an existing box and a new box designed to create a uniform air flow.

    The results of the experiment showed that the cooling homogeneity could be increased by changing the box design, thereby reducing electricity consumption. The simulation of the California tunnel showed that a modified tunnel arrangement could reduce the airflow difference between the boxes from that at a classic arrangement being 60 % to be less than 1 %. This allows the homogeneity to increase and electricity can be saved. The results of the simulations showed that if the vent hole ratio is halved, the fan energy demand will increase fourfold. Therefore it is important that, when designing a box, the vent hole ratio is high for electricity use to become low.

  • 96.
    Börjesson, Henriette
    Karlstad University.
    A Practical Lean Analysis: Streamlining a production system for scalable manufacturing2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kandidatuppsats är gjord i samarbete med ett företag som arbetar med att producera fryst mat för hundar. Företaget har stora ambitioner och för att möjliggöra en skalbar produktion behöver företaget effektivisera sina processer. Med hjälp av metoder baserade och förknippade med Lean produktion, kan förteget rationalisera bort manuellt och svårskalat arbete i processerna. Detta görs för att generera effektivitet så produktionssystemet är stark nog att skalas upp och producera mer produkter vid en större efterfrågan.

    Syftet med rapporten är att undersöka det nuvarande produktionssystemet, analysera och utifrån teori granska vad som kan orsaka ineffektivitet. Företagets produktionsflöde har kartlagts med hjälp av värdeflödesanalys, som är en vedertagen metod inom Lean. Företagets problemområden identifierades och förslag på åtgärder togs fram.

    Med utgångspunkt i litteraturen om Lean produktion utfördes en analys och diskussion av resultatet. Slutligen kunde man konstatera att produktionssystemet, på detta företag, kan skala upp sin produktion och öka sin volym till en viss mängd. När man som företag arbetar med Lean för förbättringar så innebär det i teorin att man arbetar för ständiga förbättringar. Företaget kommer ständigt att behöva analysera produktionssystemet då olika faktorer kommer att påverka skalbarheten över tid. 

  • 97.
    Cajdell, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Skagerlund, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Arbetsgivares inställning till att anställa invandrare2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår uppsats är att ta reda på vilken inställning arbetsgivare i Karlstad, Hammarö, Kristinehamn, Kil, Arvika, Forshaga och Grums kommuner har till att anställa invandrare. Syftet har gett upphov till följande frågeställningar: Vilka för och/eller nackdelar ser arbetsgivarna med att anställa invandrare, hur stort är intresset bland arbetsgivarna att öka mångfalden på arbetsplatsen, kan man tänka sig att ta emot en lärling som är invandrare och vad skulle krävas för att man skulle vara villig att gör detta? Med hjälp av litteratur som berör mångfald och integration har vi velat skapa en förståelse för uppsatsens ämne för att sedan kunna sammanföra och analysera resultatet vi fått från vår kvantitativa undersökning.

    Det har visat sig att många invandrare som kommit till Sverige under senare år har haft svårt att ta sig in på den svenska arbetsmarknaden, trots att många både kan och vill arbeta. Om invandrare skulle vara sysselsatta i arbetslivet i samma utsträckning som inrikes födda skulle 130 000 fler invandrare behöva jobb. För att hjälpa invandrare som saknar arbetslivserfarenhet eller har låg eller ingen utbildning, planerar Arbetsmarknads- och socialförvaltningen i Karlstads kommun att under våren 2006 starta ett lärlingsprojekt med arbetsplatsförlagd praktik ute på olika företag i Karlstad och dess grannkommuner. Genom vår undersökning får även Karlstads kommun en bild över hur inställningen till att ta emot invandrare ser ut i området och därmed enklare att se vart det kan vara bra att lägga extra resurser för att skapa lärlingsplatser.

    Resultaten av vår undersökning visar att arbetsgivarna har en relativt negativ inställning till invandrare. Endast 36 procent är villiga att rekrytera invandrare till arbetsplatsen. Detta anser vi vara något märkligt då hela 59 procent uppger att de har ett rekryteringsbehov inom en 18 månaders period. Det kan enligt Broome och Bäcklund (1998) bero på att det förekommer olika former av diskriminering i arbetslivet. Århammar (2004) har en annan förklaring och anser att det kan bero på att arbetsgivare tycker det är svårt och kostsamt att bedöma utländska meriter och utbildningar. Detta skulle då vara anledningen till att arbetsgivare avstår från att anställa invandrare. Ytterligare en anledning, som för en tid sedan debatterats i media, är att arbetsgivare inte vågar anställa invandrare därför att deras kunder inte skulle vilja anlita dem om det var invandrare som utförde tjänsterna, arbetsgivarna skulle i så fall förlora sina kunder. Detta är definitivt inte något som arbetsgivarna i vår undersökning ser som någon risk. När det gäller arbetsgivarnas arbete för att enligt lag, aktivt arbeta för att öka mångfalden på arbetsplatsen, kan vi konstatera att majoriteten i mycket liten utsträckning arbetar med mångfaldsfrågor. Detta anser vi som aningen konstigt med tanke på nuvarande lagstiftning, men också pga att hela 75 procent av de tillfrågade arbetsgivarna anser att invandrare har det svårare att få arbete på den svenska arbetsmarknaden och att de inte har samma möjlighet som svenskfödda att finna ett arbete och nå självförsörjning. Genomgående i hela resultatet ser vi att de arbetsgivare som har invandrare anställda är mer positiva än de som inte har invandrare anställda. Detta anser vi tyder på att arbetsgivarna behöver mer information, kunskap och erfarenhet av att arbeta med invandrare för att kunna få en mer positiv inställning, men också för att kunna ta del av de fördelar som många arbetsgivare anser att det finns med att ha invandrare på arbetsplatsen bl.a. nämns ökad förståelse för andra kulturer, ökad idérikedom och oliktänkande. Det är också därför vi ger Karlstads kommun samt berörda parter förslag om att även i forstsättningen lägga extra resurser på att verka för att sprida kunskap och skapa medvetenhet samt starta nätverk där flera parter kan träffas, byta erfarenheter och få insyn i hur andra arbetar med mångfaldsfrågor.

  • 98.
    Calles, Linus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Development of ergonomic seating for dental operator chair2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers the examination of course Degree of Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design MSGC12. The course is given on the Innovation and Design Program at the Faculty of Health, Science and Technology at Karlstad University. The course corresponds to 22.5 credits and extends over the spring semester in 2017. Examiner is Leo de Vin and supervisor is Kristina Gullander.

    The project is carried out on behalf of Support Design AB, which manufactures and distributes handmade ergonomic chairs. The company is aiming primarily at the dental and medical industry, where they have discovered a great interest in flexible and ergonomic chairs. There are today competing brands that manufacture chairs whose seats are similar to Support Designs. The company now wishes to expand its range of seating in order to differ from market competitors. Need for a more concrete foundation in research on sitting in the dental sector is also something they are looking for.

    The assignment therefore consists of developing an ergonomically designed seat for dental operator chairs, which has a strong foundation in research on sitting in the dental industry and has got a unique design.

    The project's pre-study starts with a literature study, with a large emphasis on trying to define what a good and ergonomic sitting posture is. This is done to provide a basis for a subsequent analysis of interviews and observations by dental staff. To survey the needs of the users, 15 interviews are performed with dental staff to gain an insight into their views of the workplaces and existing operator chairs. Structured observations are carried out at 11 patient visits in connection with the interviews to find motion patterns and review their work positions. The result of the preliminary study shows that many in dental care experience or has experienced work-related pain, especially shoulders, neck and back. A wide legged and relatively ergonomic working position is commonly observed in narrow operating rooms.

     

    The project results in 15 different concepts where four qualify for prototype manufacturing and testing. One concept is perceived to be the most comfortable while another is perceived to be the most unique. One concept meets ergonomic criteria best and another does not meet all the important requirements that the pre-study generated. 

  • 99.
    Carlaby, Jesper
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Ventilationsbuller: Teknik och ekonomi för ett tyst system2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from the ventilation systems affects us more or less every day. There are some requirements on how much noise that’s allowed to generate from the ventilation system set by Karlstads Kommun based on Boverkets Byggregler. But how could a more silent system be constructed at a more stringent level of requirements?

    The aim is to investigate a reasonable sound level based on technology and economics. Based on Råtorps preschool, owned and operated by Karlstads Kommun, performed calculations using the existing calculation template and sound measurement according to a Swedish Standard. It is done to find out how the sound environment of preschool looks like today in relation to the requirements set. An analyze of the staff's perception of sound generation from ventilation to be able to consider what is an acceptable noise level. Subsequently, calculations are made to find out which theoretical improvements that can be done, especially technically and also financially, in order to reduce the noise level.

    According to the noise measurements that are made, the noise level at the preschool is below or at the same level as the requirements. The results are consistent with the calculations performed in addition to the room that previously was in line with the requirements, now is over the limit. The noise from the ventilation is perceived as disruptive in two of the four rooms, but the results of the theoretical improvements are showing that it is possible to reduce the noise to a more acceptable level. This can be done without major financial consequences, than the most costly and improvement measure that was tested found to be least effective in lowering the noise level.

    This work results in that even though the set requirements are followed as perceived ventilation to some extent as disturbing nonetheless. It would be possible to reduce noise generation with relatively small funds without excessive economic consequences and thus create a better working environment.

  • 100.
    Carlson, Philip
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics, Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Konstruktions- och Materialförbättring hos Superkritiska Ventiler2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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