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  • 51.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Fischer-Huebner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Lundin, Reine
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Enabling Anonymity for the Mobile Internet Using the mCrowds System2003In: Risk and Challenges of the Network Society: Proceedings of the IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7 Summer School 4-8 August 2003. / [ed] Penny Duquennoy, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Jan Holvast & Albin Zuccato, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Lundin, Reine
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    mCrowds: Anonymity for the Mobile Internet2003In: HumanIT 2003, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2003, p. 79-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 53. Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Kohlweiss, Markulf
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Panchenko, Andryi
    A Self-Certified and Sybil-Free Framework for Secure Digital Identity Domain Buildup2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An attacker who can control arbitrarily many user identities can break the security properties of most conceivable systems. This is called a Sybil attack. We present a solution to this problem that does

    not require online communication with a trusted third party and that in addition preserves the privacy of honest users. Given an initial so-called Sybil-free identity domain, our proposal can be used for deriving Sybil-free unlinkable pseudonyms associated with other identity domains. The pseudonyms are self-certified and computed by the users themselves from their cryptographic long-term identities

  • 54. Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Lundin, Reine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    On the Fundamentals of Anonymity Metrics2007In: The Future of Identity in the Information Society: Proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/ 11.6, 11.7/FIDIS International Summer School on The Future of Identity in the Information Society / [ed] Simone Fischer-Hübner, Penny Duquenoy, Albin Zuccato and Leonardo Martucci, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55. Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Lundin, Reine
    On the Fundamentals of Anonymity Metrics2008In: The Future of Identity in the Information Society: Proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/ 11.6, 11.7/FIDIS International Summer School on The Future of Identity in the Information Society, Karlstad University, Sweden, August 4-10 2007 / [ed] Simone Fischer-Hübner, Penny Duquenoy, Albin Zuccato and Leonardo Martucci, Springer-Verlag New York, 2008, p. 325-341Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Lundin, Reine
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Privacy-Enhanced WAP Browsing with mCrowds: Anonymity Properties and Performance Evaluation of the mCrowds System2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Martucci, Leonardo A.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Privacy & Anonymity in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks2008In: Handbook of Research on Wireless Security / [ed] Yan Zhang, Jun Zheng & Miao Ma, IGI Global , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 58. Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Martucci, Leonardo A.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Requirements for Privacy in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59. Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Privacy and Anonymity in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks2008In: Mobile Computing: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications / [ed] David Taniar, Information Science Reference , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 60. Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Privacy Requirements for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Andersson, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Teoretisk och praktisk genomgång av IPv6 och dess säkerhetsaspekter2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes a theoretical as well as a practical approach to what IPv6 is in order to create an understanding for the new protocol. In addition to the theoretical review of the protocol, this paper also describes the work that has been done in order to create an implementation that is supposed to bring  secure IPv6 support to both private individuals and smaller organizations, even if the Internet service provider only offers IPv4.

     

    This paper and implementation is done on a personal initiative, since the need for knowledge regarding IPv6 is rapidly increasing and private individuals probably will be among the last to be offered native IPv6 support from their Internet service providers.

  • 62.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Oreland, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    City Mobility Model with Google Earth Visualization2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks are flexible, self configuring networks that do not need a fixed infrastructure. When these nets are simulated, mobility models can be used to specify node movements. The work in this thesis focuses on designing an extension of the random trip

    mobility model on a city section from EPFL (Swiss federal institute of technology). Road data is extracted from the census TIGER database, displayed in Google Earth and used as input for the model. This model produces output that can be used in the open source network simulator ns-2.

    We created utilities that take output from a database of US counties, the TIGER database, and convert it to KML. KML is an XML based format used by Google Earth to store geographical data, so that it can be viewed in Google Earth. This data will then be used as input to the modified mobility model and finally run through the ns-2 simulator. We present some NAM traces, a network animator that will show node movements over time.

    We managed to complete most of the goals we set out, apart from being able to modify node positions in Google Earth. This was skipped because the model we modified had an initialization phase that made node positions random regardless of initial position. We were also asked to add the ability to set stationary nodes in Google Earth; this was not added due to time constraints.

  • 63.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Exact Probability Distribution versus Entropy2014In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 16, no 10, p. 5198-5210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem addressed concerns the determination of the average numberof successive attempts of guessing a word of a certain length consisting of letters withgiven probabilities of occurrence. Both first- and second-order approximations to a naturallanguage are considered. The guessing strategy used is guessing words in decreasing orderof probability. When word and alphabet sizes are large, approximations are necessary inorder to estimate the number of guesses. Several kinds of approximations are discusseddemonstrating moderate requirements regarding both memory and central processing unit(CPU) time. When considering realistic sizes of alphabets and words (100), the numberof guesses can be estimated within minutes with reasonable accuracy (a few percent) andmay therefore constitute an alternative to, e.g., various entropy expressions. For manyprobability distributions, the density of the logarithm of probability products is close to anormal distribution. For those cases, it is possible to derive an analytical expression for theaverage number of guesses. The proportion of guesses needed on average compared to thetotal number decreases almost exponentially with the word length. The leading term in anasymptotic expansion can be used to estimate the number of guesses for large word lengths.Comparisons with analytical lower bounds and entropy expressions are also provided.

  • 64.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Nykvist, Conny
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Utökning av PHP2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s report is based upon an assignment specified by the company IT Resource AB, located in Årjäng Värmland.

    The goal of this bachelor’s project was to create an API to extend the functionality of PHP. The API shall simplify and make the work more efficient for IT Resource AB when developing web applications. The simplification and the increased efficiency that the API offers are the possibilities to reuse and easily add new functions to the API when needed.

    The functionality that the API will offer is an enhanced capability to handle variables and strings generated from a web page written in PHP. The enhanced capability refers to the possibility to store variables and strings from a web page written in PHP.

    The API created consists of 2 parts, a client and a server. The client in the client/server system is an external module which contains the functionality for the communication with both PHP and the server. This means that the client in the client/server system will act as an interface between PHP and the server.

    The implementation of the API’s functionality is found in the server part of the client/server system. The functionality implemented in the server is the possibility to store variables and strings in the main memory.

    The result of this project is an API that increases the functionality of PHP. The API can, when needed, be extended further, and IT Resource AB can benefit from using it when developing web applications that make use of PHP.

  • 65.
    Andersson, Ricky
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Classification of Video Traffic: An Evaluation of Video Traffic Classification using Random Forests and Gradient Boosted Trees2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic classification is important for Internet providers and other organizations to solve some critical network management problems.The most common methods for traffic classification is Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) and port based classification. These methods are starting to become obsolete as more and more traffic are being encrypted and applications are starting to use dynamic ports and ports of other popular applications. An alternative method for traffic classification uses Machine Learning (ML).This ML method uses statistical features of network traffic flows, which solves the fundamental problems of DPI and port based classification for encrypted flows.The data used in this study is divided into video and non-video traffic flows and the goal of the study is to create a model which can classify video flows accurately in real-time.Previous studies found tree-based algorithms to work well in classifying network traffic. In this study random forest and gradient boosted trees are examined and compared as they are two of the best performing tree-based classification models.Random forest was found to work the best as the classification speed was significantly faster than gradient boosted trees. Over 93% correctly classified flows were achieved while keeping the random forest model small enough to keep fast classification speeds.

  • 66.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Usable privacy for digital transactions: Exploring the usability aspects of three privacy enhancing mechanisms2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of personal identifiable information that people distribute over different online services has grown rapidly and considerably over the last decades. This has led to increased probabilities for identity theft, profiling and linkability attacks, which can in turn not only result in a threat to people’s personal dignity, finances, and many other aspects of their lives, but also to societies in general. Methods and tools for securing people’s online activities and protecting their privacy on the Internet, so called Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs), are being designed and developed. However, these technologies are often seen by ordinary users as complicated and disruptive of their primary tasks.

     

    In this licentiate thesis, I investigate the usability aspects of three main privacy and security enhancing mechanisms. These mechanisms have the goal of helping and encouraging users to protect their privacy on the Internet as they engage in some of the steps necessary to complete a digital transaction. The three mechanisms, which have been investigated within the scope of different research projects, comprise of (1) graphical visualizations of service providers’ privacy policies and user-friendly management and matching of users’ privacy preferences “on the fly”, (2) methods for helping users create appropriate mental models of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials, and (3) employing touch-screen biometrics as a method to authenticate users into mobile devices and verify their identities during a digital transaction.

     

    Results from these investigations suggest that these mechanisms can make digital transactions privacy-friendly and secure while at the same time delivering convenience and usability for ordinary users.

  • 67.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Towards Usable Privacy Policy Display & Management2012In: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 20, p. 4-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the approach taken within the PrimeLife project for providing user-friendly privacy policy interfaces for the PrimeLife Policy Language (PPL).We present the requirements, design process and usability testing of the “Send Data?” prototype, a browser extension designed and developed to deal with the powerful features provided by PPL. Our interface introduces the novel features of “on the fly” privacy management, predefined levels of privacy settings, and simplified selectionof anonymous credentials. Results from usability tests showed that users understand and appreciate these features and perceive them as being privacy-friendly, and they are therefore suggested as a good approach towards usable privacy policy display and management. Additionally, we present our lessons learnt in the design process of privacy policy interfaces.

  • 68.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring Touch-Screen Biometrics for User Identification on Smart Phones2011In: Privacy and Identity Managementfor Life: Proceedings of the 7th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6 International Summer School 2011 / [ed] an Camenisch, Bruno Crispo, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Ronald Leenes, and Giovanni Russello, Springer, 2011, p. 130-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile smart devices for storing sensitive informationand accessing online services is increasing. At the same time, methods for authenticating users into their devices and online services that are not only secure, but also privacy and user-friendly are needed. In this paper, we present our initial explorations of the use of lock pattern dynamics as a secure and user-friendly two-factor authentication method. We developed an application for the Android mobile platform to collect data on the way individuals draw lock patterns on a touchscreen. Using a Random Forest machine learning classier this method achieves an average Equal Error Rate (EER) of approximately 10.39%, meaning that lock patterns biometrics can be used for identifying users towards their device, but could also pose a threat to privacy if the users' biometric information is handled outside their control.

  • 69.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Profiles: prototyping an online information segregation service2013In: Human-Computer Interaction: Users and Contexts of Use, volume 8006, Proceedings Part III, / [ed] Kurosu, M.,, Springer, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gullberg, Peter
    Gemalto, Gothenburg.
    Kling, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Tavemark, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Understanding the user experience of secure mobile online transactions in realistic contexts of use2012In: Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) 2012, Washington D.C.,USA: ACM Digital Library, 2012, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Possible attacks on mobile smart devices demand higher security for applications handling payments or sensitive information. The introduction of a tamper-proof area on future generations of mobile devices, called Trusted Execution Environment (TEE), is being implemented. Before devices with embedded TEEs can be deployed to the public, investigations on usability aspects of Trusted User Interfaces (TUI) are needed. This article describes the process we have followed at gathering requirements, prototyping and testing suitable designs for TUIs in combination with a touch-screen biometric system. At the end, we present relevant findings of a pilot study that we have conducted using an Experience Sampling Method (ESM) as part of our ongoing work.

  • 71.
    Antonio, Marotta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). University of Naples Federico II.
    Avallone, Stefano
    University of Naples Federico II.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    A Joint Power Efficient Server and Network Consolidation approach for virtualized data centers2018In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 130, p. 65-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing and virtualization are enabling technologies for designing energy-aware resource management mechanisms in virtualized data centers. Indeed, one of the main challenges of big data centers is to decrease the power consumption, both to cut costs and to reduce the environmental impact. To this extent, Virtual Machine (VM) consolidation is often used to smartly reallocate the VMs with the objective of reducing the power consumption, by exploiting the VM live migration. The consolidation problem consists in finding the set of migrations that allow to keep turned on the minimum number of servers needed to host all the VMs. However, most of the proposed consolidation approaches do not consider the network related consumption, which represents about 10–20% of the total energy consumed by IT equipment in real data centers. This paper proposes a novel joint server and network consolidation model that takes into account the power efficiency of both the switches forwarding the traffic and the servers hosting the VMs. It powers down switch ports and routes traffic along the most energy efficient path towards the least energy consuming server under QoS constraints. Since the model is complex, a fast Simulated Annealing based Resource Consolidation algorithm (SARC) is proposed. Our numerical results demonstrate that our approach is able to save on average 50% of the network related power consumption compared to a network unaware consolidation.

  • 72.
    Antonio, Marotta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Zola, Enrica
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
    D'Andreagiovanni, Fabio
    Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    A fast robust optimization-based heuristic for the deployment of green virtual network functions2017In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 95, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network Function Virtualization (NFV) has attracted a lot of attention in the telecommunication field because it allows to virtualize core-business network functions on top of a NFV Infrastructure. Typically, virtual network functions (VNFs) can be represented as chains of Virtual Machines (VMs) or containers that exchange network traffic which are deployed inside datacenters on commodity hardware. In order to achieve cost efficiency, network operators aim at minimizing the power consumption of their NFV infrastructure. This can be achieved by using the minimum set of physical servers and networking equipment that are able to provide the quality of service required by the virtual functions in terms of computing, memory, disk and network related parameters. However, it is very difficult to predict precisely the resource demands required by the VNFs to execute their tasks. In this work, we apply the theory of robust optimization to deal with such parameter uncertainty. We model the problem of robust VNF placement and network embedding under resource demand uncertainty and network latency constraints using robust mixed integer optimization techniques. For online optimization, we develop fast solution heuristics. By using the virtualized Evolved Packet Core as use case, we perform a comprehensive evaluation in terms of performance, solution time and complexity and show that our heuristic can calculate robust solutions for large instances under one second.

  • 73.
    Arvidsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Andreasson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Distributed computing for the public transit domain2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74.
    Arvidsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Utvärdering av containerbaserad virtualisering för telekomsignalering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New and innovative technologies to improve the techniques that are already being used are constantly developing. This project was about evaluating if containers could be something for the IT company Tieto to use on their products in telecommunications. Container are portable, standalone, executable lightweight packages of software that also contains all it needs to run the software. Containers are a very hot topic right now and are a fast-growing technology. Tieto wanted an investigation of the technology and it would be carried out with certain requirements where the main requirement was to have a working and executable protocol stack in a container environment. In the investigation, a proof of concept was developed, proof of concept is a realization of a certain method or idea in order to demonstrate its feasibility. The proof of concept led to Tieto wanting additional experiments carried out on containers. The experiments investigated if equal performance could be achieved with containers compared to the method with virtual machine used by Tieto today. The experiment observed a small performance reduction of efficiency, but it also showed benefits such as higher flexibility. Further development of the container method could provide a just as good and equitable solution. The project can therefore be seen as successful whereas the proof of concept developed, and experiments carried out both points to that this new technology will be part of Tieto's product development in the future.

  • 75. Aspinall, David
    et al.
    Camenisch, Jan
    Hansen, Marit
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Privacy and Identity Management – Time for a Revolution?: 10th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.5, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6/SIG 9.2.2 International Summer School2016Book (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Asplund, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Implementation and Experimental Evaluation of a Partially Reliable Transport Protocol2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade, we have seen an explosive growth in the deployment of multimedia applications on the Internet. However, the transport service provided over the Internet is not always feasible for these applications, since the network was originally designed for other types of applications. One way to better accommodate the service requirements of some of these applications is to provide a partially reliable transport service. A partially reliable transport service does not insist on recovering all, but just some of the packet losses, thus providing a lower transport delay than a reliable transport service. The work in this thesis focuses on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a partially reliable transport protocol called PRTP. PRTP has been designed as an extension to TCP in order to show that such a service could be effectively integrated with current protocol standards. An important feature of PRTP is that all modifications for PRTP are restricted to the receiver side, which means that it could be very easily deployed. The thesis presents performance results from various experiments on a Linux implementation of PRTP. The results suggest that transfer times can be decreased significantly when using PRTP as opposed to TCP in networks in which packet loss occurs. Furthermore, the thesis includes a study that investigates how users perceive an application that is based on a partially reliable service. Specifically, how users select the trade-off between image quality and latency when they download Web pages is explored. The results indicate that many of the users in the study could accept less than perfect image quality

    if the latency could be shortened.

  • 77.
    Asplund, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Implementation and Experimental Evaluation of aPartially Reliable Transport Protocol2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade, we have seen an explosive growth in the deployment of multimedia applications on the Internet. However, the transport service provided over the Internet is not always feasible for these applications, since the network was originally designed for other types of applications. One way to better accommodate the service requirements of some of these applications is to provide a partially reliable transport service. A partially reliable transport service does not insist on recovering all, but just some of the packet losses, thus providing a lower transport delay than a reliable transport service. The work in this thesis focuses on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a partially reliable transport protocol called PRTP. PRTP has been designed as an extension to TCP in order to show that such a service could be effectively integrated with current protocol standards. An important feature of

    PRTP is that all modifications for PRTP are restricted to the receiver side, which means that it could be very easily deployed. The thesis presents performance results from various experiments on a Linux implementation of PRTP. The results suggest that transfer times can be decreased significantly when using PRTP as opposed to TCP in networks in which packet loss occurs. Furthermore, the thesis includes a study that investigates how users perceive an application that is based on a partially reliable service. Specifically, how users select the trade-off between image quality and latency when they download Web pages is explored. The results indicate that many of the users in the study could accept less than perfect image quality if the latency could be shortened.

  • 78.
    Asplund, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    An Evaluation of User Web Service Requirements2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Asplund, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Partially Reliable Multimedia Transport2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing deployment of applications that transmit multimedia data makes it important for the Internet to better accommodate the service requirements of this type of applications. One approach is to provide a partially reliable service, i.e. a service that does not insist on recovering all but only some of the packet losses, thus providing less delay than a reliable transport service. This technical report describes a transport protocol that provides a partially reliable service. The protocol, called PRTP, is especially aimed at applications with soft real-time requirements. The report also presents performance results from a number of different experiments investigating different aspects of PRTP. The results indicate that transfer times can be significantly decreased when using PRTP as opposed to TCP when packets are lost in the network.

  • 80.
    Asplund, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The QoS Trade-off Between Latency and Image Quality on the Web: A User Perspective2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Asplund, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Trade-off Between Latency and Image Quality on the Web: A User Perspective2003In: / [ed] John Sören Pettersson, 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Asplund, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Schneyer, S.
    Decreasing Transfer Delay Through Partial Reliability2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Avallone, Stefano
    et al.
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Comp Engn, I-80125 Naples, Italy.
    Di Stasi, Giovanni
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Comp Engn, I-80125 Naples, Italy.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    A Traffic-Aware Channel and Rate Re-Assignment Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Networks.2013In: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, ISSN 1536-1233, E-ISSN 1558-0660, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 1335-1348Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Axelsson, Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Melani, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Hash Comparison Module for OCFA2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Child abuse content on the Internet is today an increasing problem and difficult to dealwith. The techniques used by paedophiles are getting more sophisticated which means ittakes more effort of the law enforcement to locate this content.

    To help solving this issue, a EU-funded project named FIVES is developing a set oftools to help investigations involving large amounts of image and video material. One ofthese tools aims to help identifying potentially illegal files by hash signatures derived fromusing classification information from another project.

  • 85.
    Bakar, Sakhinah Abu
    et al.
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Characterization of essential proteins based on network topology in proteins interaction networks2014In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Mathematical Sciences, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014, Vol. 1602, p. 36-42Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Bakar, Sakhinah Abu
    et al.
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    FIS-PNN: A Hybrid Computational Method for Protein-Protein Interactions Prediction Using the Secondary Structure Information2011In: IEEE/ACS International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA-2011), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Bakar, Sakhinah Abu
    et al.
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Identifying Hub Proteins and Their Essentiality from Protein-protein Interaction Network2011In: Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (BIBE), 2011 IEEE 11th International Conference on, Taichung, Taiwan: IEEE Press, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Baktirovic, Adnan
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Utveckling av hotspotsystem2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This graduation work was done as a assignment from Fiber Optic City company based in Hudiksvall Sweden. The base assignment was to create an automated payment system for a Hotspot network and a company web page. The hotspot system should work as a standalone service. The company has already a working free-of-charge service that is offered to its customers and is based on Public IP system.

    The company webpage was done with the help of a development suite called Flex2 and the result was an Adobe Flash application. To increase webpage dynamics a second page was developed for the company to have the ability to change and configure the main company webpage. An authentication service was deployed to configuration page to increase its security. As an engine and a substitute for lack of functionality and security in Adobe Flash simplePHP web service was used to connect Flash with a PHP script on its server.

    The payment system was developed with the help of PHP, MySQL and JavaScript. The system uses Paypal IPN service for money transaction and transaction validation

    A standalone web server with Apache2, PHP 5.0 and MySQL was deployed to the hotspot system to reduce the need of having an authentication system on a commercial Internet based web hotel.

  • 89.
    Bartsch, Steffen
    et al.
    Universität Kassel/provet.
    Boos, Carina
    Universität Kassel/provet.
    Canova, Gamze
    Universität Kassel/provet.
    Dyck, Dominic
    Universität Kassel/provet.
    Henhapl, Birgit
    Universität Kassel/provet.
    Schultheis, Michael
    Universität Kassel/provet.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Universität Kassel/provet.
    Interdisziplinäres Bewertungskonzept für Risiken auf Webseiten2014In: Workshop RiskKom der GI-FGn SECMGT & ECOM auf der Informatik 2014, 2014, p. 2069-2078Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dieser Beitrag beschreibt ein Konzept zur Verbesserung der Sicherheit von Nutzern im Internet: Angepasst auf die jeweilige IT-Sicherheitsexpertise sowie seiner Bereitschaft, Risiken einzugehen, werden dem Nutzer in risikoreichen Situationen unterschiedliche Interventionen geboten. Die Entscheidung, ob und welches Risiko existiert, wird auf rechtlicher und technischer Ebene getroffen: Indikatoren, ob Daten- und Verbraucherschutz eingehalten werden sowie ob grundlegende Maßnahmen der IT-Sicherheit umgesetzt sind, werden automatisiert erkannt und ausgewertet. Auf Grundlage der Risikoeinstufung des jeweiligen Szenarios sowie des antizipierten Risikoverhaltens und der IT-Sicherheitsexpertise des Nutzers wird über die Art der Intervention entschieden: Zusätzlich zu Warnmeldungen, die den Nutzer im Surfverhalten unterbrechen, existieren passive Interventionen, die den Nutzer nicht in seiner Handlung behindern, sowie eine permanente Anzeige über den Sicherheitsstatus einer Seite. 

  • 90.
    Bartsch, Steffen
    et al.
    Technische Universität Darmstadt.
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Technische Universität Darmstadt.
    Expert Knowledge for Contextualized Warnings2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Users are bothered by too many security warnings in a vari- ety of applications. To reduce the number of unnecessary warnings, de- velopers cannot continue to report technical security problems. Instead, they need to consider the actual risks of the context for the decision of whether and how to warn – contextualized warnings. For this risk assess- ment, developers need to encode expert knowledge. Given the number and complexity of the risks – for example, in Web browsing –, eliciting and encoding the expert knowledge is challenging. In this paper, we pro- pose a holistic methodology for an abstract risk assessment that builds upon prior concepts from risk management, such as decision trees. The result of the methodology is an abstract risk model – a model to as- sess the risk for the concrete context. In a case study, we show how this methodology can be applied to warnings in Web browsers.

  • 91.
    Bayer, Nico
    et al.
    Deutsche Telekom/T-Systems, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Cavalcanti de Castro, Marcel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Dely, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Koucheryavy, Yevgeni
    Tampere University of Technolo, Finland.
    Mitoraj, Piotr
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Staehle, Dirk
    University of Würzburg, Germany.
    VoIP service performance optimization in pre-IEEE 802.11s Wireless Mesh Networks2008In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Circuits andSystems for Communications (ICCSC) 2008, IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, p. 75-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    802.11-based wireless mesh networks are seen as a means for providing last mile connections to next generation networks. Due to the low deployment cost and the mature technology used, they are scalable, easy to implement and robust. With an increasing coverage of wireless networks, VoIP becomes a cheaper alternative for traditional and cellular telephony. In this paper, we carry out a feasibility study of VoIP in a dual radio mesh environment. Heading towards 802.11s, we present the design of a mesh testbed and methodology for performing the measurements. Additionally, we address the problem that small voice packets introduce a high overhead leading to a low voice capacity of 802.11 based mesh networks. In order to alleviate this problem and increase the voice capacity, a novel packet aggregation mechanism is presented and evaluated using the ns-2 simulator.

  • 92.
    Beckerle, Matthias
    et al.
    Technische Universität Darmstadt,, Germany.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Formal Definitions for Usable Access Control Rule Sets: From Goals to Metrics2013In: Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013, p. 2:1-2:11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access control policies describe high level requirements for access control systems. Access control rule sets ideally trans-late these policies into a coherent and manageable collectionof Allow/Deny rules. Designing rule sets that reflect desired policies is a difficult and time-consuming task. The result is that rule sets are difficult to understand and manage. The goal of this paper is to provide means for obtaining usable access control rule sets, which we define as rule sets that (i) reflect the access control policy and (ii) are easy to understand and manage. In this paper, we formally define the challenges that users face when generating usable access control rule sets and provide formal tools to handle them more easily. We started our research with a pilot study in which specialists were interviewed. The objective was to list usability challenges regarding the management of access control rule sets and verify how those challenges were handled by specialists. The results of the pilot study were compared and combined with results from related work and refined into six novel, formally defined metrics that are used to measure the security and usability aspects of access control rule sets. We validated our findings with two user studies, which demonstrate that our metrics help users generate statistically significant better rule sets.

  • 93.
    Beckerle, Matthias
    et al.
    Technische Universitt Darmstadt Darmstadt, Germany.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Ries, Sebastian
    Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Interactive access rule learning: Generating adapted access rule sets2010In: ADAPTIVE 2010: The Second International Conference on Adaptive and Self-Adaptive Systems and Applications November 21-26, 2010 - Lisbon, Portugal / [ed] Ali Beklen, Jorge Ejarque, Wolfgang Gentzsch, Teemu Kanstren, Arne Koschel, Yong Woo Lee, Li Li & Michal Zemlicka, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2010, p. 104-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper tackles the problem of usability and security in access control mechanisms. A theoretical solution for this problem is presented using the combination of automaticrule learning and user interaction. The result is the interactive rule learning approach. Interactive rule learning is designed to complete attribute-based access control to generate concise rule sets even by non-expert end-users. The resulting approach leads to adaptive access control rule sets that can be used for smart products.

  • 94.
    Beckerle, Matthias
    et al.
    Telecooperation Group (TK), Technische Universität Darmstadt.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Telecooperation Group (TK), Technische Universität Darmstadt.
    Ries, Sebastian
    Telecooperation Group (TK), Technische Universität Darmstadt.
    Mühlhäuser, Max
    Telecooperation Group (TK), Technische Universität Darmstadt.
    Interactive Rule Learning for Access Control: Concepts and Design2011In: International Journal on Advances in Intelligent Systems, ISSN 1942-2679, E-ISSN 1942-2679, Vol. 4, no 3-4, p. 234-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays the majority of users are unable toproperly configure security mechanisms mostly because theyare not usable for them. To reach the goal of having usable security mechanisms, the best solution is to minimize the amount of user interactions and simplify configuration tasks. Automation is a proper solution for minimizing the amount of user interaction. Fully automated security systems are possible for most security objectives, with the exception ofthe access control policy generation. Fully automated accesscontrol policy generation is currently not possible because individual preferences must be taken into account and, thus, requires user interaction. To address this problem we proposea mechanism that assists users to generate proper accesscontrol rule sets that reflect their individual preferences. We name this mechanism Interactive Rule Learning for AccessControl (IRL). IRL is designed to generate concise rule setsfor Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC). The resulting approach leads to adaptive access control rule sets that can be used for so called smart products. Therefore, we first describe the requirements and metrics for usable access control rulesets for smart products. Moreover, we present the design of asecurity component which implements, among other security functionalities, our proposed IRL on ABAC. This design is currently being implemented as part of the ICT 7th Framework Programme SmartProducts of the European Commission.

  • 95.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    KTH, Center for Wireless Systems.
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    On the Impact of Velocity on the Train-to-Earth MIMO Propagation Channel: Statistical Observations and Qualitative Analysis2017In: 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, IEEE, 2017, p. 1865-1866Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide measured data collected from 97 trains completing over 7000 journeys in Sweden showing that the throughput over LTE is impacted by train velocity. In order to explain these observations we assume that the underlying causes can be found in the implementation of the MIMO system into LTE Rel. 8 and the diffuse scattering of signals from ground reflections.

  • 96.
    Bellalta, Boris
    et al.
    Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona 08018, Spain.
    Bononi, Luciano
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy.
    Bruno, Raffaele
    Institute for Informatics and Telematics (IIT), Italian National Research Council (CNR), Pisa 56124, Italy.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Next generation IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks: Current status, future directions and open challenges2016In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 75, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new generation of Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) will make its appearance in the market in the forthcoming years based on the amendments to the IEEE 802.11 standards that have recently been approved or are under development. Examples of the most expected ones are IEEE 802.11aa (Robust Audio Video Transport Streaming), IEEE 802.11ac (Very-high throughput at < 6 GHz), IEEE 802.11af (TV White Spaces) and IEEE 802.11ah (Machine-to-Machine communications) specifications. The aim of this survey is to provide a comprehensive overview of these novel technical features and the related open technical challenges that will drive the future WLAN evolution. In contrast to other IEEE 802.11 surveys, this is a use case oriented study. Specifically, we first describe the three key scenarios in which next-generation WLANs will have to operate. We then review the most relevant amendments for each of these use cases focusing on the additional functionalities and the new technologies they include, such as multi-user MIMO techniques, groupcast communications, dynamic channel bonding, spectrum databases and channel sensing, enhanced power saving mechanisms and efficient small data transmissions. We also discuss the related work to highlight the key issues that must still be addressed. Finally, we review emerging trends that can influence the design of future WLANs, with special focus on software-defined MACs and the internet-working with cellular systems.

  • 97.
    Berglind, Raymond
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Larsson, Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Mobile SIF-application: Cross-platform development of a Xamarin application utilizing data from a SharePoint intranet solution2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Xamarin, a cross-platform development framework, was used in this project for the development of a proof-of-concept mobile client application for an existing intranet solution. The intranet consists of Microsoft SharePoint components and is a pre-assembled product produced by the requestor of this project; Sogeti. To fetch the intranet’s data, a web API was implemented as an intermediary between the mobile application and the intranet. The Xamarin application targets three different mobile platforms including iOS, Android and Universal Windows Platform, and since Xamarin allows for shared logic between different operating systems, this approach was adopted to the greatest extent possible. However, during the development of the project several problems were encountered that prompted platform-specific implementations. For example, the user authentication process needed to be implemented in a platform-specific manner in the client application and some parts of the graphical user interface needed to be adapted to each individual platform as well. Even though the development of the applications was not completely finished, four out of seven of the original requirements set forth by Sogeti at the beginning of the project were achieved. These fulfilled requirements include, among other functionality, the implementation of displaying news articles and attention messages from a user’s specific intranet solution. Overall, the project was found to be successful, especially with regard to evaluating how well Xamarin and cross-platform development works with these kinds of mobile applications.

  • 98.
    Berglund, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Digital skyltning på Androidenheter: Ett Android integrationsprojekt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Digital skyltning är en speciell form av skyltning där information, bilder, videoklipp eller liknande media visas på digitala skärmar. Skyltningen sker vanligtvis på LCD eller LED skärmar och placeras vanligtvis på antingen offentliga platser eller på arbetsplatser.

    Projektet går ut på att expandera en färdig digital-skyltningsmjukvara där koden huvudsakligen är skriven i HTML5 och JavaScript genom att göra den exekverbar och anpassad för operativsystemet Android.

    Resultatet av projektet gjorde mjukvaran anpassad samt exekverbar på Android. Verktyget Cordova användes för att göra webb-koden exekverbar på Android. Anpassningen gäller huvudsakligen att ge mjukvaran tillgång till Androidenhetens funktioner och resurser som exempelvis filsystemet och skärmdumps-funktionen.

  • 99. Bernhard, David
    et al.
    Kulyk, Oksana
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Security Proofs for Participation Privacy and Stronger Verifiability for Helios2016Report (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Bernhard, David
    et al.
    University of Bristol .
    Oksana, Kulyk
    Technische Universität Darmstadt .
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Security proofs for Participation privacy, receipt-freeness and ballot privacy for the helios voting scheme2017In: ARES '17 Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2017, article id Article No. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Helios voting scheme is well studied including formal proofs for verifiability and ballot privacy. However, depending on its version, the scheme provides either participation privacy (hiding who participated in the election) or verifiability against malicious bulletin board (preventing election manipulation by ballot stuffing), but not both at the same time. It also does not provide receipt-freeness, thus enabling vote buying by letting the voters construct receipts proving how they voted. Recently, an extension to Helios, further referred to as KTV-Helios, has been proposed that claims to provide these additional security properties. However, the authors of KTV-Helios did not prove their claims. Our contribution is to provide formal definitions for participation privacy and receipt-freeness that we applied to KTV-Helios. In order to evaluate the fulfillment of participation privacy and receipt-freeness, we furthermore applied the existing definition of ballot privacy, which was also used for evaluating the security of Helios, in order to show that ballot privacy also holds for KTV-Helios

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