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  • 51. Bjorklund, R.B.
    et al.
    Arwin, H.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Adsorption of Anionic and Cationic Polymers on Porous and Non-Porous Calcium Carbonate Surfaces1994In: Appl.Surf.Sci.,75,197(1994)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Bjurulf, Veronica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Technology in Education: Ongoing research2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Bjurulf, Veronica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    The Importance of Interweaving Theoretical and Practical Tasks in Technology education2008In: Exploring technology education: solutions to issues in a globalised world : proceedings of the 5th Biennial International Conference on Technology Education Research held at the Crowne Plaza Surfers Paradise, Australia, 27-29 November 2008, Griffith University , 2008, p. 27-34Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54. Bjurulf, Veronica
    et al.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Segolsson, Mikael
    Ämnet teknik i grundskolan - med empiriska exempel2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55. Björk, T
    et al.
    Berger, M
    Westergård, R
    Hogmark, S
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    New PVD coatings applied to aluminium extrusion dies2001Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 56. Björk, T.
    et al.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Hogmark, S.
    Tribological simulation of aluminium hot extrusion1999Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 57. Björk, T.
    et al.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Hogmark, S.
    Tribological simulation of aluminium hot extrusion1997Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 58. Björk, T
    et al.
    Westergård, R
    Hogmark, S
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Hedenqvist, P
    PVD Duplex coatings for aluminium extrusion dies1999Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 59.
    Björström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland.
    Rysz, Jakub
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.
    Nilsson, Svante
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Svensson, Mattias
    Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry/Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Multilayer formation in spin-coated thin films of low-bandgap polyfluorene:PCBM blends2005In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 17, no 50, p. L529-L534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blends of the low-bandgap polymer poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-5,5- (4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole] (APFO-3) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl–C61–butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were spin-coated from chloroform solution into thin films, which were examined with dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry. For blends with high PCBM content, the depth profiles show composition waves that were caused by surface-directed phase separation during spin-coating. The formation of such multilayer structures by spontaneous self-stratification is likely to have implications for optimization strategies for the performance of organic solar cells

  • 60.
    Björström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Control of phase separation in blends of polyfluorene (co)polymers and the C60-derivative PCBM2005In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 152, no 1-3, p. 109-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When creating thin films of polymer blends, interesting morphologies are formed because of phaseseparation. In particular for conjugated polymers, which are used as active material in optoelectronic devices, it is very important to understand the parameters that influence the phaseseparation process and to achieve control over the morphology. The overall goal of this blend morphology study is to contribute to the design of device structures with desired performance.

    Here we present results of morphology studies on thin films of polyfluorene-based blends with the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The polymers used are poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (F8) and four different copolymers of F8. The thin films are spin coated from chloroform solutions onto silicon substrates and their surface morphology is imaged by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). We observe that the size and the shape of the domains in the film depend on the structure of the polymer. The nature of the monomer that, together with F8, is building the repeating unit in the copolymers has a strong effect on the phaseseparation in the polymer: PCBMblend. Since phaseseparation is influenced by interactions between components of the blend and the solvent, these results indicate that the degree of chemical interaction between polymer, solvent and PCBM, is different for the different blends. For the systems that form larger domains there is a clear correlation between the domain size (area) and the polymer/PCBMblend ratio. We also observe that the spin speed affects the thickness of the films and that the domain size increases with increasing thickness, primarily due to longer drying times

  • 61.
    Björström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Svante
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Andersson, Mats
    Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry/Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Vertical phase separation in spin-coated films of a low bandgap polyfluorene/PCBM blend: Effects of specific substrate interaction2007In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 8, p. 3906-3912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the effect of the substrate on the vertical phase separation in spin-coated thin films of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-5,5-40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzothiadiazole] (APFO-3) blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Compositional depth profiles of the films are measured by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).We found that changing the substrate from silicon to gold affects the composition profile near the substrate interface. This is caused by a specific interaction between the polymer (APFO-3) and the gold surface, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The composition profile in the area away from the substrate interface, as well as the enrichment of the free surface with APFO-3, remain however unaffected by the choice of substrate. The vertical composition was also analysed for APFO-3:PCBM films spin-coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated with a thin layer of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS).

  • 62.
    Björström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Svante
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Rysz, Jakub
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Department of Physics, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Department of Physics, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry / Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Influence of solvents and substrates on the morphology and the performance of low-bandgap polyfluorene:PCBM photovoltaic devices2006In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 6192, p. 61921X-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spin-coated thin films of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (APFO-3) blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are used as the active material in polymer photovoltaic cells. Such blends are known for their tendency to phase separate during film formation. Tuning the morphology of the blend in a controlled way is one possible road towards higher efficiency. We studied the effect of adding chlorobenzene to chloroform-based blend solutions before spin-coating on the conversion efficiency of APFO-3:PCBM photodiodes, and related that to the lateral and vertical morphology of thin films of the blend. The lateral morphology is imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the vertical compositional profile is obtained by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The profiles reveal compositional variations consisting of multilayers of alternating polymer-rich and PCBM-rich domains in the blend film spin-coated from chloroform. The vertical compositional variations are caused by surface-directed spinodal waves and are frozen in during the rapid evaporation of a highly volatile solvent. With addition of the low-vapour pressure solvent chlorobenzene, a more homogeneous vertical composition is found. The conversion efficiency for solar cells of this blend was found to be optimal for chloroform:chlorobenzene mixtures with a volume-ratio of 80:1. We have also investigated the role of the substrate on the morphology. We found that blend films spin-coated from chloroform solutions on PEDOT:PSS-coated ITO show a similar compositional structure as the films on silicon, and that changing the substrate from silicon to gold only affects the vertical phase separation in a region close to the substrate interface

  • 63.
    Björström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Rysz, Jakub
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Nelson, Jenny
    Imperial College, London, U.K..
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Device Performance of APFO-3/PCBM Solar Cells with controlled morphologyManuscript (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Björström Svanström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Rysz, Jakub
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Zhang, Fengling
    nic Electronic (COE), Linköping University, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    IFM and Center of Organic Electronic (COE), Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Benson-Smith, Jessica
    Department of Physics, Imperial College, London, U.K..
    Nelson, Jenny
    Department of Physics, Imperial College, London, U.K..
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Device performance of APFO-3/PCBM solar cells with controlled morphology2009In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 21, no 43, p. 4398-4403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer/fullerene solar cells with three different device structures: A) diffuse bilayer, B) spontaneously formed multilayer, and C) vertically homogenous thin films, are fabricated. The photocurrent/voltage performance is compared and it is found that the self-stratified structure (B) yields the highest energy conversion efficiency.

  • 65.
    Blazinic, Vanja
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Ericsson, Leif
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Stability of TQ1:N2200 active layers for all-polymer solar cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 66. Brown, W
    et al.
    Rymdén, R
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Almgren, M
    Svensk, G
    Static and Dynamic Properties of Nonionic Amphiphile Micelles: Triton X-100 in Aqueous Solution1989In: J. Phys. Chem., 1989, 93, 2512-2519Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Brumboiu, Iulia Emilia
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ericsson, Leif
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Blazinic, Vanja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Hansson, Rickard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Opitz, Andreas
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.
    Brena, Barbara
    Uppsala Universitet, Physics and Astronomy.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    The Photooxidation of PC60BM: New Insights from SpectroscopyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the quest towards more durable solution-processed solar cells, the stability of the active layer materials under operation conditions is important. While lifetimes of several years have been demonstrated for encapsulated organic solar cells, it is generally known that degradation events can be accounted for by air components (O2 and/or water vapour) leaking into the cell through a non-ideal sealing. Here we present a fundamental study of intentional photo-degradation of the electron-acceptor PC60BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) in air, with the purpose of improving the understanding of the electronic effects of fullerene photo-oxidation. We have studied spincoated thin films of PC60BM by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, before and after exposing them to simulated sunlight in air. The changes observed in the spectra obtained by these complementary methods were compared with calculated spectra of a large set of possible oxidation products of PC60BM where oxygen atoms have been attached to the C60 cage. The best fit with experimental IR spectra of photodegraded PC60BM films was obtained for a linear combination of calculated spectra for two degradation products, a dicarbonyl and an anhydride, both with open cages with 58 carbon atoms, and the pristine PC60BM molecule. From this comparison, we conclude that the conjugation of the fullerene cage is disturbed by the formation of several carbonyl-based derivatives on the C60 cage, accompanied by a transition from sp2 to sp3-hybridized carbon. The π* resonance in the C1s NEXAFS spectrum was found to be a very sensitive probe for small changes to the fullerene cage, and FT-IR was needed in combination with O1s NEXAFS, to identify the oxidation products.

  • 68.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    et al.
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Zemla, Joanna
    Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Awsiuk, Kamil
    Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Rysz, Jakub
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Björström Svanström, Cecilia M.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Lekka, Małgorzata
    Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Krakow, Poland.
    Jaczewska, Justyna
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Polymer Blends Spin-Cast into Films with Complementary Elements for Electronics and Biotechnology2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Special Issue: Contributions from the 4th International Conference on Polymer Behavior (IUPAC), Lodz, Poland, September 19–23, 2010, Vol. 125, no 6, p. 4275-4284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Versatility of solution-processing strategy based on the simultaneous rather than additive deposition of different functional molecules is discussed. It is shown that spin-cast polymer blends result in films with domains that could form elements with complementary functions of (i) solar cells, (ii) electronic circuitries, and (iii) test plates for protein micro-arrays: Alternating layers, rich in electrondonating polyfluorene and electron-accepting fullerene derivative, result in optimized solar power conversion. Surface patterns, made by soft lithography, align conductive paths of conjugated poly(3-alkylthiophene) in dielectric polystyrene. Proteins, preserving their biologically activity, are adsorbed to hydrophobic domains of polystyrene in hydrophilic matrix of poly(ethylene oxide). The authors report the research progress on structure formation in three polymer blend families, resulting in films with complementary elements for electronics and biotechnology. Blend film structures are determined with secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the authors present recent results on (i) structure formation in fullerene derivative/poly(3-alkylthiophene) blends intended for solar cells, (ii) 3-dimensional SIMS imaging of conductive paths of poly(3-alkylthiophene) in dielectric polystyrene, (iii) test lates for multiprotein micro-arrays fabricated with blend films of hydrophobic polystyrene and thermoresponsive poly (N-sopropylacrylamide).

  • 69.
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    A study of plasma sprayed FeCrAlY Coatings1984Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Brottseghets- och Lågcykelutmattningsegenskaper hos PM 12% Cr-stål1991Report (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Properties of Plasma Sprayed FeCrAlY Coatings on High Temperature Alloys1986Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Burman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ericsson, T.
    A study of plasma sprayed FeCrAlY coatings after various posttreatments1983Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Burman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ericsson, T.
    Fe-Cr-Al-Y Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection1986Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Burman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ericsson, T.
    Mechanical properties of plasma sprayed and posttreated FeCrAlY coatings1983Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Burman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ericsson, T.
    Residual Stress Measurement in Advanced Ceramics1989In: S. Denis (ED) Residual Stresses, Elsevier Applied ScienceArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Burman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ericsson, T.
    Kvernes, I.
    Lindblom, Y.
    A Comparison Between Different Compounds Improving Corrosion Protection of FeCrAlY Coatings on Superalloys1988In: Proc 15th Conf on Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego 1988Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Burman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Ericsson, T.
    Kvernes, I.
    Lindblom, Y.
    Coatings with lenticular oxides preventing interdiffusion1987In: Surface and Coatings Technology, 32 (1987)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 78. Calvert, D.J.
    et al.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Sundin, M.
    Larsson, A.
    Dynamic Test Procedures to Evaluate Runnability of Water-Based PSAs: Contact Angle Measurements under Non-Equilibrium Conditions1996In: Eur.Adhesives Sealants,June,2&4-5(1996)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Fluorescence Microscopy Applied to the Dynamics of Latex Colloids2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Latex Colloid Dynamics in Complex Dispersions2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Latex Diffusion at High Volume Fractions Studied by Fluorescence Microscopy2006In: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 298(1), 162-171 (2006)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ljungqvist, Carl-Henrik
    Stora Enso, Karlstad Research Center.
    Nyflött, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Axrup, Lars
    Stora Enso, Karlstad Research Center.
    Characterization of Micro Fibrillated Cellulose using fluorescence microscopy: Evaluation of pretreatments of Micro Fibrillated Cellulose using fluorescence microscopy2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper making process is well known but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Paper builds up from cellulose fibers and many additives are needed in the process. The interactions between components in the furnish are important. Pulp fibers have a wide size distribution and the finest particle fraction is called fines. The fines used in this study are Micro Fibrillated Cellulose (MFC) from bleached craft pulp.

     

    A model system containing fibers and latex was used together with fluorescence microscopy and image analysis. By studying the motion of a labeled latex particle more can be understood about the internal structure of the system. The system consists of:

    • A water suspension of MFC. At the concentrations used the fines are interacting with each other, forming a gel like structure.
    • Negatively charged labeled latex particles (probes), with radius 0,1 µm.
    • Two types of electrolytes (NaCl and CaCl2). The electrolytes were used for altering the electrical double layer of the charged surfaces in the system.

    Different pretreatments of the MFC has been investigated and evaluated using the movements of the probe in the network of fibers.

  • 83.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Rådberg, Weronica
    Ljungqvist, Carl-Henrik
    Axrup, Lars
    Determination of Distribution of Fines in a Paper Structure using Fluorescence Microscopy and Image Analysis2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    When making paper a sheet is formed by draining a specific amount of dilute water suspension of pulp through a wire-cloth. The procedure is well known but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The different particles such as fines, fibers, retention aids and other additives interact with each other during the process. These interactions are important since they impact the properties of the formed paper. The fibers have different sizes and the finest particle fraction is called fines. The fines used in this study are from bleached kraft pulp and are therefore oxidized to some extent.

    By labelling the fines with a fluorophore the movements of individual fines can be followed with video-based fluorescence microscopy even if the size of the fines is below the microscopes resolution limit. [1-3] The fluorophores that has been used are N-Methylisatoic anhydride and fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide. N-Methylisatoic anhydride reacts directly with hydroxyl groups on the cellulose chain. Fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide reacts with groups like aldehydes and ketones in the cellulose chain, so the chain has to be oxidized before the labeling process. These two fluorephores have different absorption and emission wavelengths. [4]

    The methods for labeling the fibers are easy to perform. The labeled fiber can be seen in the microscope. One problem is that the fibers aggregate, probably due to the method used for labeling. Another problem can be the fading of the flourophores. Both problems will be further investigated. [5]

    The elevated drying process in the paper machine makes it difficult to understand the mechanisms involved. Within this project the understanding will be built up in many steps. The first step is to study the labeled fibers in water. A model system containing fibers and latex will be used to study the behavior in different environments such as different electrolyte concentration and pH.



    References

    [1] Carlsson G., Warszynski P., van Stam J., J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2003, 267, 500-508

    [2] Carlsson G., van Stam J., Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J., 2005, 20, 192-199

    [3] Carlsson G., Järnström L., van Stam J., J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2006, 298, 162-171

    [4] DeAngelis P. L., Analytical Biochemistry, 2000, 284, 167-169

    [5] Rådberg W., Bsc thesis, Karlstad university, 2010

  • 84.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Interactions between Charged Latex Colloids and Starch Polyelectrolytes Studied by Fluorescence Microscopy with Image Analysis2005In: Nordic Pulp Pap. Res. J., 2005, 20, 192-199Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Fredriksson, Lars
    Normal and anomalous diffusion2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Brownian motion is perhaps best described as the never-ceasing phenomenon responsible for

    self-diffusion occurring although there is no temperature or concentration gradients. The

    distribution of the steps P(r) is vital in order to see the underlying mechanism of diffusion.

    Normal diffusion is characterised by having Gaussian distributions of the step lengths.

    Diffusion can be classified as either normal or anomalous depending on how the mean square

    displacement is related to time:



    If a = 1, diffusion is classified as normal diffusion. With a > 1 , there is superdiffusion. When

    a < 1 , subdiffusion takes place. In order to replace normal diffusion by anomalous diffusion,

    pathologies must be present. Most anomalous diffusion takes the shape of subdiffusion

    [1, 2].

    Video-based fluorescence microscopy is the basis for all experimental work and has

    successfully been used earlier [3-5]. For each concentration the trajectories of 60 probes were

    determined using the built-in Particle Analysis function in Aquacosmos 2.6. The 6000 data

    points collected were used to extract both the coefficient G and the exponenta .

    Relatively few studies have been devoted to tell normal diffusion from anomalous diffusion in

    real chemical systems. In this study the probe is a fluorescent labeled latex particle, the matrix

    was changed in different ways. Unlabelled latex particles, DoTAB (a cationic surfactant),

    cationic starch of different molecular weight were all used to alter the sample.

    The conclusion is that it is safe to assume a = 1 in all cases except for very high

    concentrations of starch, where diffusion is hindered by the viscous matrix, which gives rise

    to subdiffusion. Moreover, all distributions are Gaussian except for the highest concentrations

    of starch and latex. In these latter cases, distributions appear as truncated normal distributions

    [6,7].

    References

    [1] Klafter J., Blumen A., Zumofen g. Shlesinger M.f., Physica A., 1990, 168, 637-645

    [2] Ott A., Bouchaud J.P., Langevin D., Urbach W., Phys. Rev. Lett., 1990, 65, 2201-2204

    [3] Carlsson G., Warszynski P., van Stam J., J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2003, 267, 500-508

    [4] Carlsson G., van Stam J., Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J., 2005, 20, 192-199

    [5] Carlsson G., Järnström L., van Stam J., J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2006, 298, 162-171

    [6] Fredriksson L., Bsc thesis, Karlstad university, 2010

    [7] Fredriksson L., Msc thesis, Karlstad university, 2010

  • 86. Carlsson, Sten
    et al.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Lindh, Jörgen
    Segolsson, Mikael
    Programmerbart konstruktionsmaterial i undervisningen. Delrapport 12002Report (Other academic)
  • 87. Carlsson, Sten
    et al.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Lindh, Jörgen
    Segolsson, Mikael
    Programmerbart konstruktionsmaterial i undervisningen. Slutrapport2003Report (Refereed)
  • 88. Chao, Y.
    et al.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Radosavkic, D.
    Dhanak, V.R.
    Siller, L.
    Hunt, M.R.C.
    Photoemission spectroscopy of the evolution of In-terminated InP(100)-2x4 as a function of temperature: surface- and cluster-related In 4d lines2002In: Physical Review BArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 89. Chao, Y.
    et al.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Radosavkic, D.
    Dhanak, V.R.
    Siller, L.
    Hunt, M.R.C.
    Photoemission study of chemisorption of C60 on InP(100)2001In: Physical Review BArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Chavhan, Sudam D.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Abellon, Ruben D.
    Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Technische Universiteit Delft, The Netherlands.
    Savenije, Tom J.
    Dept. of Chemical Enginering, Technische Universiteit Delft, The Netherlands.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Photovoltaic Study of p-type NiO/PC70BM Hybrid Solar Cells2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, hybrid solar cells are fabricated by using electron donating conducting polymers or molecules and electron accepting inorganic material e.g. metal oxide nanoparticles, such as TiO2, ZnO or SnO2. Inorganic metal oxides posses interesting physical properties like high electron mobility, transparency in the visible spectrum and high dielectric constant. However, there are very few reports on hybrid solar cells fabricated with p-type metal oxide and n-type organic molecules. We have studied photovoltaic properties of bilayer hybrid solar cells constituted of p-type NiO and [6,6]-phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) molecule. The thin films of NiO were prepared on fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) substrates by RF sputtering in Ar/O2 mixture atmosphere. To fabricate hybrid solar cells, a PC70BM solution was spin coated on top of the smooth and uniform layer of NiO, having thickness of 90 nm. Current-voltage characteristics were measured in dark and under illumination with monochromatic light of wavelength 460 nm and an incident illumination power of 9 mW/cm2. A short circuit current density of 0.15 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage of 0.23 V, and fill factor of 0.26 were found. To understand the photovoltaic mechanism of this type of hybrid solar cells we studied also the bulk heterojunctions made up of p-type NiO nanoparticles with different PCBM molecules.

  • 91. Chavhan, Sudam D.
    et al.
    Hansson, Rickard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Ericsson, Leif
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Beyer, Paul
    Hofmann, Alexander
    Brütting, Wolfgang
    Opitz, Andreas
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Low temperature processed NiOx hole transport layers for efficient polymer solar cells2017In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 44, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Chavhan, Sudam D.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Solution Processed NiO Hole Transporting Layer in P3HT:PCBM Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite of low fabrication cost and flexibility, limited life time is the major disadvantage of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs). The main causes of short life time of OSCs is the degradation of active layer in presence of light and O2 and the effect of the acidic PEDOT:PSS on the ITO electrode. To overcome this problem PEDOT: PSS can be replaced by a p-type metal oxide hole transportation layer, such as NiO. There are reports on vacuum deposited NiO hole transporting layers in OSCs. Here, we have used the low-cost spin coating technique to deposit the NiO layer from a dispersion of NiO particles in methanol. Concentration and deposition parameters were optimized to obtain 40-50 nm thick layer of NiO as observed by tapping mode atomic force microscopy. The device performance of P3HT:PCBM solar cell with ITO/PEDOT: PSS and ITO/NiO electrodes was compared.

  • 93.
    Christophliemk, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Ullsten, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Johansson, Caisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Exploiting the synergies between starch, nanoclay and other additives to enhance the barrier properties of paper; Starch coatings - striking balance between the benefits and the drawbacks2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94. Cinà, S.
    et al.
    Baynes, N.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Friend, R.H.
    Burroughes, J.
    Towns, C.
    Heeks, K.
    O'Dell, R.
    O'Conner, S.
    Athanassopoulou, N.
    New, Efficient Light Emitting Polymer Diode for Flat Panel Display Applications2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95. Cochin, D
    et al.
    De Schryver, FC
    Laschewsky, A
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Polysoaps in Aqueous Solutions: Intermolecular versus Intramolecular Hydrophobic Aggregation and Long-Time Stability Studies by Fluorescence Spectroscopy2001In: Langmuir, 2001, 17, 2579-2584Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 96. Creutz, S
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Antoun, S
    De Schryver, FC
    Jérôme, R
    Exchange of Polymer Molecules Between Block Copolymer Micelles Studied by Emission Spectroscopy. A Method for the Quantification of Unimer Exchange Rates1997In: Macromolecules, 1997, 30, 4078-4083Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 97. Creutz, S
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    De Schryver, FC
    Jérôme, R
    Dynamics of Poly((dimethylamino)alkyl methacrylate-block-sodium methacrylate) Micelles. Influence of Hydrophobicity and Molecular Architecture on the Exchange Rate of Copolymer Molecules1998In: Macromolecules, 1998, 31, 681-689Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98. Cricenti, A.
    et al.
    Selci, S.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Reihl, B.
    On the position of the empty surface state band on Si(111)2x11990In: Phys. Rev. B 41, 12908 (1990)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99. De Feyter, S
    et al.
    Larsson, M
    Schuurmans, N
    Verkuijl, B
    Zorniants, G
    Gesquière, A
    Abdel-Mottaleb, MM
    van Esch, J
    Feringa, BL
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    De Schryver, FC
    Supramolecular Control of Two-Dimensional Phase Behavior2003In: Chem. Eur. J., 2003, 9, 1198-1206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 100. De Feyter, S
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Boens, N
    De Schryver, FC
    On the use of dynamic fluorescence measurements to determine equilibrium and kinetic constants. The inclusion of pyrene in .beta.-cyclodextrin cavities1996In: Chem. Phys. Lett., 1996, 249, 46-52Article in journal (Refereed)
1234567 51 - 100 of 636
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